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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677181/exploiting-glycan-topography-for-computational-design-of-env-glycoprotein-antigenicity
#1
Wen-Han Yu, Peng Zhao, Monia Draghi, Claudia Arevalo, Christina B Karsten, Todd J Suscovich, Bronwyn Gunn, Hendrik Streeck, Abraham L Brass, Michael Tiemeyer, Michael Seaman, John R Mascola, Lance Wells, Douglas A Lauffenburger, Galit Alter
Mounting evidence suggests that glycans, rather than merely serving as a "shield", contribute critically to antigenicity of the HIV envelope (Env) glycoprotein, representing critical antigenic determinants for many broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). While many studies have focused on defining the role of individual glycans or groups of proximal glycans in bNAb binding, little is known about the effects of changes in the overall glycan landscape in modulating antibody access and Env antigenicity...
April 20, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672590/hiv-replication-is-associated-to-inflammasomes-activation-il-1%C3%AE-il-18-and-caspase-1-expression-in-galt-and-peripheral-blood
#2
Manuel Gerónimo Feria, Natalia Andrea Taborda, Juan C Hernandez, Maria Teresa Rugeles
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) promotes an inflammatory process, leading to the progressive loss of the functional capacity of the immune system. The HIV infection induces alterations in several tissues, but mainly in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). However, the degree of GALT deterioration varies among infected individuals. In fact, it has been shown that HIV-controllers, who spontaneously control viral replication, exhibit a lower inflammatory response, and a relative normal frequency and function of most of the immune cells...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671786/hiv-vaccination-a-roadmap-among-advancements-and-concerns
#3
REVIEW
Maria Trovato, Luciana D'Apice, Antonella Prisco, Piergiuseppe De Berardinis
Since the identification of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) as the etiologic agent of AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome), many efforts have been made to stop the AIDS pandemic. A major success of medical research has been the development of the highly active antiretroviral therapy and its availability to an increasing number of people worldwide, with a considerable effect on survival. However, a safe and effective vaccine able to prevent and eradicate the HIV pandemic is still lacking...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670625/immunology-of-cryptococcal-infections-developing-a-rational-approach-to-patient-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Waleed Elsegeiny, Kieren A Marr, Peter R Williamson
Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is responsible for upwards of 15% of HIV-related deaths worldwide and is currently the most common cause of non-viral meningitis in the US, affecting both previously healthy and people with immune suppression caused by cancer chemotherapy, transplantation, and biologic therapies. Despite a continued 30-50% attributable mortality, recommended therapeutic strategies have remained largely unchanged since the 1950s. Recent murine models and human studies examining the role of the immune system in both susceptibility to the infection as well as host damage have begun to influence patient care decisions...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670623/human-immune-system-mice-for-the-study-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-infection-of-the-central-nervous-system
#5
REVIEW
Teresa H Evering, Moriya Tsuji
Immunodeficient mice transplanted with human cell populations or tissues, also known as human immune system (HIS) mice, have emerged as an important and versatile tool for the in vivo study of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) pathogenesis, treatment, and persistence in various biological compartments. Recent work in HIS mice has demonstrated their ability to recapitulate critical aspects of human immune responses to HIV-1 infection, and such studies have informed our knowledge of HIV-1 persistence and latency in the context of combination antiretroviral therapy...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669838/effects-of-adjuvants-on-hiv-1-envelope-glycoprotein-sosip-trimers-in-vitro
#6
Gabriel Ozorowski, Albert Cupo, Michael Golabek, Michelle LoPiccolo, Thomas A Ketas, Matt Cavallary, Christopher A Cottrell, P J Klasse, Andrew B Ward, John P Moore
Native-like, soluble, recombinant SOSIP trimers of various designs and based on several env genes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are being tested as immunogens in different animal models. These experiments almost always involve co-formulating the trimers with an adjuvant to boost the magnitude of the immune responses. One factor relevant to the choice of an adjuvant is that it should not physically damage the immunogen or impede its ability to present relevant epitopes. As examples, an adjuvant formulation that includes harsh detergents could disrupt the structural integrity of a trimer, and any charged compounds in the formulation could bind to counter-charged regions of the trimer and physically occlude nearby epitopes...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669830/evolution-guided-structural-and-functional-analyses-of-the-herc-family-reveals-an-ancient-marine-origin-and-determinants-of-antiviral-activity
#7
Ermela Paparisto, Matthew W Woods, Macon D Coleman, Seyed A Moghadasi, Divjyot S Kochar, Sean K Tom, Hinissan P Kohio, Richard M Gibson, Taryn J Rohringer, Nina R Hunt, Eric J Di Gravio, Jonathan Y Zhang, Meijuan Tian, Yong Gao, Eric J Arts, Stephen D Barr
In humans, 'homologous to the E6-AP carboxyl terminus (HECT) and regulator of chromosome condensation 1 (RCC1)-like domain-containing protein 5' (HERC5) is an interferon-induced protein that inhibits replication of evolutionarily diverse viruses including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). To better understand the origin, evolution and function of HERC5, we performed phylogenetic, structural and functional analyses of the entire human small HERC family, which includes HERC3, HERC4, HERC5 and HERC6...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669037/coccidioidomycosis-in-selected-immunosuppressed-hosts
#8
Janis E Blair, Neil M Ampel, Susan E Hoover
After contracting coccidioidomycosis, persons with impaired cellular immunity are more likely than healthy persons to have severe infection, disseminated infection, and higher mortality rates. In this brief review, we summarize the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of coccidioidomycosis in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), recipients of solid organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplants, and recipients of biologic response modifiers. Among individuals infected with HIV, a diagnosis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and a CD4 T-lymphocyte count <250 cells/μl were associated with more severe coccidioidomycosis, whereas less severe disease occurred among those with undetectable HIV-RNA and higher CD4 T-lymphocyte counts, indicating that controlled HIV viremia and improved cellular immune status are important in limiting disease...
April 13, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669026/first-in-human-randomized-controlled-trial-of-mosaic-hiv-1-immunogens-delivered-via-a-modified-vaccinia-ankara-vector
#9
Lindsey R Baden, Stephen R Walsh, Michael S Seaman, Yehuda Z Cohen, Jennifer A Johnson, J Humberto Licona, Rachel D Filter, Jane A Kleinjan, Jon A Gothing, Julia Jennings, Lauren Peter, Joseph Nkolola, Peter Abbink, Erica N Borducchi, Marinela Kirilova, Kathryn E Stephenson, Poonam Pegu, Michael A Eller, Hung V Trinh, Mangala Rao, Julie A Ake, Michal Sarnecki, Steven Nijs, Katleen Callewaert, Hanneke Schuitemaker, Jenny Hendriks, Maria G Pau, Frank Tomaka, Bette T Korber, Galit Alter, Raphael Dolin, Patricia L Earl, Bernard Moss, Nelson L Michael, Merlin L Robb, Dan H Barouch
Background: Mosaic immunogens are bioinformatically engineered HIV-1 sequences designed to elicit clade independent coverage against globally circulating HIV-1 strains. Methods: This Phase 1 double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial enrolled healthy HIV uninfected adults who received two doses of a modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vectored HIV-1 bivalent mosaic immunogen vaccine or placebo on days 0 and 84. Two groups were enrolled: those who were HIV-1 vaccine naïve (N=15) and those who had received an HIV-1 vaccine four to six years earlier (Ad26...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668826/variability-in-innate-host-immune-responses-to-cryptococcosis
#10
Mariam Garelnabi, Robin C May
Cryptococcosis is an invasive fungal disease caused by Cryptococcus neoformans and the closely related species C. gattii. The severe form of the disease, cryptococcal meningitis (CM), is rapidly fatal without treatment. Although typically a disease of immunocompromised (especially HIV-positive) individuals, there is growing awareness of cryptococcal disease amongst non-immunocompromised patients. Whilst substantial progress has been made in understanding the pathogenicity of C. neoformans in HIV patients, prospective data on cryptococcosis outside the context of HIV remains lacking...
2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666455/projected-effectiveness-and-added-value-of-hiv-vaccination-campaigns-in-south-africa-a-modeling-study
#11
Simon de Montigny, Blythe J S Adamson, Benoît R Mâsse, Louis P Garrison, James G Kublin, Peter B Gilbert, Dobromir T Dimitrov
Promising multi-dose HIV vaccine regimens are being tested in trials in South Africa. We estimated the potential epidemiological and economic impact of HIV vaccine campaigns compared to continuous vaccination, assuming that vaccine efficacy is transient and dependent on immune response. We used a dynamic economic mathematical model of HIV transmission calibrated to 2012 epidemiological data to simulate vaccination with anticipated antiretroviral treatment scale-up in South Africa. We estimate that biennial vaccination with a 70% efficacious vaccine reaching 20% of the sexually active population could prevent 480,000-650,000 HIV infections (13...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666227/anti-hiv-1-b-cell-responses-are-dependent-on-b-cell-precursor-frequency-and-antigen-binding-affinity
#12
Pia Dosenovic, Ervin E Kara, Anna-Klara Pettersson, Andrew T McGuire, Matthew Gray, Harald Hartweger, Eddy S Thientosapol, Leonidas Stamatatos, Michel C Nussenzweig
The discovery that humans can produce potent broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) to several different epitopes on the HIV-1 spike has reinvigorated efforts to develop an antibody-based HIV-1 vaccine. Antibody cloning from single cells revealed that nearly all bNAbs show unusual features that could help explain why it has not been possible to elicit them by traditional vaccination and instead would require a sequence of different immunogens. This idea is supported by experiments with genetically modified immunoglobulin (Ig) knock-in mice...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664712/chemokine-receptor-5-has-no-major-role-in-the-severity-of-hepatitis-c-virus-related-liver-damage
#13
Giuseppe Colucci, Roberta D'Ambrosio, Enrico Galmozzi, Marco Maggioni, Stella De Nicola, Alessio Aghemo, Massimo Colombo
Total or partial inactivation of the chemokine 5 (CC5) pathway, as caused by the CC5 receptor Δ32 deletion (CCR5Δ32), may result in a profound manipulation of immune surveillance with significant consequences on the course and response to therapy of diverse human infections, including HIV. It has been postulated that in chronic hepatitis C (CHC), such a deregulation of CC5 pathway may compromise T cell-dependent antiviral immune responses, which in turn may favor viral persistence. To test this hypothesis, we investigated a cohort of 100 patients with CHC in whom 12 heterozygous and 1 homozygous CCR5Δ32 mutations were detected compared to 8 and none in 98 healthy controls (13% vs...
April 17, 2018: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660296/influence-of-aids-antiretroviral-therapy-on-the-growth-pattern
#14
REVIEW
Ana Paula Brigatto Simões Golucci, Fernando Augusto Lima Marson, Mariana Freitas Fedato Valente, Maira Migliari Branco, Camila Carbone Prado, Roberto José Negrão Nogueira
OBJECTIVES: Human immunodeficiency virus infection can result in the early impairment of anthropometric indicators in children and adolescents. However, combined antiretroviral therapy has improved, in addition to the immune response and viral infection, the weight and height development in infected individuals. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate the effect of combined antiretroviral on the growth development of human immunodeficiency virus infected children and adolescents. SOURCE OF DATA: A systematic review was performed...
April 13, 2018: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650252/the-interferon-stimulated-gene-trim22-a-double-edged-sword-in-hiv-1-infection
#15
REVIEW
Elisa Vicenzi, Guido Poli
Infection of target cells by the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is hampered by constitutively expressed host cell proteins preventing or curtailing virus replication and therefore defined as "restriction factors". Among them, members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family have emerged as important players endowed with both antiviral effects and modulatory capacity of the innate immune response. TRIM5α and TRIM19 (i.e. promyelocytic leukemia, PML) are among the best-characterized family members; however, in this review we will focus on the potential role of another family member, i...
February 10, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648490/therapeutic-conserved-elements-ce-dna-vaccine-induces-strong-t-cell-responses-against-highly-conserved-viral-sequences-during-simian-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#16
Paul Munson, Yi Liu, Debra Bratt, James T Fuller, Xintao Hu, George N Pavlakis, Barbara K Felber, James I Mullins, Deborah Heydenburg Fuller
HIV-specific T-cell responses play a key role in controlling HIV infection, and therapeutic vaccines for HIV that aim to improve viral control will likely need to improve on the T-cell responses induced by infection. However, in the setting of chronic infection, an effective therapeutic vaccine must overcome the enormous viral genetic diversity and the presence of pre-existing T-cell responses that are biased toward immunodominant T-cell epitopes that can readily mutate to evade host immunity and thus potentially provide inferior protection...
April 12, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644536/cigarette-smoke-and-nicotine-effects-on-brain-proinflammatory-responses-and-behavioral-and-motor-function-in-hiv-1-transgenic-rats
#17
Walter Royal, Adem Can, Todd D Gould, Ming Guo, Jared Huse, Myles Jackson, Harry Davis, Joseph Bryant
Cognitive impairment in HIV-1 infection is associated with the induction of chronic proinflammatory responses in the brains of infected individuals. The risk of HIV-related cognitive impairment is increased by cigarette smoking, which induces brain inflammation in rodent models. To better understand the role of smoking and the associated immune response on behavioral and motor function in HIV infection, wild-type F344 and HIV-1 transgenic (HIV1Tg) rats were exposed to either smoke from nicotine-containing (regular) cigarettes, smoke from nicotine-free cigarettes, or to nicotine alone...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643247/the-pathway-to-establishing-hiv-latency-is-critical-to-how-latency-is-maintained-and-reversed
#18
Simin D Rezaei, Hao K Lu, J Judy Chang, Ajantha Rhodes, Sharon R Lewin, Paul U Cameron
HIV infection requires lifelong antiretroviral therapy because of the persistence of latently infected CD4+ T cells. Induction of viral expression from latently infected cells occurs following T cell receptor (TCR) activation but not all latently infected cells respond to TCR stimulation. We compared two models of latently infected cells using an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter virus to infect CCL19 treated resting CD4+ (rCD4) T cells (pre-activation latency) or activated CD4+ T cells that returned to a resting state (post-activation latency)...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628924/defective-phagocytic-properties-of-hiv-infected-macrophages-how-might-they-be-implicated-in-the-development-of-invasive-salmonella-typhimurium
#19
REVIEW
Gabrielle Lê-Bury, Florence Niedergang
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infects and kills T cells, profoundly damaging the host-specific immune response. The virus also integrates into memory T cells and long-lived macrophages, establishing chronic infections. HIV-1 infection impairs the functions of macrophages both in vivo and in vitro , which contributes to the development of opportunistic diseases. Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium has been identified as the most common cause of bacterial bloodstream infections in HIV-infected adults...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628150/evaluation-of-adenovirus-19a-as-a-novel-vector-for-mucosal-vaccination-against-influenza-a-viruses
#20
Dennis Lapuente, Zsolt Ruzsics, Christian Thirion, Matthias Tenbusch
Since preexisting immunity and enhanced infection rates in a clinical trial of an HIV vaccine have raised some concerns on adenovirus (Ad) serotype 5-based vaccines, we evaluated the subgroup D adenovirus serotype Ad19a for its suitability as novel viral vector vaccine against mucosal infections. In BALB/c mice, we compared the immunogenicity and efficacy of E1/E3-deleted Ad19a vectors encoding the influenza A virus (IAV)-derived antigens hemagglutinin (HA) and nucleoprotein (NP) to the most commonly used Ad5 vectors...
April 5, 2018: Vaccine
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