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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659737/feeding-related-gut-microbial-composition-associates-with-peripheral-t-cell-activation-and-mucosal-gene-expression-in-african-infants
#1
Lianna F Wood, Bryan P Brown, Katie Lennard, Ulas Karaoz, Enock Havyarimana, Jo-Ann S Passmore, Anneke C Hesseling, Paul T Edlefsen, Louise Kuhn, Nicola Mulder, Eoin L Brodie, Donald L Sodora, Heather B Jaspan
Background: Exclusive breastfeeding reduces the rate of postnatal HIV transmission compared to non-exclusive breastfeeding, however the mechanisms of this protection are unknown. Our study was designed to interrogate the mechanisms underlying the protective effect of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). Methods: A prospective, longitudinal study of infants from a high HIV prevalence, low-income setting in South Africa. We evaluated the role of any non-breastmilk feeds excluding prescribed medicines...
April 5, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658618/implementation-of-the-international-code-of-marketing-of-breastmilk-substitutes-in-the-eastern-mediterranean-region
#2
Ayoub Al Jawaldeh, Ghada Sayed
Background: Optimal breastfeeding practices and appropriate complementary feeding improve child health, survival and development. The countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region have made significant strides in formulation and implementation of legislation to protect and promote breastfeeding based on The International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (the Code) and subsequent relevant World Health Assembly resolutions. Aim: To assess the implementation of the Code in the Region...
April 5, 2018: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656034/breastmilk-donations-bacteriological-assessment-analysis-of-causes-of-non-compliance-and-suggestions-for-improvement
#3
C Mullié, O Obin, G Outurquin, S Grognet, A Léké, C Adjidé
A total of 1099 breastmilk donations received by the milk bank at the Amiens University Hospital from January to June 2016 were assessed for bacteriological contamination according to French regulations. This consisted in enumerating the total aerobic flora before and after heat treatment as well as the specific enumeration of coagulase-positive staphylococci. Results above the mandatory limits for at least one of these parameters were found in 25.9% of the donations, resulting in the destruction of approximately one-quarter of the volume of the donations (∼195L)...
April 11, 2018: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629818/prevalence-of-exclusive-breastfeeding-and-factors-associated-with-exclusive-breastfeeding-of-children-in-trongsa-district-bhutan
#4
Dolley Tshering, Mongal Singh Gurung, Neyzang Wangmo, Dorji Pelzom, Phudit Tejativaddhana, Laigden Dzed
The World Health Organization estimated that about 800 000 infant deaths could be prevented annually by exclusively breastfeeding infants for the first 6 months of life. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding and its associated factors. A total of 192 mothers participated. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding practice in Trongsa district was 97% at 1 month, declining to 58% at 6 months. Mothers who returned to formal work were less likely to exclusively breastfeed than those who were farmers or housewives...
April 1, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596218/dietary-supplementation-with-medium-chain-triglycerides-reduces-candida-gastrointestinal-colonization-in-preterm-infants
#5
Amanda B Arsenault, Kearney T W Gunsalus, Sonia S Laforce-Nesbitt, Lynn Przystac, Erik J DeAngelis, Michaela E Hurley, Ethan S Vorel, Richard Tucker, Nirupa R Matthan, Alice H Lichtenstein, Carol A Kumamoto, Joseph M Bliss
BACKGROUND: Candida is an important cause of infections in premature infants. Gastrointestinal colonization with Candida is a common site of entry for disseminated disease. The objective of this study was to determine whether a dietary supplement of medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) reduces Candida colonization in preterm infants. METHODS: Preterm infants with Candida colonization (n=12) receiving enteral feedings of either infant formula (n=5) or breastmilk (n=7) were randomized to MCT supplementation (n=8) or no supplementation (n=4)...
March 24, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534442/food-sources-of-energy-and-macronutrient-intakes-among-infants-from-6-to-12-months-of-age-the-growing-up-in-singapore-towards-healthy-outcomes-gusto-study
#6
Shan-Xuan Lim, Jia-Ying Toh, Linde van Lee, Wee-Meng Han, Lynette Pei-Chi Shek, Kok-Hian Tan, Fabian Yap, Keith M Godfrey, Yap-Seng Chong, Mary Foong-Fong Chong
Adequate nutrition during complementary feeding is important for the growth, development and well-being of children. We aim to examine the energy and macronutrient intake composition and their main food sources in a mother-offspring cohort study in Singapore. The diets of infants were assessed by 24 h dietary recalls or food diaries collected from mothers when their offspring were 6 (n = 760), 9 (n = 893) and 12 (n = 907) months of age. Food sources of energy and macronutrients were determined using the population proportion methodology...
March 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534175/why-are-there-more-same-sex-than-opposite-sex-dizygotic-twins
#7
Satoshi Kanazawa, Nancy L Segal, David de Meza
STUDY QUESTION: Are there more same-sex (SS) than opposite-sex (OS) pairs among dizygotic twins? SUMMARY ANSWER: In violation of Weinberg's Differential Rule, there are significantly more SS than OS pairs among dizygotic twins in nationally representative samples both in the UK and the USA. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Since at least 1874, twin researchers have assumed that dizygotic twins were equally likely to be SS or OS (later formalized as Weinberg's Differential Rule)...
March 9, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526120/discharge-breastmilk-feeding-rates-in-asymptomatic-term-newborns-admitted-to-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-for-maternal-chorioamnionitis
#8
Miry Shim, Sara Yang, Catherine R Messina, Jonathan P Mintzer
PURPOSE: To compare discharge breastmilk feeding rates among asymptomatic term newborns receiving 48-hour versus >48-hour antibiotics in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and a cohort of well-baby nursery (WBN) newborns. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective review included asymptomatic term neonates admitted to the NICU due to maternal chorioamnionitis and a comparison group of WBN neonates between January 2012 and December 2015. Demographic, birth, feeding, and lactation consultant visit data were analyzed in univariate and multivariate models...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499686/variations-in-the-rancid-flavor-compounds-of-human-breastmilk-under-general-frozen-storage-conditions
#9
Hsiao-Ying Hung, Yu-Yun Hsu, Pei-Fang Su, Ying-Ju Chang
BACKGROUND: Human breastmilk provides the best nutrition for infants. When women or infants have difficulties in breastfeeding directly, breastmilk is usually pumped and frozen for later use. However, while frozen, breastmilk may develop a rancid flavor, which induces infant feeding stress and raises the mothers' concerns about the quality of frozen breastmilk. Nevertheless, few studies have investigated the variations in the compounds that cause the rancid flavor of breastmilk during frozen storage...
March 2, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494270/when-is-helicobacter-pylori-acquired-in-populations-in-developing-countries-a-birth-cohort-study-in-bangladeshi-children
#10
Sabine Kienesberger, Guillermo I Perez-Perez, Asalia Z Olivares, Pradip Bardhan, Shafiqul A Sarker, Kh Zahid Hasan, R Bradley Sack, Martin J Blaser
Helicobacter pylori colonization is prevalent throughout the world, and is predominantly acquired during childhood. In developing countries, >70% of adult populations are colonized with H. pylori and >50% of children become colonized before the age of 10 years. However, the exact timing of acquisition is unknown. We assessed detection of H. pylori acquisition among a birth cohort of 105 children in Mirzapur, Bangladesh. Blood samples collected at time 0 (cord blood), and at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of life were examined for the presence of IgG and IgA antibodies to whole cell H...
March 1, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486386/long-term-stability-of-cmv-dna-in-human-breast-milk
#11
Soya S Sam, Jessica Ingersoll, Lori D Racsa, Angela M Caliendo, Patrick N Racsa, Doris Igwe, Deborah Abdul-Ali, Cassandra Josephson, Colleen S Kraft
BACKGROUND: Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the leading cause of intrauterine and perinatal viral infection. The most common route of CMV transmission in newborns is through breastmilk and this can lead to infant morbidity and mortality. Breast milk that has been frozen for an extended period may need to be tested for CMV DNA to determine the source of infection. It has been a challenge for clinical laboratories to ensure the stability of CMV DNA in frozen breast milk for accurate viral load measurement...
May 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482183/maternal-use-of-personal-care-products-during-pregnancy-and-risk-of-testicular-germ-cell-tumors-in-sons
#12
Armen A Ghazarian, Britton Trabert, Kim Robien, Barry I Graubard, Katherine A McGlynn
BACKGROUND: The etiology of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) is poorly understood, however, exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be related to increased risk. Personal care products, some of which contain EDCs, are widely used on a daily basis and are known to cross the placenta, be present in breastmilk, and are capable of inducing reproductive tract abnormalities. To determine the association between personal care product use during pregnancy and breastfeeding and TGCT risk, an analysis among mothers of TGCT cases and controls was conducted...
February 23, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481443/micronutrient-status-and-nutritional-intake-in-0-2-year-old-children-consuming-a-cows-milk-exclusion-diet
#13
Janne Anita Kvammen, Rut Anne Thomassen, Mari Borge Eskerud, Jarle Rugtveit, Christine Henriksen
OBJECTIVES AND STUDY: To study micronutrient status and nutritional intake from complementary feeding in children on a cows' milk exclusion (CME) diet. METHODS: Fifty-seven children with cows' milk allergy, aged < 2 years, were included in a cross-sectional study. Blood was analysed for micronutrient status. Complementary feeding was defined as all solids and liquids except of breastmilk, and assessed by 3-day food diary. The results were analysed according to three feeding patterns: mainly breastfed (mBF), partially breastfed (pBF) and no breastmilk group (nBM)...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470144/the-effect-of-mono-and-diglycerides-on-the-digestion-and-aborption-of-lutein-in-lymph-fistula-rats
#14
Patrick Tso, Mustafa Vurma, Chih-Wei Ko, Dana M Lee, Stephen DeMichele
Breastmilk lutein is better absorbed by infants than lutein delivered in infant formula. Therefore, we wish to better understand the possible absorption differences of lutein in breast milk versus infant formula by determining its bioavailability after gastric administration and whether the intestinal absorption of lutein can be improved by using new delivery vehicles. STUDY ONE compared the intestinal uptake, and the lymphatic and portal transport of lutein in conscious lymph fistula rats. Four groups of lymph and portal vein cannulated rats (n = 8-10/group) were randomized to receive via the gastric tube increasing doses (10,20,40,or 80mg/kg) of 20% lutein in safflower oil (SO) suspension to assess whether there was a saturable level of lutein that can be absorbed and transported in lymph...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423183/does-postnatal-care-have-a-role-in-improving-newborn-feeding-a-study-in-15-sub-saharan-african-countries
#15
Shane M Khan, Ilene S Speizer, Kavita Singh, Gustavo Angeles, Nana Ay Twum-Danso, Pierre Barker
Background: Breastfeeding is known as a key intervention to improve newborn health and survival while prelacteal feeds (liquids other than breastmilk within 3 days of birth) represents a departure from optimal feeding practices. Recent programmatic guidelines from the WHO and UNICEF outline the need to improve newborn feeding and points to postnatal care (PNC) as a potential mechanism to do so. This study examines if PNC and type of PNC provider are associated with key newborn feeding practices: breastfeeding within 1 day and prelacteal feeds...
December 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411152/drugs-in-lactation
#16
REVIEW
Philip O Anderson
One impediment to breastfeeding is the lack of information on the use of many drugs during lactation, especially newer ones. The principles of drug passage into breastmilk are well established, but have often not been optimally applied prospectively. Commonly used preclinical rodent models for determining drug excretion into milk are very unreliable because of marked differences in milk composition and transporters compared to those of humans. Measurement of drug concentrations in humans remains the gold standard, but computer modeling is promising...
February 6, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410699/initiation-of-breastfeeding-within-one-hour-of-birth-among-mothers-with-infants-younger-than-or-equal-to-6%C3%A2-months-of-age-attending-public-health-institutions-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#17
Meseret Ekubay, Aster Berhe, Engida Yisma
Background: Breast milk is comprised of the essential nutrients that an infant needs in the first six months of life. Timely initiation of breastfeeding guarantees that infants receive the colostrum, 'the first breastmilk', which contains antibodies that protect the newborn against diseases. Breastfeeding within the first hour of life prevents newborn death due to sepsis, pneumonia, diarrhea and hypothermia. Although breastfeeding is a common practice in sub-Saharan Africa, evidence show that early initiation of breastfeeding is low...
2018: International Breastfeeding Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393903/standardized-parenteral-nutrition-for-the-transition-phase-in-preterm-infants-a-bag-that-fits
#18
Ann-Marie Brennan, Mairead E Kiely, Sarah Fenton, Brendan P Murphy
The optimal composition of standardized parenteral nutrition (SPN) is not yet known, contributing to nutrient deficit accrual and growth failure, with the period of parenteral nutrition weaning, i.e., transition (TN) phase, being identified as particularly vulnerable. We created a comprehensive nutrition database, representative of the nutritional course of a diverse range of preterm infants (n = 59, birth weight ≤ 1500 g, gestation < 34 weeks) by collecting hourly macronutrient intake data as part of a prospective, observational study over 19 months...
February 2, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384328/breast-milk-and-infant-iodine-status-during-the-first-12-weeks-of-lactation-in-tianjin-city-china
#19
Wei Wang, Yu Sun, Meng Zhang, Yixin Zhang, Wen Chen, Long Tan, Jun Shen, Zhuo Zhao, Shuhai Lan, Wanqi Zhang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The present study investigated the iodine status of breast milk and breast-fed infants during the first 12 weeks postpartum in Tianjin, China. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A total of 175 pregnant women were recruited before delivery. Their breastmilk and 24-h urine samples were collected at 4, 8, and 12 weeks postpartum; spot urine samples were simultaneously collected from their infants. The iodine content of the samples was measured. RESULTS: The mean breast milk iodine concentrations (BMICs) at 4, 8, and 12 weeks were 221...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371876/-the-mum-has-to-live-with-the-decision-much-more-than-the-dad-a-qualitative-study-of-men-s-perceptions-of-their-influence-on-breastfeeding-decision-making
#20
Luke Hounsome, Sally Dowling
Background: Although breastfeeding is widely acknowledged as the normal method of infant feeding, there are large variations in rates of initiation and duration. Several factors are linked to the likelihood of breastfeeding initiation, including the influence and opinion of the child's father. There is limited research into men's perception of their influence, or if they feel it appropriate to be involved in deciding how to feed their children. The aim of this study was to investigate, using a qualitative methodology, fathers' perceptions of their influence on the decision to feed their child breastmilk or formula...
2018: International Breastfeeding Journal
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