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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200665/the-role-of-high-mobility-group-box-1-and-its-crosstalk-with-microbiome-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#1
REVIEW
Federico Biscetti, Andrea Flex, Stefano Alivernini, Barbara Tolusso, Elisa Gremese, Gianfranco Ferraccioli
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, definitely disabling, and potentially severe autoimmune disease. Although an increasing number of patients are affected, a key treatment for all patients has not been discovered. High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear protein passively and actively released by almost all cell types after several stimuli. HMGB1 is involved in RA pathogenesis, but a convincing explanation about its role and possible modulation in RA is still lacking. Microbiome and its homeostasis are altered in patients with RA, and the microbiota restoration has been proposed to patients with RA...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198620/the-role-of-hmgb1-in-heart-transplantation
#2
REVIEW
Qianying Lv, Chao Li, Yarui Mo, Long He
There has been significant progress in the field of heart transplantation over the last 45 years. Although the role of adaptive immunity in heart allograft rejection has been extensively studied for decades, there is increasing evidence that suggests that the innate immune system also contributes to the development of heart allograft rejection. The high-mobility group box (HMGB) proteins, particularly HMGB1, are self-derived innate immune activators that have multiple functions in the regulation of immunity and inflammation...
November 30, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118897/redox-regulation-of-inflammatory-processes-is-enzymatically-controlled
#3
REVIEW
Inken Lorenzen, Lisa Mullen, Sander Bekeschus, Eva-Maria Hanschmann
Redox regulation depends on the enzymatically controlled production and decay of redox active molecules. NADPH oxidases, superoxide dismutases, nitric oxide synthases, and others produce the redox active molecules superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide, and hydrogen sulfide. These react with target proteins inducing spatiotemporal modifications of cysteine residues within different signaling cascades. Thioredoxin family proteins are key regulators of the redox state of proteins. They regulate the formation and removal of oxidative modifications by specific thiol reduction and oxidation...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106804/targeting-rage-signaling-in-inflammatory-disease
#4
Barry I Hudson, Marc E Lippman
The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) is a multiligand pattern recognition receptor implicated in diverse chronic inflammatory states. RAGE binds and mediates the cellular response to a range of damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) including AGEs, HMGB1, S100s, and DNA. RAGE can also act as an innate immune sensor of microbial pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules (PAMPs) including bacterial endotoxin, respiratory viruses, and microbial DNA. RAGE is expressed at low levels under normal physiology, but it is highly upregulated under chronic inflammation because of the accumulation of various RAGE ligands...
November 6, 2017: Annual Review of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095942/serum-high-mobility-group-box-1-protein-levels-are-not-associated-with-either-histological-severity-or-treatment-response-in-children-and-adults-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#5
Katherine P Yates, Ross Deppe, Megan Comerford, Howard Masuoka, Oscar W Cummings, James Tonascia, Naga Chalasani, Raj Vuppalanchi
AIM: Serum high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a proinflammatory molecule that could potentially serve as a biomarker for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) due to its correlation with degree of liver fibrosis. The aim of the current study was to examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between serum HMGB1 levels and liver histology in adults and children with NAFLD participating in two large randomized controlled trials...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054968/pivotal-neuroinflammatory-and-therapeutic-role-of-high-mobility-group-box-1-in-ischemic-stroke
#6
Seidu A Richard, Marian Sackey, Zhaoliang Su, Huaxi Xu
Stroke is a major cause of mortality and disability worldwide. Stroke is a frequent and severe neurovascular disorder. The main cause of stroke is atherosclerosis, and the most common risk factor for atherosclerosis is hypertension. Therefore, prevention and treatment of stroke are crucial issues in humans. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is non-histone nuclear protein that is currently one of the crucial pro-inflammatory alarmin in ischemic stroke (IS). It is instantly released from necrotic cells in the ischemic core and activates an early inflammatory response...
October 20, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018504/hmgb1-in-the-pathogenesis-of-nasal-inflammatory-diseases-and-its-inhibition-as-new-therapeutic-approach-a-review-from-the-literature
#7
REVIEW
Luisa Maria Bellussi, Serena Cocca, Giulio Cesare Passali, Desideri Passali
Introduction  This study is a systematic review on recent developments about the importance of HMGB1 protein in the pathogenesis of rhino-sinusal inflammatory diseases. We also report data on the use of 18-β-glycyrrhetic acid (GA), which has been shown able to inhibit the pro-inflammatory activities of HMGB1, in young patients affected by allergic rhinitis and complaining of nasal obstruction as main symptom. Objectives  The objective of this study was to review the literature to demonstrate the importance of HMGB1 in the pathogenesis of nasal inflammatory disorders and understand whether the inhibition of this protein may be an efficacious and innovative therapeutic strategy for patients with rhino-sinusal inflammation...
October 2017: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962177/high-mobility-group-box-1-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#8
Haitao Shi, Yingqi Che, Lin Bai, Jinling Zhang, Jingxu Fan, Huiling Mao
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex disorder caused by the combined effects of genetic inheritance and environmental factors. The abnormal secretion of albumin via urine is the characteristic feature of a diabetic nephropathy (DN) patient. Moreover, the detection of this observable characteristic feature of DN is quite late. As a result the time, at which DN is observable, large extent of kidney damage has already occurred. Thus, this late observation significantly decreases the chances of efficient management of DN and associated outcomes...
September 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912641/toll-like-receptor-2-a-novel-therapeutic-target-for-ischemic-white-matter-injury-and-oligodendrocyte-death
#9
REVIEW
Jun Young Choi, Byung Gon Kim
Despite paramount clinical significance of white matter stroke, there is a paucity of researches on the pathomechanism of ischemic white matter damage and accompanying oligodendrocyte (OL) death. Therefore, a large gap exists between clinical needs and laboratory researches in this disease entity. Recent works have started to elucidate cellular and molecular basis of white matter injury under ischemic stress. In this paper, we briefly introduce white matter stroke from a clinical point of view and review pathophysiology of ischemic white matter injury characterized by OL death and demyelination...
August 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746820/the-role-of-damage-and-pathogen-associated-molecular-patterns-in-inflammation-mediated-vulnerability-of-atherosclerotic-plaques
#10
Vikrant Rai, Devendra K Agrawal
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting in the formation of the atherosclerotic plaque. Plaque formation starts with the inflammation in fatty streaks and progresses through atheroma, atheromatous plaque, and fibroatheroma leading to development of stable plaque. Hypercholesterolemia, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia are the risk factors for atherosclerosis. Inflammation, infection with viruses and bacteria, and dysregulation in the endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells leads to advanced plaque formation...
October 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713671/diagnostic-and-prognostic-biomarkers-for-malignant-mesothelioma-an-update
#11
REVIEW
Zhongjian Chen, Giovanni Gaudino, Harvey I Pass, Michele Carbone, Haining Yang
Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive and lethal cancer, mostly related to inhalation of asbestos and erionite fibers. MM is associated with poor prognosis, because of its resistance to current therapies, even if higher survival occurs in patients diagnosed and treated when at stage I of the disease. However, these do not exceed 5% of the total number of cases, due to the inadequacy of the existing biomarkers for early and accurate diagnosis. Therefore, new effective biomarkers are needed for MM detection at earlier stages and to develop tailored therapies...
June 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712719/ages-rages-and-s-rage-friend-or-foe-for-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Saheem Ahmad, Hamda Khan, Zeba Siddiqui, Mohd Yasir Khan, Shahnawaz Rehman, Uzma Shahab, Tatyana Godovikova, Vladimir Silnikov, Moinuddin
Impaired awareness of glycation biology in cancer initiation and progression is one of the fundamental reasons for its meticulous investigation of the molecules involved in signalling pathway. Glycation of biological macromolecules results in the progression of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) that proliferates the process of carcinogenesis by activation of transcription factors and release of cytokines. The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGEs) with the binding of its different ligands like; AGEs, HMGB1 and S100 activate the signalling arrays...
July 13, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706912/diagnosis-and-prognosis-review-of-biomarkers-for-mesothelioma
#13
REVIEW
Huan H Sun, Allen Vaynblat, Harvey I Pass
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive disease arising in pleural cell lining and is associated with asbestos exposure. Today, there is a rising incidence of MPM reaching 3,000 annual cases nationally, primarily from the large population occupationally exposed to asbestos between 1940 and 1980. With a prolonged latency period, presenting clinically 10 to 40 years after exposure, MPM is often diagnosed in late stages and presents median survival time of less than 12 months. There is a serious need for improvement in prognostic and diagnostic tools for MPM...
June 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657371/hmgb1-is-a-promising-therapeutic-target-for-acute-liver-failure
#14
Tetsu Yamamoto, Yoshitsugu Tajima
Although acute liver failure (ALF) is a rare disease, it continues to have high mortality and morbidity rates due to its many causes. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), originally reported as a ubiquitous non-histone chromosomal protein, is a multi-functional protein with varying functions depending on its location, such as in the nucleus, cytoplasm and extracellular space. The role of extracellular HMGB1 as an inflammatory mediator has been well studied, and the elevation of serum HMGB1 has been reported in several diseases that are closely associated with ALF...
July 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630596/association-between-hmgb1-and-asthma-a-literature-review
#15
REVIEW
Egidio Imbalzano, Sebastiano Quartuccio, Eleonora Di Salvo, Teresa Crea, Marco Casciaro, Sebastiano Gangemi
BACKGROUND: Recently, some studies demonstrated that HMGB1, as proinflammatory mediator belonging to the alarmin family, has a key role in different acute and chronic immune disorders. Asthma is a complex disease characterised by recurrent and reversible airflow obstruction associated to airway hyper-responsiveness and airway inflammation. OBJECTIVE: This literature review aims to analyse advances on HMGB1 role, employment and potential diagnostic application in asthma...
2017: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619625/hmgb1-an-innate-alarmin-plays-a-critical-role-in-chronic-inflammation-of-adipose-tissue-in-obesity
#16
REVIEW
Jing Zhang, Lei Zhang, Shu Zhang, Qilin Yu, Fei Xiong, Kun Huang, Cong-Yi Wang, Ping Yang
Obesity has emerged as an imminent global public health concern over the past several decades. It has now become evident that obesity is characterized by the persistent and low-grade inflammation in the adipose tissue, and serves as an independent risk factor for many metabolic disorders such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Particularly, adipocytes originated from obese mice and humans likely predominate necrosis upon stressful insults, leading to passive release of cellular contents including the high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) into the extracellular milieu...
October 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601074/role-of-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase-gapdh-in-dna-repair
#17
REVIEW
A A Kosova, S N Khodyreva, O I Lavrik
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is widely known as a glycolytic enzyme. Nevertheless, various functions of GAPDH have been found that are unrelated to glycolysis. Some of these functions presume interaction of GAPDH with DNA, but the mechanism of its translocation to the nucleus is not fully understood. When in the nucleus, GAPDH participates in the initiation of apoptosis and transcription of genes involved in antiapoptotic pathways and cell proliferation and plays a role in the regulation of telomere length...
June 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571029/roles-of-high-mobility-group-box-1-in-cardiovascular-calcification
#18
REVIEW
Qiang Chen, Ze-Yang Wang, Li-Yuan Chen, Hou-Yuan Hu
Calcific disease of the cardiovascular system, including atherosclerotic calcification, medial calcification in diabetes and calcific aortic valve disease, is an important risk factor for many adverse cardiovascular events such as ischemic cardiac events and subsequent mortality. Although cardiovascular calcification has long been considered to be a passive degenerative occurrence, it is now recognized as an active and highly regulated process that involves osteochondrogenic differentiation, apoptosis and extracellular vesicle release...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533056/white-matter-damage-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a-role-for-damage-associated-molecular-patterns
#19
REVIEW
Molly Braun, Kumar Vaibhav, Nancy M Saad, Sumbul Fatima, John R Vender, Babak Baban, Md Nasrul Hoda, Krishnan M Dhandapani
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of mortality and long-term morbidity worldwide. Despite decades of pre-clinical investigation, therapeutic strategies focused on acute neuroprotection failed to improve TBI outcomes. This lack of translational success has necessitated a reassessment of the optimal targets for intervention, including a heightened focus on secondary injury mechanisms. Chronic immune activation correlates with progressive neurodegeneration for decades after TBI; however, significant challenges remain in functionally and mechanistically defining immune activation after TBI...
October 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444111/pattern-recognition-receptors-immune-targets-to-enhance-cancer-immunotherapy
#20
T Shekarian, S Valsesia-Wittmann, J Brody, M C Michallet, S Depil, C Caux, A Marabelle
Durable tumor responses and significant levels of disease control rates have been described in more than 20 advanced/metastatic cancer types with B7-family immune checkpoint-targeted anti-CTLA-4, anti-PD-1, and anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies. These results and the recent approvals of ipilimumab, pembrolizumab, nivolumab and atezolizumab are currently revolutionizing the way we envision the future of cancer care. However these clinical benefits are not observed in all cancer types and in every patient. Therefore, our clinical challenge is to identify therapeutic strategies which could overcome the primary and secondary resistances to these novel cancer immunotherapies...
August 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
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