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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529912/female-gonadal-hormone-effects-on-microglial-activation-and-functional-outcomes-in-a-mouse-model-of-moderate-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Odera Umeano, Haichen Wang, Hana Dawson, Beilei Lei, Afoma Umeano, Dawn Kernagis, Michael L James
AIM: To address the hypothesis that young, gonad-intact female mice have improved long-term recovery associated with decreased neuroinflammation compared to male mice. METHODS: Eight to ten week-old male, female, and ovariectomized (OVX) mice underwent closed cranial impact. Gonad-intact female mice were injured only in estrus state. After injury, between group differences were assessed using complementary immunohistochemical staining for microglial cells at 1 h, mRNA polymerase chain reaction for inflammatory markers at 1 h after injury, Rotarod over days 1-7, and water maze on days 28-31 after injury...
May 4, 2017: World Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528414/tissue-contaminant-burdens-in-san-francisco-estuary-white-sturgeon-acipenser-transmontanus-implications-for-population-recovery
#2
Deke T Gundersen, Steven C Zeug, Robert B Bringolf, Joseph Merz, Zachary Jackson, Molly A H Webb
The San Francisco Estuary (SFE) is heavily influenced by anthropogenic activities, including historic and chronic contaminant inputs. These contaminants can adversely affect SFE fish populations, particularly white sturgeon, because they are a benthic dwelling, long-lived species. We measured a suite of metals and organic contaminants in liver and gonad tissues of 25 male and 32 female white sturgeon as well as several physiological indicators of sturgeon health. Most sturgeon (68% of males and 83% of females) were estimated to be between 13 and 17 years of age...
May 20, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528022/direct-effect-of-curcumin-on-porcine-ovarian-cell-functions
#3
Attila Kádasi, Nora Maruniaková, Aneta Štochmaľová, Miroslav Bauer, Roland Grossmann, Abdel Halim Harrath, Adriana Kolesárová, Alexander V Sirotkin
Curcuma longa Linn (L.) is a plant widely used in cooking (in curry powder a.o.) and in folk medicine, but its action on reproductive processes and its possible mechanisms of action remain to be investigated. The objective of this study was to examine the direct effects of curcumin, the major Curcuma longa L. molecule, on basic ovarian cell functions such as proliferation, apoptosis, viability and steroidogenesis. Porcine ovarian granulosa cells were cultured with and without curcumin (at doses of 0, 1, 10 and 100μg/ml of medium)...
May 12, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527702/crispr-cas9-induced-disruption-of-wt1a-and-wt1b-reveals-their-different-roles-in-kidney-and-gonad-development-in-nile-tilapia
#4
Dongneng Jiang, Jinlin Chen, Zheng Fan, Dejie Tan, Jiue Zhao, Hongjuan Shi, Zhilong Liu, Wenjing Tao, Minghui Li, Deshou Wang
Wilms tumor 1 (Wt1) is an essential factor for urogenital system development. Teleosts have two wt1s, named as wt1a and wt1b. In this study, the expression pattern of wt1a and wt1b and their functions on the urogenital system were analyzed by in situ hybridization and CRISPR/Cas9. wt1a was found to be expressed in the glomerulus at 3 dah (days after hatching), earlier than wt1b. wt1a and wt1b were simultaneously expressed in the somatic cells of gonads at 3 dah, while their cell locations were similar, but not identical in adult fish gonads...
May 17, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525341/morphological-analysis-of-testicles-in-cats-with-disorders-of-sex-development
#5
S Dzimira, W Nizanski, J A Madej
Disorders of sex development (DSD) are rare in cats. They can be caused by chromosomal aberrations, gene mutations or other undefined factors. The aim of the present study was to compare the histological structure and immunohistochemical reactivity of testes in cats with DSD and in healthy cats. The research material consisted of the gonads of four cats - phenotypic males with an incorrect structure of the reproductive system. The control group consisted of the testes of four healthy cats - routinely castrated phenotypical males...
March 28, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524872/hif-1%C3%AE-regulates-macrophage-endothelial-interactions-during-blood-vessel-development-in-zebrafish
#6
Claudia Gerri, Rubén Marín-Juez, Michele Marass, Alora Marks, Hans-Martin Maischein, Didier Y R Stainier
Macrophages are known to interact with endothelial cells during developmental and pathological angiogenesis but the molecular mechanisms modulating these interactions remain unclear. Here, we show a role for the Hif-1α transcription factor in this cellular communication. We generated hif-1aa;hif-1ab double mutants in zebrafish, hereafter referred to as hif-1α mutants, and find that they exhibit impaired macrophage mobilization from the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region as well as angiogenic defects and defective vascular repair...
May 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522036/transient-receptor-potential-trp-channel-function-in-the-reproductive-axis
#7
REVIEW
Viktoria Götz, Sen Qiao, Andreas Beck, Ulrich Boehm
Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels play important functional roles in the signal transduction machinery of hormone-secreting cells and have recently been implicated in reproductive physiology. While expression studies have demonstrated TRP channel expression at all levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (hpg) axis, functional details about TRP channel action at the level of the individual cells controlling reproduction are just beginning to emerge. Canonical TRP (TRPC) channels are prominently expressed in the reproductive center of the neuroendocrine brain, i...
May 3, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518099/dissection-of-larval-zebrafish-gonadal-tissue
#8
Xinjian Wang, Sijie Chen, Wei Zhang, Yiyuan Ren, Quan Zhang, Gang Peng
Although wild zebrafish possess a ZZ/ZW sex-determination system, domesticated zebrafish have lost the sex chromosome. They utilize a polygenic sex determination system, where several genes distributed throughout the genome collectively determine the sex identities of individual fish. Currently, the genes involved in regulating gonad development and how they work remain elusive. Normally, isolating gonadal tissue is the first step to examine the sex developmental processes. Here, we present a procedure to isolate gonadal tissue from 17 dpf (days post fertilization) and 25 dpf zebrafish larvae...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515897/exploitation-promotes-earlier-sex-change-in-a-protandrous-patellid-limpet-patella-aspera-r%C3%A3-ding-1798
#9
Gustavo M Martins, Carla D G Borges, Maria Vale, Pedro A Ribeiro, Rogério R Ferraz, Helen R Martins, Ricardo S Santos, Stephen J Hawkins
Exploitation of organisms can prompt the reduction in the number and size of target populations consequently affecting reproductive output and replenishment. Here, we investigated the effects of exploitation on the population structure of a protandrous patellid limpet, Patella aspera, an overexploited Macaronesian endemic. Timed dives were used to collect animals across eleven islands of Macaronesia. Individuals were inspected for sex, size, and gonad stage. Using catch effort (time per person) per island coastal perimeter as a surrogate for exploitation intensity, we found that limpet abundance (CPUE) and mean size tended to decrease with exploitation intensity...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515008/localization-and-distribution-of-gonadal-proteins-in-the-oviparous-lizard-sceloporus-aeneus-squamata-phrynosomatidae
#10
Antonio-Rubio Nivia Rocio, Villagrán-SantaCruz Maricela, Moreno-Mendoza Norma
Among vertebrates, several specific proteins are involved in the function and development of gonads. Several genes such as SOX9, FOXL2, DDX4, IFITM3, and DPPA3, are active during embryonic differentiation and maintain their expression in adult tissues, playing important roles in the function and development of the line cell, where these are produced. Among reptiles, molecular mechanisms for sex differentiation have been analyzed in turtles, crocodiles, and some lizards, while in adult stages such studies are scarce...
May 14, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512301/maternal-antioxidant-provisioning-mitigates-pollutant-induced-oxidative-damage-in-embryos-of-the-temperate-sea-urchin-evechinus-chloroticus
#11
Kathryn N Lister, Miles D Lamare, David J Burritt
One mechanism of pollution resistance in marine populations is through transgenerational plasticity, whereby offspring capacity to resist pollution reflects parental exposure history. Our study aimed to establish correlations between oxidative stress biomarkers and key reproductive fitness parameters in the temperate sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus following exposure to dietary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAH-exposed adults exhibited total gonad tissue concentrations of PAHs in excess of 4 and 5 times baseline levels, for females and males respectively...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511899/signaling-pathways-to-and-from-the-hypophysial-pars-tuberalis-an-important-center-for-the-control-of-seasonal-rhythms
#12
REVIEW
Horst-Werner Korf
Seasonal (circannual) rhythms play an important role for the control of body functions (reproduction, metabolism, immune responses) in nearly all living organisms. Also humans are affected by the seasons with regard to immune responses and mental functions, the seasonal affective disorder being one of the most prominent examples. The hypophysial pars tuberalis (PT), an important interface between the hypophysial pars distalis and neuroendocrine centers in the brain, plays an essential role in the regulation of seasonal functions and may even be the seat of the circannual clock...
May 13, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511076/the-tissue-distribution-metabolism-and-hepatotoxicity-of-benzoylurea-pesticides-in-male-eremias-argus-after-a-single-oral-administration
#13
Jing Chang, Wei Li, Peng Xu, Baoyuan Guo, Yinghuan Wang, Jianzhong Li, Huili Wang
Benzoylurea pesticides (BPUs) are widely used to control the locust, but the toxicokinetics and hepatotoxicity of BPUs in lizards have not been investigated. In this study, the tissue distribution, metabolism and liver toxicity of diflubenzuron and flufenoxuron were assessed in the Eremias argus following a single oral exposure. Diflubenzuron preferred to accumulate in the fat and brain (>1.0 mg kg(-1)) and was rapidly eliminate in other tissues. In the liver, 4-chloroaniline was one of diflubenzuron metabolites, although with a concentration less than 0...
May 3, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510608/the-biomphalaria-glabrata-dna-methylation-machinery-displays-spatial-tissue-expression-is-differentially-active-in-distinct-snail-populations-and-is-modulated-by-interactions-with-schistosoma-mansoni
#14
Kathrin K Geyer, Umar H Niazi, David Duval, Céline Cosseau, Chad Tomlinson, Iain W Chalmers, Martin T Swain, David J Cutress, Utibe Bickham-Wright, Sabrina E Munshi, Christoph Grunau, Timothy P Yoshino, Karl F Hoffmann
BACKGROUND: The debilitating human disease schistosomiasis is caused by infection with schistosome parasites that maintain a complex lifecycle alternating between definitive (human) and intermediate (snail) hosts. While much is known about how the definitive host responds to schistosome infection, there is comparably less information available describing the snail's response to infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Here, using information recently revealed by sequencing of the Biomphalaria glabrata intermediate host genome, we provide evidence that the predicted core snail DNA methylation machinery components are associated with both intra-species reproduction processes and inter-species interactions...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509881/dfmr1-plays-roles-in-small-rna-pathways-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#15
REVIEW
Valeria Specchia, Simona D'Attis, Antonietta Puricella, Maria Pia Bozzetti
Fragile-X syndrome is the most common form of inherited mental retardation accompanied by other phenotypes, including macroorchidism. The disorder originates with mutations in the Fmr1 gene coding for the FMRP protein, which, with its paralogs FXR1 and FXR2, constitute a well-conserved family of RNA-binding proteins. Drosophila melanogaster is a good model for the syndrome because it has a unique fragile X-related gene: dFmr1. Recently, in addition to its confirmed role in the miRNA pathway, a function for dFmr1 in the piRNA pathway, operating in Drosophila gonads, has been established...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508605/disorders-of-adrenal-steroidogenesis-impact-on-gonadal-function-and-sex-development
#16
Christiaan F Mooij, Antonius E van Herwaarden, Hedi L Claahsen-van der Grinten
A defect in adrenal steroidogenesis may cause a disorder of sex development (DSD). Importantly, DSD of adrenal origin is not restricted to a genital phenotype but is in most cases accompanied by mild to severe impairment in glucocorticoid and/or mineralocorticoid synthesis. If a patient is suspected of DSD of adrenal origin evaluation of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid metabolism is therefore essential to provide adequate medical care in the case of a severe and potentially life-threatening insufficiency...
December 2016: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508054/flexible-adaptation-of-male-germ-cells-from-female-ipscs-of-endangered-tokudaia-osimensis
#17
Arata Honda, Narantsog Choijookhuu, Haruna Izu, Yoshihiro Kawano, Mizuho Inokuchi, Kimiko Honsho, Ah-Reum Lee, Hiroki Nabekura, Hiroshi Ohta, Tomoyuki Tsukiyama, Yasuhide Ohinata, Asato Kuroiwa, Yoshitaka Hishikawa, Mitinori Saitou, Takamichi Jogahara, Chihiro Koshimoto
In mammals, the Y chromosome strictly influences the maintenance of male germ cells. Almost all mammalian species require genetic contributors to generate testes. An endangered species, Tokudaia osimensis, has a unique sex chromosome composition XO/XO, and genetic differences between males and females have not been confirmed. Although a distinctive sex-determining mechanism may exist in T. osimensis, it has been difficult to examine thoroughly in this rare animal species. To elucidate the discriminative sex-determining mechanism in T...
May 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506988/dmrt1-induces-the-male-pathway-in-a-turtle-with-temperature-dependent-sex-determination
#18
Chutian Ge, Jian Ye, Haiyan Zhang, Yi Zhang, Wei Sun, Yapeng Sang, Blanche Capel, Guoying Qian
The molecular mechanism underlying temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) has been a long-standing mystery; in particular, the thermo-sensitive genetic triggers for gonadal sex differentiation are largely unknown. Here, we characterized a conserved DM domain gene, Dmrt1, in the red-eared slider turtle Trachemys scripta (T. scripta), which exhibits TSD. We found that Dmrt1 has a temperature-dependent, sexually dimorphic expression pattern, preceding gonadal sex differentiation, and is capable of responding rapidly to temperature shifts and aromatase inhibitor treatment...
May 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505621/gnrha-treatment-of-cryptorchid-boys-affects-genes-involved-in-hormonal-control-of-the-hpg-axis-and-fertility
#19
Faruk Hadziselimovic, Katharina Gegenschatz-Schmid, Gilvydas Verkauskas, Philippe Demougin, Vytautas Bilius, Darius Dasevicius, Michael B Stadler
The gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa; Buserelin) rescues fertility during adulthood in the majority of high infertility risk cryptorchid boys presenting with defective mini-puberty. However, the molecular events governing this effect are not understood. We report the outcome of an RNA profiling analysis of testicular biopsies from 4 operated patients who were treated with GnRHa for 6 months versus 3 operated controls who were not treated. GnRHa induces a significant transcriptional response, including protein-coding genes involved in pituitary development, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and testosterone synthesis...
May 16, 2017: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505106/human-chorionic-gonadotropin-the-pregnancy-hormone-and-more
#20
REVIEW
Charalampos Theofanakis, Petros Drakakis, Alexandros Besharat, Dimitrios Loutradis
To thoroughly review the uses of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) related to the process of reproduction and also assess new, non-traditional theories. Review of the international literature and research studies. hCG and its receptor, LH/CGR, are expressed in numerous sites of the reproductive tract, both in gonadal and extra-goanadal tissues, promoting oocyte maturation, fertilization, implantation and early embryo development. Moreover, hCG seems to have a potential role as an anti-rejection agent in solid organ transplantation...
May 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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