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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616382/improving-language-mapping-in-clinical-fmri-through-assessment-of-grammar
#1
Monika Połczyńska, Kevin Japardi, Susan Curtiss, Teena Moody, Christopher Benjamin, Andrew Cho, Celia Vigil, Taylor Kuhn, Michael Jones, Susan Bookheimer
INTRODUCTION: Brain surgery in the language dominant hemisphere remains challenging due to unintended post-surgical language deficits, despite using pre-surgical functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) and intraoperative cortical stimulation. Moreover, patients are often recommended not to undergo surgery if the accompanying risk to language appears to be too high. While standard fMRI language mapping protocols may have relatively good predictive value at the group level, they remain sub-optimal on an individual level...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615065/genome-wide-association-study-and-genomic-prediction-for-fatty-acid-composition-in-chinese-simmental-beef-cattle-using-high-density-snp-array
#2
Bo Zhu, Hong Niu, Wengang Zhang, Zezhao Wang, Yonghu Liang, Long Guan, Peng Guo, Yan Chen, Lupei Zhang, Yong Guo, Heming Ni, Xue Gao, Huijiang Gao, Lingyang Xu, Junya Li
BACKGROUND: Fatty acid composition of muscle is an important trait contributing to meat quality. Recently, genome-wide association study (GWAS) has been extensively used to explore the molecular mechanism underlying important traits in cattle. In this study, we performed GWAS using high density SNP array to analyze the association between SNPs and fatty acids and evaluated the accuracy of genomic prediction for fatty acids in Chinese Simmental cattle. RESULTS: Using the BayesB method, we identified 35 and 7 regions in Chinese Simmental cattle that displayed significant associations with individual fatty acids and fatty acid groups, respectively...
June 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605008/unpicking-the-developmental-relationship-between-oral-language-skills-and-reading-comprehension-it-s-simple-but-complex
#3
Arne Lervåg, Charles Hulme, Monica Melby-Lervåg
Listening comprehension and word decoding are the two major determinants of the development of reading comprehension. The relative importance of different language skills for the development of listening and reading comprehension remains unclear. In this 5-year longitudinal study, starting at age 7.5 years (n = 198), it was found that the shared variance between vocabulary, grammar, verbal working memory, and inference skills was a powerful longitudinal predictor of variations in both listening and reading comprehension...
June 12, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603773/what-is-your-neural-function-visual-narrative-conjunction-grammar-meaning-and-fluency-in-sequential-image-processing
#4
Neil Cohn, Marta Kutas
Visual narratives sometimes depict successive images with different characters in the same physical space; corpus analysis has revealed that this occurs more often in Japanese manga than American comics. We used event-related brain potentials to determine whether comprehension of "visual narrative conjunctions" invokes not only incremental mental updating as traditionally assumed, but also, as we propose, "grammatical" combinatoric processing. We thus crossed (non)/conjunction sequences with character (in)/congruity...
2017: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602718/cross-language-diversity-head-direction-and-grammars-comment-on-dependency-distance-a-new-perspective-on-syntactic-patterns-in-natural-languages-by-haitao-liu-et-al
#5
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599166/the-means-side-effect-distinction-in-moral-cognition-a-meta-analysis
#6
Adam Feltz, Joshua May
Experimental research suggests that people draw a moral distinction between bad outcomes brought about as a means versus a side effect (or byproduct). Such findings have informed multiple psychological and philosophical debates about moral cognition, including its computational structure, its sensitivity to the famous Doctrine of Double Effect, its reliability, and its status as a universal and innate mental module akin to universal grammar. But some studies have failed to replicate the means/byproduct effect especially in the absence of other factors, such as personal contact...
June 6, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598247/a-long-range-flexible-billboard-model-of-gene-activation
#7
Christopher M Vockley, Ian C McDowell, Antony M D'Ippolito, Timothy E Reddy
Gene regulation is fundamentally important for the coordination of diverse biological processes including homeostasis and responses to developmental and environmental stimuli. Transcription factor (TF) binding sites are one of the major functional subunits of gene regulation. They are arranged in cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) that can be more active than the sum of their individual effects. Recently, we described a mechanism of glucocorticoid (GC)-induced gene regulation in which the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binds coordinately to multiple CRMs that are 10s of kilobases apart in the genome...
June 9, 2017: Transcription
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597235/agsuite-software-to-conduct-feature-analysis-of-artificial-grammar-learning-performance
#8
Matthew T Cook, Chrissy M Chubala, Randall K Jamieson
To simplify the problem of studying how people learn natural language, researchers use the artificial grammar learning (AGL) task. In this task, participants study letter strings constructed according to the rules of an artificial grammar and subsequently attempt to discriminate grammatical from ungrammatical test strings. Although the data from these experiments are usually analyzed by comparing the mean discrimination performance between experimental conditions, this practice discards information about the individual items and participants that could otherwise help uncover the particular features of strings associated with grammaticality judgments...
June 8, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586829/the-changing-view-of-input-in-the-treatment-of-children-with-grammatical-deficits
#9
Laurence B Leonard, Patricia Deevy
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to present 3 approaches that emphasize the role that input plays in the treatment of grammatical deficits in children with language impairments. Method: These approaches-input informativeness, competing sources of input, and high variability-were selected because they go beyond issues of token frequency and emphasize instead type frequency, relative frequency, and frequency at an abstract as well as a concrete level of grammar...
June 5, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577444/auditory-processing-deficits-are-sometimes-necessary-and-sometimes-sufficient-for-language-difficulties-in-children-evidence-from-mild-to-moderate-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#10
Lorna F Halliday, Outi Tuomainen, Stuart Rosen
There is a general consensus that many children and adults with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment display deficits in auditory processing. However, how these deficits are related to developmental disorders of language is uncertain, and at least four categories of model have been proposed: single distal cause models, risk factor models, association models, and consequence models. This study used children with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss (MMHL) to investigate the link between auditory processing deficits and language disorders...
May 31, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557278/auditory-access-language-access-and-implicit-sequence-learning-in-deaf-children
#11
Matthew L Hall, Inge-Marie Eigsti, Heather Bortfeld, Diane Lillo-Martin
Developmental psychology plays a central role in shaping evidence-based best practices for prelingually deaf children. The Auditory Scaffolding Hypothesis (Conway et al., 2009) asserts that a lack of auditory stimulation in deaf children leads to impoverished implicit sequence learning abilities, measured via an artificial grammar learning (AGL) task. However, prior research is confounded by a lack of both auditory and language input. The current study examines implicit learning in deaf children who were (Deaf native signers) or were not (oral cochlear implant users) exposed to language from birth, and in hearing children, using both AGL and Serial Reaction Time (SRT) tasks...
May 30, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549446/-gnparser-a-powerful-parser-for-scientific-names-based-on-parsing-expression-grammar
#12
Dmitry Y Mozzherin, Alexander A Myltsev, David J Patterson
BACKGROUND: Scientific names in biology act as universal links. They allow us to cross-reference information about organisms globally. However variations in spelling of scientific names greatly diminish their ability to interconnect data. Such variations may include abbreviations, annotations, misspellings, etc. Authorship is a part of a scientific name and may also differ significantly. To match all possible variations of a name we need to divide them into their elements and classify each element according to its role...
May 26, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547538/direct-and-indirect-effects-of-multilingualism-on-novel-language-learning-an-integrative-review
#13
Zoya Hirosh, Tamar Degani
Accumulated recent research suggests that prior knowledge of multiple languages leads to advantages in learning additional languages. In the current article, we review studies examining potential differences between monolingual and multilingual speakers in novel language learning in an effort to uncover the cognitive mechanisms that underlie such differences. We examine the multilingual advantage in children and adults, across a wide array of languages and learner populations. The majority of this literature focused on vocabulary learning, but studies that address phonology, grammar, and literacy learning are also discussed to provide a comprehensive picture of the way in which multilingualism affects novel language learning...
May 25, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547010/language-development-and-impairment-in-children-with-mild-to-moderate-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#14
Lorna F Halliday, Outi Tuomainen, Stuart Rosen
Purpose: The goal of this study was to examine language development and factors related to language impairments in children with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss (MMHL). Method: Ninety children, aged 8-16 years (46 children with MMHL; 44 aged-matched controls), were administered a battery of standardized language assessments, including measures of phonological processing, receptive and expressive vocabulary and grammar, word and nonword reading, and parental report of communication skills...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536551/dissociating-effects-of-scrambling-and-topicalization-within-the-left-frontal-and-temporal-language-areas-an-fmri-study-in-kaqchikel-maya
#15
Shinri Ohta, Masatoshi Koizumi, Kuniyoshi L Sakai
Some natural languages grammatically allow different types of changing word orders, such as object scrambling and topicalization. Scrambling and topicalization are more related to syntax and semantics/phonology, respectively. Here we hypothesized that scrambling should activate the left frontal regions, while topicalization would affect the bilateral temporal regions. To examine such distinct effects in our functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we targeted the Kaqchikel Maya language, a Mayan language spoken in Guatemala...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527315/longitudinal-decline-in-speech-production-in-parkinson-s-disease-spectrum-disorders
#16
Sharon Ash, Charles Jester, Collin York, Olga L Kofman, Rachel Langey, Amy Halpin, Kim Firn, Sophia Dominguez Perez, Lama Chahine, Meredith Spindler, Nabila Dahodwala, David J Irwin, Corey McMillan, Daniel Weintraub, Murray Grossman
We examined narrative speech production longitudinally in non-demented (n=15) and mildly demented (n=8) patients with Parkinson's disease spectrum disorder (PDSD), and we related increasing impairment to structural brain changes in specific language and motor regions. Patients provided semi-structured speech samples, describing a standardized picture at two time points (mean±SD interval=38±24months). The recorded speech samples were analyzed for fluency, grammar, and informativeness. PDSD patients with dementia exhibited significant decline in their speech, unrelated to changes in overall cognitive or motor functioning...
May 17, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523653/vocabulary-grammar-sex-and-aging
#17
Fermín Moscoso Del Prado Martín
Understanding the changes in our language abilities along the lifespan is a crucial step for understanding the aging process both in normal and in abnormal circumstances. Besides controlled experimental tasks, it is equally crucial to investigate language in unconstrained conversation. I present an information-theoretical analysis of a corpus of dyadic conversations investigating how the richness of the vocabulary, the word-internal structure (inflectional morphology), and the syntax of the utterances evolves as a function of the speaker's age and sex...
May 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503906/more-than-words-the-role-of-multiword-sequences-in-language-learning-and-use
#18
Morten H Christiansen, Inbal Arnon
The ability to convey our thoughts using an infinite number of linguistic expressions is one of the hallmarks of human language. Understanding the nature of the psychological mechanisms and representations that give rise to this unique productivity is a fundamental goal for the cognitive sciences. A long-standing hypothesis is that single words and rules form the basic building blocks of linguistic productivity, with multiword sequences being treated as units only in peripheral cases such as idioms. The new millennium, however, has seen a shift toward construing multiword linguistic units not as linguistic rarities, but as important building blocks for language acquisition and processing...
May 14, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497724/explaining-moral-behavior
#19
Magda Osman, Alex Wiegmann
In this review we make a simple theoretical argument which is that for theory development, computational modeling, and general frameworks for understanding moral psychology researchers should build on domain-general principles from reasoning, judgment, and decision-making research. Our approach is radical with respect to typical models that exist in moral psychology that tend to propose complex innate moral grammars and even evolutionarily guided moral principles. In support of our argument we show that by using a simple value-based decision model we can capture a range of core moral behaviors...
March 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497059/a-new-algorithm-for-identifying-cis-regulatory-modules-based-on-hidden-markov-model
#20
Haitao Guo, Hongwei Huo
The discovery of cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) is the key to understanding mechanisms of transcription regulation. Since CRMs have specific regulatory structures that are the basis for the regulation of gene expression, how to model the regulatory structure of CRMs has a considerable impact on the performance of CRM identification. The paper proposes a CRM discovery algorithm called ComSPS. ComSPS builds a regulatory structure model of CRMs based on HMM by exploring the rules of CRM transcriptional grammar that governs the internal motif site arrangement of CRMs...
2017: BioMed Research International
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