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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882295/neuroanatomical-correlates-of-childhood-apraxia-of-speech-a-connectomic-approach
#1
Simona Fiori, Andrea Guzzetta, Jhimli Mitra, Kerstin Pannek, Rosa Pasquariello, Paola Cipriani, Michela Tosetti, Giovanni Cioni, Stephen E Rose, Anna Chilosi
Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is a paediatric speech sound disorder in which precision and consistency of speech movements are impaired. Most children with idiopathic CAS have normal structural brain MRI. We hypothesize that children with CAS have altered structural connectivity in speech/language networks compared to controls and that these altered connections are related to functional speech/language measures. Whole brain probabilistic tractography, using constrained spherical deconvolution, was performed for connectome generation in 17 children with CAS and 10 age-matched controls...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877877/materials-inspired-by-mathematics
#2
Motoko Kotani, Susumu Ikeda
Our world is transforming into an interacting system of the physical world and the digital world. What will be the materials science in the new era? With the rising expectations of the rapid development of computers, information science and mathematical science including statistics and probability theory, 'data-driven materials design' has become a common term. There is knowledge and experience gained in the physical world in the form of know-how and recipes for the creation of material. An important key is how we establish vocabulary and grammar to translate them into the language of the digital world...
2016: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877146/a-gradualist-scenario-for-language-evolution-precise-linguistic-reconstruction-of-early-human-and-neandertal-grammars
#3
Ljiljana Progovac
In making an argument for the antiquity of language, based on comparative evidence, Dediu and Levinson (2013) express hope that some combinations of structural features will prove so conservative that they will allow deep linguistic reconstruction. I propose that the earliest stages of syntax/grammar as reconstructed in Progovac (2015a), based on a theoretical and data-driven linguistic analysis, provide just such a conservative platform, which would have been commanded also by Neandertals and the common ancestor...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877120/fronto-parietal-contributions-to-phonological-processes-in-successful-artificial-grammar-learning
#4
Dariya Goranskaya, Jens Kreitewolf, Jutta L Mueller, Angela D Friederici, Gesa Hartwigsen
Sensitivity to regularities plays a crucial role in the acquisition of various linguistic features from spoken language input. Artificial grammar learning paradigms explore pattern recognition abilities in a set of structured sequences (i.e., of syllables or letters). In the present study, we investigated the functional underpinnings of learning phonological regularities in auditorily presented syllable sequences. While previous neuroimaging studies either focused on functional differences between the processing of correct vs...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875150/vega-lite-a-grammar-of-interactive-graphics
#5
Arvind Satyanarayan, Dominik Moritz, Kanit Wongsuphasawat, Jeffrey Heer
We present Vega-Lite, a high-level grammar that enables rapid specification of interactive data visualizations. Vega-Lite combines a traditional grammar of graphics, providing visual encoding rules and a composition algebra for layered and multi-view displays, with a novel grammar of interaction. Users specify interactive semantics by composing selections. In Vega-Lite, a selection is an abstraction that defines input event processing, points of interest, and a predicate function for inclusion testing. Selections parameterize visual encodings by serving as input data, defining scale extents, or by driving conditional logic...
January 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873189/learning-multiple-rules-simultaneously-affixes-are-more-salient-than-reduplications
#6
Judit Gervain, Ansgar D Endress
Language learners encounter numerous opportunities to learn regularities, but need to decide which of these regularities to learn, because some are not productive in their native language. Here, we present an account of rule learning based on perceptual and memory primitives (Endress, Dehaene-Lambertz, & Mehler, Cognition, 105(3), 577-614, 2007; Endress, Nespor, & Mehler, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 13(8), 348-353, 2009), suggesting that learners preferentially learn regularities that are more salient to them, and that the pattern of salience reflects the frequency of language features across languages...
November 21, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872375/tracx2-a-connectionist-autoencoder-using-graded-chunks-to-model-infant-visual-statistical-learning
#7
Denis Mareschal, Robert M French
Even newborn infants are able to extract structure from a stream of sensory inputs; yet how this is achieved remains largely a mystery. We present a connectionist autoencoder model, TRACX2, that learns to extract sequence structure by gradually constructing chunks, storing these chunks in a distributed manner across its synaptic weights and recognizing these chunks when they re-occur in the input stream. Chunks are graded rather than all-or-nothing in nature. As chunks are learnt their component parts become more and more tightly bound together...
January 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872374/what-s-statistical-about-learning-insights-from-modelling-statistical-learning-as-a-set-of-memory-processes
#8
REVIEW
Erik D Thiessen
Statistical learning has been studied in a variety of different tasks, including word segmentation, object identification, category learning, artificial grammar learning and serial reaction time tasks (e.g. Saffran et al. 1996 Science 274: , 1926-1928; Orban et al. 2008 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105: , 2745-2750; Thiessen & Yee 2010 Child Development 81: , 1287-1303; Saffran 2002 Journal of Memory and Language 47: , 172-196; Misyak & Christiansen 2012 Language Learning 62: , 302-331). The difference among these tasks raises questions about whether they all depend on the same kinds of underlying processes and computations, or whether they are tapping into different underlying mechanisms...
January 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866311/unforced-revision-in-processing-relative-clause-association-ambiguity-in-japanese-evidence-against-revision-as-last-resort
#9
Toshiyuki Yamada, Manabu Arai, Yuki Hirose
The current study tackles a long standing question of whether comprehenders perform structural revision when it is not forced by grammar or not. Using an eye-tracking reading paradigm, we addressed this issue by making use of global structural ambiguity in Japanese. Our results show that comprehenders initially associate a relative clause with the first potential head noun and that they revise this analysis when the second noun is lexico-semantically possible as the relative clause head, but do not when it is impossible...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859578/incidental-learning-of-melodic-structure-of-north-indian-music
#10
Martin Rohrmeier, Richard Widdess
Musical knowledge is largely implicit. It is acquired without awareness of its complex rules, through interaction with a large number of samples during musical enculturation. Whereas several studies explored implicit learning of mostly abstract and less ecologically valid features of Western music, very little work has been done with respect to ecologically valid stimuli as well as non-Western music. The present study investigated implicit learning of modal melodic features in North Indian classical music in a realistic and ecologically valid way...
November 17, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856108/foundations-of-reading-comprehension-in-children-with-intellectual-disabilities
#11
Evelien van Wingerden, Eliane Segers, Hans van Balkom, Ludo Verhoeven
BACKGROUND: Knowledge about predictors for reading comprehension in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) is still fragmented. AIMS: This study compared reading comprehension, word decoding, listening comprehension, and reading related linguistic and cognitive precursor measures in children with mild ID and typically developing controls. Moreover, it was explored how the precursors related to reading achievement. METHOD AND PROCEDURES: Children with mild ID and typical controls were assessed on reading comprehension, decoding, language comprehension, and linguistic (early literacy skills, vocabulary, grammar) and cognitive (rapid naming, phonological short-term memory, working memory, temporal processing, nonverbal reasoning) precursor measures...
November 14, 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813631/a-plea-for-extension-of-the-anatomical-nomenclature-part-1-nervous-system-and-senses
#12
David Kachlík, Vladimir Musil, Vaclav Baca
A correct, exact, concise and detailed anatomical nomenclature is a cornerstone of communication not only in anatomy and related subjects but also in other medical branches and in the whole medical education. Terminologia Anatomica fulfils this task but some important structures are still missing there. The authors have collected and present here a list of terms including their definitions or explanations to provoke discussion about possible extension of the Terminologia Anatomica. The first part of this contribution, presented in this article, comprises 113 terms concerning the regulation systems of the human body: endocrine glands, central and peripheral nervous system, and senses...
November 4, 2016: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800578/scegram-an-image-database-for-semantic-and-syntactic-inconsistencies-in-scenes
#13
Sabine Öhlschläger, Melissa Le-Hoa Võ
Our visual environment is not random, but follows compositional rules according to what objects are usually found where. Despite the growing interest in how such semantic and syntactic rules - a scene grammar - enable effective attentional guidance and object perception, no common image database containing highly-controlled object-scene modifications has been publically available. Such a database is essential in minimizing the risk that low-level features drive high-level effects of interest, which is being discussed as possible source of controversial study results...
October 31, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790642/grammatical-markers-switch-roles-and-elicit-different-electrophysiological-responses-under-shallow-and-deep-semantic-requirements
#14
Takahiro Soshi, Heizo Nakajima, Hiroko Hagiwara
Static knowledge about the grammar of a natural language is represented in the cortico-subcortical system. However, the differences in dynamic verbal processing under different cognitive conditions are unclear. To clarify this, we conducted an electrophysiological experiment involving a semantic priming paradigm in which semantically congruent or incongruent word sequences (prime nouns-target verbs) were randomly presented. We examined the event-related brain potentials that occurred in response to congruent and incongruent target words that were preceded by primes with or without grammatical case markers...
October 2016: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783940/a-simple-grammar-defines-activating-and-repressing-cis-regulatory-elements-in-photoreceptors
#15
Michael A White, Jamie C Kwasnieski, Connie A Myers, Susan Q Shen, Joseph C Corbo, Barak A Cohen
Transcription factors often activate and repress different target genes in the same cell. How activation and repression are encoded by different arrangements of transcription factor binding sites in cis-regulatory elements is poorly understood. We investigated how sites for the transcription factor CRX encode both activation and repression in photoreceptors by assaying thousands of genomic and synthetic cis-regulatory elements in wild-type and Crx(-/-) retinas. We found that sequences with high affinity for CRX repress transcription, whereas sequences with lower affinity activate...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773681/topological-language-for-rna
#16
Fenix W D Huang, Christian M Reidys
: In this paper we introduce a novel, context-free grammar, RNAFeatures(*), capable of generating any RNA structure including pseudoknot structures (pk-structure). We represent pk-structures as orientable fatgraphs, which naturally leads to a filtration by their topological genus. Within this framework, RNA secondary structures correspond to pk-structures of genus zero. RNAFeatures(*) acts on formal, arc-labeled RNA secondary structures, called λ-structures. λ-structures correspond one-to-one to pk-structures together with some additional information...
December 2016: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768176/an-item-analysis-of-the-french-version-of-the-test-for-reception-of-grammar-among-children-and-adolescents-with-down-syndrome-or-intellectual-disability-of-undifferentiated-etiology
#17
Bruno Facon, David Magis
Purpose: An item analysis of Bishop's (1983) Test for Reception of Grammar (TROG) in its French version (F-TROG; Lecocq, 1996) was conducted to determine whether the difficulty of items is similar for participants with or without intellectual disability (ID). Method: In Study 1, responses to the 92 F-TROG items by 55 participants with Down syndrome (DS), 55 with ID of undifferentiated etiology (UND), and 55 typical children (TYP) matched on their F-TROG total score were compared using the transformed item difficulties method, a statistical approach designed to detect differential item functioning (DIF) between groups...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761876/performance-of-children-with-developmental-dyslexia-on-high-and-low-topological-entropy-artificial-grammar-learning-task
#18
Pesia Katan, Shani Kahta, Ayelet Sasson, Rachel Schiff
Graph complexity as measured by topological entropy has been previously shown to affect performance on artificial grammar learning tasks among typically developing children. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of graph complexity on implicit sequential learning among children with developmental dyslexia. Our goal was to determine whether children's performance depends on the complexity level of the grammar system learned. We conducted two artificial grammar learning experiments that compared performance of children with developmental dyslexia with that of age- and reading level-matched controls...
October 19, 2016: Annals of Dyslexia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757086/using-event-related-brain-potentials-to-assess-perceptibility-the-case-of-french-speakers-and-english-h
#19
Jennifer Mah, Heather Goad, Karsten Steinhauer
French speaking learners of English encounter persistent difficulty acquiring English [h], thus confusing words like eat and heat in both production and perception. We assess the hypothesis that the acoustic properties of [h] may render detection of this segment in the speech stream insufficiently reliable for second language acquisition. We use the mismatch negativity (MMN) in event-related potentials to investigate [h] perception in French speaking learners of English and native English controls, comparing both linguistic and non-linguistic conditions in an unattended oddball paradigm...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754282/hw-04-3-global-network-for-her-based-big-data-analysis
#20
Peter Rijnbeek
Massive numbers of electronic health records are currently being collected globally, including structured data in the form of diagnoses, medications, laboratory test results, and unstructured data contained in clinical narratives. This opens unprecedented possibilities for research and ultimately patient care. However, actual use of these databases in a multi-center study is severely hampered by a variety of challenges, e.g., each database has a different database structure and uses different terminology systems...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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