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Selami Candan, Nurcan Özyurt Koçakoğlu, Zekiye Suludere
This work presents the male reproductive system morphology and histology of the water strider Gerris lacustris (Linnaeus 1758) (Gerridae, Heteroptera) using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The male reproductive system of G. lacustris comprise of a pair of testes, two vasa deferentia, two seminal vesicles, an ejaculatory duct. There is no bulbus ejaculatorius and the long vas deferantia uniting to form a simple ductus ejaculatorius which is connected to the aedeagus. The testes are white colored and this cylindiric-shaped structure lies along genital abdominal segment...
April 16, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Jianqiang Bao, Sophie Rousseaux, Jianjun Shen, Kevin Lin, Yue Lu, Mark T Bedford
CARM1 is a protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) that has been firmly implicated in transcriptional regulation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which CARM1 orchestrates transcriptional regulation are not fully understood, especially in a tissue-specific context. We found that Carm1 is highly expressed in the mouse testis and localizes to the nucleus in spermatids, suggesting an important role for Carm1 in spermiogenesis. Using a germline-specific conditional Carm1 knockout mouse model, we found that it is essential for the late stages of haploid germ cell development...
April 5, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Yathish H M, Subodh Kumar, Rajni Chaudhary, Chinmoy Mishra, Sivakumar A, Amit Kumar, Anuj Chauhan, S K Ghosh, Abhijit Mitra
Protamines (PRMs), important proteins of chromatin condensation in spermiogenesis, are promising candidate genes to explore markers of sperm motility. The coding and in-silico predicted promoter regions of these genes were investigated in 102 crossbred and 32 purebred cattle. Also, mRNA quantification was done to explore its possibility as diagnostic tool of infertility. The PCR-SSCP analysis indicated there were two band patterns only in fragment I of the PRM1 and fragment II of the PRM2 gene. The sequence analysis revealed A152G and G179A transitions in the PRM1 gene...
April 10, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Qiangzhen Yang, Peifei Li, Yi Wen, Sisi Li, Jun Chen, Xurui Liu, Lirui Wang, Xinhong Li
The toxic effects of cadmium (Cd) in the reproductive system have been confirmed, and lysine acetylation and succinylation play important roles in spermatogenesis. However, little attention determined whether Cd could affect lysine acylation and how it might have an impact on the reproductive system. Therefore, with the goal of contributing to this subject, we have examined the effects of Cd on lysine acetylation and succinylation of proteins in the germ cells of male mice testes during different developmental stages...
April 10, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Petr P Laktionov, Daniil A Maksimov, Stanislav E Romanov, Polina A Antoshina, Olga V Posukh, Helen White-Cooper, Dmitry E Koryakov, Stepan N Belyakin
BACKGROUND: During Drosophila spermatogenesis, testis-specific meiotic arrest complex (tMAC) and testis-specific TBP-associated factors (tTAF) contribute to activation of hundreds of genes required for meiosis and spermiogenesis. Intriguingly, tMAC is paralogous to the broadly expressed complex Myb-MuvB (MMB)/dREAM and Mip40 protein is shared by both complexes. tMAC acts as a gene activator in spermatocytes, while MMB/dREAM was shown to repress gene activity in many cell types. RESULTS: Our study addresses the intricate interplay between tMAC, tTAF, and MMB/dREAM during spermatogenesis...
April 2, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
Frederick N Dong, Amir Amiri-Yekta, Guillaume Martinez, Antoine Saut, Julie Tek, Laurence Stouvenel, Patrick Lorès, Thomas Karaouzène, Nicolas Thierry-Mieg, Véronique Satre, Sophie Brouillet, Abbas Daneshipour, Seyedeh Hanieh Hosseini, Mélanie Bonhivers, Hamid Gourabi, Emmanuel Dulioust, Christophe Arnoult, Aminata Touré, Pierre F Ray, Haiqing Zhao, Charles Coutton
The multiple morphological abnormalities of the flagella (MMAF) phenotype is among the most severe forms of sperm defects responsible for male infertility. The phenotype is characterized by the presence in the ejaculate of immotile spermatozoa with severe flagellar abnormalities including flagella being short, coiled, absent, and of irregular caliber. Recent studies have demonstrated that MMAF is genetically heterogeneous, and genes thus far associated with MMAF account for only one-third of cases. Here we report the identification of homozygous truncating mutations (one stop-gain and one splicing variant) in CFAP69 of two unrelated individuals by whole-exome sequencing of a cohort of 78 infertile men with MMAF...
March 28, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
Satoshi Hiroyoshi, Takayuki Mistunaga, Tsuguo Kohama, Gadi V P Reddy
The sterile insect technique (SIT) has been used for the control or eradication of target insect pests. To successfully apply SIT, it is very important to clarify the effect of irradiation on male reproduction in the target pest, because their mating and spermiogenesis abilities affect the success of eradication program. The sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Brentidae) is a notorious and worldwide pest of sweet potato. We investigated the effect of irradiation at five doses ranging from 0 (control) to 150 Gy on 9-d-old males...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Geert Hamer, Dirk G de Rooij
This review focusses on those mouse mutations that cause an effect on the morphology, viability and/or behavior of primordial germ cells (PGCs) and gonocytes at specific steps of their fetal development up to the start of spermatogenesis, a few days after birth. To restrict the area covered, mice with mutations that cause abnormal hormone levels or mutations of genes not expressed in germ cells that secondarily cause spermatogenic problems, are not discussed. To make our literature search as comprehensive as possible, Pubmed was searched for "(primordial germ cells OR prospermatogonia OR prespermatogonia OR gonocytes OR spermatogonia or meiosis or spermiogenesis or spermatogenesis) AND mouse AND (knockout or mutant or transgenic)...
March 24, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Ya-Lan Wei, Wan-Xi Yang
Sperm malformation is one of the main reasons for male infertility, but the precise mechanisms of this process remain undiscovered. The major process of spermiogenesis is sperm head shaping. Cytoskeleton is a crucial unit in this process, as the acroplaxome and manchette are two kinds of momentous structures cooperated with various functional proteins to insure the formation of acrosome and nucleus. One is primarily formed by filamentous actin (F-actin) and responsible for transverse acrosome extension and concentration, another plays as the mainstay of nuclear deformation through circular arrangement of microtubules (MTs)...
March 21, 2018: Gene
Matthew R Marcello, Marina Druzhinina, Andrew Singson
The interaction and organization of proteins in the sperm membrane are important for all aspects of sperm function. We have determined the interactions between twelve known mutationally defined and cloned sperm membrane proteins in a model system for reproduction, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Identification of the interactions between sperm membrane proteins will improve our understanding of and ability to characterize defects in sperm function. To identify interacting proteins, we conducted a split-ubiquitin membrane yeast two-hybrid (MYTH) analysis of gene products identified through genetic screens that are necessary for sperm function and predicted to encode transmembrane proteins...
March 13, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Jian Zhang, Jie Su, Shuxiang Hu, Jindun Zhang, Rui Ding, Jitong Guo, Guifang Cao, Rongfeng Li, Qing-Yuan Sun, Xihe Li
Ubiquitination is an important cellular process in spermatogenesis and involves the regulation of spermatid differentiation and spermiogenesis. In the current study, the correlation between bull sperm ubiquitination and sperm defects was analyzed, and the feasibility using anti-ubiquitin specific antibody immobilized magnetic beads to remove the spermatozoa with defects was assessed. A total of nine bulls were examined, and the amount of sperm ubiquitination ranged from 55 to 151. Correspondingly, the percentage of sperm deformity ranged from 9...
February 12, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Shun Bai, Le Cheng, Yingwen Zhang, Chunsen Zhu, Zhiping Zhu, Ruping Zhu, C Yan Cheng, Lan Ye, Ke Zheng
STUDY QUESTION: What is the physiological role of Rictor in spermatogenic cells? SUMMARY ANSWER: Germline expression of Rictor regulates spermatogonial differentiation and has an essential role in coordinating germ cells and Sertoli cells in maintaining intact cell-cell adhesion dynamics and cytoskeleton-based architecture in the seminiferous epithelium. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) resides in its functions as the catalytic subunits of the structurally and functionally distinct mTORC1 and mTORC2 complexes...
February 6, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Marcia Manterola, Taylor M Brown, Min Young Oh, Corey Garyn, Bryan J Gonzalez, Debra J Wolgemuth
The double bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) proteins are critical epigenetic readers that bind to acetylated histones in chromatin and regulate transcriptional activity and modulate changes in chromatin structure and organization. The testis-specific BET member, BRDT, is essential for the normal progression of spermatogenesis as mutations in the Brdt gene result in complete male sterility. Although BRDT is expressed in both spermatocytes and spermatids, loss of the first bromodomain of BRDT leads to severe defects in spermiogenesis without overtly compromising meiosis...
March 2018: PLoS Genetics
Yong-Qiang Zhao, Dan-Li Mu, Di Wang, Ying-Li Han, Cong-Cong Hou, Jun-Quan Zhu
Spermatogenesis represents one of the most complicated morphological transformation procedures. During this process, the assembly and maintenance of the flagella and intracellular transport of membrane-bound organelles required KIF3A and KIF3B. Our main goal was to test KIF3A and KIF3B location during spermatogenesis of Boleophthalmus pectinirostris. We cloned complete cDNA of KIF3A/3B from the testis of B. pectinirostris by PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The predicted secondary and tertiary structures of B...
March 6, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Haiqi Chen, Xiang Xiao, Wing-Yee Lui, Will M Lee, C Yan Cheng
During spermatogenesis, developing elongating/elongated spermatids are highly polarized cells, displaying unique apico-basal polarity. For instance, the heads of spermatids align perpendicular to the basement membrane with their tails pointing to the tubule lumen. Thus, the maximal number of spermatids are packed within the limited space of the seminiferous epithelium to support spermatogenesis.  Herein, we reported findings that  elongating/elongated spermatids displayed planar cell polarity (PCP) in adult rat testes in which the proximal end of polarized spermatid heads were aligned uniformly across the plane of the seminiferous epithelium based on studies  using confocal microscopy and 3-dimensional (D) reconstruction of the seminiferous tubules...
March 1, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Suyatno, Yuka Kitamura, Shuntaro Ikeda, Naojiro Minami, Masayasu Yamada, Hiroshi Imai
Undifferentiated spermatogonia eventually differentiate in the testis to produce haploid sperm. Within this cell population, there is a small number of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). SSCs are rare cells in the testis, and their cellular characteristics are poorly understood. Establishment of undifferentiated cell line would provide an indispensable tool for studying their biological nature and spermiogenesis/spermatogenesis in vitro. However, there have been few reports on the long-term culture of undifferentiated spermatogonia in species other than rodents...
January 17, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Amber R Krauchunas, Ernesto Mendez, Julie Zhouli Ni, Marina Druzhinina, Amanda Mulia, Jean Parry, Sam Guoping Gu, Gillian M Stanfield, Andrew Singson
Successful fertilization requires that sperm are activated prior to contacting an oocyte. In C. elegans, this activation process, called spermiogenesis, transforms round immobile spermatids into motile, fertilization-competent spermatozoa. We describe the phenotypic and genetic characterization of spe-43, a new component of the spe-8 pathway, which is required for spermiogenesis in hermaphrodites; spe-43 hermaphrodites are self-sterile, while spe-43 males show wild-type fertility. When exposed to Pronase to activate sperm in vitro, spe-43 spermatids form long rigid spikes radiating outward from the cell periphery instead of forming a motile pseudopod, indicating that spermiogenesis initiates but is not completed...
February 22, 2018: Developmental Biology
Tiphanie Cavé, Marie-Chantal Grégoire, Marc-André Brazeau, Guylain Boissonneault
In mammals, spermiogenesis is characterized by transient formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the whole population of haploid spermatids. DSB repair in such haploid context may represent a mutational transition. Using a combination of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and specific labelling of DSBs at 3'OH DNA ends, we showed that post-meiotic, enzyme-induced DSBs are also observed in the synchronizable pat1-114 mutant of Shizosaccharomyces pombe as well as in a wild-type strain, while DNA repair is observed at later stages...
February 20, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Rodrigo Ponce de León, Odile Volonterio
Ultrastructural studies of spermiogenesis and sperm morphology have found many characters that are likely to provide clues to the phylogeny of the Platyhelminthes. However, the lack of information on many free-living groups has been a limiting factor. There is a single description of the spermatogenesis and spermatozoa in a Phaenocora species, namely P. anomalocoela, therefore a similar analysis was made in Phaenocora unipunctata to compare the intrageneric variation of sperm ultrastructure and spermatogenesis in the Neotyphloplanida...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Jean-Lou Justine, Larisa G Poddubnaya
Sperm ultrastructure provides morphological characters useful for understanding phylogeny; no study was available for two basal branches of the Polyopisthocotylea, the Chimaericolidea and Diclybothriidea. We describe here spermiogenesis and sperm in Chimaericola leptogaster (Chimaericolidae) and Rajonchocotyle emarginata (Hexabothriidae), and sperm in Callorhynchocotyle callorhynchi (Hexabothriidae). Spermiogenesis in C. leptogaster and R. emarginata shows the usual pattern of most Polyopisthocotylea with typical zones of differentiation and proximo-distal fusion of the flagella...
2018: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
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