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Neurological conditions

Lois D Hedman, Lori Quinn, Kathleen Gill-Body, David A Brown, Myla Quiben, Nora Riley, Patricia L Scheets
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The APTA recently established a vision for physical therapists to transform society by optimizing movement to promote health and wellness, mitigate impairments, and prevent disability. An important element of this vision entails the integration of the movement system into the profession, and necessitates the development of movement system diagnoses by physical therapists. At this point in time, the profession as a whole has not agreed upon diagnostic classifications or guidelines to assist in developing movement system diagnoses that will consistently capture an individual's movement problems...
April 2018: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
Annie Hartmann, Deb Kegelmeyer, Anne Kloos
: Individuals with concomitant spinal cord injury and traumatic brain injury have cognitive deficits that may limit the ability to learn novel motor tasks necessary for functional independence. Errorless learning has been shown to improve cognitive task performance in persons with brain injury but little is known about its usefulness for improving novel motor task learning. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 44-year-old man with traumatic spinal cord and brain injuries from a motor vehicle accident was admitted to an inpatient rehabilitation hospital...
April 2018: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
Ashley Gionfriddo, Mika L Nonoyama, Peter C Laussen, Peter N Cox, Megan Clarke, Alejandro A Floh
OBJECTIVES: To promote standardization, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention introduced a new ventilator-associated pneumonia classification, which was modified for pediatrics (pediatric ventilator-associated pneumonia according to proposed criteria [PVAP]). We evaluated the frequency of PVAP in a cohort of children diagnosed with ventilator-associated pneumonia according to traditional criteria and compared their strength of association with clinically relevant outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study...
March 15, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Kiran T Thakur, Alexandra Boubour, Deanna Saylor, Mitashee Das, David R Bearden, Gretchen L Birbeck
: Neurological conditions associated with HIV remain major contributors to morbidity and mortality and are increasingly recognized in the aging population on long-standing combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Importantly, growing evidence shows that the CNS may serve as a reservoir for viral replication, which has major implications for HIV eradication strategies. Though there has been major progress in the last decade in our understanding of the pathogenesis, burden, and impact of neurological conditions associated with HIV infection, significant scientific gaps remain...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
Sakshi Chopra, Harsimarpreet Kaur, Ravindra M Pandey, Ashima Nehra
Background: Due to the paucity of quick, cognitive screening tools available in India that are independent of cultural and educational influences, a 6-item paper and pencil test, covering areas of memory, executive functioning, attention, and visuospatial ability domains - the Neuropsychological Evaluation Screening Tool (NEST) was developed. Aim and Method: NEST was administered to 84 healthy controls to analyze, revise, and review items. In the second phase, 408 patients, above 16 years of age, with their educational level ranging from being illiterate to having greater than 25 years of education, with various neurological and psychiatric conditions were independently administered NEST, Hindi Mental State Examination (HMSE), and a detailed cognitive evaluation using PGI Memory Scale (PGIMS)...
March 2018: Neurology India
Bettina von Dessauer, Carmen Benavente, Emilia Monje, Jazmina Bongain, Nadia Ordenes
OBJECTIVE: Describe the frequency and characteristics of PICU patients who undergo a process of withholding or withdrawing life-sustaining treatment (LTSV), between 2004 y 2014. PATIENTS AND METHOD: A retrospective, observational descriptive study, using two documents for quality assessment in the PICU of Hospital Roberto del Río: 1) daily individual patient tracking log and 2) daily record of quality indicators, including LTSV, both updated daily at the morning visit...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Marija Bošnjak Pašić, Emina Horvat Velić, Luka Fotak, Hanna Pašić, Azijada Srkalović Imširagić, Davorka Milat, Helena Šarac, Sarah Bjedov, Željka Petelin GadŽe
French expression standing for the phrase "already seen" is a déjà vu. It is thought that as much as 97% of the population have experienced déjà vu at least once in their lifetime and 67% experience it regularly. The explanations of this phenomenon in novels and poems include reincarnation, dreams, organic factors, and unconscious memories. In this narrative review connection between déjà vu and various other conditions has been mentioned: false memories, temporal lobe epilepsy and other neurological conditions...
March 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Angelica Nakagawa Lima, Ronaldo Junio de Oliveira, Antônio Sérgio Kimus Braz, Maurício Garcia de Souza Costa, David Perahia, Luis Paulo Barbour Scott
There are two different prion conformations: (1) the cellular natural (PrPC ) and (2) the scrapie (PrPSc ), an infectious form that tends to aggregate under specific conditions. PrPC and PrPSc are widely different regarding secondary and tertiary structures. PrPSc contains more and longer β-strands compared to PrPC . The lack of solved PrPSc structures precludes a proper understanding of the mechanisms related to the transition between cellular and scrapie forms, as well as the aggregation process. In order to investigate the conformational transition between PrPC and PrPSc , we applied MDeNM (molecular dynamics with excited normal modes), an enhanced sampling simulation technique that has been recently developed to probe large structural changes...
March 15, 2018: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
Deed E Harrison, Paul A Oakley, Joseph W Betz
[Purpose] To present the case of the dramatic reduction in pain, disability, and neurologic symptoms following the reduction of forward head translation and increased cervical curvature in a patient suffering from post-surgical radiculopathy. [Subject and Methods] A 52-year-old male mechanic presented with chronic neck pain, unilateral paresthesia along the C5 and C6 dermatome distributions and diminished unilateral grip strength for 12 years following a C5-C6 cervical discectomy and fusion. Outcome measures included the neck disability index, the numerical pain rating scale, and the Zebris cervical range of motion system...
February 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Brian E Lacy, Henry P Parkman, Michael Camilleri
Nausea is an uneasy feeling in the stomach while vomiting refers to the forceful expulsion of gastric contents. Chronic nausea and vomiting represent a diverse array of disorders defined by 4 weeks or more of symptoms. Chronic nausea and vomiting result from a variety of pathophysiological processes, involving gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal causes. The prevalence of chronic nausea and vomiting is unclear, although the epidemiology of specific conditions, such as gastroparesis and cyclic vomiting syndrome, is better understood...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Ludovica Barbi, Antonio Victor Campos Coelho, Luiz Cláudio Arraes de Alencar, Sergio Crovella
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emergent flavivirus transmitted mainly through Aedes spp. mosquitoes that is posing challenge to healthcare services in countries experiencing an outbreak. Usually ZIKV infection is mild, but in some cases it has been reported to progress into neurological diseases such as microcephaly in infants and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in adults. GBS is a debilitating autoimmune disorder that affects peripheral nerves. Since ZIKV caused massive outbreaks in South America in the past few years, we aimed to systematically review the literature and perform a meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of GBS among ZIKV-infected individuals...
March 12, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Philippe Desmarais, Catherine Miville, Ángela Milán-Tomás, Quoc Dinh Nguyen, Carmen Ojeda-López, Mario Masellis, Sandra E Black, Danielle Molinari Andrade, Nathan Herrmann
OBJECTIVES: To analyze age representation trends over time in antiepileptic drug (AED) trials and to assess trial design elements as possible barriers to enrollment of elderly patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO, and meta-analyzed demographic data of cohorts enrolled in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of AEDs published since 1991. Data analysis included trends of age representation over time and trial design elements associated with average age of enrolled cohorts...
March 6, 2018: Epilepsy Research
I S Lvov, A A Grin', M A Nekrasov, A Yu Kordonskiy, A V Sytnik
Compression of the caudal medulla oblongata and ventral portions of the spinal cord is the most dangerous complication of atlanto-axial dislocation (AAD). AIM: The study objective was to improve surgical management of patients with ventral compression of the spinal cord in the setting of AAD of various genesis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed treatment outcomes in 250 patients with C1 and C2 injuries and diseases for the period between 2002 and 2016. Persistent ventral compression of the neural structures in the setting of AAD was detected in 34 (13...
2018: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
Jing Li Huang, Theo A Woehrle, Pat Conway, Catherine A McCarty, Madeline M Eyer, Steven D Eyer
PURPOSE: In 2007, Essentia Health St. Mary's Medical Center (SMMC), a Level II trauma center in northeastern Minnesota, implemented a protocol for patients who presented with blunt head trauma and were receiving warfarin for anticoagulation. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors of early delayed, warfarin-associated intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: Adult patients with signs and symptoms of head injury on warfarin who were admitted by protocol to SMMC between March 2007 and June 2015 were included...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Ruobing Huang, Ana Namburete, Alison Noble
We present a general framework for automatic segmentation of fetal brain structures in ultrasound images inspired by recent advances in machine learning. The approach is based on a region descriptor that characterizes the shape and local intensity context of different neurological structures without explicit models. To validate our framework, we present experiments to segment two fetal brain structures of clinical importance that have quite different ultrasonic appearances-the corpus callosum (CC) and the choroid plexus (CP)...
January 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Ronan O'Malley, Ganesh Rao, Penelope Stein, Oliver Bandmann
The diagnosis of acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is often overlooked. We describe a patient with this condition who had all the 'bells and whistles', in whom the diagnosis was only made after considerable delay. Far from an esoteric condition haunting examination candidates, AIP is an important cause of a broad spectrum of neurological symptoms. Its early recognition allows the astute clinician to prevent potentially devastating sequelae. We provide practical guidance on the investigation and management of this complex disorder...
March 14, 2018: Practical Neurology
Markus Kneihsl, Christian Enzinger, Kurt Niederkorn, Gerit Wünsch, Lisa Müller, Valeriu Culea, Andreas Lueger, Franz Fazekas, Thomas Gattringer
BACKGROUND: Stroke has become a treatable condition with increasing evidence of treatment benefits in older people. However, stroke mimics in geriatric patients are especially prevalent, causing incorrect suspicion and consecutive burden to patients and emergency room resources. We therefore examined the dimension of this problem by investigating emergency room admissions from nursing homes for suspected stroke. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of all nursing home residents who were admitted to the neurological emergency room of our primary and tertiary care university hospital between 2013 and 2015...
March 14, 2018: Cerebrovascular Diseases
Adam DeBusk, Mark L Moster
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Highlight some of the recent advances in gene therapy and gene modification for optic nerve disease to promote axon regeneration, neuroprotection, and increased visual functioning. RECENT FINDINGS: Visual loss secondary to optic nerve damage occurs in numerous ophthalmologic and neurologic conditions. Damaged retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) do not regenerate once they undergo apoptosis after injury. Gene therapy has been studied to replace gene mutations in disorders affecting the optic nerve as well as to alter genes responsible for suppressing or activating pathways of optic nerve growth and regeneration...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Ian Kaye, Peter Passias
Minimally invasive surgical (MIS) techniques offer promising improvements in the management of thoracolumbar trauma. Recent advances in MIS techniques and instrumentation for degenerative conditions have heralded a growing interest in employing these techniques for thoracolumbar trauma. Specifically, surgeons have applied these techniques to help manage flexion- and extension-distraction injuries, neurologically intact burst fractures, and cases of damage control. Minimally invasive surgical techniques offer a means to decrease blood loss, shorten operative time, reduce infection risk, and shorten hospital stays...
March 2018: Bulletin of the Hospital for Joint Diseases
Tianlu Wang, Celine R Gillebert
Visuospatial attention and short-term memory allow us to prioritize, select, and briefly maintain part of the visual information that reaches our senses. These cognitive abilities are quantitatively accounted for by Bundesen's theory of visual attention (TVA; Bundesen, 1990). Previous studies have suggested that TVA-based assessments are sensitive to inter-individual differences in spatial bias, visual short-term memory capacity, top-down control, and processing speed in healthy volunteers as well as in patients with various neurological and psychiatric conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
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