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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547538/direct-and-indirect-effects-of-multilingualism-on-novel-language-learning-an-integrative-review
#1
Zoya Hirosh, Tamar Degani
Accumulated recent research suggests that prior knowledge of multiple languages leads to advantages in learning additional languages. In the current article, we review studies examining potential differences between monolingual and multilingual speakers in novel language learning in an effort to uncover the cognitive mechanisms that underlie such differences. We examine the multilingual advantage in children and adults, across a wide array of languages and learner populations. The majority of this literature focused on vocabulary learning, but studies that address phonology, grammar, and literacy learning are also discussed to provide a comprehensive picture of the way in which multilingualism affects novel language learning...
May 25, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547010/language-development-and-impairment-in-children-with-mild-to-moderate-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#2
Lorna F Halliday, Outi Tuomainen, Stuart Rosen
Purpose: The goal of this study was to examine language development and factors related to language impairments in children with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss (MMHL). Method: Ninety children, aged 8-16 years (46 children with MMHL; 44 aged-matched controls), were administered a battery of standardized language assessments, including measures of phonological processing, receptive and expressive vocabulary and grammar, word and nonword reading, and parental report of communication skills...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536551/dissociating-effects-of-scrambling-and-topicalization-within-the-left-frontal-and-temporal-language-areas-an-fmri-study-in-kaqchikel-maya
#3
Shinri Ohta, Masatoshi Koizumi, Kuniyoshi L Sakai
Some natural languages grammatically allow different types of changing word orders, such as object scrambling and topicalization. Scrambling and topicalization are more related to syntax and semantics/phonology, respectively. Here we hypothesized that scrambling should activate the left frontal regions, while topicalization would affect the bilateral temporal regions. To examine such distinct effects in our functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we targeted the Kaqchikel Maya language, a Mayan language spoken in Guatemala...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527315/longitudinal-decline-in-speech-production-in-parkinson-s-disease-spectrum-disorders
#4
Sharon Ash, Charles Jester, Collin York, Olga L Kofman, Rachel Langey, Amy Halpin, Kim Firn, Sophia Dominguez Perez, Lama Chahine, Meredith Spindler, Nabila Dahodwala, David J Irwin, Corey McMillan, Daniel Weintraub, Murray Grossman
We examined narrative speech production longitudinally in non-demented (n=15) and mildly demented (n=8) patients with Parkinson's disease spectrum disorder (PDSD), and we related increasing impairment to structural brain changes in specific language and motor regions. Patients provided semi-structured speech samples, describing a standardized picture at two time points (mean±SD interval=38±24months). The recorded speech samples were analyzed for fluency, grammar, and informativeness. PDSD patients with dementia exhibited significant decline in their speech, unrelated to changes in overall cognitive or motor functioning...
May 17, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523653/vocabulary-grammar-sex-and-aging
#5
Fermín Moscoso Del Prado Martín
Understanding the changes in our language abilities along the lifespan is a crucial step for understanding the aging process both in normal and in abnormal circumstances. Besides controlled experimental tasks, it is equally crucial to investigate language in unconstrained conversation. I present an information-theoretical analysis of a corpus of dyadic conversations investigating how the richness of the vocabulary, the word-internal structure (inflectional morphology), and the syntax of the utterances evolves as a function of the speaker's age and sex...
May 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503906/more-than-words-the-role-of-multiword-sequences-in-language-learning-and-use
#6
Morten H Christiansen, Inbal Arnon
The ability to convey our thoughts using an infinite number of linguistic expressions is one of the hallmarks of human language. Understanding the nature of the psychological mechanisms and representations that give rise to this unique productivity is a fundamental goal for the cognitive sciences. A long-standing hypothesis is that single words and rules form the basic building blocks of linguistic productivity, with multiword sequences being treated as units only in peripheral cases such as idioms. The new millennium, however, has seen a shift toward construing multiword linguistic units not as linguistic rarities, but as important building blocks for language acquisition and processing...
May 14, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497724/explaining-moral-behavior
#7
Magda Osman, Alex Wiegmann
In this review we make a simple theoretical argument which is that for theory development, computational modeling, and general frameworks for understanding moral psychology researchers should build on domain-general principles from reasoning, judgment, and decision-making research. Our approach is radical with respect to typical models that exist in moral psychology that tend to propose complex innate moral grammars and even evolutionarily guided moral principles. In support of our argument we show that by using a simple value-based decision model we can capture a range of core moral behaviors...
March 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497059/a-new-algorithm-for-identifying-cis-regulatory-modules-based-on-hidden-markov-model
#8
Haitao Guo, Hongwei Huo
The discovery of cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) is the key to understanding mechanisms of transcription regulation. Since CRMs have specific regulatory structures that are the basis for the regulation of gene expression, how to model the regulatory structure of CRMs has a considerable impact on the performance of CRM identification. The paper proposes a CRM discovery algorithm called ComSPS. ComSPS builds a regulatory structure model of CRMs based on HMM by exploring the rules of CRM transcriptional grammar that governs the internal motif site arrangement of CRMs...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496497/investigation-of-content-and-face-validity-and-reliability-of-sociocultural-attitude-towards-appearance-questionnaire-3-sataq-3-among-female-adolescents
#9
Somayeh Mousazadeh, Mahnaz Rakhshan, Fateme Mohammadi
Objective: This study aimed to determine the psychometric properties of sociocultural attitude towards appearance questionnaire in female adolescents. Method: This was a methodological study. The English version of the questionnaire was translated into Persian, using forward-backward method. Then the face validity, content validity and reliability were checked. To ensure face validity, the questionnaire was given to 25 female adolescents, a psychologist and three nurses, who were required to evaluate the items with respect to problems, ambiguity, relativity, proper terms and grammar, and understandability...
January 2017: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487248/associations-between-selected-dietary-behaviours-and-academic-achievement-a-study-of-australian-school-aged-children
#10
Tracy Burrows, Sharni Goldman, Richard K Olson, Brian Byrne, William L Coventry
BACKGROUND: Research investigating the effects of dietary behaviours on children's academic achievement has predominately focused on breakfast consumption. The aim of this study was to conduct secondary analysis to examine associations between a range of dietary behaviours and children's academic achievement. METHODOLOGY: Data on five dietary variables (fruit intake; vegetable intake; consumption of takeaway; sugar sweetened beverages; and breakfast) and scores in the five domains of a standardised academic achievement test known as NAPLAN (reading, writing, grammar/punctuation, spelling and numeracy) were obtained for Australian children aged 8-15 years in school grades three (n = 1185), five (n = 1147), seven (n = 1053) and nine (n = 860)...
May 6, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484966/the-role-of-simple-semantics-in-the-process-of-artificial-grammar-learning
#11
Birgit Öttl, Gerhard Jäger, Barbara Kaup
This study investigated the effect of semantic information on artificial grammar learning (AGL). Recursive grammars of different complexity levels (regular language, mirror language, copy language) were investigated in a series of AGL experiments. In the with-semantics condition, participants acquired semantic information prior to the AGL experiment; in the without-semantics control condition, participants did not receive semantic information. It was hypothesized that semantics would generally facilitate grammar acquisition and that the learning benefit in the with-semantics conditions would increase with increasing grammar complexity...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476974/use-of-processed-data-to-design-an-orderly-logic-gate-to-construct-plasmids-in-genocad
#12
Pei Shi, Tao Wu, Panpan Li, Bingjie Guo, Gang Fang, Yafei Dong
Rapid developments have been made in synthetic biology within the past two decades, particularly in combination with chemistry, computer science, and other disciplines. Genetic components and internal features have been a main focus of research for synthetic biologists. Logic gates can be applied in various disciplines, but have not yet been used for plasmid design. GenoCAD is a computer-aided design software programme for synthetic biology that can be used to design complex structures. Thus, in this study, the authors analysed a large, commonly used data set containing over 70,000 feature sequences and eventually obtained comprehensive information for a complete data set without redundancy...
April 2017: IET Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475679/oral-language-and-listening-comprehension-same-or-different-constructs
#13
(no author information available yet)
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to add to our understanding of the dimensionality of oral language in children and to determine whether oral language and listening comprehension are separate constructs in children enrolled in preschool (PK) through 3rd grade. Method: In the spring of the school year, children from 4 states (N = 1,869) completed multiple measures of oral language (i.e., expressive and receptive vocabulary and grammar) and listening comprehension as part of a larger study of the language bases of reading comprehension...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453996/broca-s-region-a-causal-role-in-implicit-processing-of-grammars-with-crossed-non-adjacent-dependencies
#14
Julia Uddén, Martin Ingvar, Peter Hagoort, Karl Magnus Petersson
Non-adjacent dependencies are challenging for the language learning machinery and are acquired later than adjacent dependencies. In this transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study, we show that participants successfully discriminated between grammatical and non-grammatical sequences after having implicitly acquired an artificial language with crossed non-adjacent dependencies. Subsequent to transcranial magnetic stimulation of Broca's region, discrimination was impaired compared to when a language-irrelevant control region (vertex) was stimulated...
July 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441393/sequence-learning-modulates-neural-responses-and-oscillatory-coupling-in-human-and-monkey-auditory-cortex
#15
Yukiko Kikuchi, Adam Attaheri, Benjamin Wilson, Ariane E Rhone, Kirill V Nourski, Phillip E Gander, Christopher K Kovach, Hiroto Kawasaki, Timothy D Griffiths, Matthew A Howard, Christopher I Petkov
Learning complex ordering relationships between sensory events in a sequence is fundamental for animal perception and human communication. While it is known that rhythmic sensory events can entrain brain oscillations at different frequencies, how learning and prior experience with sequencing relationships affect neocortical oscillations and neuronal responses is poorly understood. We used an implicit sequence learning paradigm (an "artificial grammar") in which humans and monkeys were exposed to sequences of nonsense words with regularities in the ordering relationships between the words...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430044/syntactic-complexity-and-frequency-in-the-neurocognitive-language-system
#16
Yun-Hsuan Yang, William D Marslen-Wilson, Mirjana Bozic
Prominent neurobiological models of language follow the widely accepted assumption that language comprehension requires two principal mechanisms: a lexicon storing the sound-to-meaning mapping of words, primarily involving bilateral temporal regions, and a combinatorial processor for syntactically structured items, such as phrases and sentences, localized in a left-lateralized network linking left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and posterior temporal areas. However, recent research showing that the processing of simple phrasal sequences may engage only bilateral temporal areas, together with the claims of distributional approaches to grammar, raises the question of whether frequent phrases are stored alongside individual words in temporal areas...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424634/when-the-second-language-takes-the-lead-neurocognitive-processing-changes-in-the-first-language-of-adult-attriters
#17
Kristina Kasparian, Karsten Steinhauer
Although research on multilingualism has revealed continued neuroplasticity for language-learning beyond what was previously expected, it remains controversial whether and to what extent a second language (L2) acquired in adulthood may induce changes in the neurocognitive processing of a first language (L1). First language (L1) attrition in adulthood offers new insight on neuroplasticity and the factors that modulate neurocognitive responses to language. To date, investigations of the neurocognitive correlates of L1 attrition and of factors influencing these mechanisms are still scarce...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424402/-syntactic-processing-in-broca-s-area-brodmann-areas-44-and-45
#18
Atora Yamada, Kuniyoshi L Sakai
Brodmann areas 44 and 45 are known as Broca's area; however, their true functional roles are still unknown. Recent developments in neuroimaging techniques revealed the structures and functions of Broca's area in detail. More specifically regarding language functions, sufficient evidence has been accumulated that this region subserves the center of syntactic processing, not necessarily motor functions. Here, we review a role of Broca's area as the grammar center, including other roles in nonlinguistic functions...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422451/multiunit-sequences-in-first-language-acquisition
#19
Anna Theakston, Elena Lieven
Theoretical and empirical reasons suggest that children build their language not only out of individual words but also out of multiunit strings. These are the basis for the development of schemas containing slots. The slots are putative categories that build in abstraction while the schemas eventually connect to other schemas in terms of both meaning and form. Evidence comes from the nature of the input, the ways in which children construct novel utterances, the systematic errors that children make, and the computational modeling of children's grammars...
April 19, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412593/bootstrapping-language-acquisition
#20
Omri Abend, Tom Kwiatkowski, Nathaniel J Smith, Sharon Goldwater, Mark Steedman
The semantic bootstrapping hypothesis proposes that children acquire their native language through exposure to sentences of the language paired with structured representations of their meaning, whose component substructures can be associated with words and syntactic structures used to express these concepts. The child's task is then to learn a language-specific grammar and lexicon based on (probably contextually ambiguous, possibly somewhat noisy) pairs of sentences and their meaning representations (logical forms)...
July 2017: Cognition
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