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Physical activity and neurological conditions

Chandrasekaran Jayaraman, Chaithanya Krishna Mummidisetty, Alannah Mannix-Slobig, Lori McGee Koch, Arun Jayaraman
BACKGROUND: Monitoring physical activity and leveraging wearable sensor technologies to facilitate active living in individuals with neurological impairment has been shown to yield benefits in terms of health and quality of living. In this context, accurate measurement of physical activity estimates from these sensors are vital. However, wearable sensor manufacturers generally only provide standard proprietary algorithms based off of healthy individuals to estimate physical activity metrics which may lead to inaccurate estimates in population with neurological impairment like stroke and incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI)...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Rodrigo Novaes Ferreira, Aline Silva de Miranda, Natalia Pessoa Rocha, Ana Cristina Simoes E Silva, Antonio Lucio Teixeira, Elizabeth Ribeiro da Silva Camargos
BACKGROUND: Parkinson´s Disease (PD) is a chronic, progressive condition, being the second most common neurodegenerative disorder worldwide. The classical features include: bradykinesia, resting tremor, rigidity and festination. These neurological alterations are probably due to the death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and consequent reduction of dopamine input into the striatum. The decrease of dopamine levels may also be involved in the emergence of non-motor symptoms, including cognitive impairment, anxiety and depression symptoms...
March 12, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Amy C Arnold, Jessica Ng, Satish R Raj
Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome that has gained increasing interest over the past few decades due to its increasing prevalence and clinical impact on health-related quality of life. POTS is clinically characterized by sustained excessive tachycardia upon standing that occurs in the absence of significant orthostatic hypotension and other medical conditions and or medications, and with chronic symptoms of orthostatic intolerance. POTS represents one of the most common presentations of syncope and presyncope secondary to autonomic dysfunction in emergency rooms and in cardiology, neurology, and primary care clinics...
February 28, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Vegard Pihl Moen, Jorunn Drageset, Geir Egil Eide, Sturla Gjesdal
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate disability among patients who were accepted for admission to a Norwegian rehabilitation center and to identify predictors of disability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a cross-sectional study including 967 adult participants, the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule version 2.0 36-item version was used for assessing overall and domain-specific disability as outcome variables. Patients completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), EuroQoL EQ-5D-5L and questions about multi-morbidity, smoking and perceived physical fitness...
2018: PloS One
S E R Lim, K Ibrahim, A A Sayer, H C Roberts
BACKGROUND: The assessment of physical activity levels of hospitalised older people requires accurate and reliable measures. Physical activities that older people in hospital commonly engage in include exercises and walking. Measurement of physical activity levels of older inpatients is essential to evaluate the impact of interventions to improve physical activity levels and to determine associations between physical activity in hospital and other health-related outcome measures. OBJECTIVE: To determine which measures are used to measure physical activity of older people in hospital, and to describe their properties and applications...
2018: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Andrea Aguglia, Maria Salvina Signorelli, Umberto Albert, Giuseppe Maina
Objective: The co-occurrence of general medical conditions (GMCs) and major psychiatric disorders is well documented. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of GMCs in patients with a primary diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and, secondly, to investigate which clinical variables are associated with the presence of a GMC. Methods: Subjects with a primary diagnosis of OCD were included. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were collected...
February 22, 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
David Morley, Sarah Dummett, Laura Kelly, Ray Fitzpatrick, Crispin Jenkinson
BACKGROUND: Comparisons between neurological conditions have the potential to inform service providers by identifying particular areas of difficulty experienced by affected individuals. This study aimed to identify predictors of activity and participation in people with motor neurone disease (MND), people with multiple sclerosis (MS) and people with Parkinson's Disease (PD). METHODS: The Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire (Ox-PAQ) and Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Survey (MOS SF-36) were administered by postal survey to 386 people with a confirmed diagnosis of MND, MS or PD...
February 17, 2018: BMC Neurology
Matthew R Bailey, Olivia Goldman, Estefanía P Bello, Muhammad O Chohan, Nuri Jeong, Vanessa Winiger, Eileen Chun, Elke Schipani, Abigail Kalmbach, Joseph F Cheer, Peter D Balsam, Eleanor H Simpson
The functionally selective 5HT-2C receptor ligand SB242084 can increase motivation and have rapid onset anti-depressant like effects. We sought to identify the specific behavioural effects of SB242084 treatment and elucidate the mechanism in female and male mice. Using a quantitative behavioural approach we determined that SB242084 increases the vigor and persistence of goal-directed activity across different types of physical work, particularly when work requirements are demanding. We found this influence of SB242084 on effort, rather than reward to be reflected in striatal dopamine measured during behavior...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Krista N Eberle, Michael P Martin, Sanjay Shah, Ramon D Malheiros, Kimberly A Livingston, Kenneth E Anderson
The use of electroencephalograms (EEG) to study the avian brain relative to behavior was conducted as early as the 1960's. EEG readings, combined with visual cues, provide the ability to elucidate and correlate behaviors to neurological and physiological changes in a chicken. The use of EEG recordings in animal models require access to the brain to implant electrodes. Having the ability to observe EEG activity on sensible birds without surgical implantation could broaden the research in this area and give further insight related to the hen's state of awareness...
January 17, 2018: Poultry Science
Luke A Turcotte, Ruth Ann Marrie, Scott B Patten, John P Hirdes
BACKGROUND: This study is part of the Innovations in Data, Evidence and Applications for Persons with Neurological Conditions project to understand the strengths, preferences, and needs of persons with neurological conditions living in Canada. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and describe the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of persons with multiple sclerosis in Canadian home care, nursing home, Complex Continuing Care hospitals, and inpatient mental health care settings...
December 18, 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Matthew Plow, Meghan Golding
BACKGROUND: Physical activity is considered a comprehensive approach for managing limitations in physical function among adults with chronic disabling conditions. However, adults with chronic disabling conditions often face many barriers to engaging in physical activity. A strategy to promote physical activity among adults with chronic disabling conditions is to encourage the use of mobile health (mHealth) apps. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this pilot study was to examine the potential benefits of using commercially available mHealth apps in a self-management intervention among 46 adults with musculoskeletal or neurological conditions...
December 1, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
E Roveda, A Montaruli, L Galasso, C Pesenti, E Bruno, P Pasanisi, M Cortellini, S Rampichini, S Erzegovesi, A Caumo, F Esposito
Recent findings suggest that altered rest-activity circadian rhythms (RARs) are associated with a compromised health status. RARs abnormalities have been observed also in several pathological conditions, such as cardiovascular, neurological, and cancer diseases. Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most common eating disorder, with a prevalence of 3.5% in women and 2% in men. BED and its associate obesity and motor inactivity could induce RARs disruption and have negative consequences on health-related quality of life...
November 16, 2017: Chronobiology International
Kanwarjeet Brar, Sachin S Kaushik, Steven Lippmann
Catatonia is a neuropsychiatric condition characterized by physical presentations ranging from profound immobility to excessive motor activity. Emotional aspects of catatonia vary clinically between psychomotor retardation and extreme excitability. In the past, catatonia was considered to be a variant of schizophrenia. However, the disorder actually occurs as a clinical expression of many different psychiatric, neurologic, or medical diagnoses. A prompt diagnostic evaluation should identify any underlying diseases with consideration of somatic pathologies, especially those affecting central nervous system function...
October 26, 2017: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
Angelo Pappalardo, Clara Grazia Chisari, Enrico Montanari, Ilaria Pesci, Giovanna Borriello, Carlo Pozzilli, Emanuele D'Amico, Francesco Patti
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disease impacting patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Since MS specific HRQoL questionnaire are often time consuming; thus, simple, feasible and ease administering instruments are needed to assess MS HRQoL in clinical practice and clinical trials. Hence, aim of our study was to investigated the HRQoL in a large cohort of MS patients using the Coop/Wonca charts. METHODS: This was multicenter, independent, non-sponsored, observational study, including patients from 40 Italian MS centers...
October 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Robert W Motl, Elizabeth A Hubbard, Rachel E Bollaert, Brynn C Adamson, Dominique Kinnett-Hopkins, Julia M Balto, Sarah K Sommer, Lara A Pilutti, Edward McAuley
BACKGROUND: Internet-delivered, behavioral interventions represent a cost-effective, broadly disseminable approach for teaching persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) the theory-based skills, techniques, and strategies for changing physical activity. OBJECTIVES: This pilot, randomized controlled trial examined the efficacy of a newly developed Internet website based on e-learning approaches that delivered a theory-based behavior intervention for increasing physical activity and improving symptoms, walking impairment, and neurological disability...
October 2017: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
Fary Khan, Bhasker Amatya, Djamel Bensmail, Alain Yelnik
OBJECTIVES: Spasticity causes significant long-term disability-burden, requiring comprehensive management. This review evaluates evidence from published systematic reviews of clinical trials for effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions for improved spasticity outcomes. METHODS: Data sources: a literature search was conducted using medical and health science electronic (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library) databases for published systematic reviews up to 15th June 2017...
October 16, 2017: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Marie-France Paré, Bernard J Jasmin
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative genetic disorder characterized by motor, cognitive, and psychiatric symptoms. It is well established that regular physical activity supports brain health, benefiting cognitive function, mental health as well as brain structure and plasticity. Exercise mimetics (EMs) are a group of drugs and small molecules that target signaling pathways in skeletal muscle known to be activated by endurance exercise. The EM 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) has been shown to induce cognitive benefits in healthy mice...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
Lorin R Browne, Hamilton Schwartz, Fahd A Ahmad, Michael Wallendorf, Nathan Kuppermann, E Brooke Lerner, Julie C Leonard
BACKGROUND: Investigators have derived cervical spine injury (CSI) decision support tools from physician observations. There is a need to demonstrate that prehospital emergency medical services (EMS) providers can use these tools to appropriately determine the need for spinal motion restrictions and make field disposition decisions. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to determine the interobserver agreement between EMS and emergency department (ED) providers for CSI risk assessment variables and overall gestalt for CSI in children after blunt trauma...
December 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Dawson Church, David Feinstein
Background: The manual stimulation of acupuncture points has been combined with components of cognitive and exposure therapies into a clinical and self-help approach known as Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT). More than 40 clinical trials and four meta-analytic reviews of EFT treatments have demonstrated large effect sizes with a range of conditions, including pain, PTSD (in both civilian and military veteran populations), phobias, anxiety, and depression. Objective: This review describes the approach, with a focus on PTSD in veterans and service members, provides an overview of how EFT is most commonly applied, and outlines obstacles and cautions related to its implementation...
August 1, 2017: Medical Acupuncture
Anirudh Kumar Satsangi, Maria Paola Brugnoli
Psychosomatic disorder is a condition in which psychological stresses adversely affect physiological (somatic) functioning to the point of distress. It is a condition of dysfunction or structural damage in physical organs through inappropriate activation of the involuntary nervous system and the biochemical response. In this framework, this review will consider anxiety disorders, from the perspective of the psychobiological mechanisms of vulnerability to extreme stress in severe chronic illnesses. Psychosomatic medicine is a field of behavioral medicine and a part of the practice of consultation-liaison psychiatry...
August 9, 2017: Annals of Palliative Medicine
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