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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334859/neurocognitive-function-of-school-aged-hiv-infected-children-in-enugu-nigeria
#1
Kenechukwu K Iloh, Ifeoma J Emodi, Ngozi S Ibeziako, Anthony N Ikefuna, Agozie C Ubesie, Ogochukwu N Iloh, Gideon C Ilechukwu, Adaeze C Ayuk
Background: Evidence has shown neurocognitive problems often exist among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children. There are limited data for children in Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 100 school-aged perinatally HIV-infected children seen in the paediatric HIV clinic and age/sex-matched controls from the general paediatric clinic. Neuro-cognitive functioning was assessed using the Raven's progressive matrices (RPM) that has been adapted for the Nigerian population...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329310/immunologic-pathways-that-predict-mortality-in-hiv-infected-ugandans-initiating-art
#2
Sulggi Lee, Helen Byakwaga, Yap Boum, Tricia H Burdo, Kenneth C Williams, Michael M Lederman, Yong Huang, Russell P Tracy, Huyen Cao, Jessica E Haberer, Annet Kembabazi, David R Bangsberg, Jeffrey N Martin, Peter W Hunt
Plasma kynurenine/tryptophan (KT) ratio, a marker of adaptive immune defects, strongly predicts mortality during treated HIV disease in Ugandans compared to U.S.-based populations, Here, KT ratio, and T cell and plasma biomarkers of immune activation were measured among 535 HIV-infected Ugandans prior to ART initiation and at month 6 of viral suppression. Month 6 KT ratio (aHR=2.74), sCD14 (aHR=2.32), IL-6 (aHR=2.34), and D dimer (aHR=1.95) were associated with mortality occurring ≥6 months after ART initiation, KT ratio remained significantly predictive of mortality even after adjustment for the additional biomarkers, suggesting an independent contribution to clinical outcomes in resource-limited settings...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328551/higher-body-mass-index-is-associated-with-greater-proportions-of-effector-cd8-t-cells-expressing-cd57-in-women-living-with-hiv
#3
Michael J A Reid, Sanjiv M Baxi, Lila A Sheira, Alan L Landay, Edward A Frongillo, Adebola Adedimeji, Mardge H Cohen, Eryka Wentz, Deborah R Gustafson, Daniel Merenstein, Peter W Hunt, Phyllis C Tien, Sheri D Weiser
BACKGROUND: A low proportion of CD28-CD8+ T cells that express CD57 is associated with increased mortality in HIV infection. The effect of increasing BMI changes in the proportion of CD57+CD28-CD8+ T cells among HIV-infected individuals on ART is unknown. SETTING: In a U.S. cohort of HIV-infected women, we evaluated associations of BMI and waist circumference with 3 distinct CD8+ T cell phenotypes: % CD28-CD57+CD8+ T cells, % CD57+ of CD28-CD8+ T cells and % CD28- of all CD8 T cells...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325073/management-of-a-tracheoesophageal-fistula-in-a-patient-with-aids
#4
Alberto Cabañero, Fernando Dronda, David Saldaña, José Manuel Hermida, Gemma Muñoz, Santiago Moreno
Despite the high frequency of gastrointestinal complications and opportunistic infections in HIV-1 infected patients, tracheoesophageal (TEF) and bronchoesophageal (BEF) fístulas are rare. Our objective is to comunicate an additional and unusual case of TEF in an HIV-1-infected patient whose immunologic status was good with complete suppression of viral replication, so although uncommon, TEF/BEF of an infectious origen should be considered in AIDS. Endoscopic treatment with tracheal/esophageal stents is not without morbidity and mortality...
March 2017: Asian Cardiovascular & Thoracic Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323897/hcv-coinfection-contributes-to-hiv-pathogenesis-by-increasing-immune-exhaustion-in-cd8-t-cells
#5
Norma Rallón, Marcial García, Javier García-Samaniego, Noelia Rodríguez, Alfonso Cabello, Clara Restrepo, Beatriz Álvarez, Rosa García, Miguel Górgolas, José M Benito
BACKGROUND: There are several contributors to HIV-pathogenesis or insufficient control of the infection. However, whether HIV/HCV-coinfected population exhibits worst evolution of HIV-pathogenesis remains unclear. Recently, some markers of immune exhaustion have been proposed as preferentially upregulated on T-cells during HIV-infection. Herein, we have analyzed T-cell exhaustion together with several other contributors to HIV-pathogenesis that could be affected by HCV-coinfection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ninety-six patients with chronic HIV-infection (60 HIV-monoinfected and 36 HIV/HCV-coinfected), and 20 healthy controls were included in the study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323751/long-term-nitrite-inhalant-exposure-and-cancer-risk-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-a-prospective-cohort-study
#6
Anupriya Dutta, Hajime Uno, Alex Holman, David R Lorenz, Steven M Wolinsky, Dana Gabuzda
OBJECTIVES: Nitrite inhalants (poppers) are commonly used recreational drugs among men who have sex with men (MSM) and were previously associated with elevated rates of high-risk sexual behavior, HIV and HHV-8 seroconversion, and transient immunosuppressive effects in experimental models. Whether long-term popper use is associated with cancer risk among MSM in the HAART era is unclear. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of cancer risk in 3223 HIV-infected and -uninfected MSM in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study from 1996-2010...
March 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303816/occurrence-of-enteric-parasitic-infections-among-hiv-infected-individuals-and-its-relation-to-cd4-t-cell-counts-with-a-special-emphasis-on-coccidian-parasites-at-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-south-india
#7
Chinnambedu R Swathirajan, Ramachandran Vignesh, Ambrose Pradeep, Sunil S Solomon, Suniti Solomon, Pachamuthu Balakrishnan
CONTEXT: Diarrhoea is one of the major complications occurring in over 90% of HIV-infected individuals in developing countries. Coccidian group of parasites, being opportunistic pathogens, have been implicated as the most common causative agents of diarrhoea among HIV-infected population. AIMS: The aim was to study the magnitude of parasitic diarrhoea with special context to coccidian parasitic infections in HIV-infected individuals and their association with the patient's immunological status measured by CD4 T-cell counts...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303782/paradoxical-reactions-and-the-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome
#8
L W Preston Church, Amit Chopra, Marc A Judson
In HIV-infected individuals, paradoxical reactions after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) are associated with a variety of underlying infections and have been called the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). In cases of IRIS associated with tuberculosis (TB), two distinct patterns of disease are recognized: (i) the progression of subclinical TB to clinical disease after the initiation of ART, referred to as unmasking, and (ii) the progression or appearance of new clinical and/or radiographic disease in patients with previously recognized TB after the initiation of ART, the classic or "paradoxical" TB-IRIS...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302457/mucosal-vaccination-with-heterologous-viral-vectored-vaccine-targeting-subdominant-siv-accessory-antigens-strongly-inhibits-early-viral-replication
#9
Huanbin Xu, Anne-Marie Andersson, Emeline Ragonnaud, Ditte Boilesen, Anders Tolver, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech Jensen, James L Blanchard, Alfredo Nicosia, Antonella Folgori, Stefano Colloca, Riccardo Cortese, Allan Randrup Thomsen, Jan Pravsgaard Christensen, Ronald S Veazey, Peter Johannes Holst
Conventional HIV T cell vaccine strategies have not been successful in containing acute peak viremia, nor in providing long-term control. We immunized rhesus macaques intramuscularly and rectally using a heterologous adenovirus vectored SIV vaccine regimen encoding normally weakly immunogenic tat, vif, rev and vpr antigens fused to the MHC class II associated invariant chain. Immunizations induced broad T cell responses in all vaccinees. Following up to 10 repeated low-dose intrarectal challenges, vaccinees suppressed early viral replication (P=0...
March 8, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302065/lamivudine-dolutegravir-dual-therapy-in-hiv-infected-virologically-suppressed-patients
#10
Franco Maggiolo, Roberto Gulminetti, Layla Pagnucco, Margherita Digaetano, Simone Benatti, Daniela Valenti, Annapaola Callegaro, Diego Ripamonti, Cristina Mussini
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the applicability of dual treatments based on integrase inhibitors. We explored the combination of lamivudine + dolutegravir as an option when switching from standard cART in virologically suppressed patients. METHODS: In this prospective cohort we enrolled patients previously switched to 3TC + DTG who were 18 years or older, with no previous resistance mutations to the used drugs, having a HIV-RNA <50 copies/ml for 6 months or longer, negative for HBsAg and on a stable (>6 months) cART...
March 16, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296019/health-care-provider-communication-training-in-rural-tanzania-empowers-hiv-infected-patients-on-antiretroviral-therapy-to-discuss-adherence-problems
#11
S Erb, E Letang, T R Glass, A Natamatungiro, D Mnzava, H Mapesi, M Haschke, U Duthaler, B Berger, L Muri, J Bader, C Marzolini, L Elzi, T Klimkait, W Langewitz, M Battegay
OBJECTIVES: Self-reported adherence assessment in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is challenging and may overestimate adherence. The aim of this study was to improve the ability of health care providers to elicit patients' reports of nonadherence using a "patient-centred" approach in a rural sub-Saharan African setting. METHODS: A prospective interventional cohort study of HIV-infected patients on ART for ≥ 6 months attending an HIV clinic in rural Tanzania was carried out...
March 13, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294590/successful-omalizumab-treatment-in-hiv-positive-patient-with-chronic-spontaneous-urticaria-a-case-report
#12
E Iemoli, F Niero, L Borgonovo, M V Cossu, S Piconi
We described a case of a 56 year old homosexual HIV positive man who presented a history of CSU since one year (2012). All the allergologic, immunologic and microbiologic tests to evaluate the pathogenesis of wheals resulted negative. Therefore in June 2015 we decided to start therapy with Omalizumab while the patient kept on effective antiretroviral therapy with 310 cells/mm3 TCD4 counts and undetectable HIV viremia. After two monthly subcutaneuous injection of 150 mg of Omalizumab the patient had no more urticarial symptoms...
March 2017: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291052/first-line-antiretroviral-treatment-outcomes-and-durability-in-hiv-infectedchildren-treatedthrough-theuniversal-coverage-health-program-in-thailand
#13
Sirinya Teeraananchai, Torsak Bunupuradah, Thanyawee Puthanakit, Stephen J Kerr, Kiat Ruxrungtham, Suchada Chaivooth, Sorakij Bhakeecheep, Matthew G Law, Kulkanya Chokephaibulkit
BACKGROUND: We assessed the treatment outcomes on first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART), and factors associated with switching regimen in HIV-infected children treated through the universal coverage health program (UC) in Thailand. METHODS: Children aged <15 years at ART initiation who had been receiving ART for at least 6 months between 2008 and 2014 through UC were included in the analysis. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate immunological recovery (IMR), immunologic failure (IMF) and virologic failure (VF)...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282446/antigenic-and-immunosuppressive-properties-of-a-trimeric-recombinant-transmembrane-envelope-protein-gp41-of-hiv-1
#14
Michael Mühle, Melissa Lehmann, Kerstin Hoffmann, Daniel Stern, Tobias Kroniger, Werner Luttmann, Joachim Denner
The transmembrane envelope (TM) protein gp41 of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) plays an important role during virus infection inducing the fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. In addition, there are indications that the TM protein plays a role in the immunopathogenesis leading to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Inactivated virus particles and recombinant gp41 have been reported to inhibit lymphocyte proliferation, as well as to alter cytokine release and gene expression. The same was shown for a peptide corresponding to a highly conserved domain of all retroviral TM proteins, the immunosuppressive domain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281434/the-prevalence-of-hiv-seropositivity-and-associated-cytopenias-in-full-blood-counts-processed-at-an-academic-laboratory-in-soweto-south-africa
#15
J L Vaughan, T M Wiggill, N Alli, K Hodkinson
BACKGROUND: The HIV epidemic in South Africa (SA) has had a substantial impact on laboratory services, at least partially owing to the well-described propensity to cytopenias in HIV-positive patients. OBJECTIVES: (i) To formally gauge the impact of HIV infection on the state sector haematology services in SA by determining the HIV seropositivity rate among full blood counts (FBCs) performed at a large academic state sector laboratory; and (ii) to document the prevalence of cytopenias among HIV-positive patients in this setting...
February 27, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276994/immunosenescence-and-hurdles-in-the-clinical-management-of-older-hiv-patients
#16
Marco Ripa, Stefania Chiappetta, Giuseppe Tambussi
People living with HIV (PLWH) who are treated with effective highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have a similar life expectancy to the general population. Moreover, an increasing proportion of new HIV diagnoses are made in people older than 50 y. The number of older HIV-infected patients is thus constantly growing and it is expected that by 2030 around 70% of PLWH will be more than 50 y old. On the other hand, HIV infection itself is responsible for accelerated immunosenescence, a progressive decline of immune system function in both the adaptive and the innate arm, which impairs the ability of an individual to respond to infections and to give rise to long-term immunity; furthermore, older patients tend to have a worse immunological response to HAART...
February 21, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275453/insight-into-hiv-2-latency-may-disclose-strategies-for-a-cure-for-hiv-1-infection
#17
EDITORIAL
Suha Saleh, Lenard Vranckx, Rik Gijsbers, Frauke Christ, Zeger Debyser
HIV-1 and HIV-2 originate from two distinct zoonotic transmissions of simian immunodeficiency viruses from primate to human. Although both share similar modes of transmission and can result in the development of AIDS with similar clinical manifestations, HIV-2 infection is generally milder and less likely to progress to AIDS. HIV is currently incurable due to the presence of HIV provirus integrated into the host DNA of long-lived memory cells of the immune system without active replication. As such, the latent virus is immunologically inert and remains insensitive to the administered antiviral drugs targeting active viral replication steps...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273105/incidence-and-risk-factors-for-hypertension-among-hiv-patients-in-rural-tanzania-a-prospective-cohort-study
#18
Eduardo Rodríguez-Arbolí, Kim Mwamelo, Aneth Vedastus Kalinjuma, Hansjakob Furrer, Christoph Hatz, Marcel Tanner, Manuel Battegay, Emilio Letang
INTRODUCTION: Scarce data are available on the epidemiology of hypertension among HIV patients in rural sub-Saharan Africa. We explored the prevalence, incidence and risk factors for incident hypertension among patients who were enrolled in a rural HIV cohort in Tanzania. METHODS: Prospective longitudinal study including HIV patients enrolled in the Kilombero and Ulanga Antiretroviral Cohort between 2013 and 2015. Non-ART naïve subjects at baseline and pregnant women during follow-up were excluded from the analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268960/unsupervised-selection-of-rv144-hiv-vaccine-induced-antibody-features-correlated-to-natural-killer-cell-mediated-cytotoxic-reactions
#19
Ferdi Sarac, Volkan Uslan, Huseyin Seker, Ahmed Bouridane
HIV-1 vaccine injection has been shown less effective due to the diversity of antigens. Increasing the knowledge of the associations between immune system and virus would ultimately result in producing effective vaccines against HIV-1 virus. To increase the understanding of immunological information, computational models can be utilised to construct predictive models. The aim of this study is, therefore, to predict the effect of antibody features (IgGs) and primary Natural Killing (NK) cells' cytotoxic activities on RV144 vaccine recipients and to disclose the functional relationship between immune system and HIV virus...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266263/case-report-of-three-consecutive-lues-maligna-infections-in-an-hiv-infected-patient
#20
Stefanie Sammet, Rika Draenert
Lues maligna is a rare presentation of an infection with Treponema pallidum. Here we report three lues maligna infections with severe dermatological manifestations in a single HIV-1 infected individual. Despite the start of highly active antiretroviral therapy and a substantial increase in CD4 cell count after the first episode, he developed consecutive episodes. We assume a specific immunological predisposition to react to T. pallidum in this patient.
April 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
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