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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214384/placental-pathology-in-hiv-infection-at-term-a-comparison-with-hiv-uninfected-women
#1
Emma Kalk, Pawel Schubert, Julie A Bettinger, Mark F Cotton, Monika Esser, Amy Slogrove, Colleen A Wright
OBJECTIVES: To describe and correlate placental characteristics from pregnancies in HIV-infected and HIV-negative women with maternal and infant clinical and immunological data. METHODS: Prospective descriptive study of placentas from term, uncomplicated vaginal births in a cohort of HIV-infected (n=120) and HIV-negative (n=103) women in Cape Town, South Africa. Microscopic and macroscopic features were used to determine pathological cluster diagnoses. The majority of HIV-infected women received some form of drug treatment for the prevention of vertical transmission of HIV...
February 18, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209523/tb-iris-proteomic-analysis-of-in-vitro-pbmc-responses-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-response-modulation-by-dexamethasone
#2
Liam Bell, Janique M Peyper, Shaun Garnett, Rabecca Tadokera, Robert Wilkinson, Graeme Meintjes, Jonathan M Blackburn
Paradoxical tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) occurs in 8-54% of South African patients undergoing treatment for tuberculosis/human immunodeficiency virus co-infection. Improved TB-IRIS molecular pathogenesis understanding would enhance risk stratification, diagnosis, prognostication, and treatment. We assessed how TB-IRIS status and dexamethasone influence leukocyte proteomic responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Patient blood was obtained three weeks post-anti-retroviral therapy initiation...
February 13, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207490/how-hiv-1-entry-mechanism-and-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies-guide-structure-based-vaccine-design
#3
Marie Pancera, Anita Changela, Peter D Kwong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: An HIV-1 vaccine that elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) remains to be developed. Here, we review how knowledge of bNAbs and HIV-1 entry mechanism is guiding the structure-based design of vaccine immunogens and immunization regimens. RECENT FINDINGS: Isolation of bNAbs from HIV-1-infected donors has led to an unprecedented understanding of the sites of vulnerability that these antibodies target on the HIV-1 envelope (Env) as well as of the immunological pathways that these antibody lineages follow to develop broad and potent neutralization...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207486/particle-based-delivery-of-the-hiv-envelope-protein
#4
Benedikt Asbach, Ralf Wagner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A major focus in HIV vaccine research is the development of suitable antigens that elicit broadly neutralizing antibody responses targeting HIV's envelope protein (Env). Delivery of Env in a repetitive manner on particle-based carriers allows higher avidity interactions and is therefore expected to efficiently engage B cells, thus leading to affinity maturation that results in superior antibody responses characterized by improved breadth, potency, and durability. This review summarizes current work that is evaluating diverse types of such particulate carriers for Env delivery...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199360/systematic-review-of-statistically-derived-models-of-immunological-response-in-hiv-infected-adults-on-antiretroviral-therapy-in-sub-saharan-africa
#5
Joseph B Sempa, Eva L Ujeneza, Martin Nieuwoudt
INTRODUCTION: In Sub-Saharan African (SSA) resource limited settings, Cluster of Differentiation 4 (CD4) counts continue to be used for clinical decision making in antiretroviral therapy (ART). Here, HIV-infected people often remain with CD4 counts <350 cells/μL even after 5 years of viral load suppression. Ongoing immunological monitoring is necessary. Due to varying statistical modeling methods comparing immune response to ART across different cohorts is difficult. We systematically review such models and detail the similarities, differences and problems...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192455/suicide-risk-in-a-representative-sample-of-people-receiving-hiv-care-time-to-target-most-at-risk-populations-anrs-vespa2-french-national-survey
#6
Maria Patrizia Carrieri, Fabienne Marcellin, Lisa Fressard, Marie Préau, Luis Sagaon-Teyssier, Marie Suzan-Monti, Valérie Guagliardo, Marion Mora, Perrine Roux, Rosemary Dray-Spira, Bruno Spire
BACKGROUND: Suicide risk is high among people living with HIV (PLHIV). This study aimed to identify major correlates of suicide risk in a representative sample of PLHIV in France, in order to help target individuals who would benefit from suicide risk screening and psychiatric care. METHODS: The ANRS VESPA2 cross-sectional survey (April 2011-January 2012) collected socio-demographic, medical and behavioral data from 3,022 PLHIV recruited in 73 French HIV hospital departments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183335/efficacy-of-vitamin-d3-supplementation-in-reducing-incidence-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-and-mortality-among-hiv-infected-tanzanian-adults-initiating-antiretroviral-therapy-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Christopher R Sudfeld, Ferdinand Mugusi, Said Aboud, Tumaini J Nagu, Molin Wang, Wafaie W Fawzi
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa continue to experience high rates of morbidity and mortality during the initial months of treatment. Observational studies in high-income and resource-limited settings indicate that HIV-infected adults with low vitamin D levels may be at increased risk of mortality, HIV disease progression, and incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). As a result, vitamin D3 supplementation may improve survival and treatment outcomes for HIV-infected adults initiating ART...
February 10, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182614/similar-immunological-profiles-between-nonprogressing-hiv-infection-in-children-and-nonpathogenic-siv-infection
#8
Eva Poveda, Enrique Martin-Gayo
In the absence of antirretroviral therapy (ART), HIV infection leads to progression to AIDS in most infected individuals. However, there is a small group of HIV-infected patients capable of spontaneously controlling HIV infection, known as the elite controllers (less than 1% of total infected population). These patients maintain undetectable levels of HIV replication, in part, due to a continuously effective HIV specific T cell response. Moreover, in HIV-infected patients with suppressed viremia under ART, a chronic activation of the immune system persist, which can be related to a poor clinical outcome including death, development of co-morbidities, AIDS and non-AIDS defining events...
January 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179536/hiv-aids-vaccine-candidates-based-on-replication-competent-recombinant-poxvirus-nyvac-c-kc-expressing-trimeric-gp140-and-gag-derived-vlps-or-lacking-the-viral-molecule-b19-that-inhibits-type-i-interferon-activate-relevant-hiv-1-specific-b-and-t-cell-immune
#9
Juan García-Arriaza, Beatriz Perdiguero, Jonathan L Heeney, Michael S Seaman, David C Montefiori, Nicole L Yates, Georgia D Tomaras, Guido Ferrari, Kathryn E Foulds, Mario Roederer, Steven G Self, Bhavesh Borate, Raphael Gottardo, Sanjay Phogat, Jim Tartaglia, Susan W Barnett, Brian Burke, Anthony D Cristillo, Deborah E Weiss, Carter Lee, Karen V Kibler, Bertram L Jacobs, Ralf Wagner, Song Ding, Giuseppe Pantaleo, Mariano Esteban
The non-replicating attenuated poxvirus vector NYVAC expressing clade C(CN54) HIV-1 Env(gp120), Gag-Pol-Nef antigens (NYVAC-C) showed in phase I clinical trials limited immunogenicity. To enhance the capacity of the NYVAC vector to trigger broad humoral responses and a more balanced activation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, here we compared the HIV-1-specific immunogenicity elicited in non-human primates immunized with two replicating NYVAC vectors that have been modified by the insertion of K1L and C7L vaccinia viral host-range genes and express clade C(ZM96) trimeric HIV-1 gp140 protein or a Gag(ZM96)-Pol-Nef(CN54) polyprotein as Gag-derived virus-like particles (termed NYVAC-C-KC)...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163164/anti-pd-1-pd-l1-therapy-for-infectious-diseases-learning-from-the-cancer-paradigm
#10
REVIEW
Martin Rao, Davide Valentini, Ernest Dodoo, Alimuddin Zumla, Markus Maeurer
OBJECTIVES: Immune checkpoint pathways regulate optimal host immune responses against transformed cells; induce immunological memory and limit tissue pathology. Conversely, aberrant immune checkpoint activity signifies poor prognosis in cancer and infectious diseases. Host-directed therapy (HDT) via immune checkpoint blockade has revolutionised cancer treatment with therapeutic implications for chronic infections, thus laying the foundation for this review. METHODS: We performed online literature searches via PubMed, PubMedCentral and Google using the keywords "immune checkpoint inhibition", "host-directed therapy", "T cell exhaustion", "cancer immunotherapy", "anti-PD-1 therapy", "anti-PD-L1 therapy", "chronic infections", "antigen-specific cells", "tuberculosis", "malaria", "viral infections", "human immunodeficiency virus", "hepatitis B virus", "hepatitis C virus", "cytomegalovirus" and "Epstein-Barr virus"...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155806/human-immunology-of-tuberculosis
#11
Thomas J Scriba, Anna K Coussens, Helen A Fletcher
Immunology is a central theme when it comes to tuberculosis (TB). The outcome of human infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is dependent on the ability of the immune response to clear or contain the infection. In cases where this fails, the bacterium replicates, disseminates within the host, and elicits a pathologic inflammatory response, and disease ensues. Clinical presentation of TB disease is remarkably heterogeneous, and the disease phenotype is largely dependent on host immune status. Onward transmission of M...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155312/confirmation-of-factors-that-influence-antiretroviral-regimen-change-and-the-subsequent-patient-outcomes-at-a-regional-hospital-in-rural-kwazulu-natal
#12
Vereesha Soorju, Panjasaram Naidoo
BACKGROUND: Treatment failure (TF) and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are the main indications for antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen change. Identification of factors influencing regimen change and subsequent health outcomes of patients after regimen change is essential in providing a sustainable and effective antiretroviral roll-out campaign. AIM: To confirm the factors that influence antiretroviral regimen change and to evaluate patient outcomes post regimen change...
October 31, 2016: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152432/rates-and-determinants-of-incidence-and-clearance-of-cervical-hpv-genotypes-among-hiv-seropositive-women-in-pune-india
#13
Arati Mane, Vikrant V Sahasrabuddhe, Amit Nirmalkar, Arun R Risbud, Seema Sahay, Ramesh A Bhosale, Sten H Vermund, Sanjay M Mehendale
BACKGROUND: Several studies in recent years have documented the genotype-specific prevalence of HPV infection and wide diversity and multiplicity of HPV genotypes among HIV-seropositive women. Yet, information on changes in HPV genotype-specific incidence and clearance rates over time, and their correlation with clinical or immunologic factors among HIV-seropositive women is scarce. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a prospective study to investigate the incidence and clearance rates of cervical HPV genotypes among HIV-seropositive women in India and expand the evidence base in this area of research...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146189/-young-women-with-hiv-infection-acquired-by-vertical-transmission-expectations-of-having-uninfected-children
#14
Julia Villarroel, Ana M Álvarez, Francisco Salvador, Ana Chávez, Elba Wu, Verónica Contardo
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART), changed the prognosis of the disease, allowing young women infected by vertical transmission (TV) to be pregnant without risk for their fetus of acquiring this infection. AIM: To describe the clinical-immune status in pregnant women that acquired HV by vertical transmission, treatments received, monitoring of pregnancy and newborn characteristics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A protocol was performed, evaluating clinical and immunological parameters during pregnancy, ART used, protocol preventing vertical transmission (PPTV), and follow up of children to 18 months of age...
December 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143541/immunological-outcomes-of-tenofovir-versus-zidovudine-based-regimens-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids-a-two-years-retrospective-cohort-study
#15
Teshale Ayele, Habtemu Jarso, Girma Mamo
BACKGROUND: Tenofovir (TDF) based regimen was reported to have better immunological outcomes. Unfortunately, there is limited information regarding the immunologic outcome associated with this regimen in Ethiopia, as its routine utilization in this setting begun since 2013. METHODS: A 2 years retrospective cohort study was conducted at Jimma University Specialized Hospital, 346 km Southwest of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A total of 280 patients' data from September 2012 to July 2014 was extracted from records from February 10, 2015 to March 10, 2015...
February 1, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143443/the-immunological-response-to-syphilis-differs-by-hiv-status-a-prospective-observational-cohort-study
#16
Chris Kenyon, Kara Krista Osbak, Tania Crucitti, Luc Kestens
BACKGROUND: It is not known if there is a difference in the immune response to syphilis between HIV-infected and uninfected individuals. METHODS: We prospectively recruited all patients with a new diagnosis of syphilis and tested their plasma for IFNα, IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-17A at baseline pre-treatment and 6 months following therapy. RESULTS: A total of 79 HIV-infected [44 primary/secondary syphilis (PSS) and 35 latent syphilis (LS)] and 12 HIV-uninfected (10 PSS and 2 LS) cases of syphilis and 30 HIV-infected controls were included in the study...
January 31, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142395/effectiveness-safety-durability-and-immune-recovery-in-a-retrospective-multicentre-observational-cohort-of-art-experienced-hiv-1-infected-patients-receiving-maraviroc
#17
C Dentone, G Sterrantino, A Signori, G Cenderello, M Guerra, P De Leo, V Bartolacci, E Mantia, G Orofino, M Giacomini, B Bruzzone, D Francisci, A Di Biagio
The aim of this retrospective, multicentre, observational study was to assess the durability, safety, immune recovery and effectiveness on viral suppression of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a maraviroc (MVC)-based cohort. We collected clinical, demographical, immunological and virological parameters of adult HIV patients who were infected by CCR5-tropic virus and started an ART regimen containing MVC from 2005 to 2012. We created a longitudinal mixed model to assess the change over time of data. We enrolled 126 drug-experienced patients; the median duration of MVC treatment was 25 months...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141782/effect-of-pregnancy-on-interferon-gamma-release-assay-and-tuberculin-skin-test-detection-of-latent-tb-infection-among-hiv-infected-women-in-a-high-burden-setting
#18
Sylvia M LaCourse, Lisa M Cranmer, Daniel Matemo, John Kinuthia, Barbra A Richardson, David J Horne, Grace John-Stewart
BACKGROUND: Peripartum immunologic changes may affect latent TB infection (LTBI) diagnostic performance among HIV-infected women. METHODS: HIV-infected women were serially-tested with tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) (QuantiFERON® TB Gold In-tube [QFT]) in pregnancy and weeks postpartum in Kenya. Prevalence, sensitivity and agreement, and correlates of QFT/TST positivity were assessed. Quantitative QFT mitogen and M. tuberculosis antigen (Mtb-Ag) responses were compared by peripartum stage...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134057/hiv-viral-kinetics-and-t-cell-dynamics-in-antiretroviral-na%C3%A3-ve-persons-starting-an-integrase-strand-transfer-inhibitor-and-protease-inhibitor-regimen
#19
Maile Y Karris, Sonia Jain, Tyler R C Day, Josué Pérez-Santiago, Miguel Goicoechea, Michael P Dubé, Xiaoying Sun, Celsa Spina, Eric S Daar, Richard H Haubrich, Sheldon Morris
BACKGROUND: Nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-sparing regimens may potentially minimize antiretroviral (ART) toxicities, but demonstrate mixed efficacy and toxicity results. The impact of an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) and protease inhibitor (PI) regimen on HIV viral dynamics and T cell kinetics remains underdescribed. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of raltegravir + ritonavir boosted lopinavir (RAL + LPV/r) to efavirenz/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (EFV/TDF/FTC) on HIV kinetics and T cell dynamics...
January 30, 2017: HIV Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133812/antibodyomics-bioinformatics-technologies-for-understanding-b-cell-immunity-to-hiv-1
#20
REVIEW
Peter D Kwong, Gwo-Yu Chuang, Brandon J DeKosky, Tatyana Gindin, Ivelin S Georgiev, Thomas Lemmin, Chaim A Schramm, Zizhang Sheng, Cinque Soto, An-Suei Yang, John R Mascola, Lawrence Shapiro
Numerous antibodies have been identified from HIV-1-infected donors that neutralize diverse strains of HIV-1. These antibodies may provide the basis for a B cell-mediated HIV-1 vaccine. However, it has been unclear how to elicit similar antibodies by vaccination. To address this issue, we have undertaken an informatics-based approach to understand the genetic and immunologic processes controlling the development of HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies. As DNA sequencing comprises the fastest growing database of biological information, we focused on incorporating next-generation sequencing of B-cell transcripts to determine the origin, maturation pathway, and prevalence of broadly neutralizing antibody lineages (Antibodyomics1, 2, 4, and 6)...
January 2017: Immunological Reviews
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