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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642743/hiv-1-nef-signaling-in-intestinal-mucosa-epithelium-suggests-the-existence-of-an-active-inter-kingdom-crosstalk-mediated-by-exosomes
#1
REVIEW
Cristina Felli, Olimpia Vincentini, Marco Silano, Andrea Masotti
The human intestinal mucosal surface represents the first defense against pathogens and regulates the immune response through the combination of epithelial cell (EC) functions and immunological factors. ECs act as sensors of luminal stimuli and interact with the immune cells through signal-transduction pathways, thus representing the first barrier that HIV-1 virus encounters during infection. In particular, the HIV-1 Nef protein plays a crucial role in viral invasion and replication. Nef is expressed early during viral infection and interacts with numerous cellular proteins as a scaffold/adaptor...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639539/foreskin-and-the-molecular-politics-of-risk
#2
Aaron T Norton
In this paper, I examine disputes over recent claims that male circumcision reduces HIV risk to suggest a complicated relationship between risk individualization and categorization. Whereas randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted in sub-Saharan Africa appear to have provided key evidence for the World Health Organization's endorsement of male circumcision as an HIV prevention strategy, RCTs alone did not provide evidence for the underlying causal mechanism. For that, medical authorities have turned to histo-immunological studies of the foreskin's biomolecular vulnerability to HIV, thus molecularizing risk...
June 1, 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622549/immunological-and-epidemiological-factors-affecting-candidiasis-in-hiv-patients-beginning-antiretroviral-therapy-in-an-asian-clinic
#3
Endah A T Wulandari, Henny Saraswati, Robiatul Adawiyah, Samsuridjal Djauzi, Retno Wahyuningsih, Patricia Price
OBJECTIVES: Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) is common in HIV patients beginning antiretroviral therapy (ART). Here we address the response to ART, and the roles of poor oral hygiene and defects in local innate immunity with a focus on salivary β-defensins, as they are implicated in control of candidiasis but have not been investigated in this context. DESIGN: ART naïve HIV-infected adults (n=82) with <200 CD4(+) T-cells/mm(3) attending clinics at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, were examined at the commencement of ART, and 73 were re-examined after 3 months...
June 3, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622361/prevalence-trend-and-risk-factors-for-antiretroviral-therapy-discontinuation-among-hiv-infected-adults-in-ethiopia-in-2003-2015
#4
Hailay Abrha Gesesew, Paul Ward, Kifle Woldemichael, Lillian Mwanri
BACKGROUND: It is well acknowledged that antiretroviral therapy (ART) discontinuation hampers the progress towards achieving the UNAIDS treatment targets that aim to treat 90% of HIV diagnosed patients and achieve viral suppression for 90% of those on treatment. Nevertheless, the magnitude, trend and risk factors for ART discontinuation have not been explored extensively. We carried out a retrospective data analysis to assess prevalence, trend and risk factors for ART discontinuation among adults in Southwest Ethiopia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621726/microbiota-and-probiotics-in-health-and-hiv-infection
#5
REVIEW
Chiara D'Angelo, Marcella Reale, Erica Costantini
Microbiota play a key role in various body functions, as well as in physiological, metabolic, and immunological processes, through different mechanisms such as the regulation of the development and/or functions of different types of immune cells in the intestines. Evidence indicates that alteration in the gut microbiota can influence infectious and non-infectious diseases. Bacteria that reside on the mucosal surface or within the mucus layer interact with the host immune system, thus, a healthy gut microbiota is essential for the development of mucosal immunity...
June 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617372/-characteristics-of-psychopathological-symptomatology-in-hiv-infection-schizophrenic-patients
#6
D A Polyanskiy, V V Kalinin
AIM: To study the psychopathological structure of psychotic syndromes in HIV-infected schizophrenic patients and in patients without HIV infection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty HIV-infected patients, 23 women and 17 men, with confirmed diagnosis of schizophrenia were included in the study. The control group consisted of 40 patients without HIV infection, 23 women (48%) and 17 men (52%). The psychopathological state in all patients was assessed with the PANSS. Flow cytometry was used to measure immunological parameters in HIV-infected patients...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609400/cytomegalovirus-viraemia-is-associated-with-poor-growth-and-t-cell-activation-with-an-increased-burden-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants
#7
Miguel A Garcia-Knight, Eunice Nduati, Amin S Hassan, Irene Nkumama, Timothy J Etyang, Naseem J Hajj, Faith Gambo, Denis Odera, James A Berkley, Sarah L Rowland-Jones, Britta Urban
OBJECTIVE: Factors associated with poor health in HIV-exposed-uninfected (HEU) infants are poorly defined. We describe the prevalence and correlates of CMV viraemia in HEU and HIV-unexposed-uninfected (HUU) infants, and quantify associations with anthropometric, haematological and immunological outcomes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, including HEU and HUU infants from rural coastal Kenya. METHODS: Infants aged 2-8 months were studied. The primary outcome was CMV viraemia and viral load, determined by quantitative PCR...
June 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608664/trend-of-cd4-cell-counts-at-diagnosis-and-initiation-of-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-haart-korea-hiv-aids-cohort-study-1992-2015
#8
Min Jung Kim, Hyun Ha Chang, Sang Il Kim, Youn Jeong Kim, Dae Won Park, Chun Kang, Mee Kyung Kee, Ju Yeon Choi, Soo Min Kim, Bo Youl Choi, Woo Joo Kim, June Myung Kim, Jun Yong Choi, Young Hwa Choi, Jin Soo Lee, Shin Woo Kim
BACKGROUND: CD4+ cell counts reflect immunologic status of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. Recommended CD4+ cell counts for the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has increased over the past several years in various HIV treatment guidelines. We investigated the trend of CD4+ cell counts at diagnosis and treatment start using data from the Korea HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) Cohort Study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study started in 2006 and enrolled HIV patients from 21 tertiary and secondary hospitals in South Korea...
June 1, 2017: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606185/non-malarial-infectious-diseases-of-antenatal-care-in-pregnant-women-in-franceville-gabon
#9
Irene Pegha Moukandja, Edgard Brice Ngoungou, Guy Joseph Lemamy, Ulrick Bisvigou, Antoine Gessain, Fousseyni S Toure Ndouo, Mirdad Kazanji, Jean Bernard Lekana-Douki
BACKGROUND: In sub-tropical countries, infectious diseases remain one of the main causes of mortality. Because of their lack of active immunity, pregnant women and their unborn children represent the most susceptible people. In Gabon, data on infectious diseases of pregnant women such as syphilis and rubella are either scarce or very old. Few studies have assessed T. gondii infection during pregnancy in the country. Here, we evaluate seroprevalence of HIV, HTVL-1, syphilis and T. gondii and rubella infection during antenatal care among women living in Franceville, Gabon...
June 12, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605173/barriers-to-hiv-remission-research-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#10
REVIEW
Theresa Rossouw, Joseph D Tucker, Gert U van Zyl, Kenly Sikwesi, Catherine Godfrey
INTRODUCTION: HIV eradication and remission research has largely taken place in high-income countries. In low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), there may be factors that have a substantial impact on the size of the latent HIV reservoir and the immunological response to infection. If a curative strategy is to be available to all HIV-infected individuals, these factors must be understood. METHODS: We use a scoping review to examine the literature on biological factors that may have an impact on HIV persistence in LMIC...
June 5, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604824/decline-in-cd4-t-lymphocytes-with-monotherapy-bridging-strategy-for-non-adherent-adolescents-living-with-hiv-infection-results-of-the-impaact-p1094-randomized-trial
#11
Allison L Agwu, Meredith G Warshaw, Elizabeth J McFarland, George K Siberry, Ann J Melvin, Andrew A Wiznia, Lee Fairlie, Sandra Boyd, Paul Harding, Hans M L Spiegel, Elaine J Abrams, Vincent J Carey
INTRODUCTION: Management of persistently non-adherent youth living with HIV (YLHIV) with virologic failure (VF) on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) remains challenging. One strategy has been using 3TC/ FTC monotherapy (3TC/FTC), which in the presence of the M184V resistance mutation, does not suppress viral replication nor select for additional drug resistance mutations, and reduces viral fitness with limited side effects. P1094 compared the immunologic outcome of continuing failing cART vs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596843/magnitude-and-predictors-of-antiretroviral-treatment-failure-among-hiv-infected-children-in-fiche-and-kuyu-hospitals-oromia-region-ethiopia-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#12
Seid Yassin, Gebremedhin Beedemariam Gebretekle
The objective of the study was to assess the magnitude and predictors of first-line antiretroviral treatment failure among HIV-infected children. A retrospective cohort study was conducted between January 2006 and December 2015. All pediatric patients of <15 years old and who took at least 6 months of ART in Fiche and Kuyu hospitals of Oromia region, Ethiopia were included in the study. Collected data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Multivariable logistic regression was employed to identify predictors of treatment failure...
February 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593989/pentavalent-hiv-1-vaccine-protects-against-simian-human-immunodeficiency-virus-challenge
#13
Todd Bradley, Justin Pollara, Sampa Santra, Nathan Vandergrift, Srivamshi Pittala, Chris Bailey-Kellogg, Xiaoying Shen, Robert Parks, Derrick Goodman, Amanda Eaton, Harikrishnan Balachandran, Linh V Mach, Kevin O Saunders, Joshua A Weiner, Richard Scearce, Laura L Sutherland, Sanjay Phogat, Jim Tartaglia, Steven G Reed, Shiu-Lok Hu, James F Theis, Abraham Pinter, David C Montefiori, Thomas B Kepler, Kristina K Peachman, Mangala Rao, Nelson L Michael, Todd J Suscovich, Galit Alter, Margaret E Ackerman, M Anthony Moody, Hua-Xin Liao, Georgia Tomaras, Guido Ferrari, Bette T Korber, Barton F Haynes
The RV144 Thai trial HIV-1 vaccine of recombinant poxvirus (ALVAC) and recombinant HIV-1 gp120 subtype B/subtype E (B/E) proteins demonstrated 31% vaccine efficacy. Here we design an ALVAC/Pentavalent B/E/E/E/E vaccine to increase the diversity of gp120 motifs in the immunogen to elicit a broader antibody response and enhance protection. We find that immunization of rhesus macaques with the pentavalent vaccine results in protection of 55% of pentavalent-vaccine-immunized macaques from simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenge...
June 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591258/immune-development-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-children-born-to-hiv-infected-women
#14
Maristela Miyamoto, Aída F T B Gouvêa, Erika Ono, Regina Célia M Succi, Savita Pahwa, Maria Isabel de Moraes-Pinto
Immunological and clinical findings suggestive of some immune dysfunction have been reported among HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children and adolescents. Whether these defects are persistent or transitory is still unknown. HEU pediatric population at birth, 12 months, 6-12 years were evaluated in comparison to healthy age-matched HIV-unexposed controls. Plasma levels of LPS, sCD14, cytokines, lymphocyte immunophenotyping and T-cell receptor excision circles (TREC) were assessed. HEU and controls had similar LPS levels, which remained low from birth to 6-12 years; for plasma sCD14, IL-2, IL-6, IL-7, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17, IFN-γ, TNF-α, G-CSF, GM-CSF and MCP-1, which increased from birth to 12 months and then decreased at 6-12 years; and for TREC/106 PBMC at birth in HEU and controls...
June 1, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584850/a-subset-of-extreme-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-controllers-is-characterized-by-a-small-hiv-blood-reservoir-and-a-weak-t-cell-activation-level
#15
Etienne Canouï, Camille Lécuroux, Véronique Avettand-Fenoël, Marine Gousset, Christine Rouzioux, Asier Saez-Cirion, Laurence Meyer, Faroudy Boufassa, Olivier Lambotte, Nicolas Noël
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus controllers (HICs) form a heterogeneous group of patients with regard to formal definitions, immunologic characteristics, and changes over time in viral load. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The HICs with undetectable viral load ([uHICs] ie, for whom a viral load had never been detected with routine assays; n = 52) were compared with 178 HICs with blips during the follow up (bHICs). Clinical characteristics, ultrasensitive HIV-ribonucleic acid (RNA) and HIV-deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) loads, HIV1-Western blot profiles, and immune parameters were analyzed...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582463/drug-resistance-testing-through-remote-genotyping-and-predicted-treatment-options-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-infected-tanzanian-subjects-failing-first-or-second-line-antiretroviral-therapy
#16
Jenny Svärd, Sabina Mugusi, Doreen Mloka, Ujjwal Neogi, Genny Meini, Ferdinand Mugusi, Francesca Incardona, Maurizio Zazzi, Anders Sönnerborg
INTRODUCTION: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been successfully introduced in low-middle income countries. However an increasing rate of ART failure with resistant virus is reported. We therefore described the pattern of drug resistance mutations at antiretroviral treatment (ART) failure in a real-life Tanzanian setting using the remote genotyping procedure and thereafter predicted future treatment options using rule-based algorithm and the EuResist bioinformatics predictive engine. According to national guidelines, the default first-line regimen is tenofovir + lamivudine + efavirenz, but variations including nevirapine, stavudine or emtricitabine can be considered...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582449/hiv-1-adaptation-to-nk-cell-mediated-immune-pressure
#17
Marjet Elemans, Lies Boelen, Michael Rasmussen, Søren Buus, Becca Asquith
The observation, by Alter et al., of the enrichment of NK cell "escape" variants in individuals carrying certain Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor (KIR) genes is compelling evidence that natural killer (NK) cells exert selection pressure on HIV-1. Alter et al hypothesise that variant peptide, in complex with HLA class I molecules binds KIR receptors and either increases NK cell inhibition or decreases NK cell activation compared to wild type peptide thus leading to virus escape from the NK cell response...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577527/misdiagnosis-of-hiv-treatment-failure-based-on-clinical-and-immunological-criteria-in-eastern-and-central-kenya
#18
Sunguti Luke Joram, Gathii Paul, Kitheka Moses, Bii Stanley, Malonza Isaac, Gohole Allan, Marwa Tom, Karimi Lilian, Mudany Mildred
BACKGROUND: Routine laboratory monitoring is part of the basic care package offered to people living with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (PLHIV). This paper aims to identify the proportion of PLHIVs with clinical and immunological failure who are virologically suppressed and risk being misclassified as treatment failures. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patient viral load data collected between January 2013 and June 2014 was conducted. Of the patients classified as experiencing either clinical or immunological failure, we evaluated the proportion of true (virological) failure, and estimated the sensitivity and specificity of the immunological and clinical criteria in diagnosing true treatment failure...
June 2, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577241/human-infectious-diseases-and-risk-of-preeclampsia-an-updated-review-of-the-literature
#19
REVIEW
Malihe Nourollahpour Shiadeh, Zahra Behboodi Moghadam, Ishag Adam, Vafa Saber, Maryam Bagheri, Ali Rostami
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia (PE) is one of the major causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, especially in low- and middle-income countries. In recent years, a growing body of literatures suggests that infections by bacteria, viruses, and parasites and their related inflammations play an important role in the pathogenesis of PE. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Google scholar, and Cochrane databases using the following search words: "infection and preeclampsia," "bacterial infection and preeclampsia," "viral infection and preeclampsia" and "parasitic infection and preeclampsia...
June 2, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574482/immunologic-and-virologic-mechanisms-for-partial-protection-from-intravenous-challenge-by-an-integration-defective-siv-vaccine
#20
Chu Wang, Chunlai Jiang, Nan Gao, Kaikai Zhang, Donglai Liu, Wei Wang, Zhe Cong, Chuan Qin, Vitaly V Ganusov, Guido Ferrari, Celia LaBranche, David C Montefiori, Wei Kong, Xianghui Yu, Feng Gao
The suppression of viral loads and identification of selection signatures in non-human primates after challenge are indicators for effective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vaccines. To mimic the protective immunity elicited by attenuated SIV vaccines, we developed an integration-defective SIV (idSIV) vaccine by inactivating integrase, mutating sequence motifs critical for integration, and inserting the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter for more efficient expression in the SIVmac239 genome...
June 2, 2017: Viruses
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