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Chiara Peila, Nikki E Emmerik, Marzia Giribaldi, Bernd Stahl, Joost E Ruitenberg, Ruurd M van Elburg, Guido E Moro, Enrico Bertino, Alessandra Coscia, Laura Cavallarin
OBJECTIVES: Pasteurization, performed at 62.5°C for 30 min (holder pasteurization), is currently recommended in all international human milk banks guidelines, but it affects some human milk bioactive and nutritive components. The present systematic review is aimed at critically reviewing evidence on the suitability of human milk processing techniques other than holder pasteurization, both thermal and non-thermal, to ensure microbiological safety, and on the effects of these techniques on biologically active donor milk components...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Jing-Ran Ma, Dan-Hua Wang
Breastfeeding is well-known for its benefits of preventing communicable and non-communicable diseases. Human breastmilk consists not only of nutrients, but also of bioactive substances. What's more, the epigenetic effects of human breast milk may also play an important role. Alterations in the epigenetic regulation of genes may lead to profound changes in phenotype. Clarifying the role of human breast milk on genetic expression can potentially benefit the infant's health and his later life. This review article makes a brief summary of the epigenetic mechanism of breast milk, and its epigenetic effects on neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis, infectious diseases, metabolism syndrome, cognitive function and anaphylactic diseases...
October 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Cecilia Tomori, Aunchalee E L Palmquist, Sally Dowling
Recent public health breastfeeding promotion efforts have galvanized media debates about breastfeeding in wealthy, Euro-American settings. A growing body of research demonstrates that while breastfeeding is increasingly viewed as important for health, mothers continue to face significant structural and cultural barriers. Concerns have been raised about the moralizing aspects of breastfeeding promotion and its detrimental effects on those who do not breastfeed. Far less, however, is known about the moral experiences of those who pursue breastfeeding...
November 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Bobak A Ghaheri, Melissa Cole, Sarah C Fausel, Maria Chuop, Jess C Mace
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Numerous symptoms may arise that prevent mother-infant dyads from maintaining desired breastfeeding intervals. Investigations into treatments that positively influence breastfeeding outcomes allow for improved patient counseling for treatment decisions to optimize breastfeeding quality. This investigation aimed to determine the impact of surgical tongue-tie/lip-tie release on breastfeeding impairment. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, cohort study from June 2014 to April 2015 in a private practice setting...
September 19, 2016: Laryngoscope
María Eugenia Flores-Quijano, Solange Heller-Rouassant
During pregnancy and breastfeeding the demand for nutrients that promote the growth and development of the fetus, maternal tissues and breastmilk production is increased. Milk and dairy products provide energy, proteins, fatty acids, carbohydrates, calcium, phosphorus, vitamins D and B12, therefore their importance during pregnancy and breastfeeding. The energy through food supply allows the development and growth from the conception; protein promotes the rapid growth of the maternal and fetal tissues: fatty acids stimulate the development of the fetus central nervous system; carbohydrates are essential to support fetal brain growth; calcium is essential for the formation and mineralization of the fetus skeleton, while vitamin D promotes calcium absorption and the development of the nervous and immune systems...
September 2016: Gaceta Médica de México
Jennifer M Nelson, Ruowei Li, Cria G Perrine, Kelley S Scanlon
BACKGROUND: Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for the first 6 months of life. However, many barriers to breastfeeding exist. We examine public opinions about the benefits of breastfeeding and the infant health risks associated with formula feeding. METHODS: A national public opinion survey was conducted in 2013. Participants indicated their level of agreement with four breastfeeding-related statements. Except for the last one, all statements were positively worded with agreement representing positive opinions toward breastfeeding...
August 28, 2016: Birth
Nour Baïz, Patricia Macchiaverni, Meri K Tulic, Akila Rekima, Isabella Annesi-Maesano, Valérie Verhasselt
Elevated levels of House Dust Mite allergens in breastmilk are associated with an increased risk of atopic sensitization and respiratory allergy in children. This observation highlights a yet unexplored factor that may contribute to allergy development and interfere with prevention of allergy by breastfeeding .
August 23, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Noor Samuels, Rob van de Graaf, Jasper V Been, Rogier C J de Jonge, Lidwien M Hanff, René M H Wijnen, René F Kornelisse, Irwin K M Reiss, Marijn J Vermeulen
Evidence on the clinical effectiveness of probiotics in the prevention of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants is conflicting and cohort studies lacked adjustment for time trend and feeding type. This study investigated the association between the introduction of routine probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum; Infloran(®)) on the primary outcome 'NEC or death'. Preterm infants (gestational age <32 weeks or birth weight <1500 gram) admitted before (Jan 2008-Sep 2012; n = 1288) and after (Oct 2012-Dec 2014; n = 673) introduction of probiotics were compared...
2016: Scientific Reports
Fabio Gomes, Nick Shaw, Karen Whitfield, Pieter Koorts, Helen McConachy, Amitha Hewavitharana
AIM: Breastmilk is considered the most important nutrient and source of supplementation for both term and preterm infants.1 It is composed of many important nutrients, including vitamin D.2 The content of this vitamin in breast milk is usually low, even for lactating mothers with adequate vitamin D status.2 3 Preterm infants are at the great risk of vitamin D deficiency due to decreased transplacental transfer.4 Premature infants are the main recipients of pasteurised donor human milk (PDHM), when their mothers are unable to provide their own...
September 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Malki Miller, Keyur Donda, Alok Bhutada, Deepa Rastogi, Shantanu Rastogi
BACKGROUND: Growth in preterm infants is compromised during the transition phase of nutrition, when parenteral nutrition (PN) volumes are weaned with advancing enteral nutrition (EN) feeds, likely due to suboptimal nutrient intakes during this time. We implemented new PN guidelines designed to maintain optimal nutrient intakes during the transition phase and compared growth outcomes of this cohort with a control group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A chart review was conducted on infants born <32 weeks' gestation, before (control group) and after (study group) a new transition PN protocol was implemented in the neonatal intensive care unit...
August 18, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Jane Scott, Kristina Davey, Ellen Ahwong, Gemma Devenish, Diep Ha, Loc Do
Breastfeeding is recommended beyond 12 months of age, but little is known about the contribution of breastmilk and infant formula to the nutritional intake of toddlers as they transition to a family diet in the second year of life. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of data collected from a birth cohort study in Adelaide, Australia. Dietary intake data were collected when children were approximately 1 year of age by an interviewer-administered multi-pass 24 h recall and a mother-completed 2 days food diary...
2016: Nutrients
Sody A Naimer, William F Silverman
BACKGROUND: It is well recognized that breastmilk provides optimal nutrition and immunological protection for infants. Many women, however, experience nipple pain while breastfeeding, leading to premature cessation of nursing. To overcome these difficulties, timely diagnosis is crucial to effectively treat the underlying pathology and permit resumption of breastfeeding. Examination of the superficial breast plays a key role in accurate diagnosis. Traditional direct inspection is clearly inadequate for this task...
September 2016: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
Carike Fouché, Evette van Niekerk, Lisanne Monica du Plessis
INTRODUCTION: A key strategy to prevent mother-to-child transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and to reduce infant morbidity and mortality includes providing the HIV-exposed premature infant with breastmilk accompanied by dual anti-retroviral therapy (ART). The effects of HIV and ART on premature breastmilk composition are largely unknown. The aim of the study was to assess and compare the breastmilk composition of HIV-infected mothers receiving ART and HIV-uninfected mothers who gave birth to premature infants...
August 16, 2016: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
Rangmar Goelz, Klaus Hamprecht, Karin Klingel, Christian F Poets
To review the relevant literature on cytomegalovirus-(CMV-)related intestinal problems in neonates, supplemented by two own cases of volvulus, a PubMed search and separate additional searches with characterizing terms were performed. 46 hits were found, 15 of which had to be excluded because they did not report clinical cases, yielding a total of 47 infants. Symptoms in both preterm and term infants with proven postnatal infection (n=16) included abdominal distension, bloody diarrhoea, necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) with perforation and intestinal stricture, with lethal outcome in 3 patients...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Eric E Calloway, Katie L Stern, Daniel J Schober, Amy L Yaroch
Objectives To understand the process by which early childhood education (ECE) providers effectively used an existing intervention to facilitate the creation or strengthening of a written breastfeeding policy, understand the factors important to this process, and present a logic model to guide future intervention design and evaluation. Methods A purposive sample of interviewees who recently completed an ECE nutrition and physical activity intervention and reported positive pre-post scores for breastfeeding support were recruited to complete semi-structured interviews...
August 13, 2016: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Aritra Das, Rahul Chatterjee, Morchan Karthick, Tanmay Mahapatra, Indrajit Chaudhuri
BACKGROUND: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) during the first six months of life is considered a high impact but low-cost measure for reducing the morbidity and mortality among children. The current study investigated the association of seasonality and frontline worker(FLW) provided counselling with practice of EBF in Bihar, India. METHODS: We used the 'Lot Quality Assurance Sampling' technique to conduct a multi-stage sampling survey in 8 districts of Bihar. Regarding EBF, mothers of 0-5 (completed) months old children were asked if they had given only breastmilk to their children during the previous day, while mothers of 6-8 (completed) months old children were inquired about the total duration of EBF...
2016: PloS One
Nicole L Davis, William C Miller, Michael G Hudgens, Charles S Chasela, Dorothy Sichali, Dumbani Kayira, Julie A E Nelson, Susan A Fiscus, Gerald Tegha, Deborah D Kamwendo, Joseph Rigdon, Jeffrey S A Stringer, Jonathan J Juliano, Sascha R Ellington, Athena P Kourtis, Denise J Jamieson, Charles Van Der Horst
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral interventions are used to reduce HIV viral replication and prevent mother-to-child transmission. Viral suppression relies on adherence to antiretrovirals. METHODS: A two-phase study was conducted using data from the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals and Nutrition study. We included mothers randomized to 28 weeks of postpartum antiretrovirals with ≥1 plasma or breastmilk specimen. All mothers who transmitted HIV to their infants from 2-28 weeks (n=31) and 15% of mothers who did not (n=232) were included...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Nicola Crossland, Gill Thomson, Heather Morgan, Graeme MacLennan, Marion Campbell, Fiona Dykes, Pat Hoddinott
Increasing breastfeeding rates would improve maternal and child health, but multiple barriers to breastfeeding persist. Breast pump provision has been used as an incentive for breastfeeding, although effectiveness is unclear. Women's use of breast pumps is increasing and a high proportion of mothers express breastmilk. No research has yet reported women's and health professionals' perspectives on breast pumps as an incentive for breastfeeding. In the Benefits of Incentives for Breastfeeding and Smoking cessation in pregnancy (BIBS) study, mixed methods research explored women's and professionals' views of breast pumps as an incentive for breastfeeding...
October 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Oskar Karlsson, Rodosthenis S Rodosthenous, Calvin Jara, Kasey J Brennan, Robert O Wright, Andrea A Baccarelli, Rosalind J Wright
Breastmilk has many documented beneficial effects on the developing human infant, but the components of breastmilk that influence these developmental pathways have not been fully elucidated. Increasing evidence suggests that non-coding RNAs encapsulated in extracellular vesicles (EVs) represent an important mechanism of communication between the mother and child. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are of particular interest given their key role in gene expression and development. However, it is not known whether breastmilk EVs contain lncRNAs...
August 5, 2016: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
Hannah Woolhouse, Jennifer James, Deirdre Gartland, Ellie McDonald, Stephanie J Brown
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding to six months postpartum, but most women in developed countries do not breastfeed this long. Prior studies exploring the relationship between breastfeeding duration and maternal depression show ambiguous findings. AIM: To explore associations between maternal depressive symptoms at three months postpartum, and breastfeeding status over the first six months postpartum. METHODS: Prospective pregnancy cohort study of nulliparous women...
August 2016: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
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