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Spermiogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623263/probing-spermiogenesis-a-digital-strategy-for-mouse-acrosome-classification
#1
Alessandro Taloni, Francesc Font-Clos, Luca Guidetti, Simone Milan, Miriam Ascagni, Chiara Vasco, Maria Enrica Pasini, Maria Rosa Gioria, Emilio Ciusani, Stefano Zapperi, Caterina A M La Porta
Classification of morphological features in biological samples is usually performed by a trained eye but the increasing amount of available digital images calls for semi-automatic classification techniques. Here we explore this possibility in the context of acrosome morphological analysis during spermiogenesis. Our method combines feature extraction from three dimensional reconstruction of confocal images with principal component analysis and machine learning. The method could be particularly useful in cases where the amount of data does not allow for a direct inspection by trained eye...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621664/post-meiotic-dna-double-strand-breaks-occur-in-tetrahymena-and-require-topoisomerase-ii-and-spo11
#2
Takahiko Akematsu, Yasuhiro Fukuda, Jyoti Garg, Jeffrey S Fillingham, Ronald E Pearlman, Josef Loidl
Based on observations of markers for DNA lesions, such as phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX) and open DNA ends, it has been suggested that post-meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (PM-DSBs) enable chromatin remodeling during animal spermiogenesis. However, the existence of PM-DSBs is unconfirmed, and the mechanism responsible for their formation is unclear. Here, we report the first direct observation of programmed PM-DSBs via the electrophoretic separation of DSB-generated DNA fragments in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila...
June 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615530/in-vivo-autophagy-and-biogenesis-of-autophagosomes-within-male-haploid-cells-during-spermiogenesis
#3
Ping Yang, Nisar Ahmed, Lingling Wang, Hong Chen, Yasir Waqas, Tengfei Liu, Abdul Haseeb, Nasrullah Bangulzai, Yufei Huang, Qiusheng Chen
Autophagy is a unique catabolic pathway that is linked to several physiological processes. However, its role in the process of spermiogenesis is largely unknown. The aim of the current study was to determine the in vivo role of autophagy and the origin of autophagosome membrane biogenesis within male haploid cells. Our immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that LC3 and ATG7 localization were increased dramatically in round to elongated spermatids (haploid cells) towards the lumen of seminiferous tubules, however, poorly expressed in the early stages of germ cells near the basal membrane...
May 26, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615029/micrornas-control-mrna-fate-by-compartmentalization-based-on-3-utr-length-in-male-germ-cells
#4
Ying Zhang, Chong Tang, Tian Yu, Ruirui Zhang, Huili Zheng, Wei Yan
BACKGROUND: Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression can be achieved through the control of mRNA stability, cytoplasmic compartmentalization, 3' UTR length and translational efficacy. Spermiogenesis, a process through which haploid male germ cells differentiate into spermatozoa, represents an ideal model for studying post-transcriptional regulation in vivo because it involves a large number of transcripts that are physically sequestered in ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs) and thus subjected to delayed translation...
June 15, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607498/male-factor-infertility-piwi-hiwi-miwi-essential-genes-for-effective-spermiogenesis
#5
Annette Fenner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559472/spermatogonial-deubiquitinase-usp9x-is-essential-for-proper-spermatogenesis-in-mice
#6
Kasane Kishi, Aya Uchida, Hinako M Takase, Hitomi Suzuki, Masamichi Kurohmaru, Naoki Tsunekawa, Masami Kanai-Azuma, Stephen A Wood, Yoshiakira Kanai
USP9X (ubiquitin-specific peptidase 9, X chromosome) is the mammalian orthologue of Drosophila deubiquitinase fat facets that was previously shown to regulate the maintenance of the germ cell lineage partially through stabilizing Vasa, one of the widely conserved factors crucial for gametogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that USP9X is expressed in the gonocytes and spermatogonia in mouse testes from newborn to adult stages. By using Vasa-Cre mice, germ cell-specific conditional deletion of Usp9x from the embryonic stage showed no abnormality in the developing testes by 1 week and no appreciable defects in the undifferentiated and differentiating spermatogonia at postnatal and adult stages...
August 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552346/ubiquitination-deficient-mutations-in-human-piwi-cause-male-infertility-by-impairing-histone-to-protamine-exchange-during-spermiogenesis
#7
Lan-Tao Gou, Jun-Yan Kang, Peng Dai, Xin Wang, Feng Li, Shuang Zhao, Man Zhang, Min-Min Hua, Yi Lu, Yong Zhu, Zheng Li, Hong Chen, Li-Gang Wu, Dangsheng Li, Xiang-Dong Fu, Jinsong Li, Hui-Juan Shi, Mo-Fang Liu
Genetic studies have elucidated critical roles of Piwi proteins in germline development in animals, but whether Piwi is an actual disease gene in human infertility remains unknown. We report germline mutations in human Piwi (Hiwi) in patients with azoospermia that prevent its ubiquitination and degradation. By modeling such mutations in Piwi (Miwi) knockin mice, we demonstrate that the genetic defects are directly responsible for male infertility. Mechanistically, we show that MIWI binds the histone ubiquitin ligase RNF8 in a Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA)-independent manner, and MIWI stabilization sequesters RNF8 in the cytoplasm of late spermatids...
June 1, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534180/the-c-terminal-kinesin-motor-kifc1-may-participate-in-nuclear-reshaping-and-flagellum-formation-during-spermiogenesis-of-larimichthys-crocea
#8
Dan-Dan Zhang, Xin-Ming Gao, Yong-Qiang Zhao, Cong-Cong Hou, Jun-Quan Zhu
Spermatogenesis is a highly ordered process in the differentiation of male germ cells. Nuclear morphogenesis is one of the most fundamental cellular transformations to take place during spermatogenesis. These striking transformations from spermatogonia to spermatozoa are a result of phase-specific adaption of the cytoskeleton and its association with molecular motor proteins. KIFC1 is a C-terminal kinesin motor protein that plays an essential role in acrosome formation and nuclear reshaping during spermiogenesis in mammals...
May 23, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500503/expression-and-localization-of-myosin-vi-in-developing-mouse-spermatids
#9
Przemysław Zakrzewski, Robert Lenartowski, Maria Jolanta Rędowicz, Kathryn G Miller, Marta Lenartowska
Myosin VI (MVI) is a versatile actin-based motor protein that has been implicated in a variety of different cellular processes, including endo- and exocytic vesicle trafficking, Golgi morphology, and actin structure stabilization. A role for MVI in crucial actin-based processes involved in sperm maturation was demonstrated in Drosophila. Because of the prominence and importance of actin structures in mammalian spermiogenesis, we investigated whether MVI was associated with actin-mediated maturation events in mammals...
May 12, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476888/loss-of-the-na-h-exchanger-nhe8-causes-male-infertility-in-mice-by-disrupting-acrosome-formation
#10
Karina Oberheide, Dmytro Puchkov, Thomas J Jentsch
Mammalian sperm feature a specialized secretory organelle on the anterior part of the sperm nucleus, the acrosome, which is essential for male fertility. It is formed by a fusion of Golgi-derived vesicles. We show here that the predominantly Golgi-resident Na+/H+ exchanger NHE8 localizes to the developing acrosome of spermatids. Similar to wild-type mice, Nhe8-/- mice generated Golgi-derived vesicles positive for acrosomal markers and attached to nuclei, but these vesicles failed to form large acrosomal granules and the acrosomal cap...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415605/kifc1-is-essential-for-acrosome-formation-and-nuclear-shaping-during-spermiogenesis-in-the-lobster-procambarus-clarkii
#11
Dan-Dan Ma, Lian Bi, Wan-Xi Yang
In order to study the function of kinesin-14 motor protein KIFC1 during spermatogenesis of Procambarus clarkii, the full length of kifc1 was cloned from testes cDNA using Rapid-Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE). The deduced KIFC1 protein sequence showed the highest similarity between Procambarus clarkii and Eriocheir senensis (similarity rate as 64%). According to the results of in situ hybridization (ISH), the kifc1 mRNA was gathered in the acrosome location above nucleus in the mid- and late-stage spermatids...
May 30, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412438/torsional-stress-promotes-trinucleotidic-expansion-in-spermatids
#12
Olivier Simard, Seyedeh Raheleh Niavarani, Virginie Gaudreault, Guylain Boissonneault
Trinucleotide repeats are involved in various neurodegenerative diseases and are highly unstable both in dividing or non-dividing cells. In Huntington disease (HD), the age of onset of symptoms is inversely correlated to the number of CAG repeats within exon 1 of the HTT gene. HD shows paternal anticipation as CAG repeats are increased during spermatogenesis. CAG expansion were indeed found to be generated during the chromatin remodeling in spermatids where most histones are evicted and replaced by protamines...
April 9, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389581/tssk6-is-required-for-%C3%AE-h2ax-formation-and-the-histone-to-protamine-transition-during-spermiogenesis
#13
Kula N Jha, Swamy K Tripurani, Gibbes R Johnson
Spermiogenesis includes transcriptional silencing, chromatin condensation and extensive morphological changes as spermatids transform into sperm. Chromatin condensation involves histone hyperacetylation, transitory DNA breaks, histone H2AX Ser139 phosphorylation (γH2AX), and replacement of histones by protamines. Previously, we reported that the spermatid protein kinase TSSK6 is essential for fertility in mice, but its specific role in spermiogenesis is unknown. Here, we show that TSSK6 expression is spatiotemporally coincident with γH2AX formation in nuclei of developing mouse spermatids...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388629/a-tubulin-alpha-8-mouse-knockout-model-indicates-a-likely-role-in-spermatogenesis-but-not-in-brain-development
#14
Christine P Diggle, Isabel Martinez-Garay, Zoltan Molnar, Martin H Brinkworth, Ed White, Ewan Fowler, Ruth Hughes, Bruce E Hayward, Ian M Carr, Christopher M Watson, Laura Crinnion, Aruna Asipu, Ben Woodman, P Louise Coletta, Alexander F Markham, T Neil Dear, David T Bonthron, Michelle Peckham, Ewan E Morrison, Eamonn Sheridan
Tubulin alpha 8 (Tuba8) is the most divergent member of the highly conserved alpha tubulin family, and uniquely lacks two key post-translational modification sites. It is abundantly expressed in testis and muscle, with lower levels in the brain. We previously identified homozygous hypomorphic TUBA8 mutations in human subjects with a polymicrogyria (PMG) syndrome, suggesting its involvement in development of the cerebral cortex. We have now generated and characterized a Tuba8 knockout mouse model. Homozygous mice were confirmed to lack Tuba8 protein in the testis, but did not display PMG and appeared to be neurologically normal...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387711/descriptive-analysis-of-lap1-distribution-and-that-of-associated-proteins-throughout-spermatogenesis
#15
Joana B Serrano, Filipa Martins, João C Sousa, Cátia D Pereira, Ans M M van Pelt, Sandra Rebelo, Odete A B da Cruz E Silva
Spermatogenesis comprises highly complex differentiation processes. Nuclear envelope (NE) proteins have been associated with these processes, including lamins, lamina-associated polypeptide (LAP) 2 and the lamin B-receptor. LAP1 is an important NE protein whose function has not been fully elucidated, but several binding partners allow predicting putative LAP1 functions. To date, LAP1 had not been associated with spermatogenesis. In this study, LAP1 expression and cellular/subcellular localization during spermatogenesis in human and mouse testes is established for the first time...
April 7, 2017: Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387373/identification-of-a-variant-specific-phosphorylation-of-th2a-during-spermiogenesis
#16
Masashi Hada, Koji Masuda, Kosuke Yamaguchi, Katsuhiko Shirahige, Yuki Okada
Tissue-specific histone variant incorporation into chromatin plays dynamic and important roles in tissue development. Testis is one such tissue, and a number of testis-specific histone variants are expressed that have unique roles. While it is expected that such variants acquire post-transcriptional modifications to be functional, identification of variant-specific histone modifications is challenging because of the high similarity of amino acid sequences between canonical and variant versions. Here we identified a novel phosphorylation on TH2A, a germ cell-specific histone H2A variant...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369153/detailed-analysis-of-the-male-reproductive-system-in-a-potential-bio-indicator-species-the-marine-invertebrate-galeolaria-caespitosa-polychaeta-serpulidae
#17
Yonggang Lu, Robert John Aitken, Minjie Lin
For the first time, this study has systemically investigated the male reproductive system in a sessile broadcast-spawning marine invertebrate, Galeolaria caespitosa (Polychaeta: Serpulidae), which has significant potential as a bio-indicator species of coastal marine pollution. The abdomen of G. caespitosa was divided by intersegmental septa into over 80 trunk segments. Each segment served as a germinal chamber with a C-shaped gonadal arrangement consisting of several distinct compartments: a seminiferous epithelium (SE) compartment located in the centre of the chamber, with each of its two ends connecting to a nurse cell (NC) compartment and then an efferent duct (ED) compartment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361989/testis-transcriptome-modulation-in-klinefelter-patients-with-hypospermatogenesis
#18
Marco D'Aurora, Alberto Ferlin, Andrea Garolla, Sara Franchi, Laura D'Onofrio, Oriana Trubiani, Giandomenico Palka, Carlo Foresta, Liborio Stuppia, Valentina Gatta
The main genetic cause of male infertility is represented by the Klinefelter Syndrome (KS), a condition accounting for 3% of all cases of infertility and up to15% of cases of azoospermia. KS is generally characterized by azoospermia; approximately 10% of cases have severe oligozoospermia. Among these, the 30-40% of patients show hypospermatogenesis. The mechanisms leading to adult testis dysfunctions are not completely understood. A microarray transcriptome analysis was performed on testis biopsies obtained from three KS patients with hypospermatogenesis and three control subjects...
March 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347860/ultrastructure-of-spermiogenesis-and-spermatozoa-in-marchalina-hellenica-gennadius-hemiptera-sternorrhyncha-marchalinidae
#19
R Dallai, Mercati D, S Gounari, F Paoli, P Lupetti
The spermiogenesis, the sperm structure and the sperm motility of Marchalina hellenica (Gennadius) were examined. In the early spermiogenesis a centriolar apparatus was identified, but this structure is not involved in the production of the sperm flagellum. As in other Coccoidea, the flagellar axoneme originates by the activity of the thickened tip of the numerous microtubules surrounding the nuclear anterior region close to the periphery of the cell. This region pushes against a narrow cytoplasmic layer, giving rise to a papilla...
March 24, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339613/a-nonsense-mutation-in-ccdc62-gene-is-responsible-for-spermiogenesis-defects-and-male-infertility-in-repro29-repro29-mice-%C3%A2
#20
Yuchi Li, Cailing Li, Shouren Lin, Bo Yang, Weiren Huang, Hanwei Wu, Yuanbin Chen, Lihua Yang, Manling Luo, Huan Guo, Jianbo Chen, Tiantian Wang, Qian Ma, Yanli Gu, Lisha Mou, Zhimao Jiang, Jun Xia, Yaoting Gui
Phenotype-driven mutagenesis is an unbiased method to identify novel genes involved in spermatogenesis and other reproductive processes. Male repro29/repro29 mice generated by the Reproductive Genomics Program at the Jackson Laboratory were infertile with deformed sperm and poor motility. Using selected exonic capture and massively parallel sequencing technologies, we identified a nonsense mutation in the exon 6 of coiled-coil domain-containing 62 gene (Ccdc62), which results in a formation of a premature stop codon and a truncated protein...
March 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
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