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ALS Therapy

Cheng-Fu Chang, Yi-Chao Lee, Kuen-Haur Lee, Hui-Ching Lin, Chia-Ling Chen, Che-Kun James Shen, Chi-Chen Huang
BACKGROUND: In the central nervous system regions of the sporadic and familial FTLD and ALS patients, TDP-43 has been identified as the major component of UBIs inclusions which is abnormally hyperphosphorylated, ubiquitinated, and cleaved into C-terminal fragments to form detergent-insoluble aggregates. So far, the effective drugs for FTLD and ALS neurodegenerative diseases are yet to be developed. Autophagy has been demonstrated as the major metabolism route of the pathological TDP-43 inclusions, hence activation of autophagy is a potential therapeutic strategy for TDP-43 pathogenesis in FTLD and ALS...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
Ioanna Eleftheriadou, Ioannis Manolaras, Elaine E Irvine, Michael Dieringer, Antonio Trabalza, Nicholas D Mazarakis
OBJECTIVE: We have previously described the generation of coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (α CAR)-targeted vector, and shown that intramuscular delivery in mouse leg muscles resulted in specific retrograde transduction of lumbar-motor neurons (MNs). Here, we utilized the α CAR-targeted vector to investigate the in vivo neuroprotective effects of lentivirally expressed IGF-1 for inducing neuronal survival and ameliorating the neuropathology and behavioral phenotypes of the SOD1(G93A) mouse model of ALS...
October 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Kelly E Glajch, Laura Ferraiuolo, Kaly A Mueller, Matthew J Stopford, Varsha Prabhkar, Achille Gravanis, Pamela J Shaw, Ghazaleh Sadri-Vakili
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by loss of motor neurons. ALS patients experience rapid deterioration in muscle function with an average lifespan of 3-5 years after diagnosis. Currently, the most effective therapeutic only extends lifespan by a few months, thus highlighting the need for new and improved therapies. Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are important for neuronal development, maintenance, and survival. NTF treatment has previously shown efficacy in pre-clinical ALS models...
2016: PloS One
Thangavelu Soundara Rajan, Domenico Scionti, Francesca Diomede, Gianpaolo Grassi, Federica Pollastro, Adriano Piattelli, Lucio Cocco, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon, Oriana Trubiani
Research in recent years has extensively investigated the therapeutic efficacy of mesenchymal stromal cells in regenerative medicine for many neurodegenerative diseases at preclinical and clinical stages. However, the success rate of stem cell therapy remains less at translational phase. Lack of relevant animal models that potentially simulate the molecular etiology of human pathological symptoms might be a reason behind such poor clinical outcomes associated with stem cell therapy. Apparently, self-renewal and differentiation ability of mesenchymal stem cells may help to study the early developmental signaling pathways connected with the diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), etc...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Jacob I Ayers, Jeffrey Diamond, Adriana Sari, Susan Fromholt, Ahmad Galaleldeen, Lyle W Ostrow, Jonathan D Glass, P John Hart, David R Borchelt
Evidence of misfolded wild-type superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) has been detected in spinal cords of sporadic ALS (sALS) patients, suggesting an etiological relationship to SOD1-associated familial ALS (fALS). Given that there are currently a number of promising therapies under development that target SOD1, it is of critical importance to better understand the role of misfolded SOD1 in sALS. We previously demonstrated the permissiveness of the G85R-SOD1:YFP mouse model for MND induction following injection with tissue homogenates from paralyzed transgenic mice expressing SOD1 mutations...
October 4, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Paul Talman, Thi Duong, Steve Vucic, Susan Mathers, Svetha Venkatesh, Robert Henderson, Dominic Rowe, David Schultz, Robert Edis, Merrilee Needham, Richard Macdonnell, Pamela McCombe, Carol Birks, Matthew Kiernan
OBJECTIVE: To capture the clinical patterns, timing of key milestones and survival of patients presenting with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease (ALS/MND) within Australia. METHODS: Data were prospectively collected and were timed to normal clinical assessments. An initial registration clinical report form (CRF) and subsequent ongoing assessment CRFs were submitted with a completion CRF at the time of death. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study...
September 30, 2016: BMJ Open
Yuriko Minegishi, Mao Nakayama, Daisuke Iejima, Kazuhide Kawase, Takeshi Iwata
Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of bilateral blindness, affecting nearly 57 million people worldwide. Glaucoma is characterized by a progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells and is often associated with intraocular pressure (IOP). Normal tension glaucoma (NTG), marked by normal IOP but progressive glaucoma, is incompletely understood. In 2002, Sarfarazi et al. identified FIP-2 gene mutations responsible for hereditary NTG, renaming this gene "optineurin" (OPTN). Further investigations by multiple groups worldwide showed that OPTN is involved in several critical cellular functions, such as NF-κB regulation, autophagy, and vesicle transport...
September 29, 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Krista J Spiller, Clark R Restrepo, Tahiyana Khan, Anna M Stieber, Linda K Kwong, John Q Trojanowski, Virginia M-Y Lee
In order to treat progressive paralysis in ALS patients, it is critical to develop a mouse that closely models human ALS in both pathology and also in the timing of these events. We have recently generated new TDP-43 bigenic mice (called rNLS8) with doxycycline (Dox)-suppressible expression of human TDP-43 (hTDP-43) harboring a defective nuclear localization signal (hTDP-43∆NLS) under the control of the NEFH promoter. Our previous studies characterized the pathology and disease course in young rNLS8 mice following induction of neuronal hTDP-43ΔNLS...
September 29, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Aurélie Duruflé, Claire Le-Meur, Marie-Pierre Reillon, Claire Lozach, Benoit Nicolas
Many mobile teams were created over the past decade in various medical specialties including physical medicine and rehabilitation (MPR). The Pôle Saint-Helier has created a mobile team of rehabilitation-reintegration (EM2R) in December 2012 with support from the Regional Health Agency of Brittany. It operates on the health territory No. 5 of Brittany near people experiencing neurological disability. Its main mission is to implement the necessary devices to facilitate the home return of people hospitalized after a neurological event or maintaining to home people with neurological disorders...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Gianina Teribele Venturin, Samuel Greggio, Gabriele Zanirati, Daniel Rodrigo Marinowic, Iuri Marques de Oliveira, João Antonio Pêgas Henriques, Jaderson Costa DaCosta
Cell-based therapy provides a novel strategy to restore lost neurons or modulate the degenerating microenvironment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). This study verified the therapeutic potential of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs) in SOD1(G93A) mice. BMMCs were obtained from enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgenic C57BL/6 mice ((EGFP)BMMCs) or from SOD1(G93A) transgenic mice ((mSOD1)BMMCs) and given to mice at the pre-symptomatic or late symptomatic stage. Survival, body weight and motor performance data were recorded...
October 28, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Fernanda Gubert, Marcelo F Satiago
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that causes progressive muscular atrophy and death within 3-5 years after its onset. Despite the significant advances in knowledge of ALS pathology, no effective treatment is available. Therefore, it is imperative to search for new alternatives to treat ALS. Cell therapy, especially using bone-marrow cells, has showed to be very useful to protect the neural tissue in different brain disease or traumatic lesions. In ALS, most published results show beneficial effects of the use bone marrow cells, especially mesenchymal stromal cells...
August 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
Stéphane Mathis, Philippe Couratier, Adrien Julian, Jean-Michel Vallat, Philippe Corcia, Gwendal Le Masson
INTRODUCTION: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting both upper and lower motor neurons. Despite much research and effort, no clear insights into a unifying hypothesis for the pathogenesis has so far emerged for this disease. AREAS COVERED: We review the main pathophysiological hypotheses and the potential therapeutic targets in ALS, as well as the management of these patients (in order to improve their survival and quality of life)...
September 20, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Mijung Lee, Jae-Jun Ban, Ki Yoon Kim, Gye Sun Jeon, Wooseok Im, Jung-Joon Sung, Manho Kim
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a degenerative disorder that involves the death of motor neurons in the cortex, brain stem, and spinal cord. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are considered as a perspective remedy for therapy of neurodegenerative diseases including ALS. Stem cells secrete various factors which can modulate a hostile environment, called paracrine effect. Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles containing cell derived factors and mediate paracrine effect of cells. Thus, exosomes from ADSCs (ADSC-exo) can be a potential candidate of therapeutic effects of stem cells...
October 21, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Hyang Sook Seol, Sang Eun Lee, Joon Seon Song, Hye Yong Lee, Sojung Park, Inki Kim, Shree Ram Singh, Suhwan Chang, Se Jin Jang
Liver cancer is one of the common malignancies in many countries and an increasing cause of cancer death. Despite of that, there are few therapeutic options available with inconsistent outcome, raising a need for developing alternative therapeutic options. Through a drug repositioning screening, we identified and investigated the action mechanism of the Riluzole, an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) drug, on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) therapy. Treatment of the Riluzole leads to a suppression of cell proliferation in liver primary cancer cells and cancer cell lines...
September 6, 2016: Cancer Letters
Matthew A White, Jemeen Sreedharan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), like other neurodegenerative diseases, remains incurable, but gene mutations linked to ALS are providing clues as to how to target therapies. It is important for researchers to keep abreast of the rapid influx of new data in ALS, and we aim to summarize the major genetic advances made in the field over the past 2 years. RECENT FINDINGS: Significant variation in seven genes has recently been found in ALS: TBK1, CCNF, GLE1, MATR3, TUBA4A, CHCHD10 and NEK1...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
Jennifer Roggenbuck, Adam Quick, Stephen J Kolb
Patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) often have questions about why they developed the disease and the likelihood that family members will also be affected. In recent years, providing answers to these questions has become more complex with the identification of multiple novel genes, the newly recognized etiologic link between ALS and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and the increased availability of commercial genetic testing. A genetic diagnosis is particularly important to establish in the era of emerging gene-based therapies, such as SOD1 antisense oligonucleotide trials...
August 18, 2016: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Lorelei Stoica, Miguel Sena-Esteves
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by progressive loss of upper and lower motor neurons. Mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) are a leading cause of ALS, responsible for up to 20% of familial cases. Although the exact mechanism by which mutant SOD1 causes disease remains unknown, multiple studies have shown that reduction of the mutant species leads to delayed disease onset and extension of lifespan of animal models. This makes SOD1 an ideal target for gene therapy coupling adeno associated virus vector (AAV) gene delivery with RNAi molecules...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
James C Evans, Meenakshi Malhotra, John F Cryan, Caitriona M O'Driscoll
Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) otherwise known as glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) is a membrane bound protein that is highly expressed in prostate cancer and in the neovasculature of a wide variety of tumours including glioblastomas, breast and bladder cancers. This protein is also involved in a variety of neurological diseases including schizophrenia and ALS. In recent years, there has been a surge in the development of both diagnostics and therapeutics that take advantage of the expression and activity of PSMA/GCPII...
November 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Kevin Mouzat, Cédric Raoul, Anne Polge, Jovana Kantar, William Camu, Serge Lumbroso
Cholesterol plays a central role in numerous nervous system functions. Cholesterol is the major constituent of myelin sheaths, is essential for synapse and dendrite formation, axon guidance as well as neurotransmission. Among regulators of cholesterol homeostasis, liver X receptors (LXRs), two members of the nuclear receptor superfamily, play a determinant role. LXRs act as cholesterol sensors and respond to high intracellular cholesterol concentration by decreasing plasmatic and intracellular cholesterol content...
October 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Brigitte van Zundert, Robert H Brown
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset, lethal, paralytic disorder caused by the degeneration of motor neurons. Our understanding of this disease has been greatly facilitated by studies of familial ALS caused by mutations in the gene encoding superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). Evidence indicates that misfolded wild-type SOD1 may also be pathogenic in sporadic ALS. Mutant SOD1 is neurotoxic through multiple mechanisms. Because the pathogenicity of mutant SOD1 is proportional to the dose of the toxic protein, a rational approach to treating SOD1-related ALS is to reduce levels of the toxic SOD1 species...
August 6, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
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