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Fenix W D Huang, Christian M Reidys
: In this paper we introduce a novel, context-free grammar, RNAFeatures(*), capable of generating any RNA structure including pseudoknot structures (pk-structure). We represent pk-structures as orientable fatgraphs, which naturally leads to a filtration by their topological genus. Within this framework, RNA secondary structures correspond to pk-structures of genus zero. RNAFeatures(*) acts on formal, arc-labeled RNA secondary structures, called λ-structures. λ-structures correspond one-to-one to pk-structures together with some additional information...
October 20, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences
Bruno Facon, David Magis
Purpose: An item analysis of Bishop's (1983) Test for Reception of Grammar (TROG) in its French version (F-TROG; Lecocq, 1996) was conducted to determine whether the difficulty of items is similar for participants with or without intellectual disability (ID). Method: In Study 1, responses to the 92 F-TROG items by 55 participants with Down syndrome (DS), 55 with ID of undifferentiated etiology (UND), and 55 typical children (TYP) matched on their F-TROG total score were compared using the transformed item difficulties method, a statistical approach designed to detect differential item functioning (DIF) between groups...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Pesia Katan, Shani Kahta, Ayelet Sasson, Rachel Schiff
Graph complexity as measured by topological entropy has been previously shown to affect performance on artificial grammar learning tasks among typically developing children. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of graph complexity on implicit sequential learning among children with developmental dyslexia. Our goal was to determine whether children's performance depends on the complexity level of the grammar system learned. We conducted two artificial grammar learning experiments that compared performance of children with developmental dyslexia with that of age- and reading level-matched controls...
October 19, 2016: Annals of Dyslexia
Jennifer Mah, Heather Goad, Karsten Steinhauer
French speaking learners of English encounter persistent difficulty acquiring English [h], thus confusing words like eat and heat in both production and perception. We assess the hypothesis that the acoustic properties of [h] may render detection of this segment in the speech stream insufficiently reliable for second language acquisition. We use the mismatch negativity (MMN) in event-related potentials to investigate [h] perception in French speaking learners of English and native English controls, comparing both linguistic and non-linguistic conditions in an unattended oddball paradigm...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Peter Rijnbeek
Massive numbers of electronic health records are currently being collected globally, including structured data in the form of diagnoses, medications, laboratory test results, and unstructured data contained in clinical narratives. This opens unprecedented possibilities for research and ultimately patient care. However, actual use of these databases in a multi-center study is severely hampered by a variety of challenges, e.g., each database has a different database structure and uses different terminology systems...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Rebecca Carroll, Verena Uslar, Thomas Brand, Esther Ruigendijk
OBJECTIVE: The authors aimed to determine whether hearing impairment affects sentence comprehension beyond phoneme or word recognition (i.e., on the sentence level), and to distinguish grammatically induced processing difficulties in structurally complex sentences from perceptual difficulties associated with listening to degraded speech. Effects of hearing impairment or speech in noise were expected to reflect hearer-specific speech recognition difficulties. Any additional processing time caused by the sustained perceptual challenges across the sentence may either be independent of or interact with top-down processing mechanisms associated with grammatical sentence structure...
September 28, 2016: Ear and Hearing
Kristen Tummeltshammer, Dima Amso, Robert M French, Natasha Z Kirkham
This study investigates whether infants are sensitive to backward and forward transitional probabilities within temporal and spatial visual streams. Two groups of 8-month-old infants were familiarized with an artificial grammar of shapes, comprising backward and forward base pairs (i.e. two shapes linked by strong backward or forward transitional probability) and part-pairs (i.e. two shapes with weak transitional probabilities in both directions). One group viewed the continuous visual stream as a temporal sequence, while the other group viewed the same stream as a spatial array...
October 16, 2016: Developmental Science
Ferenc Kemény, Kornél Németh
A central issue in sequence learning is whether learning operates on stimulus independent abstract elements, or whether participants integrate surface features of ordered stimuli, resulting in stimulus dependent learning. Using the Serial Reaction-Time Task (SRT), the current study tests whether a previously presented sequence is transferrable from one source domain to another. Contrary to previous studies with Artificial Grammar Learning, there is a mapping between pre- and post-transfer stimuli, but contrary to previous studies using SRT the mapping is not obvious...
October 13, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Jey Han Lau, Alexander Clark, Shalom Lappin
The question of whether humans represent grammatical knowledge as a binary condition on membership in a set of well-formed sentences, or as a probabilistic property has been the subject of debate among linguists, psychologists, and cognitive scientists for many decades. Acceptability judgments present a serious problem for both classical binary and probabilistic theories of grammaticality. These judgements are gradient in nature, and so cannot be directly accommodated in a binary formal grammar. However, it is also not possible to simply reduce acceptability to probability...
October 12, 2016: Cognitive Science
Paméla Filiatrault-Veilleux, Caroline Bouchard, Natacha Trudeau, Chantal Desmarais
Purpose: This study aimed to describe the development of inferential abilities of children age 3 to 6 years in a narrative using a dialogic reading task on an iPad. Method: Participants were 121 typically developing children, divided into 3 groups according to age range (3-4 years old, 4-5 years old, 5-6 years old). Total score of inferential comprehension, subscores by causal inference type targeting elements of the story grammar, and quality of response were examined across groups...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Neil Cohn, Patrick Bender
Theories of visual narrative understanding have often focused on the changes in meaning across a sequence, like shifts in characters, spatial location, and causation, as cues for breaks in the structure of a discourse. In contrast, the theory of visual narrative grammar posits that hierarchic "grammatical" structures operate at the discourse level using categorical roles for images, which may or may not co-occur with shifts in coherence. We therefore examined the relationship between narrative structure and coherence shifts in the segmentation of visual narrative sequences using a "segmentation task" where participants drew lines between images in order to divide them into subepisodes...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Artemis Alexiadou, Terje Lohndal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
R E Motyer, S Liddy, W C Torreggiani, O Buckley
BACKGROUND: Voice recognition (VR) dictation of radiology reports has become the mainstay of reporting in many institutions worldwide. Despite benefit, such software is not without limitations, and transcription errors have been widely reported. AIM: Evaluate the frequency and nature of non-clinical transcription error using VR dictation software. METHODS: Retrospective audit of 378 finalised radiology reports. Errors were counted and categorised by significance, error type and sub-type...
October 1, 2016: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Ashley J Waardenberg, Bernou Homan, Stephanie Mohamed, Richard P Harvey, Romaric Bouveret
The ability to accurately predict the DNA targets and interacting cofactors of transcriptional regulators from genome-wide data can significantly advance our understanding of gene regulatory networks. NKX2-5 is a homeodomain transcription factor that sits high in the cardiac gene regulatory network and is essential for normal heart development. We previously identified genomic targets for NKX2-5 in mouse HL-1 atrial cardiomyocytes using DNA-adenine methyltransferase identification (DamID). Here, we apply machine learning algorithms and propose a knowledge-based feature selection method for predicting NKX2-5 protein : protein interactions based on motif grammar in genome-wide DNA-binding data...
September 2016: Open Biology
Magnus Ahltorp, Maria Skeppstedt, Shiho Kitajima, Aron Henriksson, Rafal Rzepka, Kenji Araki
BACKGROUND: Research on medical vocabulary expansion from large corpora has primarily been conducted using text written in English or similar languages, due to a limited availability of large biomedical corpora in most languages. Medical vocabularies are, however, essential also for text mining from corpora written in other languages than English and belonging to a variety of medical genres. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate medical vocabulary expansion using a corpus very different from those previously used, in terms of grammar and orthographics, as well as in terms of text genre...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
Matthew C Swain, Jacqueline M Cole
The emergence of "big data" initiatives has led to the need for tools that can automatically extract valuable chemical information from large volumes of unstructured data, such as the scientific literature. Since chemical information can be present in figures, tables, and textual paragraphs, successful information extraction often depends on the ability to interpret all of these domains simultaneously. We present a complete toolkit for the automated extraction of chemical entities and their associated properties, measurements, and relationships from scientific documents that can be used to populate structured chemical databases...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
David Kachlik, Vladimir Musil, Vaclav Baca
PURPOSE: The aim of this article is to revise and extend the existing sections of Terminologia Anatomica dealing with the upper limb structures, which nomenclature belongs to its most neglected and not developing parts, and to justify the use of the proposed anatomical terms in the clinical practice, research, and education. METHODS: A sample collected from own educational and research experience was matched in the main anatomical textbooks as well as old and recent anatomical journals and compared with four versions of the official Latin anatomical nomenclatures...
September 19, 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Peter Rijnbeek
Massive numbers of electronic health records are currently being collected globally, including structured data in the form of diagnoses, medications, laboratory test results, and unstructured data contained in clinical narratives. This opens unprecedented possibilities for research and ultimately patient care. However, actual use of these databases in a multi-center study is severely hampered by a variety of challenges, e.g., each database has a different database structure and uses different terminology systems...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Ferdy Hubers, Tineke M Snijders, Helen de Hoop
Native speakers of Dutch do not always adhere to prescriptive grammar rules in their daily speech. These grammatical norm violations can elicit emotional reactions in language purists, mostly high-educated people, who claim that for them these constructions are truly ungrammatical. However, linguists generally assume that grammatical norm violations are in fact truly grammatical, especially when they occur frequently in a language. In an fMRI study we investigated the processing of grammatical norm violations in the brains of language purists, and compared them with truly grammatical and truly ungrammatical sentences...
September 14, 2016: Brain and Language
Myrna C Cintrón-Valentín, Nick C Ellis
We consider the role of physical form, prior experience, and form focused instruction (FFI) in adult language learning. (1) When presented with competing cues to interpretation, learners are more likely to attend to physically more salient cues in the input. (2) Learned attention is an associative learning phenomenon where prior-learned cues block those that are experienced later. (3) The low salience of morphosyntactic cues can be overcome by FFI, which leads learners to attend cues which might otherwise be ignored...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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