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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651179/sedentary-work-and-the-risks-of-colon-and-rectal-cancer-by-anatomical-sub-site-in-the-canadian-census-health-and-environment-cohort-canchec
#1
Manisha Pahwa, M Anne Harris, Jill MacLeod, Michael Tjepkema, Paul A Peters, Paul A Demers
BACKGROUND: Sedentary behaviour is a potential risk factor for colorectal cancer. We examined the association between sedentary work, based on body position, and colorectal cancer risk in Canadians. METHODS: A working body position category (a. sitting; b. standing and walking; c. sitting, standing, and walking; d. other) was assigned to occupations reported by 1991 Canadian Census respondents based on national occupational counselling guidelines. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for cancers of the colon (overall, proximal, and distal) and rectum in men and women newly diagnosed from 1992 to 2010...
June 23, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651158/prospective-validation-of-a-lymphocyte-infiltration-prognostic-test-in-stage-iii-colon-cancer-patients-treated-with-adjuvant-folfox
#2
Jean-François Emile, Catherine Julié, Karine Le Malicot, Come Lepage, Josep Tabernero, Enrico Mini, Gunnar Folprecht, Jean-Luc Van Laethem, Stéphanie Dimet, Camille Boulagnon-Rombi, Marc-Antoine Allard, Frédérique Penault-Llorca, Jaafar Bennouna, Pierre Laurent-Puig, Julien Taieb
BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of lymphocyte infiltration (LI) of colorectal carcinoma (CC) has been demonstrated by several groups. However, no validated test is currently available for clinical practice. We previously described an automated and reproducible method for testing LI and aimed to validate it for clinical use. PATIENTS AND METHODS: According to National Institutes of Health criteria, we designed a prospective validation of this biomarker in patients included in the PETACC8 phase III study...
June 23, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651144/improved-anticancer-effects-of-albumin-bound-paclitaxel-nanoparticle-via-augmentation-of-epr-effect-and-albumin-protein-interactions-using-s-nitrosated-human-serum-albumin-dimer
#3
Ryo Kinoshita, Yu Ishima, Victor T G Chuang, Hideaki Nakamura, Jun Fang, Hiroshi Watanabe, Taro Shimizu, Keiichiro Okuhira, Tatsuhiro Ishida, Hiroshi Maeda, Masaki Otagiri, Toru Maruyama
In the latest trend of anticancer chemotherapy research, there were many macromolecular anticancer drugs developed based on enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, such as albumin bound paclitaxel nanoparticle (nab- PTX, also called Abraxane(®)). However, cancers with low vascular permeability posed a challenge for these EPR based therapeutic systems. Augmenting the intrinsic EPR effect with an intrinsic vascular modulator such as nitric oxide (NO) could be a promising strategy. S-nitrosated human serum albumin dimer (SNO-HSA Dimer) shown promising activity previously was evaluated for the synergistic effect when used as a pretreatment agent in nab-PTX therapy against various tumor models...
June 22, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651114/isolation-and-functional-interrogation-of-adult-human-prostate-epithelial-stem-cells-at-single-cell-resolution
#4
Wen-Yang Hu, Dan-Ping Hu, Lishi Xie, Ye Li, Shyama Majumdar, Larisa Nonn, Hong Hu, Toshi Shioda, Gail S Prins
Using primary cultures of normal human prostate epithelial cells, we developed a novel prostasphere-based, label-retention assay that permits identification and isolation of stem cells at a single cell level. Their bona fide stem cell nature was corroborated using in vitro and in vivo regenerative assays and documentation of symmetric/asymmetric division. Robust WNT10B and KRT13 levels without E-cadherin or KRT14 staining distinguished individual stem cells from daughter progenitors in spheroids. Following FACS to isolate label-retaining stem cells from label-free progenitors, RNA-seq identified unique gene signatures for the separate populations which may serve as useful biomarkers...
June 16, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650995/septins-restrict-inflammation-and-protect-zebrafish-larvae-from-shigella-infection
#5
Maria J Mazon-Moya, Alexandra R Willis, Vincenzo Torraca, Laurent Boucontet, Avinash R Shenoy, Emma Colucci-Guyon, Serge Mostowy
Shigella flexneri, a Gram-negative enteroinvasive pathogen, causes inflammatory destruction of the human colonic epithelium. Infection by S. flexneri has been well-studied in vitro and is a paradigm for bacterial interactions with the host immune system. Recent work has revealed that components of the cytoskeleton have important functions in innate immunity and inflammation control. Septins, highly conserved cytoskeletal proteins, have emerged as key players in innate immunity to bacterial infection, yet septin function in vivo is poorly understood...
June 26, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650985/chronic-trichuris-muris-infection-causes-neoplastic-change-in-the-intestine-and-exacerbates-tumour-formation-in-apc-min-mice
#6
Kelly S Hayes, Laura J Cliffe, Alison J Bancroft, Simon P Forman, Seona Thompson, Cath Booth, Richard K Grencis
Incidences of infection-related cancers are on the rise in developing countries where the prevalence of intestinal nematode worm infections are also high. Trichuris muris (T. muris) is a murine gut-dwelling nematode that is the direct model for human T. trichiura, one of the major soil-transmitted helminth infections of humans. In order to assess whether chronic infection with T. muris does indeed influence the development of cancer hallmarks, both wild type mice and colon cancer model (APC min/+) mice were infected with this parasite...
June 26, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650945/treatment-approach-for-infection-of-healed-fractures-after-internal-fixation
#7
Joshua M Lawrenz, Salvatore J Frangiamore, Ajinkya A Rane, W Alex Cantrell, Heather A Vallier
OBJECTIVE: To review the efficacy of a treatment approach for patients with infection and colonized implants after open reduction and internal fixation of fractures. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. SETTING: Level one trauma center. PATIENTS: Twenty patients were treated for wound infection with colonized implants after open reduction and internal fixation. INTERVENTION: Surgical debridement, removal of implants and a short post-operative oral antibiotic course...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650926/hypercapnia-induced-amelioration-of-the-intestinal-microvascular-oxygenation-in-sepsis-is-independent-of-the-endogenous-sympathetic-nervous-system
#8
Jan Schulz, Sabrina Schöneborn, Christian Vollmer, Richard Truse, Anna Herminghaus, Inge Bauer, Christopher Beck, Olaf Picker
INTRODUCTION: Insufficient microvascular oxygenation (μHBO2) of the intestinal mucosa worsens outcome of septic patients. Hypercapnia ameliorates μHBO2, mediated via endogenous vasopressin release. Under physiological conditions, blockade of the endogenous sympathetic nervous system abolishes this protective effect of hypercapnia. The aim of our study was therefore to evaluate the role of the endogenous sympathetic nervous system during hypercapnia on intestinal μHBO2 under septic conditions...
June 23, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650745/longer-duration-antimicrobial-therapy-does-not-prevent-treatment-failure-in-high-risk-patients-with-complicated-intra-abdominal-infections
#9
Taryn E Hassinger, Christopher A Guidry, Ori D Rotstein, Therese M Duane, Heather L Evans, Charles H Cook, Patrick J O'neill, John E Mazuski, Reza Askari, Lena M Napolitano, Nicholas Namias, Preston R Miller, E Patchen Dellinger, Raul Coimbra, Christine S Cocanour, Kaysie L Banton, Joseph Cuschieri, Kimberley Popovsky, Robert G Sawyer
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested the length of treatment of intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) can be shortened without detrimental effects on patient outcomes. However, data from high-risk patient populations are lacking. We hypothesized that patients at high risk for treatment failure will benefit from a longer course of antimicrobial therapy. METHODS: Patients enrolled in the Study to Optimize Peritoneal Infection Therapy (STOP-IT) trial were evaluated retrospectively to identify risk factors associated with treatment failure, which was defined as the composite outcome of recurrent IAI, surgical site infection, or death...
June 26, 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650693/healthy-bovines-as-reservoirs-of-major-pathogenic-lineages-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-portugal
#10
Teresa Conceição, Hermínia de Lencastre, Marta Aires-de-Sousa
The nosocomial prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Portugal is close to 50% and remains one of the highest in Europe. MRSA reservoirs in the animal setting in Portugal have been very poorly investigated, namely among animal husbandry. A total of 52 samples (nasal, inguinal region, and milk) were obtained from bovine animals and analyzed for the presence of S. aureus. The isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa typing, SCCmec typing, and multilocus sequence typing and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, presence of mecA and mecC genes, and virulence determinants...
June 26, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650313/molecular-mechanisms-and-epidemiology-of-resistance-in-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-the-middle-east-region
#11
Grace El Moujaber, Marwan Osman, Rayane Rafei, Fouad Dabboussi, Monzer Hamze
PURPOSE: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a commensal bacterium that normally colonizes the human nasopharyngeal cavity. Once disseminated, it can cause several diseases, ranging from non-invasive infections such as acute otitis media and sinusitis through to invasive infections with higher mortality, including meningitis and septicaemia. Since the identification of the first S. pneumoniae strain with decreased susceptibility to penicillin in the 1960s, antibiotic resistance among S. pneumoniae has increased disturbingly and the mechanisms of resistance have begun to unfold...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650026/the-effect-of-pegylated-hollow-gold-nanoparticles-on-stem-cell-migration-potential-application-in-tissue-regeneration
#12
Maria Del Mar Encabo-Berzosa, Maria Sancho-Albero, Alejandra Crespo, Vanesa Andreu, Victor Sebastian, Silvia Irusta, Manuel Arruebo, Pilar Martín-Duque, Jesus Santamaria
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) not only can be differentiated into different cell types but also have tropism towards injured or inflamed tissues serving as repair cells. Here we have demonstrated that MSCs containing gold nanoparticles (GNPs) whose surface has been functionalized with PEG show accelerated cell migration, successful scaffold colonization and regeneration. We report the impact of GNPs on the migration (by the wound healing assay), and proliferation (by flow cytometry analysis and by the detection of metabolic mitochondrial activity) on the behaviour of different cell lines including MSCs, HeLa cells, and human dermal fibroblasts...
June 26, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649870/lubricant-provides-poor-rectal-mucosal-hiv-coverage
#13
Eugenie C Shieh, Ethel D Weld, Edward J Fuchs, Hiwot Hiruy, Karen W Buckheit, Robert W Buckheit, Jennifer C Breakey, Craig W Hendrix
Given the rising HIV incidence in men who have sex with men (MSM) despite repeatedly proven effectiveness of oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis, behaviorally-congruent periodic dosing strategies, such as dosing microbicides as lubricants, are now in demand. Rectal microbicide gel studies largely administer gels using vaginal applicators, which have not been well-received and do not mimic lubricant use. We compared rectal gel manually dosed as lubricant to applicator dosing in five healthy, HIV-negative MSM who received 10 or 3...
June 25, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649853/cationic-liposome-co-encapsulation-of-smac-mimetic-and-zvad-using-a-novel-lipid-bilayer-fusion-loaded-with-mlkl-pdna-for-tumor-inhibition-in-vivo
#14
Dan Sun, Linshu Zhao, Junzhong Lin, Yun Zhao, Yu Zheng
The increase in multidrug resistance among colon cancer cells presents a challenge for the development of effective therapies. Small-molecule analogs of second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase (SMAC) mimetic in association with mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL)-pDNA and z-VAD-fmk have shown ideal antitumor effects in colon cancer cells in vitro via induction of RIP3-dependent necroptosis. To achieve synergistic antitumor effects in vivo, liposomes loaded with SMAC mimetic, MLKL-pDNA and z-VAD-fmk have been developed using novel lipid fusion methods to co-localize the molecules of interest within the tumor cells...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649800/revisiting-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-cancer-metastasis-the-connection-between-epithelial-plasticity-and-stemness
#15
REVIEW
Tsai-Tsen Liao, Muh-Hwa Yang
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important process in embryonic development, fibrosis, and cancer metastasis. During cancer progression, the activation of EMT permits cancer cells to acquire migratory, invasive, and stem-like properties. A growing body of evidence supports the critical link between EMT and cancer stemness. However, contradictory results have indicated that the inhibition of EMT also promotes cancer stemness, and that mesenchymal-epithelial transition, the reverse process of EMT, is associated with the tumor-initiating ability required for metastatic colonization...
June 14, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649763/transformations-of-some-sesquiterpene-lactones-by-filamentous-fungi-cytotoxic-evaluations
#16
Arturo Cano-Flores, Guillermo Delgado
Biotransformation is an economically and ecologically viable technology which has been used to modify the structures of many classes of biologically active products. Some fungi may be useful for the biotransformation of sesquiterpene lactones (SLs), leading to unusual structural changes that modify their biological activities, and other transformations mimic their biosynthetic pathways, generating evidences for the proposed biogenesis. Eight filamentous fungi were screened for their ability to transform different SLs (1-9), and microbial reactions yielded compounds 11 -- 18, which in turn have been isolated as natural products, thus mimicking their biosynthesis...
June 26, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649733/composition-of-the-root-mycorrhizal-community-associated-with-coffea-arabica-in-fifa-mountains-jazan-region-saudi-arabia
#17
Mosbah Mahdhi, Taieb Tounekti, Turki Ali Al-Turki, Habib Khemira
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) constitute a key functional group of soil biota that can greatly contribute to crop productivity and ecosystem sustainability. They improve nutrient uptake and enhance the ability of plants to cope with abiotic stresses. The presence of AMF in coffee (Coffea arabica L.) plant roots have been reported in several locations but not in Saudi Arabia despite the fact that coffee has been in cultivation here since ancient times. The objective of the present study was to investigate the diversity of AMF communities colonizing the roots of coffee trees growing in two sites of Fifa Mountains (south-west Saudi Arabia): site 1 at 700 m altitude and site 2 at 1400 m...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649632/three-dimensional-organotypic-co-culture-model-of-intestinal-epithelial-cells-and-macrophages-to-study-salmonella-enterica-colonization-patterns
#18
Jennifer Barrila, Jiseon Yang, Aurélie Crabbé, Shameema F Sarker, Yulong Liu, C Mark Ott, Mayra A Nelman-Gonzalez, Simon J Clemett, Seth D Nydam, Rebecca J Forsyth, Richard R Davis, Brian E Crucian, Heather Quiriarte, Kenneth L Roland, Karen Brenneman, Clarence Sams, Christine Loscher, Cheryl A Nickerson
Three-dimensional models of human intestinal epithelium mimic the differentiated form and function of parental tissues often not exhibited by two-dimensional monolayers and respond to Salmonella in key ways that reflect in vivo infections. To further enhance the physiological relevance of three-dimensional models to more closely approximate in vivo intestinal microenvironments encountered by Salmonella, we developed and validated a novel three-dimensional co-culture infection model of colonic epithelial cells and macrophages using the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel bioreactor...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649615/imaging-parkinson-s-disease-below-the-neck
#19
Per Borghammer, Karoline Knudsen, Tatyana D Fedorova, David J Brooks
Parkinson's disease is a systemic disorder with widespread and early α-synuclein pathology in the autonomic and enteric nervous systems, which is present throughout the gastrointestinal canal prior to diagnosis. Gastrointestinal and genitourinary autonomic symptoms often predate clinical diagnosis by several years. It has been hypothesized that progressive α-synuclein aggregation is initiated in hyperbranched, non-myelinated neuron terminals, and may subsequently spread via retrograde axonal transport. This would explain why autonomic nerves are so prone to formation of α-synuclein pathology...
2017: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649593/colonic-microbiota-encroachment-correlates-with-dysglycemia-in-humans
#20
Benoit Chassaing, Shreya M Raja, James D Lewis, Shanthi Srinivasan, Andrew T Gewirtz
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mucoid structures that coat the epithelium play an essential role in keeping the intestinal microbiota at a safe distance from host cells. Encroachment of bacteria into the normally almost-sterile inner mucus layer has been observed in inflammatory bowel disease and in mouse models of colitis. Moreover, such microbiota encroachment has also been observed in mouse models of metabolic syndrome, which are associated low-grade intestinal inflammation. Hence, we investigated if microbiota encroachment might correlate with indices of metabolic syndrome in humans...
September 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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