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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802372/phonological-awareness-in-german-speaking-preschool-children-with-cochlear-implants-3-case-examples
#1
Bianka Wachtlin, Yvonne Turinsky, Frank Herrmann, Blanca Schaefer
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to explore PA skills German-speaking preschool children with cochlea implants (CIs) and how these skills may be related to their speech and language skills. METHODS: Three monolingual German-speaking pre-school children aged 5;04-6;01 with bilateral CIs were tested. Their cognitive, speech and language skills were assessed. Six subtests of a standardized PA test battery were administered (i.e. rhyme identification, rhyme production; phoneme identification- input and -output; phoneme blending-input and -output)...
September 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791547/data-based-prediction-of-blood-glucose-concentrations-using-evolutionary-methods
#2
J Ignacio Hidalgo, J Manuel Colmenar, Gabriel Kronberger, Stephan M Winkler, Oscar Garnica, Juan Lanchares
Predicting glucose values on the basis of insulin and food intakes is a difficult task that people with diabetes need to do daily. This is necessary as it is important to maintain glucose levels at appropriate values to avoid not only short-term, but also long-term complications of the illness. Artificial intelligence in general and machine learning techniques in particular have already lead to promising results in modeling and predicting glucose concentrations. In this work, several machine learning techniques are used for the modeling and prediction of glucose concentrations using as inputs the values measured by a continuous monitoring glucose system as well as also previous and estimated future carbohydrate intakes and insulin injections...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790953/functionally-equivalent-variants-in-a-non-standard-variety-and-their-implications-for-universal-grammar-a-spontaneous-speech-corpus
#3
Evelina Leivada, Elena Papadopoulou, Natalia Pavlou
Findings from the field of experimental linguistics have shown that a native speaker may judge a variant that is part of her grammar as unacceptable, but still use it productively in spontaneous speech. The process of eliciting acceptability judgments from speakers of non-standard languages is sometimes clouded by factors akin to prescriptive notions of grammatical correctness. It has been argued that standardization enhances the ability to make clear-cut judgments, while non-standardization may result to grammatical hybridity, often manifested in the form of functionally equivalent variants in the repertoire of a single speaker...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769020/activation-changes-of-the-left-inferior-frontal-gyrus-for-the-factors-of-construction-and-scrambling-in-a-sentence
#4
Kyohei Tanaka, Shinri Ohta, Ryuta Kinno, Kuniyoshi L Sakai
Our previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have indicated that the left dorsal inferior frontal gyrus (L. dF3op/F3t) and left lateral premotor cortex (L. LPMC) are crucial regions for syntactic processing among the syntax-related networks. In the present study, we further examined how activations in these regions were modified by the factors of construction and scrambling (object-initial type). Using various sentence types, we clarified three major points. First, we found that the main effects of construction and scrambling consistently activated the L...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766373/prediction-of-the-outcome-of-children-who-had-a-language-delay-at-age-2-when-they-are-aged-4-still-a-challenge
#5
Audette Sylvestre, Chantal Desmarais, François Meyer, Isabelle Bairati, Jean Leblond
PURPOSE: This study investigated the role that variables related to children and their environment play in the prediction of outcomes at 4 years of age for children with a language delay at 2 years. METHOD: A longitudinal study was undertaken where 64 children (45 boys, 19 girls; mean age = 53.3 months; SD = 4.4) with language delay at age 2 years were re-evaluated at age 4 years. Three developmental trajectories were analysed. RESULT: The early stages of grammar, as estimated by mean length of utterance at 3...
August 2, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756534/statistical-science-a-grammar-for-research
#6
David R Cox
I greatly appreciate the invitation to give this lecture with its century long history. The title is a warning that the lecture is rather discursive and not highly focused and technical. The theme is simple. That statistical thinking provides a unifying set of general ideas and specific methods relevant whenever appreciable natural variation is present. To be most fruitful these ideas should merge seamlessly with subject-matter considerations. By contrast, there is sometimes a temptation to regard formal statistical analysis as a ritual to be added after the serious work has been done, a ritual to satisfy convention, referees, and regulatory agencies...
July 29, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756523/the-combinatorics-of-discrete-time-trees-theory-and-open-problems
#7
Alex Gavryushkin, Chris Whidden, Frederick A Matsen
A time-tree is a rooted phylogenetic tree such that all internal nodes are equipped with absolute divergence dates and all leaf nodes are equipped with sampling dates. Such time-trees have become a central object of study in phylogenetics but little is known about the parameter space of such objects. Here we introduce and study a hierarchy of discrete approximations of the space of time-trees from the graph-theoretic and algorithmic point of view. One of the basic and widely used phylogenetic graphs, the [Formula: see text] graph, is the roughest approximation and bottom level of our hierarchy...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754578/reliability-and-validation-of-the-turkish-version-of-the-pediatric-voice-related-quality-of-life-survey
#8
Ziya Salturk, Erdi Ozdemir, Tolgar Lutfi Kumral, İbrahim Sayin, Kürşat Yelken, Hüseyin Sari, Güler Berkiten, Yavuz Atar, Belgin Tutar, Ahmet Arslanoglu, Yavuz Uyar
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of dysphonia in children, several methods have been developed, including the Pediatric Voice Outcome Survey, the Pediatric Voice Handicap Index, and the Pediatric Voice-Related Quality of Life (PVRQOL) Survey. The aim of this study was to analyze the validity of the Turkish version of the PVRQOL Survey. METHODS: The PVRQOL Survey consists of 10 questions that evaluate the effects of dysphonia on quality of life. We translated it into Turkish by working with two translators and faculty from the English Grammar and Literature Department...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749346/attribute-and-or-grammar-for-joint-parsing-of-human-pose-parts-and-attributes
#9
Seyoung Park, Xiaohan Nie, Song-Chun Zhu
This paper presents an attribute and-or grammar (A-AOG) model for jointly inferring human body pose and human attributes in a parse graph with attributes augmented to nodes in the hierarchical representation. In contrast to other popular methods in the current literature that train separate classifiers for poses and individual attributes, our method explicitly represents the decomposition and articulation of body parts, and account for the correlations between poses and attributes. The A-AOG model is an amalgamation of three traditional grammar formulations: (i)Phrase structure grammar representing the hierarchical decomposition of the human body from whole to parts; (ii)Dependency grammar modeling the geometric articulation by a kinematic graph of the body pose; and (iii)Attribute grammar accounting for the compatibility relations between different parts in the hierarchy so that their appearances follow a consistent style...
July 25, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744901/input-and-age-dependent-variation-in-second-language-learning-a-connectionist-account
#10
Marius Janciauskas, Franklin Chang
Language learning requires linguistic input, but several studies have found that knowledge of second language (L2) rules does not seem to improve with more language exposure (e.g., Johnson & Newport, 1989). One reason for this is that previous studies did not factor out variation due to the different rules tested. To examine this issue, we reanalyzed grammaticality judgment scores in Flege, Yeni-Komshian, and Liu's (1999) study of L2 learners using rule-related predictors and found that, in addition to the overall drop in performance due to a sensitive period, L2 knowledge increased with years of input...
July 26, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715547/identifying-the-dimensionality-of-oral-language-skills-of-children-with-typical-development-in-preschool-through-fifth-grade
#11
Christopher J Lonigan, Trelani F Milburn
Purpose: Language is a multidimensional construct from prior to the beginning of formal schooling to near the end of elementary school. The primary goals of this study were to identify the dimensionality of language and to determine whether this dimensionality was consistent in children with typical language development from preschool through 5th grade. Method: In a large sample of 1,895 children, confirmatory factor analysis was conducted with 19-20 measures of language intended to represent 6 factors, including domains of vocabulary and syntax/grammar across modalities of expressive and receptive language, listening comprehension, and vocabulary depth...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714444/development-of-an-arabic-translation-of-the-cancer-behavior-inventory-brief
#12
Maaidah M Algamdi, Sandra K Hanneman
PURPOSE: The objective was to develop an Arabic version of the Cancer Behavior Inventory-Brief (CBI-B). METHODS: The CBI-B was translated into Arabic using two forward and back translations. A translation validity index (TVI) was computed from review by an expert panel. RESULTS: Both back translations had issues with word choice, grammar, and meaning, which were resolved by selecting items from each forward translation. Item TVI was 0.83-1...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Nursing Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707643/assessing-reading-levels-of-health-information-uses-and-limitations-of-flesch-formula
#13
Pranay Jindal, Joy C MacDermid
BACKGROUND: Written health information is commonly used by health-care professionals (HCPs) to inform and assess patients in clinical practice. With growing self-management of many health conditions and increased information seeking behavior among patients, there is a greater stress on HCPs and researchers to develop and implement readable and understandable health information. Readability formulas such as Flesch Reading Ease (FRE) and Flesch-Kincaid Reading Grade Level (FKRGL) are commonly used by researchers and HCPs to assess if health information is reading grade appropriate for patients...
January 2017: Education for Health: Change in Training & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697702/experimental-evidence-for-the-role-of-intonation-in-evidential-marking
#14
Maria Del Mar Vanrell, Meghan E Armstrong, Pilar Prieto
This paper investigates the role of intonation in the marking of directly-perceived information in Majorcan Catalan polar questions. We conducted a perception experiment in which a total of 72 participants were introduced to a set of twins who were exposed to different types of evidence for a given p(roposition). One twin inferred p based on direct sensory information (via one of the five senses), while the other had been told that p by a third party, that is, reported information. Participants listened to a set of discourse contexts that ended in critical stimuli with three attested combinations of particle/intonation in this variety of Catalan: (1) polar questions produced with a falling nuclear contour ¡H+L* L%; (2) polar questions headed with the particle que 'that' produced with ¡H+L* L%; and (3) polar questions headed with the particle que and produced with a rise-fall L+H* L%...
June 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690782/sequential-learning-in-individuals-with-agrammatic-aphasia-evidence-from-artificial-grammar-learning
#15
Julia Schuchard, Cynthia K Thompson
We examined sequential learning in individuals with agrammatic aphasia (n = 12) and healthy age-matched participants (n = 12) using an artificial grammar. Artificial grammar acquisition, 24-hour retention, and the potential benefits of additional training were examined by administering an artificial grammar judgment test (1) immediately following auditory exposure-based training, (2) one day after training, and (3) after a second training session on the second day. An untrained control group (n = 12 healthy age-matched participants) completed the tests on the same time schedule...
2017: Journal of Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687306/auditory-and-visual-sequence-learning-in-humans-and-monkeys-using-an-artificial-grammar-learning-paradigm
#16
Alice E Milne, Christopher I Petkov, Benjamin Wilson
Language flexibly supports the human ability to communicate using different sensory modalities, such as writing and reading in the visual modality and speaking and listening in the auditory domain. Although it has been argued that nonhuman primate communication abilities are inherently multisensory, direct behavioural comparisons between human and nonhuman primates are scant. Artificial grammar learning (AGL) tasks and statistical learning experiments can be used to emulate ordering relationships between words in a sentence...
July 5, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675255/-communicative-and-social-adaptive-profile-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-new-approach-based-on-the-dsm-5-criteria
#17
D Garrido, M Garcia-Fernandez, R Garcia-Retamero, G Carballo
INTRODUCTION: Following the adoption of the new international diagnosis classification from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5), autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been established as a dimensional category that includes other disorders that were previously considered as separate entities. Previous research has shown that some people with this disorder exhibit different communicative and linguistic profiles. Therefore, contradictory results could be found among people who receive the same diagnosis...
July 16, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668649/the-grammar-of-anger-mapping-the-computational-architecture-of-a-recalibrational-emotion
#18
Aaron Sell, Daniel Sznycer, Laith Al-Shawaf, Julian Lim, Andre Krauss, Aneta Feldman, Ruxandra Rascanu, Lawrence Sugiyama, Leda Cosmides, John Tooby
According to the recalibrational theory of anger, anger is a computationally complex cognitive system that evolved to bargain for better treatment. Anger coordinates facial expressions, vocal changes, verbal arguments, the withholding of benefits, the deployment of aggression, and a suite of other cognitive and physiological variables in the service of leveraging bargaining position into better outcomes. The prototypical trigger of anger is an indication that the offender places too little weight on the angry individual's welfare when making decisions, i...
June 29, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663734/the-contribution-of-grammar-vocabulary-and-theory-of-mind-in-pragmatic-language-competence-in-children-with-autistic-spectrum-disorders
#19
Clara Andrés-Roqueta, Napoleon Katsos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657644/communication-in-children-and-adolescents-after-acquired-brain-injury-an-exploratory-study
#20
Åsa Fyrberg, Göran Horneman, Jakob Åsberg Johnels, Gunilla Thunberg, Elisabeth Ahlsén
OBJECTIVE: The usability of the Communicative Effectiveness Index (CETI) in adolescents with acquired brain injury was investigated and compared with linguistic, cognitive and brain injury data. DESIGN: A prospective, longitudinal, between-group design. SUBJECTS: Thirty participants were divided into 2 subgroups: CETI+ and CETI- groups. METHODS: Parental CETI ratings of daily communication were compared with linguistic data and IQ test results...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
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