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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770118/neuroinflammation-as-a-target-for-intervention-in-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#1
REVIEW
Airton Leonardo de Oliveira Manoel, R Loch Macdonald
Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a sub-type of hemorrhagic stroke associated with the highest rates of mortality and long-term neurological disabilities. Despite the improvement in the management of SAH patients and the reduction in case fatality in the last decades, disability and mortality remain high in this population. Brain injury can occur immediately and in the first days after SAH. This early brain injury can be due to physical effects on the brain such as increased intracranial pressure, herniations, intracerebral, intraventricular hemorrhage, and hydrocephalus...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763795/protective-effects-of-echinacoside-against-anoxia-reperfusion-injury-in-h9c2-cells-via-up-regulating-p-akt-and-slc8a3
#2
Min Chen, Xiaodong Wang, Bo Hu, Jian Zhou, Xin Wang, Wei Wei, Hua Zhou
Echinacoside is a natural ingredient with various pharmacological activities. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of echinacoside on cardiomyocytes (rat H9c2 cells) in an anoxia/reperfusion (A/R) model. Further, the regulatory function of sodium-calcium exchanger protein 3 (SLC8A3/NCX3) as well as the protein kinase B (AKT) signaling were studied. The present results indicated that echinacoside protected against A/R-induced apoptosis in a dose manner, which was characterized by a decrease in the apoptosis and caspase 3 protein levels in H9c2 cells...
May 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753899/co-adjuvant-treatment-of-vasospasm-in-ruptured-unsecured-cerebral-aneurysms-with-aggressive-angioplasty-intra-arterial-nimodipine-and-aneurysm-embolization
#3
Ching-Chang Chen, Alvin Yi-Chou Wang, Chun-Ting Chen, Po-Chuan Hsieh
BACKGROUND: Vasospasm is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Although early treatment of ruptured aneurysms is advocated, delayed intervention complicates the treatment strategy and leading to significant vasospasm and a poor prognosis. We report our experience of endovascular protocol for occlusion of the unsecured aneurysm and angioplasty for vasospasm in a single session. METHODS: A total of 24 cases with significant vasospasm and unsecured ruptured cerebral aneurysm were reviewed among 660 aneurysmal SAH patients between January 2011 and May 2017...
May 10, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738885/regulation-of-seizure-induced-mecp2-ser421-phosphorylation-in-the-developing-brain
#4
Evan C Rosenberg, Jocelyn J Lippman-Bell, Marcus Handy, Samantha S Soldan, Sanjay Rakhade, Cristina Hilario-Gomez, Kaitlyn Folweiler, Leah Jacobs, Frances E Jensen
Neonatal seizures disrupt normal synaptic maturation and often lead to later-life epilepsy and cognitive deficits. During early life, the brain exhibits heightened synaptic plasticity, in part due to a developmental overabundance of CaV 1.2 L-type voltage gated calcium (Ca2+ ) channels (LT-VGCCs) and Ca2+ -permeable AMPARs (CP-AMPARs) lacking GluA2 subunits. We hypothesized that early-life seizures overactivate these channels, in turn dysregulating Ca2+ -dependent signaling pathways including that of methyl-CPG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2), a transcription factor implicated in the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) Rett Syndrome...
May 5, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738666/co-stabilization-of-amorphous-pharmaceuticals-the-case-of-nifedipine-and-nimodipine
#5
Justyna Knapik-Kowalczuk, Wenkang Tu, Krzysztof Chmiel, Marzena Rams-Baron, Marian Paluch
Currently, a research hotspot in amorphous active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) is to understand the key factors that dominate the recrystallization and to develop effective methods for stabilizing the amorphous forms. Consequently, we investigated the influence of the global molecular mobility and structural properties on the crystallization tendency of three 1, 4-dihydropyridine derivatives (nifedipine, nisoldipine and nimodipine) in their supercooled states using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) techniques...
May 8, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733918/complication-rate-of-intraarterial-treatment-of-severe-cerebral-vasospasm-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-with-nimodipine-and-percutaneous-transluminal-balloon-angioplasty-worth-the-risk
#6
Daniela Adami, Joachim Berkefeld, Johannes Platz, Jürgen Konczalla, Waltraud Pfeilschifter, Stefan Weidauer, Marlies Wagner
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is a complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Arterial cerebral vasospasm (CVS) is discussed as the main pathomechanism for DCI. Due to positive effects of per os nimodipine, intraarterial nimodipine application is used in patients with DCI. Further, percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty (PTA) is applied in focal high-grade spasm of intracranial arteries. However, clinical benefits of those techniques are unconfirmed in randomized trials so far, and complications might occur...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722896/cerebrospinal-fluid-findings-in-reversible-cerebral-vasoconstriction-syndrome-a-way-to-differentiate-from-cerebral-vasculitis
#7
Laura Kraayvanger, Peter Berlit, Philipp Albrecht, Hans-Peter Hartung, Markus Kraemer
INTRODUCTION: Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome (RCVS) is characterized by an acute onset of severe headache and multifocal segmental vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries resolving within twelve weeks. Diagnostic criteria include normal or near-normal findings in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, especially leukocyte levels < 10/mm³. Distinguishing RCVS from primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) is essential to avoid unnecessary and sometimes unfavorable immunosuppressive treatment...
May 3, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722318/-panax-ginseng-extract-attenuates-neuronal-injury-and-cognitive-deficits-in-rats-with-vascular-dementia-induced-by-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion
#8
Jun-De Zhu, Jun-Jie Wang, Xian-Hu Zhang, Yan Yu, Zhao-Sheng Kang
Panax ginseng is a slow-growing perennial plant. Panax ginseng extract has numerous biological activities, including antitumor, anti-inflammatory and antistress activities. Panax ginseng extract also has a cognition-enhancing effect in rats with alcohol-induced memory impairment. In this study, we partially occluded the bilateral carotid arteries in the rat to induce chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, a well-known model of vascular dementia. The rats were then intragastrically administered 50 or 100 mg/kg Panax ginseng extract...
April 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720231/nimodipine-treatment-does-not-benefit-juvenile-ferrets-with-kaolin-induced-hydrocephalus
#9
Domenico L Di Curzio, Xiaoyan Mao, Aidan Baker, Marc R Del Bigio
Prior research on 3-week hydrocephalic rats showed that behavioral deficits and white matter damage could be reduced by treatment with Ca2+ channel blocker nimodipine. We hypothesized that treatment with nimodipine would be also beneficial to young ferrets with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus. Hydrocephalus was induced at 14 days of age and animals were treated either with vehicle, low dose nimodipine (3.2 mg/kg/day), or high dose nimodipine (16 mg/kg/day) for 2 weeks from 38 to 52 days age. Hydrocephalic ferrets developed progressive ventriculomegaly, behavioral changes, and in some cases cortical blindness...
May 3, 2018: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686511/effects-of-scrambling-trumpet-creeper-flavone-on-transient-cerebral-ischemia-model-tia-in-rats
#10
Mingsan Miao, Xu Zhang, Fan Zhang, Can Wang, Xiaoyan Fang, Ming Bai, Cuishan Xu, Leshang Teng
To investigate the effects of Scrambling Trumpet Creeper flavone on neurological function score, brain tissue lesion and related biochemical indexes in rat TIA model. Methods: TIA model was induced by tail vein injection of t-butanol (t-BHP). The rats in each administration group were given large, medium and low dose of Scrambling Trumpet Creeper flavone 0.1% CMC suspension, nimodipine and Yangxueqingnao particles group 0.1% CMC suspension, model group and blank group fed the same volume 0.1% CMC. Once a day, continuous administration of 7d...
March 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661144/pretreatment-with-nimodipine-reduces-incidence-of-pocd-by-decreasing-calcineurin-mediated-hippocampal-neuroapoptosis-in-aged-rats
#11
Qi Zhang, Yanan Li, Yongjuan Bao, Chunping Yin, Xi Xin, Yangyang Guo, Fang Gao, Shuping Huo, Xiuli Wang, Qiujun Wang
BACKGROUND: Calcineurin (CaN) having a high expression in hippocampal neurons is closely related to apoptosis. Pretreatment with nimodipine can lower the apoptosis rate of hippocampal neuron to reduce the incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). However, the relationship between cerebral protective effect of pretreatment with nimodipine and CaN is controversial in the literature. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between neuroprotective effect of nimodipine and CaN on POCD in aged rats...
April 16, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656002/dangers-of-outpatient-nimodipine-use-after-spontaneous-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-accordance-with-the-comprehensive-stroke-center-guidelines
#12
Ching-Jen Chen, Cassie Turnage, Jennifer D Sokolowski, Jeyan S Kumar, M Yashar Kalani, Min S Park
Despite the adverse effects and unclear benefit of the complete 21-day course of nimodipine therapy, The Joint Commission mandates adherence to nimodipine treatment for 21 days after hemorrhage or after hospital discharge if discharged within 21 days for Comprehensive Stroke Center (CSC) certification. We hereby present a 67 year-old male patient with Hunt-Hess grade 2 and Fisher grade 3 non-aneurysmal spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage who was discharged with oral nimodipine as stipulated by the CSC guidelines, and subsequently developed symptomatic hypotension...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625150/nimodipine-represses-ampk-phosphorylation-and-excessive-autophagy-after-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-in-rats
#13
Yan Chen, Zihu Tan
Chronic cerebral hypofusion (CCH) after bilateral carotid artery occlusion (2VO) causes cognitive damage and neuronal degeneration in the cortex and hippocampal CA1 area, and influences the oxygen and glucose supply in the brain which often results in metabolic alterations and oxidative stress. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation, a sensor of cellular energy status that directs metabolic adaptation to support cellular growth and survival after CCH. Autophagy is also likely to be involved in metabolic adaptation and play an important role in neuronal deterioration and cognitive decline after CCH...
April 3, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604372/pegylated-nanoparticles-for-the-oral-delivery-of-nimodipine-pharmacokinetics-and-effect-on-the-anxiety-and-cognition-in-mice
#14
Lina Clara Gayoso E Almendra Ibiapina Moreno, Maite Solas, María Cristina Martínez-Ohárriz, Egoitz Muñoz, Nereide Stela Santos-Magalhães, Maria J Ramirez, Juan M Irache
Nimodipine may be of interest to treat behavioral alterations and memory deficits. However, its oral administration is hampered by a low bioavailability. The aim of this work was to develop pegylated nanoparticles as oral carriers of nimodipine and test their capability to both reverse the anxiety and protect against cognitive impairment of in stressed mice. Pegylated nanoparticles (NMD-NP/PEG), with a size of 190 nm and a payload of 68 µg/mg, significantly improve the oral bioavailability of nimodipine; about 7-times higher than for the control drug solution (62% vs 9%)...
March 28, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603093/oxaliplatin-modulates-the-characteristics-of-voltage-gated-calcium-channels-and-action-potentials-in-small-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons-of-rats
#15
Linda-Isabell Schmitt, Markus Leo, Christoph Kleinschnitz, Tim Hagenacker
Oxaliplatin is important for treating colorectal cancer. Although oxaliplatin is highly effective, it has severe side effects, of which neurotoxicity in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons is one of the most common. The key mechanisms of this neurotoxicity are still controversial. However, disturbances of calcium homeostasis in DRG neurons have been suggested to mediate oxaliplatin neurotoxicity. By using whole-cell patch-clamp and current-clamp techniques, as well as immunocytochemical staining, we examined the influence of short- and long-term exposure to oxaliplatin on voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) and different VGCC subtypes in small DRG neurons of rats in vitro...
March 30, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600883/investigational-drugs-for-vasospasm-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#16
Roberta T Tallarico, Michael A Pizzi, William D Freeman
Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) represents 3% of all strokes in the US. When the patient survives it can lead to permanent incapacity especially if the patient develops vasospasm. The vasospasm is a multifactorial disorder and can lead to delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Most of the drugs tested to treat vasospasm failed to improve outcome and the only exception is nimodipine. Areas covered: In this review, the authors describe the multifactorial process of vasospasm leading DCI after aSAH, discussing the treatments available based on the past and latest researches...
April 6, 2018: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588588/tri-block-polymer-with-interfacial-layer-formation-ability-and-its-use-in-maintaining-supersaturated-drug-solution-after-dissolution-of-solid-dispersions
#17
Ji-Jun Fu, Cheng-Cheng Liu
Background: Maintaining a supersaturated drug solution after the dissolution of the solid dispersions of water insoluble drugs continues to be a great challenge and is important to the oral bioavailability enhancement of hardly soluble drugs. Methods: Nimodipine solid dispersions were prepared by hot-melt extrusion and a special tri-block polymer was employed as a co-carrier. The solid dispersions were characterized by modulated differential scanning calorimetry, transmission electron microscopy, hydrogen-nuclear magnetic resonance and so on...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578611/calcium-channel-blockers-for-antipsychotic-induced-tardive-dyskinesia
#18
REVIEW
Adib Essali, Karla Soares-Weiser, Hanna Bergman, Clive E Adams
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia and related disorders affect a sizable proportion of any population. Antipsychotic medications are the primary treatment for these disorders. Antipsychotic medications are associated with a variety of adverse effects including tardive dyskinesia. Dyskinesia is a disfiguring movement disorder of the orofacial region that can be tardive (having a slow or belated onset). Tardive dyskinesia is difficult to treat, despite experimentation with several treatments. Calcium channel blockers (diltiazem, nifedipine, nimodipine, verapamil, flunarizine) have been among these experimental treatments...
March 26, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551926/effect-of-total-flavonoid-in-rabdosia-rubescens-on-tolerant-mice-models-under-cerebral-anoxia
#19
Le Kang, Mingsan Miao, Ming Bai, Shuo Tian
Objective: To study the protective effect of total flavonoid in rabdosia rubescens on BIT model by brain ischemic tolerance (hereinafter BIT) model of mice. Method: BIT model is used to block bilateral common carotid arteries and to copy BIT model of mice. After 10 min of transient ischemia for rats in preconditioning group, the mice in the nimodipine group and naoluotong capsule group were given the total flavonoid in rabdosia rubescens (300 mg/kg, 150 mg/kg, 75 mg/kg) for gavage, sham operation group, ischemia/reperfusion injury (hereinafter IRI) group and BIT group were fed with the same volume of 0...
December 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547164/aggressive-management-of-vasospasm-with-direct-intra-arterial-nimodipine-therapy
#20
Vinayak Narayan, Hima Pendharkar, Bhagavatula Indira Devi, Dhananjaya I Bhat, Dhaval P Shukla
Background: The conventional medical management of cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with uncertainty of outcome and complications. Aims and Objectives: To examine the effect of direct intra-arterial nimodipine therapy on outcome in patients with delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Settings and Design: The retrospective observational study was conducted at a single neurosurgical unit and interventional neuroradiolgy suite of a center managing SAH...
March 2018: Neurology India
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