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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715547/identifying-the-dimensionality-of-oral-language-skills-of-children-with-typical-development-in-preschool-through-fifth-grade
#1
Christopher J Lonigan, Trelani F Milburn
Purpose: Language is a multidimensional construct from prior to the beginning of formal schooling to near the end of elementary school. The primary goals of this study were to identify the dimensionality of language and to determine whether this dimensionality was consistent in children with typical language development from preschool through 5th grade. Method: In a large sample of 1,895 children, confirmatory factor analysis was conducted with 19-20 measures of language intended to represent 6 factors, including domains of vocabulary and syntax/grammar across modalities of expressive and receptive language, listening comprehension, and vocabulary depth...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714444/development-of-an-arabic-translation-of-the-cancer-behavior-inventory-brief
#2
Maaidah M Algamdi, Sandra K Hanneman
PURPOSE: The objective was to develop an Arabic version of the Cancer Behavior Inventory-Brief (CBI-B). METHODS: The CBI-B was translated into Arabic using two forward and back translations. A translation validity index (TVI) was computed from review by an expert panel. RESULTS: Both back translations had issues with word choice, grammar, and meaning, which were resolved by selecting items from each forward translation. Item TVI was 0.83-1...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Nursing Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707643/assessing-reading-levels-of-health-information-uses-and-limitations-of-flesch-formula
#3
Pranay Jindal, Joy C MacDermid
BACKGROUND: Written health information is commonly used by health-care professionals (HCPs) to inform and assess patients in clinical practice. With growing self-management of many health conditions and increased information seeking behavior among patients, there is a greater stress on HCPs and researchers to develop and implement readable and understandable health information. Readability formulas such as Flesch Reading Ease (FRE) and Flesch-Kincaid Reading Grade Level (FKRGL) are commonly used by researchers and HCPs to assess if health information is reading grade appropriate for patients...
January 2017: Education for Health: Change in Training & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697702/experimental-evidence-for-the-role-of-intonation-in-evidential-marking
#4
Maria Del Mar Vanrell, Meghan E Armstrong, Pilar Prieto
This paper investigates the role of intonation in the marking of directly-perceived information in Majorcan Catalan polar questions. We conducted a perception experiment in which a total of 72 participants were introduced to a set of twins who were exposed to different types of evidence for a given p(roposition). One twin inferred p based on direct sensory information (via one of the five senses), while the other had been told that p by a third party, that is, reported information. Participants listened to a set of discourse contexts that ended in critical stimuli with three attested combinations of particle/intonation in this variety of Catalan: (1) polar questions produced with a falling nuclear contour ¡H+L* L%; (2) polar questions headed with the particle que 'that' produced with ¡H+L* L%; and (3) polar questions headed with the particle que and produced with a rise-fall L+H* L%...
June 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690782/sequential-learning-in-individuals-with-agrammatic-aphasia-evidence-from-artificial-grammar-learning
#5
Julia Schuchard, Cynthia K Thompson
We examined sequential learning in individuals with agrammatic aphasia (n = 12) and healthy age-matched participants (n = 12) using an artificial grammar. Artificial grammar acquisition, 24-hour retention, and the potential benefits of additional training were examined by administering an artificial grammar judgment test (1) immediately following auditory exposure-based training, (2) one day after training, and (3) after a second training session on the second day. An untrained control group (n = 12 healthy age-matched participants) completed the tests on the same time schedule...
2017: Journal of Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687306/auditory-and-visual-sequence-learning-in-humans-and-monkeys-using-an-artificial-grammar-learning-paradigm
#6
Alice E Milne, Christopher I Petkov, Benjamin Wilson
Language flexibly supports the human ability to communicate using different sensory modalities, such as writing and reading in the visual modality and speaking and listening in the auditory domain. Although it has been argued that nonhuman primate communication abilities are inherently multisensory, direct behavioural comparisons between human and nonhuman primates are scant. Artificial grammar learning (AGL) tasks and statistical learning experiments can be used to emulate ordering relationships between words in a sentence...
July 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675255/-communicative-and-social-adaptive-profile-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-new-approach-based-on-the-dsm-5-criteria
#7
D Garrido, M Garcia-Fernandez, R Garcia-Retamero, G Carballo
INTRODUCTION: Following the adoption of the new international diagnosis classification from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5), autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been established as a dimensional category that includes other disorders that were previously considered as separate entities. Previous research has shown that some people with this disorder exhibit different communicative and linguistic profiles. Therefore, contradictory results could be found among people who receive the same diagnosis...
July 16, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668649/the-grammar-of-anger-mapping-the-computational-architecture-of-a-recalibrational-emotion
#8
Aaron Sell, Daniel Sznycer, Laith Al-Shawaf, Julian Lim, Andre Krauss, Aneta Feldman, Ruxandra Rascanu, Lawrence Sugiyama, Leda Cosmides, John Tooby
According to the recalibrational theory of anger, anger is a computationally complex cognitive system that evolved to bargain for better treatment. Anger coordinates facial expressions, vocal changes, verbal arguments, the withholding of benefits, the deployment of aggression, and a suite of other cognitive and physiological variables in the service of leveraging bargaining position into better outcomes. The prototypical trigger of anger is an indication that the offender places too little weight on the angry individual's welfare when making decisions, i...
June 29, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663734/the-contribution-of-grammar-vocabulary-and-theory-of-mind-in-pragmatic-language-competence-in-children-with-autistic-spectrum-disorders
#9
Clara Andrés-Roqueta, Napoleon Katsos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657644/communication-in-children-and-adolescents-after-acquired-brain-injury-an-exploratory-study
#10
Åsa Fyrberg, Göran Horneman, Jakob Åsberg Johnels, Gunilla Thunberg, Elisabeth Ahlsén
OBJECTIVE: The usability of the Communicative Effectiveness Index (CETI) in adolescents with acquired brain injury was investigated and compared with linguistic, cognitive and brain injury data. DESIGN: A prospective, longitudinal, between-group design. SUBJECTS: Thirty participants were divided into 2 subgroups: CETI+ and CETI- groups. METHODS: Parental CETI ratings of daily communication were compared with linguistic data and IQ test results...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652070/peer-victimisation-and-academic-performance-in-primary-school-children
#11
Lisa K Mundy, Louise Canterford, Silja Kosola, Louisa Degenhardt, Nicholas B Allen, George C Patton
OBJECTIVE: Peer victimisation is a common antecedent of poor social and emotional adjustment. Its relationship with objectively measured academic performance is unclear. This study aimed to quantify the cross-sectional associations between peer victimisation and academic performance in a large population sample of children. METHODS: Eight-nine year olds were recruited from a stratified random sample of primary schools in Australia. Academic performance was measured on a national achievement test (one year of learning equals 40 points)...
June 23, 2017: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647861/qualitative-spatial-logic-descriptors-from-3d-indoor-scenes-to-generate-explanations-in-natural-language
#12
Zoe Falomir, Thomas Kluth
The challenge of describing 3D real scenes is tackled in this paper using qualitative spatial descriptors. A key point to study is which qualitative descriptors to use and how these qualitative descriptors must be organized to produce a suitable cognitive explanation. In order to find answers, a survey test was carried out with human participants which openly described a scene containing some pieces of furniture. The data obtained in this survey are analysed, and taking this into account, the QSn3D computational approach was developed which uses a XBox 360 Kinect to obtain 3D data from a real indoor scene...
June 24, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616382/improving-language-mapping-in-clinical-fmri-through-assessment-of-grammar
#13
Monika Połczyńska, Kevin Japardi, Susan Curtiss, Teena Moody, Christopher Benjamin, Andrew Cho, Celia Vigil, Taylor Kuhn, Michael Jones, Susan Bookheimer
INTRODUCTION: Brain surgery in the language dominant hemisphere remains challenging due to unintended post-surgical language deficits, despite using pre-surgical functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) and intraoperative cortical stimulation. Moreover, patients are often recommended not to undergo surgery if the accompanying risk to language appears to be too high. While standard fMRI language mapping protocols may have relatively good predictive value at the group level, they remain sub-optimal on an individual level...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615065/genome-wide-association-study-and-genomic-prediction-for-fatty-acid-composition-in-chinese-simmental-beef-cattle-using-high-density-snp-array
#14
Bo Zhu, Hong Niu, Wengang Zhang, Zezhao Wang, Yonghu Liang, Long Guan, Peng Guo, Yan Chen, Lupei Zhang, Yong Guo, Heming Ni, Xue Gao, Huijiang Gao, Lingyang Xu, Junya Li
BACKGROUND: Fatty acid composition of muscle is an important trait contributing to meat quality. Recently, genome-wide association study (GWAS) has been extensively used to explore the molecular mechanism underlying important traits in cattle. In this study, we performed GWAS using high density SNP array to analyze the association between SNPs and fatty acids and evaluated the accuracy of genomic prediction for fatty acids in Chinese Simmental cattle. RESULTS: Using the BayesB method, we identified 35 and 7 regions in Chinese Simmental cattle that displayed significant associations with individual fatty acids and fatty acid groups, respectively...
June 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605008/unpicking-the-developmental-relationship-between-oral-language-skills-and-reading-comprehension-it-s-simple-but-complex
#15
Arne Lervåg, Charles Hulme, Monica Melby-Lervåg
Listening comprehension and word decoding are the two major determinants of the development of reading comprehension. The relative importance of different language skills for the development of listening and reading comprehension remains unclear. In this 5-year longitudinal study, starting at age 7.5 years (n = 198), it was found that the shared variance between vocabulary, grammar, verbal working memory, and inference skills was a powerful longitudinal predictor of variations in both listening and reading comprehension...
June 12, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603773/what-is-your-neural-function-visual-narrative-conjunction-grammar-meaning-and-fluency-in-sequential-image-processing
#16
Neil Cohn, Marta Kutas
Visual narratives sometimes depict successive images with different characters in the same physical space; corpus analysis has revealed that this occurs more often in Japanese manga than American comics. We used event-related brain potentials to determine whether comprehension of "visual narrative conjunctions" invokes not only incremental mental updating as traditionally assumed, but also, as we propose, "grammatical" combinatoric processing. We thus crossed (non)/conjunction sequences with character (in)/congruity...
2017: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602718/cross-language-diversity-head-direction-and-grammars-comment-on-dependency-distance-a-new-perspective-on-syntactic-patterns-in-natural-languages-by-haitao-liu-et-al
#17
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599166/the-means-side-effect-distinction-in-moral-cognition-a-meta-analysis
#18
Adam Feltz, Joshua May
Experimental research suggests that people draw a moral distinction between bad outcomes brought about as a means versus a side effect (or byproduct). Such findings have informed multiple psychological and philosophical debates about moral cognition, including its computational structure, its sensitivity to the famous Doctrine of Double Effect, its reliability, and its status as a universal and innate mental module akin to universal grammar. But some studies have failed to replicate the means/byproduct effect especially in the absence of other factors, such as personal contact...
September 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598247/a-long-range-flexible-billboard-model-of-gene-activation
#19
Christopher M Vockley, Ian C McDowell, Antony M D'Ippolito, Timothy E Reddy
Gene regulation is fundamentally important for the coordination of diverse biologic processes including homeostasis and responses to developmental and environmental stimuli. Transcription factor (TF) binding sites are one of the major functional subunits of gene regulation. They are arranged in cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) that can be more active than the sum of their individual effects. Recently, we described a mechanism of glucocorticoid (GC)-induced gene regulation in which the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binds coordinately to multiple CRMs that are 10s of kilobases apart in the genome...
June 9, 2017: Transcription
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597235/agsuite-software-to-conduct-feature-analysis-of-artificial-grammar-learning-performance
#20
Matthew T Cook, Chrissy M Chubala, Randall K Jamieson
To simplify the problem of studying how people learn natural language, researchers use the artificial grammar learning (AGL) task. In this task, participants study letter strings constructed according to the rules of an artificial grammar and subsequently attempt to discriminate grammatical from ungrammatical test strings. Although the data from these experiments are usually analyzed by comparing the mean discrimination performance between experimental conditions, this practice discards information about the individual items and participants that could otherwise help uncover the particular features of strings associated with grammaticality judgments...
June 8, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
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