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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335075/breastmilk-with-a-high-omega-6-to-omega-3-fatty-acid-ratio-induced-cellular-events-similar-to-insulin-resistance-and-obesity-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#1
H Vaidya, S K Cheema
BACKGROUND: An imbalance of omega (n)-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) during critical periods of development may have adverse effects on the health of the newborn in later life. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that breastmilk with higher n-6 to n-3 PUFA ratio will have higher inflammatory cytokines and initiate cellular events similar to insulin resistance and obesity. METHODS: Breastmilk was collected from healthy women who gave natural birth at full term...
March 23, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296580/the-pumpgate-incident-stigma-against-lactating-mothers-in-the-u-s-workplace
#2
Mary Bresnahan, Jie Zhuang, Jennifer Anderson, Yi Zhu, Joshua Nelson, Xiaodi Yan
Studies conclude that breastfeeding for six months is associated with better lifelong health for mother and child. Mothers in the U.S. returning to work after maternity leave report difficulty with the need to take frequent breaks to pump breastmilk so many stop breastfeeding. Factors discouraging pumping breastmilk in the workplace motivated a content analysis of public comments posted in response to a legal deposition that occurred in January of 2011 in which an attorney who was a new mother was challenged about taking a break to pump breastmilk...
March 15, 2017: Women & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295774/alcohol-consumption-by-breastfeeding-mothers-frequency-correlates-and-infant-outcomes
#3
Judy Wilson, Rui Yang Tay, Clare McCormack, Steve Allsop, Jake Najman, Lucy Burns, Craig A Olsson, Elizabeth Elliott, Sue Jacobs, Richard P Mattick, Delyse Hutchinson
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: There is limited research regarding the effects of alcohol consumption by breastfeeding mothers on infant development. This study examined the frequency, correlates and outcomes of alcohol use during lactation. DESIGN AND METHODS: Data were from an Australian cohort study. Maternal demographics and substance use were assessed during pregnancy and at 8 weeks and 12 months postpartum. Breastfeeding duration, infant feeding, sleeping and development (Ages and Stages Questionnaire) were also assessed postpartum...
March 13, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295465/quantification-of-piritramide-in-human-colostrum
#4
A Van Eeckhaut, P Vanfleteren, J Van Schoors, Y Van Wanseele, J Poelaert, Y Michotte
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: In our university hospital (UZBrussel), one of the options to control post-operative pain after a Caesarean section under general anaesthesia is to administer piritramide by patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA). As no information is available about the possible transfer of this synthetic narcotic analgesic into breastmilk, women are frequently advised not to breastfeed their newborn. A sensitive liquid chromatographic (LC) method coupled with UV detection will therefore be developed and validated for the quantification of piritramide in colostrum samples to evaluate the presence of the analgesic in the first milk...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244773/oxidative-damage-to-proteins-related-to-metals-and-antioxidant-defenses-in-breastmilk
#5
Patricia Carolina Castillo-Castañeda, Ramón Gaxiola-Robles, Vanessa Labrada-Martagón, Baudilio Acosta Vargas, Lía Celina Méndez-Rodríguez, Tania Zenteno-Savín
INTRODUCTION: Breast milk contains molecules needed for the development of children; the integrity and function of these molecules is affected by the presence of pro-oxidants. Protein carbonyls are mainly produced as a result of the interaction of metals with reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may initiate a chain reaction that promotes molecular oxidation. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the association between the concentration of protein carbonyls with the concentration of trace elements (lead [Pb], cadmium [Cd] and selenium [Se]), superoxide radical (O2•-) production, and glutathione (GSH) content, as well with the activity of the main antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GPx], glutathione reductase [GR] and glutathione S-transferase [GST]) in breast milk...
February 1, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238109/erythrocyte-fatty-acid-composition-of-nepal-breast-fed-infants
#6
Sigrun Henjum, Øyvind Lie, Manjeswori Ulak, Andrew L Thorne-Lyman, Ram K Chandyo, Prakash S Shrestha, Wafaie W Fawzi, Tor A Strand, Marian Kjellevold
PURPOSE: Essential fatty acids play a critical role in the growth and development of infants, but little is known about the fatty acid status of populations in low-income countries. The objective was to describe the fatty acid composition of red blood cells (RBC) in breastfeed Nepali infants and a subsample of their mothers and to identify the main sources of fatty acids in the mother's diet, as well as the fatty acid composition of breast milk. METHODS: RBC fatty acid composition was analyzed in a random sample of 303 infants and 72 mother, along with 68 breastmilk samples...
February 25, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207425/evidence-based-interventions-for-improvement-of-maternal-and-child-nutrition-in-low-income-settings-what-s-new
#7
Tyler Vaivada, Michelle F Gaffey, Jai K Das, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Maternal and child malnutrition continues to disproportionately affect low and middle-income countries, contributing to high rates of morbidity, mortality, and suboptimal development. This article reviews evidence from recent systematic reviews and studies on the effectiveness of interventions to improve nutritional status in these especially vulnerable populations. RECENT FINDINGS: Macronutrients provided to expectant mothers in the form of balanced protein energy supplements can improve fetal growth and birth outcomes, and new research suggests that lipid nutrient supplements can reduce both stunting and wasting in newborns...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188933/zika-virus-shedding-in-human-milk-during-lactation-an-unlikely-source-of-infection
#8
Marta G Cavalcanti, Mauro J Cabral-Castro, Jorge L S Gonçalves, Larissa S Santana, Eduardo Scarlatelli Pimenta, José M Peralta
Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission through non-mosquito-dependent routes has become increasingly important since reports of sexual transmission. Breastfeeding is a potential means of ZIKV transmission, but data on this remain limited. The cases of four mothers with laboratory-proven infections are reported. No disease evolved in three of the breastfed babies despite detectable maternal viremia and viruria, the presence of viral RNA shedding, and the isolation of infective particles in one milk sample. Fever and rash in one infant of a ZIKV-infected mother proved to be related to chikungunya virus infection...
February 8, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186955/cross-sectional-analysis-of-universal-vitamin-d-supplementation-in-former-east-germany-during-the-first-year-of-life
#9
Aris Siafarikas, Alfons Deichl, Gerhard Jahreis, Angela Pieplow, Hartmut Vogel, Eberhard Kauf, Anna-Elisabeth Kapuhs, Elke Badeke, Günter Berger, Hans Kändler, Volker Hesse
BACKGROUND: Universal vitamin D supplementation is controversial. Preventative examinations and public health initiatives in former East Germany that included vitamin D prophylaxis for children were regulated by official recommendations and guidelines. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of a standardised nationwide guideline for universal supplementation with 400 International Units (IU) vitamin D3/day during the first year of life on clinical and biochemical parameters and the influence of surrounding factors...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174037/observed-infant-food-cue-responsivity-associations-with-maternal-report-of-infant-eating-behavior-breastfeeding-and-infant-weight-gain
#10
Elizabeth Buvinger, Katherine Rosenblum, Alison L Miller, Niko A Kaciroti, Julie C Lumeng
Infant obesity and the rate of weight gain during infancy are significant public health concerns, but few studies have examined eating behaviors in infancy. Food cue responsivity has been described as a key contributor to obesity risk in school age children and adults, but has been rarely examined during infancy. The purpose of the current study was to test among 30 infants aged 6-12 months the hypotheses that infants would show greater interest in food versus non-food stimuli, and that greater birth weight, greater rate of weight gain during infancy, greater mother-reported food responsiveness, being formula versus breastmilk fed, and higher maternal body mass index, would each be associated with greater interest in the food versus non-food stimulus...
May 1, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159311/intestinal-barrier-maturation-in-very-low-birthweight-infants-relationship-to-feeding-and-antibiotic-exposure
#11
Bushra Saleem, Adora C Okogbule-Wonodi, Alessio Fasano, Laurence S Magder, Jacques Ravel, Shiv Kapoor, Rose M Viscardi
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that feeding and antibiotic exposures affect intestinal barrier maturation in preterm infants, we serially measured intestinal permeability (IP) biomarkers in infants <33 weeks gestation (gestational age [GA]) during the first 2 weeks of life. STUDY DESIGN: Eligible infants <33 weeks GA were enrolled within 4 days of birth in a prospective study of IP biomarkers (NCT01756040). Study participants received the nonmetabolized sugars lactulose/rhamnose enterally on study days 1, 8, and 15 and lactulose/rhamnose were measured in urine by high-performance liquid chromatography...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129875/too-salty-biochemical-markers-to-validate-maternal-concern-of-breastmilk-supply
#12
Clyde J Wright
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123334/assessment-of-different-folic-acid-supplementation-doses-for-low-birth-weight-infants
#13
Fatma Çakmak Çelik, Canan Aygün, Sedat Gülten, Abdulkerim Bedir, Erhan Çetinoğlu, Şükrü Küçüködük, Yüksel Bek
AIM: The adequacy of 50 mcg folic acid supplementation given to low-birth-weight babies was investigated. The folate levels of the mothers and infants, and breastmilk, and the optimum dose for folic acid supplementation were also investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: After obtaining blood from 141 low-birth-weight infants on the 1st day of life for serum and red cell folate levels, the infants were randomly allocated into three groups according to the folic acid supplement dose...
December 2016: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27969051/direct-breastfeeding-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-and-breastfeeding-duration-for-premature-infants
#14
Carrie-Ellen Briere, Jacqueline M McGrath, Xiaomei Cong, Elizabeth Brownell, Regina Cusson
AIM: To explore the relationship between direct-breastfeeding in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and breastfeeding duration after discharge. BACKGROUND: Initiating and maintaining breastmilk feeding is an important goal that begins in the NICU. Little is known about direct-breastfeeding in the NICU and its relation to breastfeeding duration. METHODS: Chart review of 46 infants (<32weeks gestational age or <1500 grams) whose mothers provided breastmilk...
November 2016: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955620/implications-of-methodological-differences-in-measuring-the-rates-of-exclusive-breastfeeding-in-nepal-findings-from-literature-review-and-cohort-study
#15
Vishnu Khanal, Andy H Lee, Jane A Scott, Rajendra Karkee, Colin W Binns
BACKGROUND: Correct measurement and continuous monitoring of exclusive breastfeeding are essential to promote exclusive breastfeeding. Measuring exclusive breastfeeding is a complex issue as rates can vary according to the definition, measurement period, questions asked, and infant's age. This article reviewed the methodology of reporting exclusive breastfeeding in Nepal, and compared exclusive breastfeeding rates using data from a cohort study undertaken in western Nepal. METHODS: A literature review was first conducted on studies published during 2000-2014...
December 12, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925865/public-health-messages-about-perinatal-marijuana-use-in-an-evolving-policy-context
#16
Marian Jarlenski, Jennifer Zank, Jill Tarr, Judy C Chang
BACKGROUND: Marijuana is a commonly used substance in pregnancy in the United States. It is unknown what public health messages about perinatal marijuana use are being disseminated in the changing policy landscape. METHODS: The authors systematically searched 51 state and 5 federal public health agencies' Web sites in February 2016 for information about perinatal marijuana use. Of these, 1 federal agency and 10 state agencies had published information about perinatal marijuana use...
January 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914189/analysis-of-experiences-with-exclusive-breastfeeding-among-hiv-positive-mothers-in-lusaka-zambia
#17
Alice Ngoma-Hazemba, Busisiwe Purity Ncama
BACKGROUND: Exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months offers protection from postnatal HIV infection but remains low in resource-poor settings. Documentation of experiences with exclusive breastfeeding is needed to strengthen infant feeding counselling by health care workers. OBJECTIVE: To explore HIV-positive mothers' experiences with exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of the infant's life. DESIGN: A health facility- and community-based exploratory qualitative study was conducted among 30 HIV-positive mothers practising exclusive breastfeeding and meeting the selection criteria...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897979/breastmilk-production-in-the-first-4-weeks-after-birth-of-term-infants
#18
Jacqueline C Kent, Hazel Gardner, Donna T Geddes
Breastmilk provides the ideal nutrition for the infant, and exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for the first 6 months. Adequate milk production by the mother is therefore critical, and early milk production has been shown to significantly affect milk production during established lactation. Previous studies indicate that milk production should reach the lower limit of normal for established lactation (440 mL per day) by day 11 after birth. We have used test-weighing of term infants before and after each breastfeed over 24 h to measure milk production in the first 4 weeks of lactation in mothers with and without perceived breastfeeding problems to provide information on how often milk production is inadequate...
November 25, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874177/the-differentiation-of-menstrual-from-venous-blood-and-other-body-fluids-on-various-substrates-using-atr-ft-ir-spectroscopy
#19
Alicia A Quinn, Kelly M Elkins
Crime scene investigators and laboratory analysts use chemical tests to detect and differentiate body fluids. Testing often requires a sample of the stain, and the chemicals may cause degradation of the fluid or interfere with subsequent tests. Colorimetric chemical tests do not differentiate between different types of the same fluid, such as venous and menstrual blood, and there is no presumptive test available to simultaneously differentiate several body fluids. In this study, we recorded ATR FT-IR spectra of venous and menstrual blood, semen, saliva, and breastmilk...
January 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870812/does-breastfeeding-protect-young-infants-from-pertussis-case-control-study-and-immunologic-evaluation
#20
Elisabetta Pandolfi, Francesco Gesualdo, Emanuela Carloni, Alberto Villani, Fabio Midulla, Rita Carsetti, Paola Stefanelli, Giorgio Fedele, Alberto Eugenio Tozzi
BACKGROUND: Pertussis infection can be severe in unvaccinated infants. A case-control study was conducted to investigate the potential role of breastfeeding in protecting young, unvaccinated infants from pertussis. METHODS: Hospitalized infants <6 months of age with positive real time polymerase chain reaction for pertussis on nasopharyngeal aspirate were enrolled as cases; healthy controls were enrolled among patients admitted for ultrasound screening. Vaccinated infants were excluded...
March 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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