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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229511/what-explains-the-correlation-between-growth-in-vocabulary-and-grammar-new-evidence-from-latent-change-score-analyses-of-simultaneous-bilingual-development
#1
Erika Hoff, Jamie M Quinn, David Giguere
A close relationship between children's vocabulary size and the grammatical complexity of their speech is well attested but not well understood. The present study used latent change score modeling to examine the dynamic relationships between vocabulary and grammar growth within and across languages in longitudinal data from 90 simultaneous Spanish-English bilingual children who were assessed at 6-month intervals between 30 and 48 months. Slopes of vocabulary and grammar growth were strongly correlated within each language and showed moderate or nonsignificant relationships across languages...
February 22, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220459/-how-would-you-call-this-in-english-being-reflective-about-translations-in-international-cross-cultural-qualitative-research
#2
Esther Helmich, Sayra Cristancho, Laura Diachun, Lorelei Lingard
INTRODUCTION: Medical education researchers increasingly collaborate in international teams, collecting data in different languages and from different parts of the world, and then disseminating them in English-language journals. Although this requires an ever-present need to translate, it often occurs uncritically. With this paper we aim to enhance researchers' awareness and reflexivity regarding translations in qualitative research. METHODS: In an international study, we carried out interviews in both Dutch and English...
February 20, 2017: Perspectives on Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219476/genetic-parameters-and-genome-wide-associations-of-twinning-rate-in-a-local-breed-the-maremmana-cattle
#3
B Moioli, R Steri, C Marchitelli, G Catillo, L Buttazzoni
This study seeks to verify the feasibility of increasing twinning in a herd of the Italian autochtonous Maremmana breed. The data set included 1260 individuals born from 1963 to 2014, 527 males and 733 females, 402 of them calving at least once from 1983 through 2015. Breeding values for twinning were estimated by a single-trait linear animal model. However, since twinning is a dichotomous trait and the frequency of twins is far smaller than the frequency of single births, breeding values were also estimated by a single-trait animal threshold model...
February 21, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212388/multiple-processes-in-two-dimensional-visual-statistical-learning
#4
Eiichi Hoshino, Ken Mogi
Knowledge about the arrangement of visual elements is an important aspect of perception. This study investigates whether humans learn rules of two-dimensional abstract patterns (exemplars) generated from Reber's artificial grammar. The key question is whether the subjects can implicitly learn them without explicit instructions, and, if so, how they use the acquired knowledge to judge new patterns (probes) in relation to their finite experience of the exemplars. The analysis was conducted using dissimilarities among patterns, which are defined with n-gram probabilities and the Levenshtein distance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193859/genetic-regulatory-signatures-underlying-islet-gene-expression-and-type-2-diabetes
#5
Arushi Varshney, Laura J Scott, Ryan P Welch, Michael R Erdos, Peter S Chines, Narisu Narisu, Ricardo D'O Albanus, Peter Orchard, Brooke N Wolford, Romy Kursawe, Swarooparani Vadlamudi, Maren E Cannon, John P Didion, John Hensley, Anthony Kirilusha, Lori L Bonnycastle, D Leland Taylor, Richard Watanabe, Karen L Mohlke, Michael Boehnke, Francis S Collins, Stephen C J Parker, Michael L Stitzel
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified >100 independent SNPs that modulate the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and related traits. However, the pathogenic mechanisms of most of these SNPs remain elusive. Here, we examined genomic, epigenomic, and transcriptomic profiles in human pancreatic islets to understand the links between genetic variation, chromatin landscape, and gene expression in the context of T2D. We first integrated genome and transcriptome variation across 112 islet samples to produce dense cis-expression quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTL) maps...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192818/-benefits-of-measures-to-promote-development-in-language-mathematics-and-singing-in-kindergardeners-analysis-of-data-collected-at-school-entrance-examination-in-the-county-of-biberach
#6
Ulrike Hart, Manfred Wildner, Daniela Krämer, Alexander Crispin
To evaluate the benefits of implementing measures to promote skills in the areas of language, mathematics and singing in kindergardeners by statistical analysis of data collected during the school entrance examination (ESU) of 4-5-year-old children from the county of Biberach. Study 1 employs multivariate regression analysis to analyse - in chronological order - the ESU data on 4 cohorts (2011-2014; n=7 148) of children of the Biberach county. Study 2 qualitatively compares identical data representative of the entire state of Baden-Württemberg (N=3×80 000) with the Biberach results...
February 13, 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187370/language-comprehension-in-children-adolescents-and-adults-with-down-syndrome
#7
Bernadette Witecy, Martina Penke
BACKGROUND: There is conflicting evidence as to whether receptive language abilities of individuals with Down syndrome (DS) continue to improve into adulthood, reach a plateau in late adolescence, or even start to decline. AIM: The study aims to shed light on the question whether receptive syntactic skills change from childhood/adolescence to adulthood and provides a detailed qualitative analysis of the receptive abilities of adults with DS. METHODS: 58 individuals with DS participated in the study: 31 children/adolescents (aged: 4;6-19;0 years) and 27 adults (aged: 20;8-40;3 years)...
February 7, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174530/an-event-related-field-study-of-rapid-grammatical-plasticity-in-adult-second-language-learners
#8
Ainhoa Bastarrika, Douglas J Davidson
The present study used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate how Spanish adult learners of Basque respond to morphosyntactic violations after a short period of training on a small fragment of Basque grammar. Participants (n = 17) were exposed to violation and control phrases in three phases (pretest, training, generalization-test). In each phase participants listened to short Basque phrases and they judged whether they were correct or incorrect. During the pre-test and generalization-test, participants did not receive any feedback...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163388/how-executive-functions-predict-development-in-syntactic-complexity-of-narrative-writing-in-the-upper-elementary-grades
#9
Elise Drijbooms, Margriet A Groen, Ludo Verhoeven
The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of transcription skills, oral language skills, and executive functions to growth in narrative writing between fourth and sixth grade. While text length and story content of narratives did not increase with age, syntactic complexity of narratives showed a clear developmental progression. Results from path analyses revealed that later syntactic complexity of narrative writing was, in addition to initial syntactic complexity, predicted by oral grammar, inhibition, and planning...
2017: Reading and Writing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137873/systematic-dissection-of-genomic-features-determining-transcription-factor-binding-and-enhancer-function
#10
Sharon R Grossman, Xiaolan Zhang, Li Wang, Jesse Engreitz, Alexandre Melnikov, Peter Rogov, Ryan Tewhey, Alina Isakova, Bart Deplancke, Bradley E Bernstein, Tarjei S Mikkelsen, Eric S Lander
Enhancers regulate gene expression through the binding of sequence-specific transcription factors (TFs) to cognate motifs. Various features influence TF binding and enhancer function-including the chromatin state of the genomic locus, the affinities of the binding site, the activity of the bound TFs, and interactions among TFs. However, the precise nature and relative contributions of these features remain unclear. Here, we used massively parallel reporter assays (MPRAs) involving 32,115 natural and synthetic enhancers, together with high-throughput in vivo binding assays, to systematically dissect the contribution of each of these features to the binding and activity of genomic regulatory elements that contain motifs for PPARγ, a TF that serves as a key regulator of adipogenesis...
January 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28136033/blog-your-way-to-success
#11
Liz Charalambous
1. Just write. My technique is simply to open a Word document and start writing: do not stop, do not pass go, do not collect £100. Just write. Turn off autocorrect if you have to. This will get your creative juices flowing without fear of making spelling mistakes or worrying about grammar and punctuation. This is a useful technique because it gives you a hard copy of the thoughts whirling around your head.
January 31, 2017: Nursing Older People
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130235/ispred4-interaction-sites-prediction-in-protein-structures-with-a-refining-grammar-model
#12
Castrense Savojardo, Piero Fariselli, Pier Luigi Martelli, Rita Casadio
MOTIVATION: The identification of Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) sites is an important step towards the characterization of protein functional integration in the cell complexity. Experimental methods are costly and time-consuming and computational tools for predicting PPI sites can fill the gaps of PPI present knowledge. RESULTS: We present ISPRED4, an improved structure-based predictor of PPI sites on unbound monomer surfaces. ISPRED4 relies on machine-learning methods and incorporating features extracted from protein sequence and structure...
January 27, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127993/three-persons-three-genetic-contributors-three-parents-mitochondrial-donation-genetic-parenting-and-the-immutable-grammar-of-the-three-x-x
#13
Rebecca Dimond, Neil Stephens
In 2015, two novel in vitro fertilisation techniques intended to prevent the inheritance of mitochondrial disease were legalised in the United Kingdom, following an intense period of inquiry including scientific reviews, public consultations, government guidance and debates within the Houses of Parliament. The techniques were controversial because (1) they introduced a third genetic contributor into the reproductive process and (2) they are germline, meaning this genetic change could then be passed down to subsequent generations...
January 1, 2017: Health (London)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125592/identification-of-candidate-genes-for-reactivity-in-guzerat-bos-indicus-cattle-a-genome-wide-association-study
#14
Fernanda Caroline Dos Santos, Maria Gabriela Campolina Diniz Peixoto, Pablo Augusto de Souza Fonseca, Maria de Fátima Ávila Pires, Ricardo Vieira Ventura, Izinara da Cruz Rosse, Frank Angelo Tomita Bruneli, Marco Antonio Machado, Maria Raquel Santos Carvalho
Temperament is fundamental to animal production due to its direct influence on the animal-herdsman relationship. When compared to calm animals, the aggressive, anxious or fearful ones exhibit less weight gain, lower reproductive efficiency, decreased milk production and higher herd maintenance costs, all of which contribute to reduced profits. However, temperament is a trait that is complex and difficult to assess. Recently, a new quantitative system, REATEST®, for assessing reactivity, a phenotype of temperament, was developed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124066/establishing-language-benchmarks-for-children-with-typically-developing-language-and-children-with-language-impairment
#15
Mary Beth Schmitt, Jessica A R Logan, Sherine R Tambyraja, Kelly Farquharson, Laura M Justice
Purpose: Practitioners, researchers, and policymakers (i.e., stakeholders) have vested interests in children's language growth yet currently do not have empirically driven methods for measuring such outcomes. The present study established language benchmarks for children with typically developing language (TDL) and children with language impairment (LI) from 3 to 9 years of age. Method: Effect sizes for grammar, vocabulary, and overall language were calculated for children with TDL (n = 20,018) using raw score means and standard deviations from 8 norm-referenced measures of language...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120322/restrictiveness-matters
#16
David Adger
The Baysian Iterated Learning approach to language is consistent with generative grammar, but needs to be supplemented with specific cognitive constraints for empirical adequacy.
January 24, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103070/food-insecurity-and-chronic-diseases-among-american-indians-in-rural-oklahoma-the-thrive-study
#17
Valarie Blue Bird Jernigan, Marianna S Wetherill, Jordan Hearod, Tvli Jacob, Alicia L Salvatore, Tamela Cannady, Mandy Grammar, Joy Standridge, Jill Fox, Jennifer Spiegel, AnDina Wiley, Carolyn Noonan, Dedra Buchwald
OBJECTIVES: To examine food insecurity and cardiovascular disease-related health outcomes among American Indians (AIs) in rural Oklahoma. METHODS: We surveyed a cross-sectional sample of 513 AI adults to assess food insecurity domains (i.e., food quality and quantity) and obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. RESULTS: Among AIs surveyed, 56% reported inadequate food quantity and 62% reported inadequate food quality. The unadjusted prevalence of diabetes (28...
March 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080169/family-oriented-support-famos-development-and-feasibility-of-a-psychosocial-intervention-for-families-of-childhood-cancer-survivors
#18
Hanin Salem, Christoffer Johansen, Kjeld Schmiegelow, Jeanette Falck Winther, Peder Skov Wehner, Henrik Hasle, Steen Rosthøj, Anne E Kazak, Pernille E Bidstrup
BACKGROUND: We developed and tested the feasibility of a manualized psychosocial intervention, FAMily-Oriented Support (FAMOS), a home-based psychosocial intervention for families of childhood cancer survivors. The aim of the intervention is to support families in adopting healthy strategies to cope with the psychological consequences of childhood cancer. The intervention is now being evaluated in a nationwide randomized controlled trial (RCT). METHODS AND DESIGN: FAMOS is based on principles of family systems therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy, and is delivered in six sessions at home...
January 12, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077259/the-growth-of-language-universal-grammar-experience-and-principles-of-computation
#19
REVIEW
Charles Yang, Stephen Crain, Robert C Berwick, Noam Chomsky, Johan J Bolhuis
Human infants develop language remarkably rapidly and without overt instruction. We argue that the distinctive ontogenesis of child language arises from the interplay of three factors: domain-specific principles of language (Universal Grammar), external experience, and properties of non-linguistic domains of cognition including general learning mechanisms and principles of efficient computation. We review developmental evidence that children make use of hierarchically composed structures ('Merge') from the earliest stages and at all levels of linguistic organization...
January 7, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068123/coreference-and-antecedent-representation-across-languages
#20
Sol Lago, Shayne Sloggett, Zoe Schlueter, Wing Yee Chow, Alexander Williams, Ellen Lau, Colin Phillips
Previous studies have shown that speakers of languages such as German, Spanish, and French reactivate the syntactic gender of the antecedent of a pronoun to license gender agreement. As syntactic gender is assumed to be stored in the lexicon, this has motivated the claim that pronouns in these languages reactivate the lexical entry of their antecedent noun. In contrast, in languages without syntactic gender such as English, lexical retrieval might be unnecessary. We used eye-tracking while reading to examine whether antecedent retrieval involves rapid semantic and phonological reactivation...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
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