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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324646/from-snapshots-to-movies-understanding-early-tooth-development-in-four-dimensions
#1
Rebecca Kim, Jeremy B A Green, Ophir D Klein
The developing tooth offers a model for the study of ectodermal appendage organogenesis. The signaling networks that regulate tooth development have been intensively investigated, but how cell biological responses to signaling pathways regulate dental morphogenesis remains an open question. The increasing use of ex vivo imaging techniques has enabled live tracking of cell behaviors over time in high resolution. While recent studies using these techniques have improved our understanding of tooth morphogenesis, important gaps remain that require additional investigation...
March 21, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323942/incretin-therapies-do-not-expand-%C3%AE-cell-mass-or-alter-pancreatic-histology-in-young-male-mice
#2
Aaron R Cox, Carol J Lam, Matthew M Rankin, Jacqueline S Rios, Julia Chavez, Claire W Bonnyman, Kourtney B King, Roger A Wells, Deepti Anthony, Justin X Tu, Jenny J Kim, Changhong Li, Jake A Kushner
The impact of incretins upon pancreatic β-cell expansion remains extremely controversial. Multiple studies indicate that incretin-based therapies can increase β-cell proliferation, and incretins have been hypothesized to expand β-cell mass. However, considerable disagreement exists on whether incretins actually increase β-cell mass. Moreover, some reports indicate that incretins may cause metaplastic changes in pancreatic histology. To resolve these questions we treated a large cohort of mice with incretin-based therapies and carried out a rigorous analysis of β-cell turnover and pancreatic histology using high-throughput imaging...
March 8, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323941/the-diverse-metabolic-roles-of-peripheral-serotonin
#3
Alyce M Martin, Richard L Young, Lex Leong, Geraint B Rogers, Nick J Spencer, Claire F Jessup, Damien J Keating
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a multi-functional bioamine with important signaling roles in a range of physiological pathways. Almost all the 5-HT in our body is synthesized in specialized enteroendocrine cells within the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa called enterochromaffin (EC) cells. These cells provide all our circulating 5-HT. While we have long appreciated the important roles of 5-HT within the gut including the modulation of GI motility, there is recently emerging evidence of the physiological and clinical significance of gut-derived 5-HT outside of the gut...
March 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323637/accelerated-monte-carlo-simulation-on-the-chemical-stage-in-water-radiolysis-using-gpu
#4
Zhen Tian, Steve B Jiang, Xun Jia
The accurate simulation of water radiolysis is an important step to understand the mechanisms of radiobiology and quantitatively test some hypotheses regarding radiobiological effects. However, the simulation of water radiolysis is highly time consuming, taking hours or even days to be completed by a conventional CPU processor. This time limitation hinders cell-level simulations for a number of research studies. We recently initiated efforts to develop gMicroMC, a GPU-based fast microscopic MC simulation package for water radiolysis...
March 21, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320116/in-vitro-non-viral-murine-pro-neurotrophin-3-gene-transfer-into-rat-bone-marrow-stromal-cells
#5
Shahram Darabi, Taki Tiraihi, AliReza Delshad, Majid Sadeghizadeh, Wisam Khalil, Taher Taheri
Neurotrophin 3 (NT-3) is an important factor for promoting prenatal neural development, as well as regeneration, axogenesis and plasticity in postnatal life. Therapy with NT-3 was reported to improve the condition of patients suffering from degenerative diseases and traumatic injuries, however, the disadvantage of NT-3 protein delivery is its short half-life, thus our alternative approach is the use of NT-3 gene therapy. In this study, the bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were isolated from adult rats, cultured for 4 passages and transfected with either pEGFP-N1 or a constructed vector containing murine proNT-3 (pSecTag2/HygroB-murine proNT-3) using Lipofectamine 2000 followed by Hygromycin B (200mg/kg)...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319807/targeting-nf-kappa-b-signaling-by-artesunate-restores-sensitivity-of-castrate-resistant-prostate-cancer-cells-to-antiandrogens
#6
Jessica J Nunes, Swaroop K Pandey, Anjali Yadav, Sakshi Goel, Bushra Ateeq
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the most preferred treatment for men with metastatic prostate cancer (PCa). However, the disease eventually progresses and develops resistance to ADT in majority of the patients, leading to the emergence of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Here, we assessed artesunate (AS), an artemisinin derivative, for its anticancer properties and ability to alleviate resistance to androgen receptor (AR) antagonists. We have shown AS in combination with bicalutamide (Bic) attenuates the oncogenic properties of the castrate-resistant (PC3, 22RV1) and androgen-responsive (LNCaP) PCa cells...
March 16, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319745/characteristics-and-proteomic-analysis-of-pyrene-degradation-by-brevibacillus-brevis-in-liquid-medium
#7
Kun Wei, Hua Yin, Hui Peng, Zehua Liu, Guining Lu, Zhi Dang
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widely spread in various ecosystems and are of great concern due to their potential toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Bioremediation has been proposed as an effective approach to remove PAHs. In this study, the physiological responses and proteome of Brevibacillus brevis under exposure to pyrene, a four-ring compound from PAHs family, were investigated. The changes of cell viability of B. brevis were observed during the degradation of pyrene by means of flow cytometry...
March 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319486/igg4-related-disease
#8
Emanuele Bozzalla Cassione, John H Stone
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Remarkable insights have been gleaned recently with regard to the pathophysiology of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD). These findings have direct implications for the development of targeted strategies for the treatment of this condition. RECENT FINDINGS: Oligoclonal expansions of cells of both the B and T lymphocyte lineages are present in the blood of patients with IgG4-RD. Oligoclonal expansions of plasmablasts are a good biomarker for disease activity...
March 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319449/non-clinical-study-examining-aav8-tbg-hldlr-vector-associated-toxicity-in-chow-fed-wild-type-and-ldlr-rhesus-macaques
#9
Jenny A Greig, Maria P Limberis, Peter Bell, Shu-Jen Chen, Roberto Calcedo, Daniel J Rader, James M Wilson
Vectors based on adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (AAV8) have been evaluated in several clinical trials of gene therapy for hemophilia B with encouraging results. In preparation for a Phase 1 clinical trial of AAV8 gene therapy for the treatment of homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH), the safety of the clinical candidate vector, AAV8.TBG.hLDLR, was evaluated in wild-type rhesus macaques and macaques heterozygous for a nonsense mutation in the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene (LDLR(+/-))...
March 2017: Human Gene Therapy. Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319059/camk2%C3%AE-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells-modulates-colitis-associated-colorectal-carcinogenesis-via-enhancing-stat3-activation
#10
X Ma, Z Meng, L Jin, Z Xiao, X Wang, W M Tsark, L Ding, Y Gu, J Zhang, B Kim, M He, X Gan, J E Shively, H Yu, R Xu, W Huang
Inflammation is one of the major risk factors for cancer. Here, we show that calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II gamma (CAMK2γ) in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) modulates inflammatory signals and promotes colitis-associated cancer (CAC) in mice. We have identified CAMK2γ as a downstream target of colitis-induced WNT5A signaling. Furthermore, we have shown that CAMK2γ protects against intestine tissue injury by increasing IEC survival and proliferation. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II gamma knockout mice displayed reduced CAC...
March 20, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319047/isocitrate-dehydrogenase-mutations-suppress-stat1-and-cd8-t-cell-accumulation-in-gliomas
#11
Gary Kohanbash, Diego A Carrera, Shruti Shrivastav, Brian J Ahn, Naznin Jahan, Tali Mazor, Zinal S Chheda, Kira M Downey, Payal B Watchmaker, Casey Beppler, Rolf Warta, Nduka A Amankulor, Christel Herold-Mende, Joseph F Costello, Hideho Okada
Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase genes IDH1 and IDH2 are among the first genetic alterations observed during the development of lower-grade glioma (LGG). LGG-associated IDH mutations confer gain-of-function activity by converting α-ketoglutarate to the oncometabolite R-2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG). Clinical samples and gene expression data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) demonstrate reduced expression of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated genes and IFN-γ-inducible chemokines, including CXCL10, in IDH-mutated (IDH-MUT) tumors compared with IDH-WT tumors...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318808/t-cell-receptor-assessment-in-autoimmune-disease-requires-access-to-the-most-adjacent-immunologically-active-organ
#12
Bergithe E Oftedal, Brita Ardesjö Lundgren, David Hamm, Poh-Yi Gan, Stephen R Holdsworth, Christopher N Hahn, Andreas W Schreiber, Hamish S Scott
Next generation sequencing of T and B cell receptors is emerging as a valuable and effective method to diagnose and monitor hematopoietic malignancies. So far, this approach has not been fully explored in regard to autoimmune diseases. T cells develop in the thymus where they undergo positive and negative selection, and the autoimmune regulator (Aire) is central in the establishment of immunological tolerance. Loss of Aire leads to severe multiorgan autoimmune disease with infiltration of autoreactive T cells in affected organs...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318622/computer-assisted-topological-analysis-of-renal-allograft-inflammation-adds-to-risk-evaluation-at-diagnosis-of-humoral-rejection
#13
Antoine Sicard, Vannary Meas-Yedid, Maud Rabeyrin, Alice Koenig, Stephanie Ducreux, Frederique Dijoud, Valerie Hervieu, Lionel Badet, Emmanuel Morelon, Jean Christophe Olivo-Marin, Valerie Dubois, Olivier Thaunat
Antibody-mediated rejection is associated with heterogeneous kidney allograft outcomes. Accurate evaluation of risk for graft loss at time of diagnosis is necessary to offer personalized treatment. In contrast with serological and molecular assessment, morpho-histological evaluation of antibody-mediated rejection lesions has not significantly evolved. This relies on Banff classifications designed to be of diagnostic discriminatory power rather than prognostic and face quantitative and qualitative limitations...
March 15, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318487/a-high-resolution-map-of-transcriptional-repression
#14
Ziwei Liang, Karen Brown, Thomas Carroll, Benjamin Taylor, Isabel Ferreirós Vidal, Brian Hendrich, David Rueda, Amanda G Fisher, Matthias Merkenschlager
Turning genes on and off is essential for development and homeostasis, yet little is known about the sequence and causal role of chromatin state changes during the repression of active genes. This is surprising, as defective gene silencing underlies developmental abnormalities and disease. Here we delineate the sequence and functional contribution of transcriptional repression mechanisms at high temporal resolution. Inducible entry of the NuRD-interacting transcriptional regulator Ikaros into mouse pre-B cell nuclei triggered immediate binding to target gene promoters...
March 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318437/case-240-meckel-diverticulitis
#15
R Ashley Milam, Ricardo B Fonseca
History A previously healthy 28-year-old man developed right lower quadrant pain while traveling. The pain progressed over the course of 2-3 days, and his family took him to a local emergency department. He was found to have an elevated white blood cell count of 12.2 × 10(9)/L (reference range, [3.9-10.3] × 10(9)/L), with a predominance of neutrophils. Contrast material-enhanced computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis was performed, and findings were abnormal. The patient elected to leave the emergency department without undergoing treatment, and he returned home via airplane...
April 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318100/abrogation-of-red-blood-cell-g6pd-enzyme-activity-through-heat-treatment-development-of-survey-material-for-the-uk-neqas-g6pd-scheme
#16
D R Roper, B De la Salle, V Soni, K Fletcher, J A Green
INTRODUCTION: Participation in external quality assessment (EQA) is central to the maintenance of high-quality laboratory results in patient diagnosis and clinical trials. Laboratories in the TAF112582 DETECTIVE study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01376167) are enrolled in the United Kingdom National Quality Assessment Scheme (UK NEQAS) for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) quantitative assay, which utilizes ovine (sheep) blood as a readily available source of apparently G6PD-deficient survey material...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318025/maternal-chronic-hypoxia-increases-expression-of-genes-regulating-lung-liquid-movement-and-surfactant-maturation-in-male-fetuses-in-late-gestation
#17
Erin V McGillick, Sandra Orgeig, Beth J Allison, Kirsty L Brain, Youguo Niu, Nozomi Itani, Katie L Skeffington, Andrew D Kane, Emilio A Herrera, Dino A Giussani, Janna L Morrison
Chronic fetal hypoxaemia is a common pregnancy complication that may arise from maternal, placental and/or fetal factors. Respiratory outcome of the infant at birth likely depends on the duration, timing and severity of the hypoxaemic insult. We have isolated the effect of maternal chronic hypoxia (MCH) for a month in late gestation on fetal lung development. Pregnant ewes were exposed to normoxia (21% O2 ) or hypoxia (10% O2 ) from 105-138 d gestation (term ∼145 d). At 138 d, gene expression in fetal lung tissue was determined by qRT-PCR...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317948/local-remodeling-of-synthetic-extracellular-matrix-microenvironments-by-co-cultured-endometrial-epithelial-and-stromal-cells-enables-long-term-dynamic-physiological-function
#18
Christi D Cook, Abby S Hill, Margaret Guo, Linda Stockdale, Julia P Papps, Keith B Isaacson, Douglas A Lauffenburger, Linda G Griffith
Mucosal barrier tissues, comprising a layer of tightly-bonded epithelial cells in intimate molecular communication with an underlying matrix-rich stroma containing fibroblasts and immune cells, are prominent targets for drugs against infection, chronic inflammation, and other disease processes. Although human in vitro models of such barriers are needed for mechanistic studies and drug development, differences in extracellular matrix (ECM) needs of epithelial and stromal cells hinder efforts to create such models...
March 20, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317382/effects-on-photovoltaic-performance-of-dialkyloxy-benzothiadiazole-copolymers-by-varying-the-thienoacene-donor
#19
Gururaj P Kini, Sora Oh, Zaheer Abbas, Shafket Rasool, Muhammad Jahandar, Chang Eun Song, Sang Kyu Lee, Won Suk Shin, Won-Wook So, Jong-Cheol Lee
A series of four donor-acceptor alternating copolymers based on dialkyloxy-benzothiadiazole (ROBT) as an acceptor and thienoacenes as a donor units were synthesized and tested for polymer solar cells (PSCs). These new polymers had different donor units with varied electron-donating ability (thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (TT), dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]thiophene (DTT), benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT) and naphtha[1,2-b:5,6-b']dithiophene (NDT)) in the polymer backbone. To understand the effect of these thienoacenes on the optoelectronic and photovoltaic properties of the copolymers, we systematically analyzed and compared energy levels, crystallinity, morphology, charge recombination and charge carrier mobility in the resulting polymers...
March 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317347/-effects-of-strontium-ranelate-on-the-rats-palatal-suture-after-rapid-maxillary-expansion
#20
Kong Chao, Wang Xuxia, Wang Qianqian, Han Yuanyuan, Zhao Shuya, Zhang Jun
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of strontium ranelate (SrR) on the rats' palatal suture after rapid maxillary expansion (RME). METHODS: Thirty-six male 6-week-old Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group (A), expansion only group (B), and expansion plus SrR group (C). Each group comprised 12 rats. Neither expansion nor SrR was given to group A. Each rat in groups B and C was set an orthodontic appliance with an initial expansive force of 1 N...
August 1, 2016: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
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