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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345499/disrupted-behaviour-in-grammatical-morphology-in-french-speakers-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#1
Marie-Thérèse Le Normand, Romuald Blanc, Simona Caldani, Frédérique Bonnet-Brilhault
Mixed and inconsistent findings have been reported across languages concerning grammatical morphology in speakers with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Some researchers argue for a selective sparing of grammar whereas others claim to have identified grammatical deficits. The present study aimed to investigate this issue in 26 participants with ASD speaking European French who were matched on age, gender and SES to 26 participants with typical development (TD). The groups were compared regarding their productivity and accuracy of syntactic and agreement categories using the French MOR part-of-speech tagger available from the CHILDES...
January 18, 2018: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342110/medlay-a-reconfigurable-micro-power-management-to-investigate-self-powered-systems
#2
Jan Kokert, Tobias Beckedahl, Leonhard M Reindl
In self-powered microsystems, a power management is essential to extract, transfer and regulate power from energy harvesting sources to loads such as sensors. The challenge is to consider all of the different structures and components available and build the optimal power management on a microscale. The purpose of this paper is to streamline the design process by creating a novel reconfigurable testbed called Medlay. First, we propose a uniform interface for management functions e.g., power conversion, energy storing and power routing...
January 17, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305597/grammar-clinical-marker-yields-substantial-heritability-for-language-impairments-in-16-year-old-twins
#3
Philip S Dale, Mabel L Rice, Kaili Rimfeld, Marianna E Hayiou-Thomas
Purpose: There is a need for well-defined language phenotypes suitable for adolescents in twin studies and other large-scale research projects. Rice, Hoffman, and Wexler (2009) have developed a grammatical judgment measure as a clinical marker of language impairment, which has an extended developmental range to adolescence. Method: We conducted the first twin analysis, along with associated phenotypic analyses of validity, of an abridged, 20-item version of this grammatical judgment measure (GJ-20), based on telephone administration using prerecorded stimuli to 405 pairs of 16-year-olds (148 monozygotic and 257 dizygotic) drawn from the Twins Early Development Study (Haworth, Davis, & Plomin, 2012)...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278615/risk-for-speech-and-language-impairments-in-pre-school-aged-hiv-exposed-uninfected-children-with-in-utero-combination-antiretroviral-exposure
#4
Mabel L Rice, Jonathan S Russell, Toni Frederick, Murli Purswani, Paige L Williams, George K Siberry, Sean M Redmond, Howard J Hoffman, Tzy-Jyun Yao
BACKGROUND: Perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) children have elevated risk of late language emergence at age 1 year, with possible links to in utero antiretroviral (ARV) exposure. We investigated possible risks for speech impairments (SI) and language impairments (LI) in preschool monolingual HEU children in the United States. METHODS: Speech and language assessments were conducted as part of the PHACS Surveillance Monitoring of ART Toxicities (SMARTT) study at ages 3 (N= 208) and 5 (N = 429) years...
December 22, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259134/computational-antimicrobial-peptide-design-and-evaluation-against-multidrug-resistant-clinical-isolates-of-bacteria
#5
Deepesh Nagarajan, Tushar Nagarajan, Natasha Roy, Omkar Kulkarni, Sathyabaarathi Ravichandran, Madhulika Mishra, Dipshikha Chakravortty, Nagasuma Chandra
There is a pressing need for new therapeutics to combat multi-drug and carbapenem-resistant bacterial pathogens. This challenge prompted us to use a long short-term memory (LSTM) language model to understand the underlying grammar, i.e. the arrangement and frequencies of amino acid residues, in known antimicrobial peptide sequences. According to the output of our LSTM network, we synthesized 10 peptides and tested them against known bacterial pathogens. All of these peptides displayed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, validating our LSTM-based peptide design approach...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250010/internal-grammar-and-children-s-grammatical-creativity-against-poor-inputs
#6
REVIEW
Adriana Belletti
This article is about the unexpected linguistic behavior that young children sometimes display by producing structures that are only marginally present in the adult language in a constrained way, and that adults do not adopt in the same experimental conditions. It is argued here that children's capacity to overextend the use of given syntactic structures thereby resulting in a grammatical creative behavior is the sign of an internal grammatical pressure which manifests itself given appropriate discourse conditions and factors of grammatical complexity and which does not necessarily require a rich input to be put into work...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250001/using-the-hands-to-represent-objects-in-space-gesture-as-a-substrate-for-signed-language-acquisition
#7
Vikki Janke, Chloë R Marshall
An ongoing issue of interest in second language research concerns what transfers from a speaker's first language to their second. For learners of a sign language, gesture is a potential substrate for transfer. Our study provides a novel test of gestural production by eliciting silent gesture from novices in a controlled environment. We focus on spatial relationships, which in sign languages are represented in a very iconic way using the hands, and which one might therefore predict to be easy for adult learners to acquire...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220702/the-effect-of-subjective-awareness-measures-on-performance-in-artificial-grammar-learning-task
#8
Ivan I Ivanchei, Nadezhda V Moroshkina
Systematic research into implicit learning requires well-developed awareness-measurement techniques. Recently, trial-by-trial measures have been widely used. However, they can increase complexity of a study because they are an additional experimental variable. We tested the effects of these measures on performance in artificial grammar learning study. Four groups of participants were assigned to different awareness measures conditions: confidence ratings, post-decision wagering, decision strategy attribution or none...
December 5, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218023/on-the-diversity-of-linguistic-data-and-the-integration-of-the-language-sciences
#9
Roberta D'Alessandro, Marc van Oostendorp
An integrated science of language is usually advocated as a step forward for linguistic research. In this paper, we maintain that integration of this sort is premature, and cannot take place before we identify a common object of study. We advocate instead a science of language that is inherently multi-faceted, and takes into account the different viewpoints as well as the different definitions of the object of study. We also advocate the use of different data sources, which, if non-contradictory, can provide more solid evidence for linguistic analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209729/percent-grammatical-responses-as-a-general-outcome-measure-initial-validity
#10
Sarita L Eisenberg, Ling-Yu Guo
Purpose: This report investigated the validity of using percent grammatical responses (PGR) as a measure for assessing grammaticality. To establish construct validity, we computed the correlation of PGR with another measure of grammar skills and with an unrelated skill area. To establish concurrent validity for PGR, we computed the correlation of PGR with a previously validated measure of grammaticality, percent grammatical utterances (PGU), and examined the extent to which PGR and PGU agreed upon pass/fail decisions for children...
December 6, 2017: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198206/the-dynamic-inter-relationship-between-obesity-and-school-performance-new-empirical-evidence-from-australia
#11
Son Nghiem, Viet-Ngu Hoang, Xuan-Binh Vu, Clevo Wilson
This paper proposes a new empirical model for examining the relationship between obesity and school performance using the simultaneous equation modelling approach. The lagged effects of both learning and health outcomes were included to capture both the dynamic and inter-relational aspects of the relationship between obesity and school performance. The empirical application of this study used comprehensive data from the first five waves of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC), which commenced in 2004 (wave 1) and was repeated every two years until 2018...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197978/the-development-of-anaphora-resolution-at-the-syntax-discourse-interface-pronominal-subjects-in-greek-learners-of-spanish
#12
Cristóbal Lozano
This study explores the development of anaphora resolution (AR) in late sequential bilinguals, namely, adult Greek learners of Spanish at three proficiency levels (intermediate, lower advanced, upper advanced). The use of an overt/null pronominal subject anaphor is investigated in three discourse contexts: topic-continuity (a single antecedent requiring a null pronoun), contrastive-focus (two same-gender potential antecedents requiring an overt pronoun to avoid ambiguity) and emphatic (three same-gender potential antecedents showing unclear preference for either overt or null pronoun)...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188270/tracking-the-growth-of-tense-and-agreement-in-children-with-specific-language-impairment-differences-between-measures-of-accuracy-diversity-and-productivity
#13
Laurence B Leonard, Eileen Haebig, Patricia Deevy, Barbara Brown
Purpose: Composite measures of children's use of tense and agreement morphology differ in their emphasis on accuracy, diversity, or productivity, yet little is known about how these different measures change over time. An understanding of these differences is especially important for the study of children with specific language impairment, given these children's extraordinary difficulty with this aspect of grammar. Method: We computed 3 types of composite scores from spontaneous speech samples obtained from 17 preschoolers with specific language impairment before, during, and after their participation in a language intervention study...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187346/influence-of-early-childhood-burns-on-school-performance-an-australian-population-study
#14
Nadin Azzam, Ju-Lee Oei, Susan Adams, Barbara Bajuk, Lisa Hilder, Abdel-Latif Mohamed, Ian M R Wright, Andrew J A Holland
OBJECTIVES: To determine the influence of burn injuries on childhood performance in national standardised curriculum-based school tests. DESIGN: Birth and health records of 977 children who were hospitalised with a burn injury between 2000 and 2006 in the state of New South Wales, Australia, were linked to performance scores in the National Assessment Program: Literacy and Numeracy test, a compulsory nationwide curriculum-based test (CBT) and compared with children who were not hospitalised for burns and who were matched for birth year, gender, gestation and socioeconomic status...
November 29, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184115/scene-grammar-shapes-the-way-we-interact-with-objects-strengthens-memories-and-speeds-search
#15
Dejan Draschkow, Melissa L-H Võ
Predictions of environmental rules (here referred to as "scene grammar") can come in different forms: seeing a toilet in a living room would violate semantic predictions, while finding a toilet brush next to the toothpaste would violate syntactic predictions. The existence of such predictions has usually been investigated by showing observers images containing such grammatical violations. Conversely, the generative process of creating an environment according to one's scene grammar and its effects on behavior and memory has received little attention...
November 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160118/the-effectiveness-of-a-classroom-based-phonological-awareness-program-for-4-5-year-olds
#16
Chrissy Kelly, Suze Leitão, Karen Smith-Lock, Brody Heritage
PURPOSE: Numerous studies have reported a robust relationship between early phonological awareness (PA) and subsequent reading achievement, in addition to the critical role of the alphabetic principle in predicting and supporting later reading and spelling development. Given this association, there has been an increasing push to teach these skills to young children prior to word level reading and spelling instruction. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Cracking the Code (CtC) program with students aged 3;8-5;4...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156635/is-school-type-associated-with-objectively-measured-physical-activity-in-15-year-olds
#17
Lovro Štefan, Maroje Sorić, Antonela Devrnja, Hrvoje Podnar, Marjeta Mišigoj-Duraković
The main aims of this study were: (1) to determine the objectively assessed physical activity (PA) patterns in urban 15-year-old male and female adolescents according to school type and (2) to assess the differences in PA between school days and weekend days. In this cross-sectional study, participants were 187 secondary-school male and female adolescents (61.4% females) attending grammar and vocational schools. Patterns of PA were objectively evaluated using a multi-sensor body monitor for 5 consecutive days...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154187/compositional-inductive-biases-in-function-learning
#18
Eric Schulz, Joshua B Tenenbaum, David Duvenaud, Maarten Speekenbrink, Samuel J Gershman
How do people recognize and learn about complex functional structure? Taking inspiration from other areas of cognitive science, we propose that this is achieved by harnessing compositionality: complex structure is decomposed into simpler building blocks. We formalize this idea within the framework of Bayesian regression using a grammar over Gaussian process kernels, and compare this approach with other structure learning approaches. Participants consistently chose compositional (over non-compositional) extrapolations and interpolations of functions...
November 16, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134484/the-role-of-feedback-in-implicit-and-explicit-artificial-grammar-learning-a-comparison-between-dyslexic-and-non-dyslexic-adults
#19
Rachel Schiff, Ayelet Sasson, Galit Star, Shani Kahta
The importance of feedback for learning has been firmly established over the past few decades. The question of whether feedback plays a significant role in the statistical learning abilities of adults with dyslexia, however, is currently unresolved. Here, we examined the role of feedback in grammaticality judgment, type of structural knowledge, and confidence rating in both typically developed and dyslexic adults. We implemented two artificial grammar learning experiments: implicit and explicit. The second experiment was directly analogous to the first experiment in all respects except training format: the standard memorization instruction was replaced with an explicit rule-search instruction...
November 13, 2017: Annals of Dyslexia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133452/an-intermediate-level-of-abstraction-for-computational-systems-chemistry
#20
Jakob L Andersen, Christoph Flamm, Daniel Merkle, Peter F Stadler
Computational techniques are required for narrowing down the vast space of possibilities to plausible prebiotic scenarios, because precise information on the molecular composition, the dominant reaction chemistry and the conditions for that era are scarce. The exploration of large chemical reaction networks is a central aspect in this endeavour. While quantum chemical methods can accurately predict the structures and reactivities of small molecules, they are not efficient enough to cope with large-scale reaction systems...
December 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
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