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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783980/automated-extraction-of-biomarker-information-from-pathology-reports
#1
Jeongeun Lee, Hyun-Je Song, Eunsil Yoon, Seong-Bae Park, Sung-Hye Park, Jeong-Wook Seo, Peom Park, Jinwook Choi
BACKGROUND: Pathology reports are written in free-text form, which precludes efficient data gathering. We aimed to overcome this limitation and design an automated system for extracting biomarker profiles from accumulated pathology reports. METHODS: We designed a new data model for representing biomarker knowledge. The automated system parses immunohistochemistry reports based on a "slide paragraph" unit defined as a set of immunohistochemistry findings obtained for the same tissue slide...
May 21, 2018: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781066/uneven-expressive-language-development-in-mandarin-exposed-preschool-children-with-asd-comparing-vocabulary-grammar-and-the-decontextualized-use-of-language-via-the-pcdi-toddler-form
#2
Yi Esther Su, Letitia R Naigles, Lin-Yan Su
Data from children with ASD who are learning Indo-European languages indicate that (a) they vary hugely in their expressive language skills and (b) their pragmatic/socially-based language is more impaired than their structural language. We investigate whether similar patterns of language development exist for Mandarin-exposed children with ASD. Parent report data of the Putonghua Communicative Development Inventory-Toddler Form were collected from 160 17-83-month-old children with ASD. These children with ASD demonstrated similar levels of variability as Western children with ASD...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778278/new-evidence-of-a-rhythmic-priming-effect-that-enhances-grammaticality-judgments-in-children
#3
Alexander Chern, Barbara Tillmann, Chloe Vaughan, Reyna L Gordon
Musical rhythm and the grammatical structure of language share a surprising number of characteristics that may be intrinsically related in child development. The current study aimed to understand the potential influence of musical rhythmic priming on subsequent spoken grammar task performance in children with typical development who were native speakers of English. Participants (ages 5-8 years) listened to rhythmically regular and irregular musical sequences (within-participants design) followed by blocks of grammatically correct and incorrect sentences upon which they were asked to perform a grammaticality judgment task...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775771/a-detailed-analysis-of-the-arden-syntax-expression-grammar
#4
Stefan Kraus, Marc Rosenbauer, Lutz Schröder, Thomas Bürkle, Klaus-Peter Adlassnig, Dennis Toddenroth
OBJECTIVE: The Arden Syntax for Medical Logic Systems is a standard for encoding and sharing medical knowledge in the form of Medical Logic Modules. To improve accessibility for clinicians, the originators of the standard deliberately designed Arden Syntax expressions to resemble natural language, and parentheses around operands are not generally required. For certain patterns of nested expressions, however, the use of parentheses is mandatory, otherwise they are not accepted by an Arden Syntax environment...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772110/morphology-and-memory-toward-an-integrated-theory
#5
Ray Jackendoff, Jenny Audring
Framed in psychological terms, the basic question of linguistic theory is what is stored in memory, and in what form. Traditionally, what is stored is divided into grammar and lexicon, where grammar contains the rules and the lexicon is an unstructured list of exceptions. We develop an alternative view in which rules of grammar are simply lexical items that contain variables, and in which rules have two functions. In their generative function, they are used to build novel structures, just as in traditional generative linguistics...
May 17, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729947/a-critical-period-for-second-language-acquisition-evidence-from-2-3-million-english-speakers
#6
Joshua K Hartshorne, Joshua B Tenenbaum, Steven Pinker
Children learn language more easily than adults, though when and why this ability declines have been obscure for both empirical reasons (underpowered studies) and conceptual reasons (measuring the ultimate attainment of learners who started at different ages cannot by itself reveal changes in underlying learning ability). We address both limitations with a dataset of unprecedented size (669,498 native and non-native English speakers) and a computational model that estimates the trajectory of underlying learning ability by disentangling current age, age at first exposure, and years of experience...
April 23, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727027/the-case-for-treatment-fidelity-in-active-music-interventions-why-and-how
#7
Natalie Wiens, Reyna L Gordon
As the volume of studies testing the benefits of active music-making interventions increases exponentially, it is important to document what exactly is happening during music treatment sessions in order to provide evidence for the mechanisms through which music training affects other domains. Thus, to complement systematic and rigorous attention to outcomes of the treatment, we outline four vital components of treatment fidelity and discuss their implementation in nonmusic- and music-based interventions. We then describe the design of Music Impacting Language Expertise (MILEStone), a new intervention that aims to improve grammar skills in children with specific language impairment by increasing sensitivity to rhythmic structure, which may enhance general temporal processing and sensitivity to syntactic structure...
May 4, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723069/prosodic-and-segmental-aspects-of-nonword-repetition-in-4-to-6-year-old-children-who-are-deaf-and-hard-of-hearing-compared-to-controls-with-normal-hearing
#8
Simon Sundström, Ulrika Löfkvist, Björn Lyxell, Christina Samuelsson
Children who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) are at an increased risk of speech and language deficits. Nonword repetition (NWR) is a potential predictor of problems with phonology, grammar and lexicon in DHH children. The aim of the present study was to examine repetition of prosodic features and segments in nonwords by DHH children compared to children with normal hearing (NH) and to relate NWR performance to measures of language ability and background variables. In this cross-sectional study, 14 Swedish-speaking children with mild-profound sensorineural hearing loss, aged 4-6 years, and 29 age-matched controls with NH and typical language development participated...
May 3, 2018: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718131/retraining-speech-production-and-fluency-in-non-fluent-agrammatic-primary-progressive-aphasia
#9
Maya L Henry, H Isabel Hubbard, Stephanie M Grasso, Maria Luisa Mandelli, Stephen M Wilson, Mithra T Sathishkumar, Julius Fridriksson, Wylin Daigle, Adam L Boxer, Bruce L Miller, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini
The non-fluent/agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA) presents with a gradual decline in grammar and motor speech resulting from selective degeneration of speech-language regions in the brain. There has been considerable progress in identifying treatment approaches to remediate language deficits in other primary progressive aphasia variants; however, interventions for the core deficits in nfvPPA have yet to be systematically investigated. Further, the neural mechanisms that support behavioural restitution in the context of neurodegeneration are not well understood...
April 30, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687640/priming-as-a-motivating-factor-in-sociophonetic-variation-and-change
#10
Lynn Clark
Understanding how and why pronunciations vary and change has been a dominant theme in variationist sociolinguistics (Labov, , ). Linguistic variability has also been an area of focus in psychology and cognitive science. Work from these two fields has shown that where variation exists in language, an alternative form, once used, persists in working memory and has a greater chance of reuse (Bock, ; Bock & Loebell, ; Branigan, Pickering, & Cleland, ). While there have been efforts to connect priming research with sociolinguistics at the level of grammar (Poplack, ; Travis, ), there has been less work which explicitly considers the potential role of priming as a motivating factor in accent variation and change...
April 24, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672116/resisting-attraction-individual-differences-in-executive-control-are-associated-with-subject-verb-agreement-errors-in-production
#11
Alma Veenstra, Kyriakos Antoniou, Napoleon Katsos, Mikhail Kissine
We propose that attraction errors in agreement production (e.g., the key to the cabinets are missing) are related to two components of executive control: working memory and inhibitory control. We tested 138 children aged 10 to 12, an age when children are expected to produce high rates of errors. To increase the potential of individual variation in executive control skills, participants came from monolingual, bilingual, and bidialectal language backgrounds. Attraction errors were elicited with a picture description task in Dutch and executive control was measured with a digit span task, Corsi blocks task, switching task, and attentional networks task...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666591/when-grammar-and-parsing-agree
#12
Simona Mancini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648872/the-misinterpretation-of-noncanonical-sentences-revisited
#13
Markus Bader, Michael Meng
Most current models of sentence comprehension assume that the human parsing mechanism (HPM) algorithmically computes detailed syntactic representations as basis for extracting sentence meaning. These models share the assumption that the representations computed by the HPM accurately reflect the linguistic input. This assumption has been challenged by Ferreira (2003), who showed that comprehenders sometimes misinterpret unambiguous sentences in which subject and object appear in noncanonical order, such as passives or object-clefts...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648867/learning-of-pitch-and-time-structures-in-an-artificial-grammar-setting
#14
Jon B Prince, Catherine J Stevens, Mari Riess Jones, Barbara Tillmann
Despite the empirical evidence for the power of the cognitive capacity of implicit learning of structures and regularities in several modalities and materials, it remains controversial whether implicit learning extends to the learning of temporal structures and regularities. We investigated whether (a) an artificial grammar can be learned equally well when expressed in duration sequences as when expressed in pitch sequences, (b) learning of the artificial grammar in either duration or pitch (as the primary dimension) sequences can be influenced by the properties of the secondary dimension (invariant vs...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625426/using-language-specific-and-bilingual-measures-to-explore-lexical-grammatical-links-in-young-latino-dual-language-learners
#15
Gabriela Simon-Cereijido, Lucía I Méndez
Purpose: This study examined the nature of the relation between language-specific vocabulary and conceptual lexical-semantic skills with grammatical abilities within and across languages in preschool Latino dual language learners (DLLs). Method: Sixty-one typically developing, Spanish-English speaking DLLs from preschools serving low-income families participated in the study. Lexical, semantic, and grammar skills were assessed toward the end of the fall in both Spanish and English using normative and researcher-developed assessment instruments...
April 5, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619743/subcellular-localization-defines-modification-and-production-of-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic-acid-synthase-in-transiently-transformed-nicotiana-benthamiana
#16
Marcus Geissler, Jascha Volk, Felix Stehle, Oliver Kayser, Heribert Warzecha
OBJECTIVE: Through heterologous expression of the tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase (THCAS) coding sequence from Cannabis sativa L. in Nicotiana benthamiana, we evaluated a transient plant-based expression system for the production of enzymes involved in cannabinoid biosynthesis. RESULTS: Thcas was modularized according to the GoldenBraid grammar and its expression tested upon alternative subcellular localization of the encoded catalyst with and without fusion to a fluorescent protein...
April 4, 2018: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616459/implicit-sequence-learning-is-preserved-in-dyslexic-children
#17
Filomena Inácio, Luís Faísca, Christian Forkstam, Susana Araújo, Inês Bramão, Alexandra Reis, Karl Magnus Petersson
This study investigates the implicit sequence learning abilities of dyslexic children using an artificial grammar learning task with an extended exposure period. Twenty children with developmental dyslexia participated in the study and were matched with two control groups-one matched for age and other for reading skills. During 3 days, all participants performed an acquisition task, where they were exposed to colored geometrical forms sequences with an underlying grammatical structure. On the last day, after the acquisition task, participants were tested in a grammaticality classification task...
April 2018: Annals of Dyslexia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605631/grammatical-gender-affects-gender-perception-evidence-for-the-structural-feedback-hypothesis
#18
Sayaka Sato, Panos Athanasopoulos
Two experiments assessed the extent to which grammatical gender provides a predictive basis for bilinguals' judgments about perceptual gender. In both experiments, French-English bilinguals and native English monolinguals were consecutively presented with images of objects manipulated for their (i) conceptual gender association and (ii) grammatical gender category and were instructed to make a decision on a subsequent target face. The experiments differed in the implicitness of the association between the object primes and target faces...
March 29, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603119/the-other-london-effect-the-diversification-of-london-s-suburban-grammar-schools-and-the-rise-of-hyper-selective-elite-state-schools
#19
Sol Gamsu
This paper examines the rise of a new elite of 'super-state' schools in London, revealing a growing divide within the state sector which problematizes claims that the capital is a 'hotspot' for social mobility (Social Mobility Commission ). Although recent research has revealed a 'London effect' in which students in the capital on Free School Meals outperform their peers in other regions (Greaves, Macmillan and Sibieta ), inequalities between London's schools in access to elite universities have been overlooked...
March 30, 2018: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603115/chinese-children-s-knowledge-of-topicalization-experimental-evidence-from-a-comprehension-study
#20
Shenai Hu, Maria Teresa Guasti, Anna Gavarró
There is a debate as to whether topic structures in Chinese involve A'-movement or result from base-generation of the topic in the left periphery. If Chinese topicalization was derived by movement, under the assumptions of Friedmann et al.'s Relativized Minimality (Lingua 119:67-88, 2009), we would expect children's comprehension of object topicalization (with OSV order) to be worse than their comprehension of subject topicalization (with SVO order). This study examined 146 Mandarin-speaking children from age three to age six by means of a picture-sentence matching task with an appropriate context...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
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