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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928681/how-does-l1-and-l2-exposure-impact-l1-performance-in-bilingual-children-evidence-from-polish-english-migrants-to-the-united-kingdom
#1
Ewa Haman, Zofia Wodniecka, Marta Marecka, Jakub Szewczyk, Marta Białecka-Pikul, Agnieszka Otwinowska, Karolina Mieszkowska, Magdalena Łuniewska, Joanna Kołak, Aneta Miękisz, Agnieszka Kacprzak, Natalia Banasik, Małgorzata Foryś-Nogala
Most studies on bilingual language development focus on children's second language (L2). Here, we investigated first language (L1) development of Polish-English early migrant bilinguals in four domains: vocabulary, grammar, phonological processing, and discourse. We first compared Polish language skills between bilinguals and their Polish non-migrant monolingual peers, and then investigated the influence of the cumulative exposure to L1 and L2 on bilinguals' performance. We then examined whether high exposure to L1 could possibly minimize the gap between monolinguals and bilinguals...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923498/assessment-of-grammar-optimizes-language-tasks-for-the-intracarotid-amobarbital-procedure
#2
Monika Połczyńska, Taylor Kuhn, S Christine You, Patricia Walshaw, Susan Curtiss, Susan Bookheimer
PURPOSE: A previous study showed that assessment of language laterality could be improved by adding grammar tests to the recovery phase of the intracarotid amobarbital procedure (IAP) (Połczyńska et al. 2014). The aim of this study was to further investigate the extent to which grammar tests lateralize language function during the recovery phase of the IAP in a larger patient sample. METHODS: Forty patients with drug-resistant epilepsy (14 females, thirty-two right-handed, mean age 38...
September 9, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901669/automating-tasks-in-protein-structure-determination-with-the-clipper-python-module
#3
Stuart McNicholas, Tristan Croll, Tom Burnley, Colin M Palmer, Soon Wen Hoh, Huw T Jenkins, Eleanor Dodson, Kevin Cowtan, Jon Agirre
Scripting programming languages provide the fastest means of prototyping complex functionality. Those with a syntax and grammar resembling human language also greatly enhance the maintainability of the produced source code. Furthermore, the combination of a powerful, machine-independent scripting language with binary libraries tailored for each computer architecture allows programs to break free from the tight boundaries of efficiency traditionally associated with scripts. In the present work, we describe how an efficient C++ crystallographic library such as Clipper can be wrapped, adapted and generalised for use in both crystallographic and electron cryo-microscopy applications, scripted with the Python language...
September 13, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890587/the-swedish-communicative-development-inventory-iii-parent-reports-on-language-in-preschool-children
#4
Mårten Eriksson
A revised form of MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory III (SCDI-III) was presented designed for Swedish speaking children aged 2 years 6 months-4 years 0 months with the objective to give a proxy measure of their language competence. The instrument contains a vocabulary checklist with 100 words, mainly predicates, from four areas; Food words, Body words, Mental words and Emotion words. Two sections assess the child's grammar skills and a final section appraises the child's metalinguistic awareness...
September 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886430/story-grammar-elements-and-causal-relations-in-the-narratives-of-russian-hebrew-bilingual-children-with-sli-and-typical-language-development
#5
Sveta Fichman, Carmit Altman, Anna Voloskovich, Sharon Armon-Lotem, Joel Walters
BACKGROUND: While there is general agreement regarding poor performance of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) on microstructure measures of narrative production, findings on macrostructure are inconsistent. PURPOSE: The present study analyzed narrative abilities of Russian-Hebrew bilingual preschool children with and without SLI, with a particular focus on story grammar (SG) elements and causal relations, in order to identify macrostructure features which distinguish bilingual children with SLI from those with typical development...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854861/beyond-the-clinic-eluding-a-medical-diagnosis-of-anorexia-through-narrative
#6
Merav Shohet
The persistence and recurrence of anorexia nervosa poses a clinical challenge, and provides support for critiques of oppressive and injurious facets of society inscribed on women's bodies. This essay illustrates how a phenomenological, linguistic anthropological approach fruitfully traverses clinical and cultural perspectives by directing attention beyond the embodied experience of patients diagnosed with anorexia nervosa to those who are not clinically diagnosed. Extending a model of illness and recovery as entailing sufferers' emplotting of past, present, and imagined future selves, I argue that women's accounts of their experiences do not simply reflect lived reality, but actually propel health-relevant states of being by enlivening and creating these realities in the process of their telling...
January 1, 2017: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846037/narrative-language-and-reading-comprehension-in-students-with-mild-intellectual-disabilities
#7
Andrea Barton-Hulsey, Rose A Sevcik, MaryAnn Romski
Past research shows positive correlations between oral narrative skill and reading comprehension in typically developing students. This study examined the relationship between reading comprehension and narrative language ability of 102 elementary students with mild levels of intellectual disability. Results describe the students' narrative language microstructure and relative strengths and weaknesses in narrative macrostructure. Students' narrative macrostructure accounted for significant variance in reading comprehension beyond what was accounted for by narrative microstructure (i...
September 2017: American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843341/artificial-grammar-learning-in-vascular-and-progressive-non-fluent-aphasias
#8
Thomas E Cope, Benjamin Wilson, Holly Robson, Rebecca Drinkall, Lauren Dean, Manon Grube, P Simon Jones, Karalyn Patterson, Timothy D Griffiths, James B Rowe, Christopher I Petkov
Patients with non-fluent aphasias display impairments of expressive and receptive grammar. This has been attributed to deficits in processing configurational and hierarchical sequencing relationships. This hypothesis had not been formally tested. It was also controversial whether impairments are specific to language, or reflect domain general deficits in processing structured auditory sequences. Here we used an artificial grammar learning paradigm to compare the abilities of controls to participants with agrammatic aphasia of two different aetiologies: stroke and frontotemporal dementia...
August 24, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832595/verbal-monitoring-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-comparison-between-internal-and-external-monitoring
#9
Hanna S Gauvin, Jolien Mertens, Peter Mariën, Patrick Santens, Barbara A Pickut, Robert J Hartsuiker
Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) display a variety of impairments in motor and non-motor language processes; speech is decreased on motor aspects such as amplitude, prosody and speed and on linguistic aspects including grammar and fluency. Here we investigated whether verbal monitoring is impaired and what the relative contributions of the internal and external monitoring route are on verbal monitoring in patients with PD relative to controls. Furthermore, the data were used to investigate whether internal monitoring performance could be predicted by internal speech perception tasks, as perception based monitoring theories assume...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802372/phonological-awareness-in-german-speaking-preschool-children-with-cochlear-implants-3-case-examples
#10
Bianka Wachtlin, Yvonne Turinsky, Frank Herrmann, Blanca Schaefer
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to explore PA skills German-speaking preschool children with cochlea implants (CIs) and how these skills may be related to their speech and language skills. METHODS: Three monolingual German-speaking pre-school children aged 5;04-6;01 with bilateral CIs were tested. Their cognitive, speech and language skills were assessed. Six subtests of a standardized PA test battery were administered (i.e. rhyme identification, rhyme production; phoneme identification- input and -output; phoneme blending-input and -output)...
September 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791547/data-based-prediction-of-blood-glucose-concentrations-using-evolutionary-methods
#11
J Ignacio Hidalgo, J Manuel Colmenar, Gabriel Kronberger, Stephan M Winkler, Oscar Garnica, Juan Lanchares
Predicting glucose values on the basis of insulin and food intakes is a difficult task that people with diabetes need to do daily. This is necessary as it is important to maintain glucose levels at appropriate values to avoid not only short-term, but also long-term complications of the illness. Artificial intelligence in general and machine learning techniques in particular have already lead to promising results in modeling and predicting glucose concentrations. In this work, several machine learning techniques are used for the modeling and prediction of glucose concentrations using as inputs the values measured by a continuous monitoring glucose system as well as also previous and estimated future carbohydrate intakes and insulin injections...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790953/functionally-equivalent-variants-in-a-non-standard-variety-and-their-implications-for-universal-grammar-a-spontaneous-speech-corpus
#12
Evelina Leivada, Elena Papadopoulou, Natalia Pavlou
Findings from the field of experimental linguistics have shown that a native speaker may judge a variant that is part of her grammar as unacceptable, but still use it productively in spontaneous speech. The process of eliciting acceptability judgments from speakers of non-standard languages is sometimes clouded by factors akin to prescriptive notions of grammatical correctness. It has been argued that standardization enhances the ability to make clear-cut judgments, while non-standardization may result to grammatical hybridity, often manifested in the form of functionally equivalent variants in the repertoire of a single speaker...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769020/activation-changes-of-the-left-inferior-frontal-gyrus-for-the-factors-of-construction-and-scrambling-in-a-sentence
#13
Kyohei Tanaka, Shinri Ohta, Ryuta Kinno, Kuniyoshi L Sakai
Our previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have indicated that the left dorsal inferior frontal gyrus (L. dF3op/F3t) and left lateral premotor cortex (L. LPMC) are crucial regions for syntactic processing among the syntax-related networks. In the present study, we further examined how activations in these regions were modified by the factors of construction and scrambling (object-initial type). Using various sentence types, we clarified three major points. First, we found that the main effects of construction and scrambling consistently activated the L...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766373/prediction-of-the-outcome-of-children-who-had-a-language-delay-at-age-2-when-they-are-aged-4-still-a-challenge
#14
Audette Sylvestre, Chantal Desmarais, François Meyer, Isabelle Bairati, Jean Leblond
PURPOSE: This study investigated the role that variables related to children and their environment play in the prediction of outcomes at 4 years of age for children with a language delay at 2 years. METHOD: A longitudinal study was undertaken where 64 children (45 boys, 19 girls; mean age = 53.3 months; SD = 4.4) with language delay at age 2 years were re-evaluated at age 4 years. Three developmental trajectories were analysed. RESULT: The early stages of grammar, as estimated by mean length of utterance at 3...
August 2, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756534/statistical-science-a-grammar-for-research
#15
David R Cox
I greatly appreciate the invitation to give this lecture with its century long history. The title is a warning that the lecture is rather discursive and not highly focused and technical. The theme is simple. That statistical thinking provides a unifying set of general ideas and specific methods relevant whenever appreciable natural variation is present. To be most fruitful these ideas should merge seamlessly with subject-matter considerations. By contrast, there is sometimes a temptation to regard formal statistical analysis as a ritual to be added after the serious work has been done, a ritual to satisfy convention, referees, and regulatory agencies...
July 29, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756523/the-combinatorics-of-discrete-time-trees-theory-and-open-problems
#16
Alex Gavryushkin, Chris Whidden, Frederick A Matsen
A time-tree is a rooted phylogenetic tree such that all internal nodes are equipped with absolute divergence dates and all leaf nodes are equipped with sampling dates. Such time-trees have become a central object of study in phylogenetics but little is known about the parameter space of such objects. Here we introduce and study a hierarchy of discrete approximations of the space of time-trees from the graph-theoretic and algorithmic point of view. One of the basic and widely used phylogenetic graphs, the [Formula: see text] graph, is the roughest approximation and bottom level of our hierarchy...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754578/reliability-and-validation-of-the-turkish-version-of-the-pediatric-voice-related-quality-of-life-survey
#17
Ziya Salturk, Erdi Ozdemir, Tolgar Lutfi Kumral, İbrahim Sayin, Kürşat Yelken, Hüseyin Sari, Güler Berkiten, Yavuz Atar, Belgin Tutar, Ahmet Arslanoglu, Yavuz Uyar
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of dysphonia in children, several methods have been developed, including the Pediatric Voice Outcome Survey, the Pediatric Voice Handicap Index, and the Pediatric Voice-Related Quality of Life (PVRQOL) Survey. The aim of this study was to analyze the validity of the Turkish version of the PVRQOL Survey. METHODS: The PVRQOL Survey consists of 10 questions that evaluate the effects of dysphonia on quality of life. We translated it into Turkish by working with two translators and faculty from the English Grammar and Literature Department...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749346/attribute-and-or-grammar-for-joint-parsing-of-human-pose-parts-and-attributes
#18
Seyoung Park, Xiaohan Nie, Song-Chun Zhu
This paper presents an attribute and-or grammar (A-AOG) model for jointly inferring human body pose and human attributes in a parse graph with attributes augmented to nodes in the hierarchical representation. In contrast to other popular methods in the current literature that train separate classifiers for poses and individual attributes, our method explicitly represents the decomposition and articulation of body parts, and account for the correlations between poses and attributes. The A-AOG model is an amalgamation of three traditional grammar formulations: (i)Phrase structure grammar representing the hierarchical decomposition of the human body from whole to parts; (ii)Dependency grammar modeling the geometric articulation by a kinematic graph of the body pose; and (iii)Attribute grammar accounting for the compatibility relations between different parts in the hierarchy so that their appearances follow a consistent style...
July 25, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744901/input-and-age-dependent-variation-in-second-language-learning-a-connectionist-account
#19
Marius Janciauskas, Franklin Chang
Language learning requires linguistic input, but several studies have found that knowledge of second language (L2) rules does not seem to improve with more language exposure (e.g., Johnson & Newport, 1989). One reason for this is that previous studies did not factor out variation due to the different rules tested. To examine this issue, we reanalyzed grammaticality judgment scores in Flege, Yeni-Komshian, and Liu's (1999) study of L2 learners using rule-related predictors and found that, in addition to the overall drop in performance due to a sensitive period, L2 knowledge increased with years of input...
July 26, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715547/identifying-the-dimensionality-of-oral-language-skills-of-children-with-typical-development-in-preschool-through-fifth-grade
#20
Christopher J Lonigan, Trelani F Milburn
Purpose: Language is a multidimensional construct from prior to the beginning of formal schooling to near the end of elementary school. The primary goals of this study were to identify the dimensionality of language and to determine whether this dimensionality was consistent in children with typical language development from preschool through 5th grade. Method: In a large sample of 1,895 children, confirmatory factor analysis was conducted with 19-20 measures of language intended to represent 6 factors, including domains of vocabulary and syntax/grammar across modalities of expressive and receptive language, listening comprehension, and vocabulary depth...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
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