keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

immunology hiv

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728075/immunological-tolerance-as-a-barrier-to-protective-hiv-humoral-immunity
#1
REVIEW
Kristin Ms Schroeder, Amanda Agazio, Raul M Torres
HIV-1 infection typically eludes antibody control by our immune system and is not yet prevented by a vaccine. While many viral features contribute to this immune evasion, broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against HIV-1 are often autoreactive and it has been suggested that immunological tolerance may restrict a neutralizing antibody response. Indeed, recent Ig knockin mouse studies have shown that bnAb-expressing B cells are largely censored by central tolerance in the bone marrow. However, the contribution of peripheral tolerance in limiting the HIV antibody response by anergic and potentially protective B cells is poorly understood...
July 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723945/haematological-and-cd4-t-cells-reference-ranges-in-healthy-adult-populations-in-gojjam-zones-in-amhara-region-ethiopia
#2
Wondemagegn Mulu, Bayeh Abera, Zewdie Mekonnen, Yesuf Adem, Mulat Yimer, Yohannes Zenebe, Asmare Amuamuta, Wondimu Gebeyehu
INTRODUCTION: Establishing national population haematological and immunological reference ranges are essential for clinical management of patients. However, there is scarcity of information on community based haematological reference ranges established from Ethiopian population. Therefore, this study aimed at determining haematological and CD4+ T cells reference ranges in healthy adults from East and West Gojjam zones, Ethiopia. METHODS: Community based cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2015 to December 2015 in healthy adult residents of Gojjam zone...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721397/hivis-dna-or-hivisopt-dna-priming-followed-by-cmdr-vaccinia-based-boosts-induce-both-humoral-and-cellular-murine-immune-responses-to-hiv
#3
J Hinkula, S Petkov, K Ljungberg, D Hallengärd, A Bråve, M Isaguliants, T Falkeborn, S Sharma, V Liakina, M Robb, M Eller, B Moss, G Biberfeld, E Sandström, C Nilsson, K Markland, P Blomberg, B Wahren
BACKGROUND: In order to develop a more effective prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine it is important optimize the components, improve Envelope glycoprotein immunogenicity as well as to explore prime-boost immunization schedules. It is also valuable to include several HIV-1 subtype antigens representing the world-wide epidemic. METHODS: HIVIS-DNA plasmids which include Env genes of subtypes A, B and C together with Gag subtypes A and B and RTmut/Rev of subtype B were modified as follows: the Envelope sequences were shortened, codon optimized, provided with an FT4 sequence and an immunodominant region mutated...
June 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713376/myristoylation-an-important-protein-modification-in-the-immune-response
#4
REVIEW
Daniel Ikenna Udenwobele, Ruey-Chyi Su, Sara V Good, Terry Blake Ball, Shailly Varma Shrivastav, Anuraag Shrivastav
Protein N-myristoylation is a cotranslational lipidic modification specific to the alpha-amino group of an N-terminal glycine residue of many eukaryotic and viral proteins. The ubiquitous eukaryotic enzyme, N-myristoyltransferase, catalyzes the myristoylation process. Precisely, attachment of a myristoyl group increases specific protein-protein interactions leading to subcellular localization of myristoylated proteins with its signaling partners. The birth of the field of myristoylation, a little over three decades ago, has led to the understanding of the significance of protein myristoylation in regulating cellular signaling pathways in several biological processes especially in carcinogenesis and more recently immune function...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713164/human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-induces-a-regulatory-b-cell-like-phenotype-in-vitro
#5
Jacobo Lopez-Abente, Adrián Prieto-Sanchez, Maria-Ángeles Muñoz-Fernandez, Rafael Correa-Rocha, Marjorie Pion
Individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) usually show a general dysregulation and hyper-activation of the immune system. A direct influence of HIV-1 particles on B-cell phenotypes and functions has been previously described. However, the consequences of B-cell dysregulation are still poorly understood. We evaluated the phenotypic changes in primary B cells after direct contact with HIV-1 particles in comparison with different types of stimuli. The functionality of treated B cells was challenged in co-culture experiments with autologous CD4+ and CD8+ T cells...
July 17, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705176/time-to-immunologic-recovery-and-determinant-factors-among-adults-who-initiated-art-in-felege-hiwot-referral-hospital-northwest-ethiopia
#6
Lemma Derseh Gezie, Kassahun Alemu Gelaye, Abebaw Gebeyehu Worku, Tadesse Awoke Ayele, Destaw Fetene Teshome
BACKGROUND: CD4 cells are the major targets for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and treatment with Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) influences the CD4 cell count of HIV patients. In addition to ART, the time required to reach normal range of CD4 counts (500 cells/mm(3)) can be affected by clinical, socio-demographic, and behavioral factors. This retrospective cohort study was conducted to determine the incidence of having the normal range of CD4 cell counts and factors that affect the time required to reach this normal range among adult HIV patients who initiated into ART...
July 14, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702025/cellular-and-molecular-defects-underlying-invasive-fungal-infections-revelations-from-endemic-mycoses
#7
REVIEW
Pamela P Lee, Yu-Lung Lau
The global burden of fungal diseases has been increasing, as a result of the expanding number of susceptible individuals including people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hematopoietic stem cell or organ transplant recipients, patients with malignancies or immunological conditions receiving immunosuppressive treatment, premature neonates, and the elderly. Opportunistic fungal pathogens such as Aspergillus, Candida, Cryptococcus, Rhizopus, and Pneumocystis jiroveci are distributed worldwide and constitute the majority of invasive fungal infections (IFIs)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701395/preferential-targeting-of-conserved-gag-regions-after-vaccination-with-a-heterologous-dna-prime-modified-vaccinia-ankara-mva-boost-hiv-1-vaccine-regimen
#8
Asli Bauer, Lilli Podola, Philipp Mann, Marco Missanga, Antelmo Haule, Lwitiho Sudi, Charlotta Nilsson, Bahati Kaluwa, Cornelia Lueer, Maria Mwakatima, Patricia J Munseri, Leonard Maboko, Merlin L Robb, Sodsai Tovanabutra, Gustavo Kijak, Mary Marovich, Sheena McCormack, Sarah Joseph, Eligius Lyamuya, Britta Wahren, Eric Sandström, Gunnel Biberfeld, Michael Hoelscher, Muhammad Bakari, Arne Kroidl, Christof Geldmacher
Prime-boost vaccination strategies against HIV-1 often include multiple variants for a given immunogen for better coverage of the extensive viral diversity. To study the immunologic effects of this approach, we characterized breadth, phenotype, function and specificity of Gag-specific T cells induced by a DNA-prime Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA)-boost vaccination strategy, which uses mismatched Gag immunogens in the TamoVac 01 phase IIa trial. Healthy Tanzanian volunteers received three injections of the DNA-SMI vaccine encoding for a subtype B and AB-recombinant Gagp37 and two vaccinations with MVA-CMDR encoding subtype A Gagp55 Gag-specific T-cell responses were studied in 42 vaccinees using fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699851/dynamics-of-cd4-cell-count-among-hiv-infected-individuals-in-lagos-nigeria
#9
Babatunde O Motayo, Babatunde A Olusola, Adedayo O Faneye, Solomon Aturaka, Olukunle Oluwasemowo, Joseph I Ogiogwa
Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection leads to progressive loss of CD4 T- cells. Antiretroviral therapy has been able to inhibit this process, resulting in significant level of immune recovery and function. Our aim is to investigate the dynamics of CD4 recovery among HIV patients in Lagos, Nigeria. 213 HIV positive individuals were enrolled between October 2007 and May 2008, and followed up for 9 months based on CD4 count, CD4 analysis was done by flow cytometry at enrolment and after every 3 months...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698284/breaching-peripheral-tolerance-promotes-the-production-of-hiv-1-neutralizing-antibodies
#10
Kristin M S Schroeder, Amanda Agazio, Pamela J Strauch, Sean T Jones, Scott B Thompson, Michael S Harper, Roberta Pelanda, Mario L Santiago, Raul M Torres
A subset of characterized HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) are polyreactive with additional specificities for self-antigens and it has been proposed immunological tolerance may present a barrier to their participation in protective humoral immunity. We address this hypothesis by immunizing autoimmune-prone mice with HIV-1 Envelope (Env) and characterizing the primary antibody response for HIV-1 neutralization. We find autoimmune mice generate neutralizing antibody responses to tier 2 HIV-1 strains with alum treatment alone in the absence of Env...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695803/bioinformatic-analysis-of-differentially-expressed-genes-in-peripheral-blood-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-tubercle-bacilli-co-infected-patients
#11
Rongqiang Zhang, Qiling Liu, Na Sun, Wulin Kang, Puwei Yuan
Objective To analyze the differentially expressed genes in peripheral blood of human immunodeficiency(HIV)/tubercle bacilli co-infected patients and explore the biological regulatory mechanism and network of key proteins,so as to provide new evidence for early diagnosis and clinical treatment of HIV/TB co-infected patients. Methods Microarray gene chip data of HIV/TB co-infected patients were downloaded from public databases GEO and imported into the analysis software GEO,STRING,PANTHER,and GenClip. The gene expression profiles,protein interaction networks,processes of molecular biology,and gene functions were analyzed...
June 20, 2017: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695289/the-role-of-mhc-class-i-gene-products-in-siv-infection-of-macaques
#12
REVIEW
Zachary A Silver, David I Watkins
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains among the most significant public health threats worldwide. Despite three decades of research following the discovery of HIV, a preventive vaccine remains elusive. The study of HIV elite controllers has been crucial to elaborate the genetic and immunologic determinants that underlie control of HIV replication. Coordinated studies of elite control in humans have, however, been limited by variability among infecting viral strains, host genotype, and the uncertainty of the timing and route of infection...
July 10, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691435/clinical-and-public-health-implications-of-acute-and-early-hiv-detection-and-treatment-a-scoping-review
#13
Sarah E Rutstein, Jintanat Ananworanich, Sarah Fidler, Cheryl Johnson, Eduard J Sanders, Omar Sued, Asier Saez-Cirion, Christopher D Pilcher, Christophe Fraser, Myron S Cohen, Marco Vitoria, Meg Doherty, Joseph D Tucker
INTRODUCTION: The unchanged global HIV incidence may be related to ignoring acute HIV infection (AHI). This scoping review examines diagnostic, clinical, and public health implications of identifying and treating persons with AHI. METHODS: We searched PubMed, in addition to hand-review of key journals identifying research pertaining to AHI detection and treatment. We focused on the relative contribution of AHI to transmission and the diagnostic, clinical, and public health implications...
June 28, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686654/a-retrospective-case-cohort-study-comparing-treatment-outcomes-in-abacavir-versus-stavudine-containing-first-line-antiretroviral-treatment-regimens-in-children-3yrs-old-at-a-paediatric-programme-based-in-soweto-south-africa
#14
Haseena Cassim, Kennedy Otwombe, Erica Lazarus, Afaaf Liberty, Glenda E Gray, Oppel B W Greeff, Avy Violari
INTRODUCTION: The current World Health Organization guideline for first line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected children recommends the use of abacavir and lamivudine as nucleoside backbones and no longer includes stavudine. We compared treatment outcomes with abacavir (ABC) versus stavudine (d4T) in a cohort of HIV-1 infected children 6 and 12 months after antiretroviral therapy was initiated. METHODS: This was a retrospective case-cohort study, using programmatic data from children enrolled in the Paediatric Wellness Programme at the Perinatal HIV Research Unit in Soweto, South Africa between 2005 and 2013...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686636/characteristics-and-outcomes-of-older-hiv-infected-patients-receiving-antiretroviral-therapy-in-malawi-a-retrospective-observation-cohort-study
#15
Hannock Tweya, Caryl Feldacker, Tom Heller, Salem Gugsa, Wingston Ng'ambi, Omisher Nthala, Mike Kalulu, Jane Chiwoko, Rabecca Banda, Agness Makwinja, Sam Phiri
OBJECTIVE: To estimate patients enrolling on antiretroviral therapy (ART) over time; describe trends in baseline characteristics; and compare immunological response, loss to follow-up (LTFU), and mortality by three age groups (25-39, 40-49 and ≥50 years). DESIGN: A retrospective observation cohort study. METHODS: This study used routine ART data from two public clinics in Lilongwe, Malawi. All HIV-infected individuals, except pregnant or breastfeeding women, aged ≥ 25 years at ART initiation between 2006 and 2015 were included...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678607/hiv-env-conserved-element-dna-vaccine-alters-immunodominance-in-macaques
#16
Xintao Hu, Antonio Valentin, Margherita Rosati, Siriphan Manocheewa, Candido Alicea, Bhabadeb Chowdhury, Jenifer Bear, Kate E Broderick, Niranjan Y Sardesai, Sylvie Le Gall, James I Mullins, George N Pavlakis, Barbara K Felber
Sequence diversity and immunodominance are major obstacles in the design of an effective vaccine against HIV. HIV Env is a highly-glycosylated protein composed of 'conserved' and 'variable' regions. The latter contains immunodominant epitopes that are frequently targeted by the immune system resulting in the generation of immune escape variants. This work describes 12 regions in HIV Env that are highly conserved throughout the known HIV M Group sequences (Env CE), and are poorly immunogenic in macaques vaccinated with full-length Env expressing DNA vaccines...
July 5, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665974/hazardous-alcohol-consumption-is-not-associated-with-cd4-t-cell-count-decline-among-plhiv-in-kampala-uganda-a-prospective-cohort-study
#17
Bonnie Wandera, Nazarius M Tumwesigye, Joaniter I Nankabirwa, Andrew D Kambugu, David K Mafigiri, Saidi Kapiga, Ajay K Sethi
INTRODUCTION: There is limited data on the effects of alcohol on immunological response among persons living with HIV (PLHIV) in sub-Saharan Africa. We assessed the relationship between hazardous alcohol use and CD4+ T-cell count, among PLHIV in Uganda. METHODS: PLHIV aged ≥ 18 years were enrolled in a cohort study at the Infectious diseases clinic Kampala, Uganda. Alcohol consumption was assessed at enrolment (baseline) and 6 monthly thereafter using the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661459/macrophages-and-phospholipases-at-the-intersection-between-inflammation-and-the-pathogenesis-of-hiv-1-infection
#18
REVIEW
Francesca Spadaro, Serena Cecchetti, Laura Fantuzzi
Persistent low grade immune activation and chronic inflammation are nowadays considered main driving forces of the progressive immunologic failure in effective antiretroviral therapy treated HIV-1 infected individuals. Among the factors contributing to this phenomenon, microbial translocation has emerged as a key driver of persistent immune activation. Indeed, the rapid depletion of gastrointestinal CD4⁺ T lymphocytes occurring during the early phases of infection leads to a deterioration of the gut epithelium followed by the translocation of microbial products into the systemic circulation and the subsequent activation of innate immunity...
June 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658732/-good-s-syndrome-report-of-case
#19
Diana Andrea Herrera-Sánchez, José Israel León-Pedroza, María Eugenia Vargas-Camaño, María Isabel Castrejón-Vázquez
BACKGROUND: Good's syndrome is an association of thymoma and immunodeficiency. The symptoms are recurrent sinopulmonary infections in addition to the compressive side of thymoma. A laboratory finding is notable for the absence or decrease of B lymphocytes, hypogammaglobulinemia, inversion ratio CD4/CD8 and abnormal proliferative response to mitogens. CASE REPORT: Female, 49-year-old started five months earlier with lower limb edema, postprandial vomiting, dysphagia, chronic diarrhea and weight loss...
April 2017: Revista Alergia Mexico: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Mexicana de Alergia e Inmunología, A.C
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656011/mechanisms-of-virologic-control-and-clinical-characteristics-of-hiv-elite-viremic-controllers
#20
REVIEW
Elena Gonzalo-Gil, Uchenna Ikediobi, Richard E Sutton
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease is pandemic, with approximately 36 million infected individuals world-wide. For the vast majority of these individuals, untreated HIV eventually causes CD4+ T cell depletion and profound immunodeficiency, resulting in morbidity and mortality. But for a remarkable few (0.2 to 0.5 percent), termed elite controllers (ECs), viral loads (VLs) remain suppressed to undetectable levels (< 50 copies/ml) and peripheral CD4+ T cell counts remain high (200 to 1000/μl), all in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
June 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
keyword
keyword
40912
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"