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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925865/public-health-messages-about-perinatal-marijuana-use-in-an-evolving-policy-context
#1
Marian Jarlenski, Jennifer Zank, Jill Tarr, Judy C Chang
BACKGROUND: Marijuana is a commonly used substance in pregnancy in the U.S. It is unknown what public health messages about perinatal marijuana use are being disseminated in the changing policy landscape. METHODS: We systematically searched 51 state and 5 federal public health agencies' websites in February 2016 for information about perinatal marijuana use. Of these, one federal agency and 10 state agencies had published information about perinatal marijuana use...
December 7, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914189/analysis-of-experiences-with-exclusive-breastfeeding-among-hiv-positive-mothers-in-lusaka-zambia
#2
Alice Ngoma-Hazemba, Busisiwe Purity Ncama
BACKGROUND: Exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months offers protection from postnatal HIV infection but remains low in resource-poor settings. Documentation of experiences with exclusive breastfeeding is needed to strengthen infant feeding counselling by health care workers. OBJECTIVE: To explore HIV-positive mothers' experiences with exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of the infant's life. DESIGN: A health facility- and community-based exploratory qualitative study was conducted among 30 HIV-positive mothers practising exclusive breastfeeding and meeting the selection criteria...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897979/breastmilk-production-in-the-first-4-weeks-after-birth-of-term-infants
#3
Jacqueline C Kent, Hazel Gardner, Donna T Geddes
Breastmilk provides the ideal nutrition for the infant, and exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for the first 6 months. Adequate milk production by the mother is therefore critical, and early milk production has been shown to significantly affect milk production during established lactation. Previous studies indicate that milk production should reach the lower limit of normal for established lactation (440 mL per day) by day 11 after birth. We have used test-weighing of term infants before and after each breastfeed over 24 h to measure milk production in the first 4 weeks of lactation in mothers with and without perceived breastfeeding problems to provide information on how often milk production is inadequate...
November 25, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874177/the-differentiation-of-menstrual-from-venous-blood-and-other-body-fluids-on-various-substrates-using-atr-ft-ir-spectroscopy
#4
Alicia A Quinn, Kelly M Elkins
Crime scene investigators and laboratory analysts use chemical tests to detect and differentiate body fluids. Testing often requires a sample of the stain, and the chemicals may cause degradation of the fluid or interfere with subsequent tests. Colorimetric chemical tests do not differentiate between different types of the same fluid, such as venous and menstrual blood, and there is no presumptive test available to simultaneously differentiate several body fluids. In this study, we recorded ATR FT-IR spectra of venous and menstrual blood, semen, saliva, and breastmilk...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870812/does-breastfeeding-protect-young-infants-from-pertussis-case-control-study-and-immunologic-evaluation
#5
Elisabetta Pandolfi, Francesco Gesualdo, Emanuela Carloni, Alberto Villani, Fabio Midulla, Rita Carsetti, Paola Stefanelli, Giorgio Fedele, Alberto Eugenio Tozzi
BACKGROUND: Pertussis infection can be severe in unvaccinated infants. A case control study was conducted to investigate the potential role of breastfeeding in protecting young, unvaccinated infants from pertussis. METHODS: Hospitalized infants < 6 months with positive RT-PCR for pertussis on nasopharyngeal aspirate were enrolled as cases; healthy controls were enrolled among patients admitted for ultrasound screening. Vaccinated infants were excluded. Sociodemographic, clinical and feeding information were collected...
November 18, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846071/maternal-and-breastmilk-viral-load-impacts-of-adherence-on-peripartum-hiv-infections-averted-the-breastfeeding-antiretrovirals-and-nutrition-study
#6
Nicole L Davis, William C Miller, Michael G Hudgens, Charles S Chasela, Dorothy Sichali, Dumbani Kayira, Julie A E Nelson, Susan A Fiscus, Gerald Tegha, Deborah D Kamwendo, Joseph Rigdon, Jeffrey S A Stringer, Jonathan J Juliano, Sascha R Ellington, Athena P Kourtis, Denise J Jamieson, Charles van der Horst
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral (ARV) interventions are used to reduce HIV viral replication and prevent mother-to-child transmission. Viral suppression relies on adherence to ARVs. METHODS: A 2-phase study was conducted using data from the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition study. We included mothers randomized to 28 weeks of postpartum ARVs with ≥1 plasma or breastmilk specimen. All mothers who transmitted HIV to their infants from 2-28 weeks (n = 31) and 15% of mothers who did not (n = 232) were included...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777609/perceptions-related-to-breastfeeding-and-the-early-introduction-of-complementary-foods-amongst-migrants-in-cape-town-south-africa
#7
Jo Hunter-Adams, Landon Myer, Hanna-Andrea Rother
BACKGROUND: Infant feeding recommendations are of health importance, yet the extent to which migrant communities in low- and middle-income countries know or implement these recommendations is poorly understood. This study explores the perspectives of infant feeding amongst cross-border migrants in Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS: Between February and October 2013, semi-structured in-depth interviews (n = 23) were conducted face-to-face with Congolese, Somali and Zimbabwean mothers living in Cape Town...
2016: International Breastfeeding Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755345/human-milk-processing-a-systematic-review-of-innovative-techniques-to-the-ensure-safety-and-quality-of-donor-milk
#8
Chiara Peila, Nikki E Emmerik, Marzia Giribaldi, Bernd Stahl, Joost E Ruitenberg, Ruurd M van Elburg, Guido E Moro, Enrico Bertino, Alessandra Coscia, Laura Cavallarin
OBJECTIVES: Pasteurization, performed at 62.5°C for 30 min (holder pasteurization), is currently recommended in all international human milk banks guidelines, but it affects some human milk bioactive and nutritive components. The present systematic review is aimed at critically reviewing evidence on the suitability of human milk processing techniques other than holder pasteurization, both thermal and non-thermal, to ensure microbiological safety, and on the effects of these techniques on biologically active donor milk components...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751205/-epigenetic-effects-of-human-breastfeeding
#9
Jing-Ran Ma, Dan-Hua Wang
Breastfeeding is well-known for its benefits of preventing communicable and non-communicable diseases. Human breastmilk consists not only of nutrients, but also of bioactive substances. What's more, the epigenetic effects of human breast milk may also play an important role. Alterations in the epigenetic regulation of genes may lead to profound changes in phenotype. Clarifying the role of human breast milk on genetic expression can potentially benefit the infant's health and his later life. This review article makes a brief summary of the epigenetic mechanism of breast milk, and its epigenetic effects on neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis, infectious diseases, metabolism syndrome, cognitive function and anaphylactic diseases...
October 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664771/contested-moral-landscapes-negotiating-breastfeeding-stigma-in-breastmilk-sharing-nighttime-breastfeeding-and-long-term-breastfeeding-in-the-u-s-and-the-u-k
#10
Cecilia Tomori, Aunchalee E L Palmquist, Sally Dowling
Recent public health breastfeeding promotion efforts have galvanized media debates about breastfeeding in wealthy, Euro-American settings. A growing body of research demonstrates that while breastfeeding is increasingly viewed as important for health, mothers continue to face significant structural and cultural barriers. Concerns have been raised about the moralizing aspects of breastfeeding promotion and its detrimental effects on those who do not breastfeed. Far less, however, is known about the moral experiences of those who pursue breastfeeding...
November 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641715/breastfeeding-improvement-following-tongue-tie-and-lip-tie-release-a-prospective-cohort-study
#11
Bobak A Ghaheri, Melissa Cole, Sarah C Fausel, Maria Chuop, Jess C Mace
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Numerous symptoms may arise that prevent mother-infant dyads from maintaining desired breastfeeding intervals. Investigations into treatments that positively influence breastfeeding outcomes allow for improved patient counseling for treatment decisions to optimize breastfeeding quality. This investigation aimed to determine the impact of surgical tongue-tie/lip-tie release on breastfeeding impairment. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, cohort study from June 2014 to April 2015 in a private practice setting...
September 19, 2016: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603881/-pregnancy-and-breastfeeding
#12
María Eugenia Flores-Quijano, Solange Heller-Rouassant
During pregnancy and breastfeeding the demand for nutrients that promote the growth and development of the fetus, maternal tissues and breastmilk production is increased. Milk and dairy products provide energy, proteins, fatty acids, carbohydrates, calcium, phosphorus, vitamins D and B12, therefore their importance during pregnancy and breastfeeding. The energy through food supply allows the development and growth from the conception; protein promotes the rapid growth of the maternal and fetal tissues: fatty acids stimulate the development of the fetus central nervous system; carbohydrates are essential to support fetal brain growth; calcium is essential for the formation and mineralization of the fetus skeleton, while vitamin D promotes calcium absorption and the development of the nervous and immune systems...
September 2016: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568829/public-opinions-about-infant-feeding-in-the-united-states
#13
Jennifer M Nelson, Ruowei Li, Cria G Perrine, Kelley S Scanlon
BACKGROUND: Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for the first 6 months of life. However, many barriers to breastfeeding exist. We examine public opinions about the benefits of breastfeeding and the infant health risks associated with formula feeding. METHODS: A national public opinion survey was conducted in 2013. Participants indicated their level of agreement with four breastfeeding-related statements. Except for the last one, all statements were positively worded with agreement representing positive opinions toward breastfeeding...
December 2016: Birth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566456/early-oral-exposure-to-house-dust-mite-allergen-through-breast-milk-a%C3%A2-potential-risk-factor-for-allergic-sensitization-and-respiratory-allergies-in-children
#14
Nour Baïz, Patricia Macchiaverni, Meri K Tulic, Akila Rekima, Isabella Annesi-Maesano, Valérie Verhasselt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 24, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27545195/necrotising-enterocolitis-and-mortality-in-preterm-infants-after-introduction-of-probiotics-a-quasi-experimental-study
#15
Noor Samuels, Rob van de Graaf, Jasper V Been, Rogier C J de Jonge, Lidwien M Hanff, René M H Wijnen, René F Kornelisse, Irwin K M Reiss, Marijn J Vermeulen
Evidence on the clinical effectiveness of probiotics in the prevention of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants is conflicting and cohort studies lacked adjustment for time trend and feeding type. This study investigated the association between the introduction of routine probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum; Infloran(®)) on the primary outcome 'NEC or death'. Preterm infants (gestational age <32 weeks or birth weight <1500 gram) admitted before (Jan 2008-Sep 2012; n = 1288) and after (Oct 2012-Dec 2014; n = 673) introduction of probiotics were compared...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540205/effect-of-pasteurisation-on-the-concentrations-of-vitamin-d-compounds-in-donor-breast-milk
#16
Fabio Gomes, Nick Shaw, Karen Whitfield, Pieter Koorts, Helen McConachy, Amitha Hewavitharana
AIM: Breastmilk is considered the most important nutrient and source of supplementation for both term and preterm infants.1 It is composed of many important nutrients, including vitamin D.2 The content of this vitamin in breast milk is usually low, even for lactating mothers with adequate vitamin D status.2 3 Preterm infants are at the great risk of vitamin D deficiency due to decreased transplacental transfer.4 Premature infants are the main recipients of pasteurised donor human milk (PDHM), when their mothers are unable to provide their own...
September 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540043/transitioning-preterm-infants-from-parenteral-nutrition-a-comparison-of-2-protocols
#17
Malki Miller, Keyur Donda, Alok Bhutada, Deepa Rastogi, Shantanu Rastogi
BACKGROUND: Growth in preterm infants is compromised during the transition phase of nutrition, when parenteral nutrition (PN) volumes are weaned with advancing enteral nutrition (EN) feeds, likely due to suboptimal nutrient intakes during this time. We implemented new PN guidelines designed to maintain optimal nutrient intakes during the transition phase and compared growth outcomes of this cohort with a control group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A chart review was conducted on infants born <32 weeks' gestation, before (control group) and after (study group) a new transition PN protocol was implemented in the neonatal intensive care unit...
August 18, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537910/a-comparison-by-milk-feeding-method-of-the-nutrient-intake-of-a-cohort-of-australian-toddlers
#18
Jane Scott, Kristina Davey, Ellen Ahwong, Gemma Devenish, Diep Ha, Loc Do
Breastfeeding is recommended beyond 12 months of age, but little is known about the contribution of breastmilk and infant formula to the nutritional intake of toddlers as they transition to a family diet in the second year of life. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of data collected from a birth cohort study in Adelaide, Australia. Dietary intake data were collected when children were approximately 1 year of age by an interviewer-administered multi-pass 24 h recall and a mother-completed 2 days food diary...
2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27533629/-seeing-is-believing-dermatoscope-facilitated-breast-examination-of-the-breastfeeding-woman-with-nipple-pain
#19
Sody A Naimer, William F Silverman
BACKGROUND: It is well recognized that breastmilk provides optimal nutrition and immunological protection for infants. Many women, however, experience nipple pain while breastfeeding, leading to premature cessation of nursing. To overcome these difficulties, timely diagnosis is crucial to effectively treat the underlying pathology and permit resumption of breastfeeding. Examination of the superficial breast plays a key role in accurate diagnosis. Traditional direct inspection is clearly inadequate for this task...
September 2016: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27529566/differences-in-breastmilk-composition-of-hiv-infected-and-hiv-uninfected-mothers-of-premature-infants-effects-of-antiretroviral-therapy
#20
Carike Fouché, Evette van Niekerk, Lisanne Monica du Plessis
INTRODUCTION: A key strategy to prevent mother-to-child transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and to reduce infant morbidity and mortality includes providing the HIV-exposed premature infant with breastmilk accompanied by dual anti-retroviral therapy (ART). The effects of HIV and ART on premature breastmilk composition are largely unknown. The aim of the study was to assess and compare the breastmilk composition of HIV-infected mothers receiving ART and HIV-uninfected mothers who gave birth to premature infants...
August 16, 2016: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
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