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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918126/high-cmv-igg-antibody-levels-are-associated-to-a-lower-cd4-response-to-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-infected-women
#1
Marina Giuliano, Maria Franca Pirillo, Giuseppe Liotta, Mauro Andreotti, Haswell Jere, Jean-Baptiste Sagno, Fausto Ciccacci, Roberta Amici, Maria Cristina Marazzi, Stefano Vella, Leonardo Palombi, Sandro Mancinelli
BACKGROUND: Virtually all HIV-infected women in sub-Saharan Africa have evidence of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and levels of specific anti-CMV IgG have been suggested to represent more intense reactivation of subclinical infection. Studies have also shown direct influence of CMV on lymphocytes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine if levels of anti-CMV specific antibodies could impact on the immunological response to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in HIV-infected pregnant women...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915327/adipose-tissue-in-hiv-infection
#2
John R Koethe
HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment exert diverse effects on adipocytes and stromal-vascular fraction cells, leading to changes in adipose tissue quantity, distribution, and energy storage. A HIV-associated lipodystrophic condition was recognized early in the epidemic, characterized by clinically apparent changes in subcutaneous, visceral, and dorsocervical adipose depots. Underlying these changes is altered adipose tissue morphology and expression of genes central to adipocyte maturation, regulation, metabolism, and cytokine signaling...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903520/hepatic-renal-hematologic-and-inflammatory-markers-in-hiv-infected-children-on-long-term-suppressive-antiretroviral-therapy
#3
Ann J Melvin, Meredith Warshaw, Alexandra Compagnucci, Yacine Saidi, Linda Harrison, Anna Turkova, Gareth Tudor-Williams
Background: Data on long-term toxicity of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected children are sparse. PENPACT-1 was an open-label trial in which HIV-infected children were assigned randomly to receive protease inhibitor (PI)- or nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based ART. Methods: We examined changes in clinical, immunologic, and inflammatory markers from baseline to year 4 in the subset of children in the PENPACT-1 study who experienced viral suppression between week 24 and year 4 of ART...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900043/a-natural-ligand-for-the-orphan-receptor-gpr15-modulates-lymphocyte-recruitment-to-epithelia
#4
Thomas Suply, Sébastien Hannedouche, Nathalie Carte, Jianping Li, Bianka Grosshans, Michael Schaefer, Layla Raad, Valérie Beck, Solange Vidal, Agnès Hiou-Feige, Noémie Beluch, Samuel Barbieri, Johann Wirsching, Nadine Lageyre, Frank Hillger, Corinne Debon, Janet Dawson, Philip Smith, Vincent Lannoy, Michel Detheux, Francis Bitsch, Rocco Falchetto, Tewis Bouwmeester, Jeffrey Porter, Birgit Baumgarten, Keith Mansfield, José M Carballido, Klaus Seuwen, Frédéric Bassilana
GPR15 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is found in lymphocytes. It functions as a co-receptor of simian immunodeficiency virus and HIV-2 and plays a role in the trafficking of T cells to the lamina propria in the colon and to the skin. We describe the purification from porcine colonic tissue extracts of an agonistic ligand for GPR15 and its functional characterization. In humans, this ligand, which we named GPR15L, is encoded by the gene C10ORF99 and has some features similar to the CC family of chemokines...
September 12, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899396/transcriptomic-meta-analysis-identifies-gene-expression-characteristics-in-various-samples-of-hiv-infected-patients-with-nonprogressive-disease
#5
Le-Le Zhang, Zi-Ning Zhang, Xian Wu, Yong-Jun Jiang, Ya-Jing Fu, Hong Shang
BACKGROUND: A small proportion of HIV-infected patients remain clinically and/or immunologically stable for years, including elite controllers (ECs) who have undetectable viremia (<50 copies/ml) and long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) who maintain normal CD4(+) T cell counts for prolonged periods (>10 years). However, the mechanism of nonprogression needs to be further resolved. In this study, a transcriptome meta-analysis was performed on nonprogressor and progressor microarray data to identify differential transcriptome pathways and potential biomarkers...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899104/therapeutic-vaccine-against-hiv-viral-variability-ctl-epitopes-and-genetics-of-patients
#6
Herve J Fleury, Camille Tumiotto, Pantxika Bellecave, Patricia Recordon-Pinson
The scientific and medical community is seeking to cure HIV. Several pathways have been or are being explored including therapeutic vaccination. Viro-immunological studies on primary infection as well as on elite controllers have demonstrated the importance of the cytotoxic CD8 response and have mainly oriented research on vaccine constructs towards this type of response. The results of these trials are clearly not commensurate with the hope placed in them. Might there be one or more uncontrolled variables? The genetics of patients need to be taken into consideration, especially their HLA alleles...
September 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894045/neopterin-as-a-marker-of-cellular-immunological-response
#7
Łukasz Michalak, Magdalena Bulska, Karolina Strząbała, Piotr Szcześniak
Neopterin is a pyrazino-pyrimidine compound that belongs to the pteridine group. It is known to be a biochemical marker associated with cell-mediated immunity. It is produced by human monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells from guanosine triphosphate (GTP) upon stimulation with interferon gamma (IFNγ), which is released by activated limphocytes Th. Neopterin is a very important clinic parameter, though the physiological role has not been exactly definited thus far. The level of neopterin reflects the stage of activation of the cellular immune system, which is important in the pathogenesis and progression of various diseases...
August 24, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893288/potential-contribution-of-gut-microbiota-and-systemic-inflammation-on-hiv-vaccine-effectiveness-and-vaccine-design
#8
REVIEW
Jean-Pierre Routy, Vikram Mehraj
The quest for an effective HIV-1 vaccine began as soon as the virus causing AIDS was identified. After several disappointing attempts, results of the Phase-III RV144 trial in Thailand were a beacon of hope for the field demonstrating correlation between protection and immunological markers. In order to optimize vaccine response, we underline results from yellow fever and hepatitis B vaccines, where protective responses were predicted by the pre-vaccination level of immune activation in healthy individuals. Such findings support the assessment and reduction of pre-vaccine immune activation in order to optimize vaccine response...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893281/rna-flow-cytometric-fish-for-investigations-into-hiv-immunology-vaccination-and-cure-strategies
#9
REVIEW
Amy E Baxter, Julia Niessl, Antigoni Morou, Daniel E Kaufmann
Despite the tremendous success of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) no current treatment can eradicate latent HIV reservoirs from HIV-infected individuals or generate, effective HIV-specific immunity. Technological limitations have hampered the identification and characterization of both HIV-infected cells and HIV-specific responses in clinical samples directly ex vivo. RNA-flow cytometric fluorescence in situ hybridisation (RNA Flow-FISH) is a powerful technique, which enables detection of mRNAs in conjunction with proteins at a single-cell level...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893184/the-canadian-hiv-and-aging-cohort-study-determinants-of-increased-risk-of-cardio-vascular-diseases-in-hiv-infected-individuals-rationale-and-study-protocol
#10
Madeleine Durand, Carl Chartrand-Lefebvre, Jean-Guy Baril, Sylvie Trottier, Benoit Trottier, Marianne Harris, Sharon Walmsley, Brian Conway, Alexander Wong, Jean-Pierre Routy, Colin Kovacs, Paul A MacPherson, Kenneth Marc Monteith, Samer Mansour, George Thanassoulis, Michal Abrahamowicz, Zhitong Zhu, Christos Tsoukas, Petronela Ancuta, Nicole Bernard, Cécile L Tremblay
BACKGROUND: With potent antiretroviral drugs, HIV infection is becoming a chronic disease. Emergence of comorbidities, particularly cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become a leading concern for patients living with the infection. We hypothesized that the chronic and persistent inflammation and immune activation associated with HIV disease leads to accelerated aging, characterized by CVD. This will translate into higher incidence rates of CVD in HIV infected participants, when compared to HIV negative participants, after adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors...
September 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886092/prediction-of-long-term-outcomes-of-hiv-infected-patients-developing-non-aids-events-using-a-multistate-approach
#11
Mar Masiá, Sergio Padilla, Santiago Moreno, Xavier Barber, Jose A Iribarren, Jorge Del Romero, Juan L Gómez-Sirvent, María Rivero, Francesc Vidal, Antonio A Campins, Félix Gutiérrez
OBJETIVES: Outcomes of people living with HIV (PLWH) developing non-AIDS events (NAEs) remain poorly defined. We aimed to classify NAEs according to severity, and to describe clinical outcomes and prognostic factors after NAE occurrence using data from CoRIS, a large Spanish HIV cohort from 2004 to 2013. DESIGN: Prospective multicenter cohort study. METHODS: Using a multistate approach we estimated 3 transition probabilities: from alive and NAE-free to alive and NAE-experienced ("NAE development"); from alive and NAE-experienced to death ("Death after NAE"); and from alive and NAE-free to death ("Death without NAE")...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884279/primary-hiv-infection-clinical-presentation-testing-and-treatment
#12
REVIEW
Aurélia Henn, Clara Flateau, Sébastien Gallien
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review was to provide current data on clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of primary HIV infection (PHI). RECENT FINDINGS: In 65 to 95% of cases, PHI causes acute retroviral syndrome presenting with unspecific flu-like symptoms. Symptomatic PHI was associated with a faster clinical and immunological progression of HIV infection. Point-of-care tests remain less sensitive than fourth-generation immunoassays (IA) in PHI, especially after tenofovir-based prophylaxis use...
September 7, 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883976/prospecting-for-an-hiv-vaccine
#13
REVIEW
D M Brett-Major, T A Crowell, N L Michael
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) sets several challenges for the development of a preventative HIV vaccine. Predictable, protective natural immunity against HIV does not occur and so unlike most other diseases for which vaccines exist, there are few guideposts from natural infection. Nonetheless, six vaccine efficacy trials have occurred. One in particular, the Thai trial called RV144, showed partial protective efficacy and potential ways ahead to a better vaccine approach. This coupled with other lessons from studies of acute infections as well as an increasingly complex knowledge of HIV-related vaccine immunology bring hope that a vaccine solution might be reached for this pervasive and deadly pandemic...
2017: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883973/vectored-immunoprophylaxis-an-emerging-adjunct-to-traditional-vaccination
#14
REVIEW
John W Sanders, Todd A Ponzio
The successful development of effective vaccines has been elusive for many of the world's most important infectious diseases. Additionally, much of the population, such as the aged or immunocompromised, are unable to mount an effective immunologic response for existing vaccines. Vectored Immunoprophylaxis (VIP) is a novel approach designed to address these challenges. Rather than utilizing an antigen to trigger a response from the host's immune system as is normally done with traditional vaccines, VIP genetically engineers the production of tailored antibodies from non-hematopoietic cells, bypassing the humoral immune system...
2017: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882067/differentiating-immune-cell-targets-in-gut-associated-lymphoid-tissue-for-hiv-cure
#15
Shahzada Khan, Sushama Telwatte, Martin Trapecar, Steven Yukl, Shomyseh Sanjabi
The single greatest challenge to an HIV cure is the persistence of latently-infected cells containing inducible, replication-competent proviral genomes that constitute only a small fraction of total or infected cells in the body. Although resting CD4+ T cells in the blood are a well-known source of viral rebound, more than 90% of the body's lymphocytes reside elsewhere. Many are in gut tissue, where HIV DNA levels per million CD4+ T cells are considerably higher than in the blood. Despite the significant contribution of gut tissue to viral replication and persistence, little is known about the cell types that support persistence of HIV in the gut; importantly, T cells in the gut have phenotypic, functional, and survival properties that are distinct from T cells in other tissues...
September 7, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877821/association-of-body-composition-and-other-clinical-factors-with-incomplete-immune-response-after-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy
#16
Peng-Tao Sun, Wei Yu, Tai-Sheng Li, Qiang Lin, Fu-Ping Guo, Xiao-Hong Zhou, Gui-Ying Du, Ying Xu, Wen-Min Guan
Objective To explore whether baseline body composition and other clinical factors are associated with incomplete immune response after highly active antiretroviral therapy(HAART)in Chinese men with human immunodeficiency virus(HIV)or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome(AIDS).Methods A retrospective study was conducted among HIV/AIDS male patients who achieved viral suppression(maintained HIV-1 RNA levels<400 copies/ml)after a year of HAART between 2007 and 2015.Clinical,immunological,and virological data were collected from patients' files,including weight,height,and whole body composition measured within one month prior to staring HAART...
August 20, 2017: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877173/assessment-of-who-criteria-for-identifying-art-treatment-failure-in-vietnam-from-2007-to-2011
#17
Nicole K Le, Emilia Riggi, Gaetano Marrone, Tam Van Vu, Ricardo O Izurieta, Chuc Kim Thi Nguyen, Mattias Larsson, Cuong Duy Do
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of the WHO immunological criteria for detecting antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment failure in a cohort of Vietnamese patients. We conducted a stratified analysis to determine the effects of BMI, peer support, adherence to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs, age, and gender on the sensitivity and specificity of the WHO criteria. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 605 HIV-infected patients using data previously collected from a cluster randomized control trial study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875475/immunological-and-virological-responses-to-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-1-infected-children
#18
Ravinder Singh, Aparna Mukherjee, Mohit Singla, Bimal Kumar Das, Sushil Kumar Kabra, Rakesh Lodha
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate immunological and virological outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected children at six months of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHODS: Records of HIV infected children <15-y-old were reviewed to identify those who were initiated highly active antiretroviral therapy between 2010 and 2014 and had CD4+ T cell percentage and HIV-1 viral load report at baseline visit and after 6 mo of initiation of the treatment...
September 6, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872273/identification-of-misdiagnosed-hiv-clients-in-an-early-access-to-art-for-all-implementation-study-in-swaziland
#19
Shaukat Khan, Emma Mafara, Munyaradzi Pasipamire, Donna Spiegelman, Sikhathele Mazibuko, Nombuso Ntshalintshali, Anita Hettema, Charlotte Lejeune, Fiona Walsh, Velephi Okello
INTRODUCTION: Rapid diagnostic testing has made HIV diagnosis and subsequent treatment more accessible. However, multiple factors, including improper implementation of testing strategies and clerical errors, have been reported to lead to HIV misdiagnosis. The World Health Organization has recommended HIV retesting prior to antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation which has become pertinent with scaling up of Early Access to ART for All (EAAA). In this analysis, misdiagnosed clients are identified from a subgroup of clients enrolled in EAAA implementation study in Swaziland...
August 29, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865025/role-of-drebrin-at-the-immunological-synapse
#20
Vera Rocha-Perugini, Mónica Gordon-Alonso, Francisco Sánchez-Madrid
Although drebrin was first described in neurons, it is also expressed in cells of the immune system, such as T lymphocytes and mast cells. Another member of the drebrin family of proteins, mammalian actin-binding protein 1 (mAbp-1) is more widely expressed and plays important roles in the function of macrophages, polymorphonuclear neutrophils, and B lymphocytes. We will briefly discuss on the function of mAbp-1 and drebrin in immune cells with emphasis on T cells. Specifically, drebrin enables the immune responses of CD4(+) T lymphocytes...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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