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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656582/hyperactive-cyclic-motor-activity-in-the-distal-colon-after-colonic-surgery-as-defined-by-high-resolution-colonic-manometry
#1
R Vather, G O'Grady, A Y Lin, P Du, C I Wells, D Rowbotham, J Arkwright, L K Cheng, P G Dinning, I P Bissett
BACKGROUND: Recovery after colonic surgery is invariably delayed by disturbed gut motility. It is commonly assumed that colonic motility becomes quiescent after surgery, but this hypothesis has not been evaluated rigorously. This study quantified colonic motility through the early postoperative period using high-resolution colonic manometry. METHODS: Fibre-optic colonic manometry was performed continuously before, during and after surgery in the left colon and rectum of patients undergoing right hemicolectomy, and in healthy controls...
April 14, 2018: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656577/efficacy-of-7-benzyloxyindole-and-other-halogenated-indoles-to-inhibit-candida-albicans-biofilm-and-hyphal-formation
#2
Ranjith Kumar Manoharan, Jin-Hyung Lee, Jintae Lee
Certain pathogenic bacteria and yeast form biofilms on biotic and abiotic surfaces including medical devices and implants. Hence, the development of antibiofilm coating materials becomes relevant. The virulence of those colonizing pathogens can be reduced by inhibiting biofilm formation rather than killing pathogens using excessive amounts of antimicrobials, which is touted as one of the main reasons for the development of drug resistance. Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen, and the transition of yeast cells to hyphal cells is believed to be a crucial virulence factor...
April 15, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656456/an-empirical-test-of-the-relative-and-combined-effects-of-land-cover-and-climate-change-on-local-colonization-and-extinction
#3
Semra Yalcin, Shawn James Leroux
Land-cover and climate change are two main drivers of changes in species ranges. Yet, the majority of studies investigating the impacts of global change on biodiversity focus on one global change driver and usually use simulations to project biodiversity responses to future conditions. We conduct an empirical test of the relative and combined effects of land-cover and climate change on species occurrence changes. Specifically, we examine whether observed local colonization and extinctions of North American birds between 1981-85 and 2001-05 are correlated with land-cover and climate change and whether bird life history and ecological traits explain interspecific variation in observed occurrence changes...
April 14, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656366/sodium-selenite-ameliorates-both-intestinal-and-extra-intestinal-changes-in-acetic-acid-induced-colitis-in-rats
#4
Samar M Soliman, Walaa Wadie, Samia A Shouman, Afaf A Ainshoka
Selenium and its derivatives including sodium selenite (sod sel) belong to the group of essential trace elements needed for proper health and nutrition. They are fairly safe and possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of present investigation was to elucidate the effect of sod sel on experimental colitis model in rats. Colitis was induced by intrarectal instillation of 4% (v/v) acetic acid. Two hours later, sod sel was given to rats on a daily basis for 15 consecutive days. Clinical symptoms, colon mass index, spleen weight inflammatory markers, hematological, biochemical, macroscopic, and histological changes were determined...
April 14, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656197/design-and-synthesis-of-bpr1k653-derivatives-targeting-the-back-pocket-of-aurora-kinases-for-selective-isoform-inhibition
#5
Yi-Yu Ke, Chun-Ping Chang, Wen-Hsing Lin, Chia-Hua Tsai, I-Chen Chiu, Wan-Ping Wang, Pei-Chen Wang, Pei-Yi Chen, Wen-Hsin Lin, Chun-Feng Chang, Po-Chu Kuo, Jen-Shin Song, Chuan Shih, Hsing-Pang Hsieh, Ya-Hui Chi
Twenty five novel chemical analogs of the previously reported Aurora kinase inhibitor BPR1K653 (1-(4-(2-((5-chloro-6-phenylfuro[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)ethyl)phenyl)-3-(2-((dimethylamino)methyl)phenyl)urea) have been designed, synthesized, and evaluated by Aurora-A and Aurora-B enzymatic kinase activity assays. Similar to BPR1K653, analogs 3b-3h bear alkyl or tertiary amino group at the ortho position of the phenylurea, and showed equal or better inhibition activity for Aurora-B over Aurora-A. Conversely, preferential Aurora-A inhibition activity was observed when the same functional group was moved to the meta position of the phenylurea...
April 3, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656186/dclk1-plays-an-important-role-in-colorectal-cancer-tumorgenesis-through-the-regulation-of-mir-200c
#6
Yasaman Mohammadi, Seyed Mohammad Tavangar, Massoud Saidijam, Razieh Amini, Katayoon Etemadi, Fatemeh Karimi Dermani, Rezvan Najafi
Doublecortin-like kinase 1 (DCLK1) is a protein kinase that is known as a specific cancer stem cell (CSC) marker in colorectal cancer (CRC). Deregulation of DCLK1 expression has been reported in various cancers. We measured the protein expression of DCLK1 in 38 CRC and normal colon samples by immunohistochemistry (IHC). HCT-116 and SW-48 cells were transfected with DCLK1 siRNA and analyzed for expression of DCLK1 and miR-200c. The effects of DCLK1 knockdown on cell migration, invasion, sphere-forming, and apoptosis were explored...
April 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656104/oligocene-origin-and-drivers-of-diversification-in-the-genus-sticta-lobariaceae-ascomycota
#7
Todd J Widhelm, Francesca R Bertoletti, Matt J Asztalos, Joel A Mercado-Díaz, Jen-Pan Huang, Bibiana Moncada, Robert Lücking, Nicolas Magain, Emmanuël Sérusiaux, Bernard Goffinet, Nicholas Crouch, Roberta Mason-Gamer, H Thorsten Lumbsch
A major challenge to evolutionary biologists is to understand how biodiversity is distributed through space and time and across the tree of life. Diversification of organisms is influenced by many factors that act at different times and geographic locations but it is still not clear which have a significant impact and how drivers interact. To study diversification, we chose the lichen genus Sticta, by sampling through most of the global range and producing a time tree. We estimate that Sticta originated about 30 million years ago, but biogoegraphic analysis was unclear in estimating the origin of the genus...
April 12, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656061/hypoxia-inducible-bidirectional-shrna-expression-vector-delivery-using-pei-chitosan-tba-copolymers-for-colorectal-cancer-gene-therapy
#8
Bita Javan, Fatemeh Atyabi, Majid Shahbazi
AIMS: This investigation was conducted to construct a hypoxia/colorectal dual-specific bidirectional short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression vector and to transfect it into the colon cancer cell line HT-29 with PEI/chitosan-TBA nanoparticles for the simultaneous knock down of β-catenin and Bcl-2 under hypoxia. MAIN METHODS: To construct a pRNA-bipHRE-CEA vector, the carcinoma embryonic antigen (CEA) promoter designed in two directions and the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) enhancer were inserted between two promoters for hypoxic cancer specific gene expression...
April 12, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655935/establishing-the-diagnosis-of-chronic-colonization-with-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-of-cystic-fibrosis-patients-comparison-of-the-european-consensus-criteria-with-genotyping-of-p-aeruginosa-isolates
#9
Leander Jonckheere, Petra Schelstraete, Leen Van Simaey, Eva Van Braeckel, Julie Willekens, Sabine Van Daele, Frans De Baets, Mario Vaneechoutte
After antibiotic eradication treatment for a first ever Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolation, the European consensus criteria (ECC) are widely used to assess colonization status with P. aeruginosa in CF-patients. We evaluated to what extent genotyping (GT) of subsequent P. aeruginosa isolates could predict/assess chronic colonization (CC), in comparison with the ECC. METHODS: Over a 14-year period, sputa were cultured from 80 CF-patients (age range: 2-51 years), from a first ever isolation of P...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655909/carbon-catabolite-repression-gene-crea-regulates-morphology-aflatoxin-biosynthesis-and-virulence-in-aspergillus-flavus
#10
Opemipo Esther Fasoyin, Bin Wang, Mengguang Qiu, Xiaoyun Han, Kuang-Ren Chung, Shihua Wang
Carbon catabolite repression (CCR) is a very important mechanism employed in the utilization of carbon as an energy source, required for the regulation of growth, development and secondary metabolite production in fungi. Despite the wide study of this mechanism in fungi, little is known about the major CCR gene creA in A. flavus. Hence, we report identification of A. flavus carbon catabolite repression gene creA, which is responsible for the repression of secondary carbon sources. Gene deletion and over-expression was employed to explicate the role of creA in the morphology, pathogenicity, and secondary metabolite production in A...
April 12, 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655716/colonic-fermentation-of-polyphenols-from-chilean-currants-ribes-spp-and-its-effect-on-antioxidant-capacity-and-metabolic-syndrome-associated-enzymes
#11
Alberto Burgos-Edwards, Felipe Jiménez-Aspee, Cristina Theoduloz, Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann
The Chilean wild currants Ribes magellanicum and R. punctatum are a good source of polyphenols. Polyphenolic-enriched extracts (PEEs) from both species were submitted to in vitro colonic fermentation to assess the changes in phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity and inhibition of metabolic syndrome-associated enzymes. The phenolic profiles of the fermented samples showed significant changes after 24 h incubation. Nine metabolites, derived from the microbial fermentation, were tentatively identified, including dihydrocaffeic acid, dihydrocaffeoyl-, dihydroferuloylquinic acid, 1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)propan-2-ol (3,4-diHPP-2-ol), among others...
August 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655682/pristimerin-a-naturally-occurring-triterpenoid-attenuates-tumorigenesis-in-experimental-colitis-associated-colon-cancer
#12
Ju-Hyung Park, Jin-Kyung Kim
BACKGROUND: Pristimerin is a quinonemethide triterpenoid with anti-cancer, anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-protozoal activity. However, the therapeutic role of pristimerin in colitis-associated colorectal carcinogenesis is unknown. PURPOSE: We sought to examine the therapeutic effects of pristimerin on colitis-associated colon cancer induced in mice using azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). The goal was to identify the potential mechanism of action underlying the pharmacological activity of pristimerin...
March 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655671/overreporting-healthcare-associated-c-difficile-a-comparison-of-nhsn-labid-with-clinical-surveillance-definitions-in-the-era-of-molecular-testing
#13
Kathryn Albert, Barbara Ross, David P Calfee, Matthew S Simon
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common healthcare-associated gastrointestinal infection. Hospitals are required to report cases of healthcare facility-onset CDI (HO-CDI) using the National Healthcare Safety Network's CDI laboratory-identified (LabID) event definition. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of potential over-reporting due to the exclusion of important clinical data within LabID reporting definitions. METHODS: In 2015, retrospective chart review was performed on 212 HO-CDI cases reported from a large urban medical center...
April 11, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655406/aggregatibacter-actinobacillus-actimycetemcomitans-leukotoxin-and-human-periodontitis-a-historic-review-with-emphasis-on-jp2
#14
REVIEW
Chi-Cheng Tsai, Ya-Ping Ho, Yu-Shian Chou, Kun-Yen Ho, Yi-Min Wu, Ying-Chu Lin
Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus) actimycetemcomitans (Aa) is a gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the human oral cavity and is causative agent for localized aggressive (juvenile) periodontitis (AgP). In the middle of 1990s, a specific JP2 clone of belonging to the cluster of serotype b strains of Aa with highly leukotoxicity (leukotoxin, LtxA) able to kill human immune cells was isolated. JP2 clone of Aa was strongly associated with in particularly in rapidly progressing forms of aggressive periodontitis...
April 2018: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653414/new-insights-on-the-modulatory-roles-of-metformin-or-alpha-lipoic-acid-versus-their-combination-in-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-chronic-colitis-in-rats
#15
Fatma S Samman, Samah M Elaidy, Soha S Essawy, Mohammad S Hassan
BACKGROUND: Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis is the most widely used model that resembles ulcerative colitis (UC) in human with challenging chronic mechanistic oxidative stress-inflammatory/immunological cascades. In models of acute colitis, reduction of oxidative stress and inflammatory burdens beside manipulation of many transcriptional factors were achieved by metformin or alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA). Currently, in vivo DSS-induced chronic colitis was conducted and the possible therapeutic roles of metformin and/or α-LA were explored...
November 24, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653324/phytoremediation-of-mine-tailings-with-atriplex-halimus-and-organic-inorganic-amendments-a-five-year-field-case-study
#16
J A Acosta, A Abbaspour, G R Martínez, S Martínez-Martínez, R Zornoza, M Gabarrón, A Faz
Mine tailings have adverse chemical and physical conditions, including high concentrations of metals and salts, low organic matter content, and unbalanced rates of nutrients which limit the development of vegetation. A large scale field experiment was conducted to reclaim a tailing pond by triggering the growth of native species by spontaneous colonization by tilling (TL) the tailing pond surface and using marble waste (CaCO3 ; MW), pig slurry (PS) and their combination (MW + PS) as soil amendments. Soil physicochemical properties and water and DTPA extractable metal concentrations of bulk and rhizosphere soils were analyzed after five year from the application of the treatments...
April 5, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653175/phylogeny-and-biogeography-of-the-pantropical-genus-zanthoxylum-and-its-closest-relatives-in-the-proto-rutaceae-group-rutaceae
#17
Marc S Appelhans, Niklas Reichelt, Milton Groppo, Claudia Paetzold, Jun Wen
Zanthoxylum L. (prickly ash) is the only genus in the Citrus L. family (Rutaceae) with a pantropical distribution. We present the first detailed phylogenetic and biogeographic study of the genus and its close relatives in the proto-Rutaceae group. Our phylogenetic analyses based on two plastid and two nuclear markers show that the genus Toddalia Juss. is nested within Zanthoxylum, that earlier generic and intrageneric classifications need revision, and that the homochlamydeous flowers of the temperate species of Zanthoxylum are the result of a reduction from heterochlamydeous flowers...
April 10, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653170/ascorbic-acid-prevents-cellular-uptake-and-improves-biocompatibility-of-chitosan-nanoparticles
#18
Hisham A Elshoky, Taher A Salaheldin, Maha A Ali, Mohamed H Gaber
Chitosan nanoparticles have many applications, such as gene and drug delivery, due to their biocompatibility. Chitosan nanoparticles are currently produced by dissolution in acetic acid that affects the biocompatibility at acidic pH. Here, we synthesized and characterized chitosan (CS) and ascorbate chitosan (AsCS) nanoparticles and investigated their cytotoxic effects, internalization, and distribution in the human colon carcinoma cell line using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The CS and AsCS nanoparticles were spherical with average particle sizes of 44 ± 8...
April 10, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653155/chemodiversity-of-cirsium-fruits-antiproliferative-lignans-neolignans-and-sesquineolignans-as-chemotaxonomic-markers
#19
Rita Könye, Gergő Tóth, Anna Sólyomváry, Zsolt Mervai, Moritz Zürn, Kornélia Baghy, Ilona Kovalszky, Péter Horváth, Ibolya Molnár-Perl, Béla Noszál, Szabolcs Béni, Imre Boldizsár
While analyzing the fruit composition of nine European Cirsium species representing three sections (i.e., Cephalonoplos, Chamaeleon and Eriolepis), four lignans, three neolignans and three sesquineolignans were determined and used as chemotaxonomic markers. Among them, desmethyl balanophonin and desmethyl picrasmalignan were determined for the first time in the plant kingdom, as the main metabolites of the Chamaeleon section. Prebalanophonin and prepicrasmalignan, identified so far exclusively in C. eriophorum, were also confirmed in C...
April 10, 2018: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653092/cd10-inhibits-cell-motility-but-expression-is-associated-with-advanced-stage-disease-in-colorectal-cancer
#20
Teresa P Raposo, Mireia Sueca Comes, Adeyemi Idowu, Bora Agit, James Hassall, Wakkas Fadhil, Robert Nica, Rupert Ecker, Takashi Yao, Mohammad Ilyas
INTRODUCTION: CD10 is a cell membrane-bound endopeptidase which is expressed in normal small bowel but not in normal colon. It is aberrantly expressed in a small proportion of colorectal cancers (CRC) and this has been associated with liver metastasis and poor prognosis. We sought to investigate the mechanism of CD10 activity and its association with clinicopathological features. MATERIAL AND METHODS: CD10 was stably knocked down by lentiviral shRNA transduction in the CRC cell lines SW480 and SW620 which are derived from a primary tumour and its corresponding metastasis respectively...
April 10, 2018: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
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