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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134484/the-role-of-feedback-in-implicit-and-explicit-artificial-grammar-learning-a-comparison-between-dyslexic-and-non-dyslexic-adults
#1
Rachel Schiff, Ayelet Sasson, Galit Star, Shani Kahta
The importance of feedback for learning has been firmly established over the past few decades. The question of whether feedback plays a significant role in the statistical learning abilities of adults with dyslexia, however, is currently unresolved. Here, we examined the role of feedback in grammaticality judgment, type of structural knowledge, and confidence rating in both typically developed and dyslexic adults. We implemented two artificial grammar learning experiments: implicit and explicit. The second experiment was directly analogous to the first experiment in all respects except training format: the standard memorization instruction was replaced with an explicit rule-search instruction...
November 13, 2017: Annals of Dyslexia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133452/an-intermediate-level-of-abstraction-for-computational-systems-chemistry
#2
Jakob L Andersen, Christoph Flamm, Daniel Merkle, Peter F Stadler
Computational techniques are required for narrowing down the vast space of possibilities to plausible prebiotic scenarios, because precise information on the molecular composition, the dominant reaction chemistry and the conditions for that era are scarce. The exploration of large chemical reaction networks is a central aspect in this endeavour. While quantum chemical methods can accurately predict the structures and reactivities of small molecules, they are not efficient enough to cope with large-scale reaction systems...
December 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128894/behavioural-and-emotional-problems-in-children-and-educational-outcomes-a-dynamic-panel-data-analysis
#3
Rasheda Khanam, Son Nghiem
This study investigates the effects of behavioural and emotional problems in children on their educational outcomes using data from the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Children (LSAC). We contribute to the extant literature using a dynamic specification to test the hypothesis of knowledge accumulation. Further, we apply the system generalised method of moments (GMM) estimator to minimise biases due to unobserved factors. We find that mental disorders in children has a negative effect on the National Assessment Program-Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) test scores...
November 11, 2017: Administration and Policy in Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125090/distributional-learning-aids-linguistic-category-formation-in-school-age-children
#4
Jessica Hall, Amanda Owen VAN Horne, Thomas Farmer
The goal of this study was to determine if typically developing children could form grammatical categories from distributional information alone. Twenty-seven children aged six to nine listened to an artificial grammar which contained strategic gaps in its distribution. At test, we compared how children rated novel sentences that fit the grammar to sentences that were ungrammatical. Sentences could be distinguished only through the formation of categories of words with shared distributional properties. Children's ratings revealed that they could discriminate grammatical and ungrammatical sentences...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Child Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116479/contrasting-grammatical-and-lexical-determiners
#5
Violaine Michel Lange, Maria Messerschmidt, Kasper Boye
This paper investigates the difference between the production of grammatical determiners and lexical determiners in the production of adjective-noun phrases (NPs) in Danish. Models of sentence processing (Garrett in Psychology of learning and motivation, Academic press, New York, pp 133-177, 1975; Bock in J Mem Lang 26(2):119-137, 1987) suggest that the phonological encoding stage of grammatical items can only be specified once lexical items have been phonologically encoded. In their usage-based linguistic theory of the grammar-lexicon distinction, Boye and Harder (Lang 88(1):1-44, 2012) propose that this later encoding of grammatical elements is motivated by two specific features of grammatical elements...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114746/distributional-learning-in-college-students-with-developmental-language-disorder
#6
Jessica Hall, Amanda Owen Van Horne, Karla K McGregor, Thomas Farmer
Purpose: This study examined whether college students with developmental language disorder (DLD) could use distributional information in an artificial language to learn about grammatical category membership in a way similar to their typically developing (TD) peers. Method: Seventeen college students with DLD and 17 TD college students participated in this task. We used an artificial grammar in which certain combinations of words never occurred during training. At test, participants had to use knowledge of category membership to determine which combinations were allowable in the grammar, even though they had not been heard...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112859/translation-and-cultural-adaptation-of-the-pediatric-eosinophilic-esophagitis-symptom-score-peess-v2-0
#7
Maria Fernanda Oliveira Santos, Cristina Palmer Barros, Carlos Henrique Martins da Silva, Helena Borges Martins da Silva Paro
OBJECTIVES: To translate and culturally adapt the Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis Symptom Score (version 2.0), a tool used to assess pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis symptoms reported by patients and/or their parents/caregivers. METHODS: The Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis Symptom Score was translated through the following stages: initial translation, back-translation, and consensus of independent reviewers through the Delphi technique. The pre-final version of the Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis Symptom Score was applied to five 8-to-18-year-old patients and to ten parents of two-to-18-year-old patients from an outpatient pediatric gastroenterology service (pre-test)...
November 4, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108712/cognitive-functioning-in-dyskinetic-cerebral-palsy-its-relation-to-motor-function-communication-and-epilepsy
#8
Júlia Ballester-Plané, Olga Laporta-Hoyos, Alfons Macaya, Pilar Póo, Mar Meléndez-Plumed, Esther Toro-Tamargo, Francisca Gimeno, Ana Narberhaus, Dolors Segarra, Roser Pueyo
BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a disorder of motor function often accompanied by cognitive impairment. There is a paucity of research focused on cognition in dyskinetic CP and on the potential effect of related factors. AIM: To describe the cognitive profile in dyskinetic CP and to assess its relationship with motor function and associated impairments. METHOD: Fifty-two subjects with dyskinetic CP (28 males, mean age 24 y 10 mo, SD 13 y) and 52 typically-developing controls (age- and gender-matched) completed a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment...
October 24, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097404/deep-learning-of-the-regulatory-grammar-of-yeast-5-untranslated-regions-from-500-000-random-sequences
#9
Josh T Cuperus, Benjamin Groves, Anna Kuchina, Alexander B Rosenberg, Nebojsa Jojic, Stanley Fields, Georg Seelig
Our ability to predict protein expression from DNA sequence alone remains poor, reflecting our limited understanding of cis-regulatory grammar and hampering the design of engineered genes for synthetic biology applications. Here, we generate a model that predicts the protein expression of the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of mRNAs in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We constructed a library of half a million 50-nucleotide-long random 5' UTRs and assayed their activity in a massively parallel growth selection experiment...
November 2, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092595/a-cross-linguistic-study-of-speech-modulation-spectra
#10
Léo Varnet, Maria Clemencia Ortiz-Barajas, Ramón Guevara Erra, Judit Gervain, Christian Lorenzi
Languages show systematic variation in their sound patterns and grammars. Accordingly, they have been classified into typological categories such as stress-timed vs syllable-timed, or Head-Complement (HC) vs Complement-Head (CH). To date, it has remained incompletely understood how these linguistic properties are reflected in the acoustic characteristics of speech in different languages. In the present study, the amplitude-modulation (AM) and frequency-modulation (FM) spectra of 1797 utterances in ten languages were analyzed...
October 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091940/planning-and-production-of-grammatical-and-lexical-verbs-in-multi-word-messages
#11
Violaine Michel Lange, Maria Messerschmidt, Peter Harder, Hartwig Roman Siebner, Kasper Boye
Grammatical words represent the part of grammar that can be most directly contrasted with the lexicon. Aphasiological studies, linguistic theories and psycholinguistic studies suggest that their processing is operated at different stages in speech production. Models of sentence production propose that at the formulation stage, lexical words are processed at the functional level while grammatical words are processed at a later positional level. In this study we consider proposals made by linguistic theories and psycholinguistic models to derive two predictions for the processing of grammatical words compared to lexical words...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090308/the-frequency-and-nature-of-communication-between-school-based-speech-language-pathologists-and-caregivers-of-children-with-language-impairment
#12
Sherine R Tambyraja, Mary Beth Schmitt, Laura M Justice
Purpose: The present study investigates the extent to which school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) communicate with the caregivers of children with language impairment and the factors that are significantly associated with frequent communication. In addition, this study investigates the extent to which frequent SLP-caregiver communication is associated with change in language and literacy abilities of children. Method: To address the study aims, weekly communication logs from 73 SLPs, serving 3-5 children with language impairment in grades K-2, were collected for a complete academic year...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089910/developmental-constraints-on-learning-artificial-grammars-with-fixed-flexible-and-free-word-order
#13
Iga Nowak, Giosuè Baggio
Human learning, although highly flexible and efficient, is constrained in ways that facilitate or impede the acquisition of certain systems of information. Some such constraints, active during infancy and childhood, have been proposed to account for the apparent ease with which typically developing children acquire language. In a series of experiments, we investigated the role of developmental constraints on learning artificial grammars with a distinction between shorter and relatively frequent words ('function words,' F-words) and longer and less frequent words ('content words,' C-words)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081756/the-locus-preservation-hypothesis-shared-linguistic-profiles-across-developmental-disorders-and-the-resilient-part-of-the-human-language-faculty
#14
Evelina Leivada, Maria Kambanaros, Kleanthes K Grohmann
Grammatical markers are not uniformly impaired across speakers of different languages, even when speakers share a diagnosis and the marker in question is grammaticalized in a similar way in these languages. The aim of this work is to demarcate, from a cross-linguistic perspective, the linguistic phenotype of three genetically heterogeneous developmental disorders: specific language impairment, Down syndrome, and autism spectrum disorder. After a systematic review of linguistic profiles targeting mainly English-, Greek-, Catalan-, and Spanish-speaking populations with developmental disorders (n = 880), shared loci of impairment are identified and certain domains of grammar are shown to be more vulnerable than others...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073489/procedural-memory-and-speed-of-grammatical-processing-comparison-between-typically-developing-children-and-language-impaired-children
#15
Gillian M Clark, Jarrad A G Lum
BACKGROUND: Procedural memory has been proposed to underlie the acquisition of a range of skills including grammar, reading, and motor skills. In developmental language disorder (DLD) it has been suggested that procedural memory problems lead to the difficulties with grammar in this group. AIMS: This study aimed to extend previous research by exploring associations between procedural memory and a range of cognitive skills, in children with and without language impairments...
October 23, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063560/secondary-use-of-recorded-or-self-expressed-personal-data-consumer-health-informatics-and-education-in-the-era-of-social-media-and-health-apps
#16
P Staccini, L Fernandez-Luque
Objective: To summarize the state of the art during the year 2016 in the areas related to consumer health informatics and education with a special emphasis in secondary use of patient data. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of articles published in 2016, using PubMed with a predefined set of queries. We identified over 320 potential articles for review. Papers were considered according to their relevance for the topic of the section. Using consensus, we selected the 15 most representative papers, which were submitted to external reviewers for full review and scoring...
August 2017: Yearbook of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059544/neural-oscillatory-mechanisms-during-novel-grammar-learning-underlying-language-analytical-abilities
#17
Olga Kepinska, Ernesto Pereda, Johanneke Caspers, Niels O Schiller
The goal of the present study was to investigate the initial phases of novel grammar learning on a neural level, concentrating on mechanisms responsible for individual variability between learners. Two groups of participants, one with high and one with average language analytical abilities, performed an Artificial Grammar Learning (AGL) task consisting of learning and test phases. During the task, EEG signals from 32 cap-mounted electrodes were recorded and epochs corresponding to the learning phases were analysed...
October 20, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059543/spread-the-word-mmn-brain-response-reveals-whole-form-access-of-discontinuous-particle-verbs
#18
Jeff Hanna, Bert Cappelle, Friedemann Pulvermüller
The status of particle verbs such as rise (…) up as either lexically stored or combinatorially assembled is an issue which so far has not been settled decisively. In this study, we use the mismatch negativity (MMN) brain response to observe neurophysiological responses to discontinuous particle verbs. The MMN can be used to distinguish between whole-form storage and combinatorial processes, as it is enhanced to stored words compared to unknown pseudowords, whereas combinatorially legal strings elicit a reduced MMN relative to ungrammatical ones...
October 20, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057293/measuring-text-difficulty-using-parse-tree-frequency
#19
David Kauchak, Gondy Leroy, Alan Hogue
Text simplification often relies on dated, unproven readability formulas. As an alternative and motivated by the success of term familiarity, we test a complementary measure: grammar familiarity. Grammar familiarity is measured as the frequency of the 3(rd) level sentence parse tree and is useful for evaluating individual sentences. We created a database of 140K unique 3(rd) level parse structures by parsing and binning all 5.4M sentences in English Wikipedia. We then calculated the grammar frequencies across the corpus and created 11 frequency bins...
September 2017: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987056/the-role-of-the-cerebellum-in-the-regulation-of-language-functions
#20
REVIEW
Anna Starowicz-Filip, Adrian Andrzej Chrobak, Marek Moskała, Roger M Krzyżewski, Borys Kwinta, Stanisław Kwiatkowski, Olga Milczarek, Anna Rajtar-Zembaty, Dorota Przewoźnik
The present paper is a review of studies on the role of the cerebellum in the regulation of language functions. This brain structure until recently associated chiefly with motor skills, visual-motor coordination and balance, proves to be significant also for cognitive functioning. With regard to language functions, studies show that the cerebellum determines verbal fluency (both semantic and formal) expressive and receptive grammar processing, the ability to identify and correct language mistakes, and writing skills...
August 29, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
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