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Yan Li, Yuan Gao, Chunai Gong, Zhuo Wang, Qingming Xia, Fenfen Gu, Chuling Hu, Lijuan Zhang, Huiling Guo, Shen Gao
Exosomes have emerged as a promising drug carrier with low immunogenicity, high biocompatibility and delivery efficiency. Here in, we isolated exosomes from A33-positive LIM1215 cells (A33-Exo) and loaded them with doxorubicin (Dox). Furthermore, we coated surface-carboxyl superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (US) with A33 antibodies (A33Ab-US), expecting that these A33 antibodies on the surface of the nanoparticles could bind to A33-positive exosomes and form a complex (A33Ab-US-Exo/Dox) to target A33-positive colon cancer cells...
June 20, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Trilokesh D Kidambi, Jonathan P Terdiman, Najwa El-Nachef, Aparajita Singh, Michael G Kattah, Jeffrey K Lee
BACKGROUND & AIMS: I-scan is an electronic chromoendoscopy technology that improves resolution of epithelial and mucosal surfaces and vessels. We performed a randomized controlled trial to compare detection of adenomas by i-scan vs standard high-definition white-light (HDWL) colonoscopy. METHODS: From February 1 through December 31, 2017, 740 outpatients (50-75 years old) undergoing screening and surveillance for colorectal neoplasia were randomly assigned to groups that received colonoscopies with i-scan 1 (surface and contrast enhancement) or HDWL...
June 20, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Kaarel Adamberg, Signe Adamberg, Karin Ernits, Anneli Larionova, Tiia Voor, Madis Jaagura, Triinu Visnapuu, Tiina Alamäe
The aim of the study was to investigate the metabolism of non-digestible oligo- and polysaccharides by fecal microbiota, using isothermal microcalorimetry. The five tested substrates were raffinose, melibiose, a mixture of oligo- and polysaccharides produced from raffinose by levansucrase, levan synthesized from raffinose, and levan from timothy grass. Two inocula were comprised of pooled fecal samples from overweight or normal-weight children, from healthy adult volunteers and a pure culture of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron as a reference bacterium for colon microbiota...
June 20, 2018: Anaerobe
Alessandro Mantovani, Marco Dauriz, Christopher D Byrne, Amedeo Lonardo, Giacomo Zoppini, Enzo Bonora, Giovanni Targher
BACKGROUND: It is currently uncertain whether non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with an increased risk of colorectal tumours. We performed a meta-analysis of relevant observational studies to quantify the magnitude of the association between NAFLD and risk of colorectal adenomas and cancer. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science from January 2000 to November 2017 using pre-defined keywords to identify observational studies of asymptomatic adults undergoing screening colonoscopy, in which NAFLD was diagnosed by imaging or histology...
June 20, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Marco Rossi, Sina Mirbagheri, Ali Keshavarzian, Faraz Bishehsari
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most diagnosed cancers in the world. Even though screening, surgery and oncology have greatly advanced, CRC is still one of the leading causes of cancer deaths, with 700,000 annual mortalities in both men and women. Environmental and lifestyle factors brought up by industrialization, such as an altered diet, lack of physical activity, increase in alcohol consumption, and circadian disruption, have greatly affected the burden of CRC. These factors increase the CRC risk, at least partly, by pathologically altering the colonic environment, including composition of the gut microbiota, referred to as dysbiosis...
June 20, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Adelaide Tawiah, France Moreau, Manish Kumar, Sameer Tiwari, Jan Falguera, Kris Chadee
Intestinal epithelial cell wound healing involves cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Although numerous studies have analyzed the migration of absorptive epithelial cells during wound healing, it remains unclear how goblet cells restitute and how MUC2 mucin production affects this process. In this study, we examined the role of high MUC2 production in goblet cell migration during wound healing and demonstrated that during high MUC2 output, goblet cells migrated slower due to impaired production of wound healing factors and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress...
June 20, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
Shuangzhe Yao, Chao Sun, Tao Wang, Zhongqing Zheng, Bangmao Wang
BACKGROUND The official guidelines are unclear about whether endoscopic polypectomy should intubate the whole cecum or just intubate the location of the endoscopy inspection. Therefore, the objective of this study was to provide a new perspective of assisting endoscopists make better decisions and decrease the missing detection rate in clinical practice. MATERIAL AND METHODS We retrospectively reviewed records of 8923 patients who underwent endoscopic polypectomy, and 394 participants were included after screening by inclusion and exclusion criteria...
June 23, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Jennifer K Colby, Jonathan Jaoude, Fuyao Liu, Imad Shureiqi
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are enzymatically converted to a variety of bioactive products through insertion of molecular oxygen. PUFA-derived mediators can have either inflammatory or anti-inflammatory/pro-resolving properties, depending upon their specific structures. The relative harm or benefit of these mediators can also be tissue and context dependent. These mediators play important roles in maintaining homeostasis and their dysregulation is involved in pathogenesis of cancers, especially those associated with chronic inflammation...
June 22, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Lenka Jeszeová, Andrea Puškárová, Mária Bučková, Lucia Kraková, Tomáš Grivalský, Martin Danko, Katarína Mosnáčková, Štefan Chmela, Domenico Pangallo
The microbial communities responsible for the degradation of poly(lactic acid)/poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PLA/PHB) blend foils were investigated in 1 year long laboratory soil burial experiments. Different PLA/PHB foils were tested: (a) PLA/PHB original transparent foil, (b) PLA/PHB carbon black filled foil and (c) PLA/PHB black foil previously exposed for 90 days to sun light. The microbiome diversity of these three types of foil was compared with that identified from soil/perlite sample at the beginning of experiment and that developed on a cellulose mat...
June 22, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Xiaoxu Fan, Fuqiang Song
Atrazine induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are detoxified by enzymatic and nonenzymatic mechanisms in plants. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve on this first level of plant resistance to environmental stresses through the antioxidant defense system, but the way in which nonenzymatic antioxidants relate to atrazine in arbuscular mycorrhizal roots is not well-known. In this study, a symbiotic relationship between Funneliformis mosseae and Medicago sativa L. roots was established successfully...
June 22, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Terrence E Riehl, David Alvarado, Xueping Ee, Aaron Zuckerman, Lynn Foster, Vaishali Kapoor, Dinesh Thotala, Matthew A Ciorba, William F Stenson
OBJECTIVE: Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), a probiotic, given by gavage is radioprotective of the mouse intestine. LGG-induced radioprotection is toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-dependent and is associated with the migration of COX-2+mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from the lamina propria of the villus to the lamina propria near the crypt epithelial stem cells. Our goals were to define the mechanism of LGG radioprotection including identification of the TLR2 agonist, and the mechanism of the MSC migration and to determine the safety and efficacy of this approach in models relevant to clinical radiation therapy...
June 22, 2018: Gut
Anjan K Pradhan, Praveen Bhoopathi, Sarmistha Talukdar, Xue-Ning Shen, Luni Emdad, Swadesh K Das, Devanand Sarkar, Paul B Fisher
Prostate cancer (PC) is a principal cause of cancer-associated morbidity in men. Although 5-year survival of patients with localized PC approaches 100 percent, survival decreases precipitously after metastasis. Bone is the preferred site for disseminated PC cell colonization, altering the equilibrium of bone homeostasis resulting in weak and fragile bones. Currently, no curative options are available for PC bone metastasis. MDA-7/IL-24 is a well-studied cytokine established as a therapeutic in a wide-array of cancers upon delivery as a gene therapy...
June 22, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Mikiyasu Sakanaka, Shingo Nakakawaji, Shin Nakajima, Satoru Fukiya, Arisa Abe, Wataru Saburi, Haruhide Mori, Atsushi Yokota
Bifidobacteria are a major component of the intestinal microbiota in humans, particularly breast-fed infants. Therefore, elucidation of the mechanisms by which these bacteria colonize the intestine is desired. One approach is transposon mutagenesis, a technique currently attracting much attention because, in combination with next-generation sequencing, it enables exhaustive identification of genes that contribute to microbial fitness. We now describe a transposon mutagenesis system for Bifidobacterium longum subsp...
June 22, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Uriyoán Colón-Ramos, Rafael Monge-Rojas, Tambra R Stevenson, Haley Burns, Shaneka Thurman, Joel Gittelsohn, Tilly A Gurman
OBJECTIVES: To determine how African-American caregivers living in a food desert navigate neighborhood resources to procure foods for their children and to identify actions to improve those resources. DESIGN: Using the Photovoice approach, we conducted two sets of individual in-depth interviews with 16 African-American primary caregivers of children (total of 32 interviews) and one culminating workshop (n=10 participants). Data were systematically analyzed according to the Social Ecological Framework to evaluate the role of different environments in shaping individual decisions...
June 15, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Kendall R Beck, Amandeep K Shergill
Lower gastrointestinal bleeding is bleeding from a colonic source. Rapid colon purge using 4 to 6 L of polyethylene glycol followed by early colonoscopy, within 24 hours of presentation, is recommended to optimize the detection and management of bleeding sources. Although the data are mixed, early colonoscopy seems to be associated with higher detection of bleeding lesions and therapeutic interventions. There is no clear benefit for early colonoscopy in terms of reduced duration of stay, rebleeding, transfusion requirement, or surgery compared with patients undergoing elective colonoscopy...
July 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America
Kevin A Ghassemi, Dennis M Jensen
This article examines use of the Doppler endoscopic probe (DEP) for risk stratification and as a guide to definitive hemostasis of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal (NVUGI) bleeding and colonic diverticular hemorrhage. Studies report that lesions with high-risk stigmata of recent hemorrhage (SRH) have a higher rate of a positive DEP signal compared with those without such SRH. Lesions with a persistently positive DEP signal after endoscopic hemostasis have a higher 30-day rebleeding rate. Studies document arterial blood flow underneath stigmata of recent hemorrhage as a risk factor for rebleeding of focal nonvariceal gastrointestinal lesions...
July 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America
Kartikeya Rajdev, Abdul Hasan Siddiqui, Shivika Agarwal, Yusra Ansari, Rabih Maroun
Colorectal carcinoma is one of the most common and significant causes of cancer-related death. Metastasis to mediastinal lymph nodes and/or pleura without liver or lung involvement is an atypical pattern of colon cancer metastasis. A 70-year-old male underwent curative right side hemicolectomy and omentectomy for ascending colon cancer followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. Around nine months after surgery, the patient was noted to have bilateral large pleural effusions on the restaging computed tomography scan of the chest/abdomen/pelvis...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
Marzieh Keshavarz, Kave Moloudi, Reza Paydar, Ziaeddin Abed, Jaber Beik, Habib Ghaznavi, Ali Shakeri-Zadeh
The biomedical applications of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have experienced rapid growth in recent years, due to their expected benefits in medical imaging and therapy. In this work, we report the development of a theranostic nanocomplex constructed from alginate hydrogel co-loaded with cisplatin and AuNPs (abbreviated as ACA) for simultaneous drug delivery and computed tomography imaging. CT26 cells derived from mouse colon adenocarcinoma were exposed to various concentrations of ACA nanocomplex (for 24 h) and the cytotoxicity was measured using MTT assay...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
Shuai Wang, Qing-Qing Li, Fan Wang, Tao Yi, Ji-Fen Zhang
To study the intestinal absorption characteristics of drug's nanocrystalline self-stabilizing Pickering emulsion (NSSPE) in situ in rats. Rat single-pass intestinal perfusion model was established, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to detect the concentration of puerarin in rat intestinal perfusion solution, assay the absorption rate constant (Ka) and the intestinal apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of NSSPE in duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon, which were compared with those of raw material, nanocrystal and normal emulsion, respectively...
May 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Filipa F Vale, Philippe Lehours
The review uses the Helicobacter pylori , the gastric bacterium that colonizes the human stomach, to address how to obtain information from bacterial genomes about prophage biology. In a time of continuous growing number of genomes available, this review provides tools to explore genomes for prophage presence, or other mobile genetic elements and virulence factors. The review starts by covering the genetic diversity of H. pylori and then moves to the biologic basis and the bioinformatics approaches used for studding the H...
June 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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