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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820685/immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-in-hiv-infected-immigrants
#1
María Pérez-Rueda, Michele Hernández-Cabrera, Adela Francés-Urmeneta, Alfonso Angel-Moreno, Elena Pisos-Álamo, Nieves Jaén-Sánchez, Cristina Carranza-Rodríguez, Jose-Luis Pérez-Arellano
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) includes a group of potentially serious inflammatory processes that may be present in HIV-infected patients after initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Paradoxical IRIS is a worsening of symptoms, after an overwhelming response to a previously diagnosed opportunistic infection (OI); unmasking IRIS reveals a previously occult OI. The main objective of the study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical, and outcome data of HIV-infected immigrants, stratified according to high- or low-income countries of origin, who developed IRIS and to compare them with native-born Spanish patients...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819312/shared-peptide-binding-of-hla-class-i-and-ii-alleles-associate-with-cutaneous-nevirapine-hypersensitivity-and-identify-novel-risk-alleles
#2
Rebecca Pavlos, Elizabeth J McKinnon, David A Ostrov, Bjoern Peters, Soren Buus, David Koelle, Abha Chopra, Ryan Schutte, Craig Rive, Alec Redwood, Susana Restrepo, Austin Bracey, Thomas Kaever, Paisley Myers, Ellen Speers, Stacy A Malaker, Jeffrey Shabanowitz, Yuan Jing, Silvana Gaudieri, Donald F Hunt, Mary Carrington, David W Haas, Simon Mallal, Elizabeth J Phillips
Genes of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system encode cell-surface proteins involved in regulation of immune responses, and the way drugs interact with the HLA peptide binding groove is important in the immunopathogenesis of T-cell mediated drug hypersensitivity syndromes. Nevirapine (NVP), is an HIV-1 antiretroviral with treatment-limiting hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) associated with multiple class I and II HLA alleles. Here we utilize a novel analytical approach to explore these multi-allelic associations by systematically examining HLA molecules for similarities in peptide binding specificities and binding pocket structure...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814521/hiv-fusion-in-dendritic-cells-mainly-occurs-at-the-surface-and-is-limited-by-low-cd4-levels
#3
Lise Chauveau, Daniel Aaron Donahue, Blandine Monel, Francoise Porrot, Timothée Bruel, Lea Richard, Nicoletta Casartelli, Olivier Schwartz
HIV-1 poorly infects monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs). This is in a large part due to SAMHD1, which restricts viral reverse transcription. Pseudotyping HIV-1 with VSV-G strongly enhances infection, suggesting that earlier steps of viral replication, including fusion, are also inefficient in MDDCs. The site of HIV-1 fusion remains controversial and may depend on the cell type, with reports indicating that it occurs at the plasma membrane or contrarily, in an endocytic compartment. Here, we examined the pathways of HIV-1 entry in MDDCs...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814388/the-impact-of-poxvirus-vector-priming-protein-co-administration-and-vaccine-intervals-on-hiv-gp120-vaccine-elicited-antibody-magnitude-and-function-in-infant-macaques
#4
Bonnie Phillips, Genevieve G Fouda, Josh Eudailey, Justin Pollara, Alan D Curtis, Erika Kunz, Maria Dennis, Xiaoying Shen, Camden Bay, Michael Hudgens, David Pickup, S Munir Alam, Amir Ardeshir, Pamela A Kozlowski, Koen K A Van Rompay, Guido Ferrari, M Anthony Moody, Sallie Permar, Kristina De Paris
Despite success in reducing vertical HIV transmission by maternal antiretroviral therapy, several obstacles limit its efficacy during breastfeeding, and breast-milk transmission is now the dominant mode of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV in infants. Thus, a pediatric vaccine is needed to eradicate oral HIV infections in newborns and infants. Utilizing the infant rhesus macaque model, we compared 3 different vaccine regimens: (i) HIV Env protein only; (ii) a poxvirus vector (MVA)-HIV Env prime/HIV Env protein boost, and (iii) co-administration of HIV Env protein and MVA-HIV Env at all time points...
August 16, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813462/a-comprehensive-profiling-of-t-and-b-lymphocyte-receptor-repertoires-from-a-chinese-origin-rhesus-macaque-by-high-throughput-sequencing
#5
Longfei Fu, Xinyang Li, Wei Zhang, Changxi Wang, Jinghua Wu, Huanming Yang, Jian Wang, Xiao Liu
Due to the close genetic background, high similarity of physiology, and susceptibility to infectious and metabolic diseases with humans, rhesus macaques have been widely used as an important animal model in biomedical research, especially in the study of vaccine development and human immune-related diseases. In recent years, high-throughput sequencing based immune repertoire sequencing (IR-SEQ) has become a powerful tool to study the dynamic adaptive immune responses. Several previous studies had analyzed the responses of B cells to HIV-1 trimer vaccine or T cell repertoire of rhesus macaques using this technique, however, there are little studies that had performed a comprehensive analysis of immune repertoire of rhesus macaques, including T and B lymphocytes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811194/immunogenetic-studies-of-the-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-an-era-of-pan-genotype-antiviral-therapies-effective-treatment-is-coming
#6
Joel Henrique Ellwanger, Valéria de Lima Kaminski, Jacqueline Maria Valverde-Villegas, Daniel Simon, Vagner Ricardo Lunge, José Artur Bogo Chies
What are the factors that influence human hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, hepatitis status establishment, and disease progression? Firstly, one has to consider the genetic background of the host and HCV genotypes. The immunogenetic host profile will reflect how each infected individual deals with infection. Secondly, there are environmental factors that drive susceptibility or resistance to certain viral strains. These will dictate (I) the susceptibility to infection; (II) whether or not an infected person will promote viral clearance; (III) the immune response and the response profile to therapy; and (IV) whether and how long it would take to the development of HCV-associated diseases, as well as their severity...
August 12, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808299/gut-homing-%C3%AE-42pd1-v%C3%AE-2-t-cells-promote-innate-mucosal-damage-via-tlr4-during-acute-hiv-type-1-infection
#7
Allen Ka Loon Cheung, Hau-Yee Kwok, Yiru Huang, Min Chen, Yufei Mo, Xilin Wu, Ka-Shing Lam, Hoi-Kuan Kong, Terrence Chi Kong Lau, Jingying Zhou, Jingjing Li, Lin Cheng, Boon Kiat Lee, Qiaoli Peng, Xiaofan Lu, Minghui An, Hui Wang, Hong Shang, Boping Zhou, Hao Wu, Aimin Xu, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Zhiwei Chen
The innate immune cells underlying mucosal inflammatory responses and damage during acute HIV-1 infection remain incompletely understood. Here, we report a Vδ2 subset of gut-homing γδ T cells with significantly upregulated Δ42PD1 (a PD1 isoform) in acute (~20%) HIV-1 patients compared to chronic HIV-1 patients (~11%) and healthy controls (~2%). The frequency of Δ42PD1(+)Vδ2 cells correlates positively with plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and fatty-acid-binding protein before detectable lipopolysaccharide in acute patients...
August 14, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805110/lack-of-interaction-of-lopinavir-solid-drug-nanoparticles-with-cells-of-the-immune-system
#8
Neill J Liptrott, Marco Giardiello, Tom O McDonald, Steven P Rannard, Andrew Owen
AIM: We previously demonstrated that solid drug nanoparticles (SDNs) lopinavir (LPV) dispersed into aqueous media display favorable pharmacokinetics. METHODS: The impact of LPV SDNs on the function and phenotype of primary human T cells and macrophages (primary sites of HIV replication) was investigated. RESULTS: LPV significantly increased IL-1β (ninefold higher than untreated cells; p = 0.045) and TNF-α (sixfold higher than untreated cells; p = 0...
August 14, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794233/characterization-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-specific-cells-using-mhc-class-ii-tetramers-reveals-phenotypic-differences-related-to-hiv-infection-and-tuberculosis-disease
#9
Natalie Strickland, Tracey L Müller, Natacha Berkowitz, Rene Goliath, Mary N Carrington, Robert J Wilkinson, Wendy A Burgers, Catherine Riou
A major challenge for the development of an effective vaccine against tuberculosis (TB) is that the attributes of protective CD4(+) T cell responses are still elusive for human TB. Infection with HIV type 1 is a major risk factor for TB, and a better understanding of HIV-induced alterations of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific CD4(+) T cells that leads to failed host resistance may provide insight into protective T cell immunity to TB. A total of 86 participants from a TB-endemic setting, either HIV-infected or uninfected and with latent or active TB (aTB), were screened using M...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794027/hiv-dna-adenovirus-multiclade-envelope-vaccine-induces-gp41-antibody-immunodominance-in-rhesus-macaques
#10
Qifeng Han, Wilton B Williams, Kevin O Saunders, Kelly E Seaton, Kevin J Wiehe, Nathan Vandergrift, Tarra Von Holle, Ashley M Trama, Robert J Parks, Kan Luo, Thaddeus C Gurley, Thomas B Kepler, Dawn J Marshall, David C Montefiori, Laura L Sutherland, Munir S Alam, John F Whitesides, Cindy Bowman, Sallie R Permar, Barney S Graham, John R Mascola, Patrick C Seed, Koen K A Van Rompay, Georgia D Tomaras, Michael A Moody, Barton F Haynes
Dominant antibody responses in vaccinees who received the multiclade (A, B and C) envelope (Env) DNA/rAd5 vaccine studied in the HIV-1 vaccine trials network (HVTN) efficacy trial 505 (HVTN 505), targeted Env gp41 and cross-reacted with microbial antigens. In this study, we asked if the DNA/rAd5 vaccine induced a similar antibody response in rhesus macaques (RMs) that are commonly used as an animal model for human HIV-1 infections and for testing candidate HIV-1 vaccines. We also asked if gp41 immunodominance could be avoided by immunization of neonatal RMs during the early stages of microbial colonization...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794025/retrovirus-based-virus-like-particle-immunogenicity-and-its-modulation-by-toll-like-receptor-activation
#11
Fabien Pitoiset, Thomas Vazquez, Beatrice Levacher, Djamel Nehar-Belaid, Nicolas Dérian, James Vigneron, David Klatzmann, Bertrand Bellier
Retrovirus-derived virus-like particles (VLPs) are particularly interesting vaccine platforms as they trigger efficient humoral and cellular immune responses and can be used to display heterologous antigens. In this study, we characterized the intrinsic immunogenicity of VLPs and investigated their possible adjuvantization by incorporation of toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands. We designed a non-coding single-stranded RNA (ncRNA) that could be encapsidated by VLPs and induce TLR7/8-signaling. We found that VLPs efficiently induce in vitro dendritic cell activation, which can be improved by ncRNA encapsidation (ncRNAVLPs)...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794022/potent-in-vivo-nk-cell-mediated-elimination-of-hiv-1-infected-cells-mobilized-by-a-gp120-bispecific-and-hexavalent-broadly-neutralizing-fusion-protein
#12
Ariola Bardhi, Yanling Wu, Weizao Chen, Zhongyu Zhu, Jian Hua Zheng, Hing Wong, Emily Jeng, Jennifer Jones, Christina Ochsenbauer, John C Kappes, Dimiter S Dimitrov, Tianlei Ying, Harris Goldstein
Antibodies bound to HIV-1 envelope protein expressed by infected cells mobilize antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) to eliminate the HIV-1-infected cells and thereby suppress HIV-1 infection and delay disease progression. Studies treating HIV-1-infected individuals with latency reactivation agents to reduce their latent HIV-1 reservoirs indicated that their HIV-1-specific immune responses were insufficient to effectively eliminate the reactivated latent HIV-1-infected T cells. Mobilization of ADCC may facilitate elimination of reactivated latent HIV-1-infected cells to deplete the HIV-1 reservoir and contribute to functional HIV-1 cure...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793015/virulence-factors-and-genetic-variability-of-vaginal-candida-albicans-isolates-from-hiv-infected-women-in-the-post-highly-active-antiretroviral-era
#13
Pâmela Cristina Mastellaro Delvas Zanni, Patrícia de Souza Bonfim-Mendonça, Melyssa Negri, Sandra Sayuri Nakamura, Lucélia Donatti, Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski, Márcia Edilaine Lopes Consolaro
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) in HIV-infected (HIV+) women is a serious public health problem. However, little is known about the virulence mechanisms of vaginal Candida albicans from HIV+ women in the post-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era. Here, we report a comparative analysis of the expression of key virulence factors and genetic variability of 26 vaginal C. albicans strains isolated from HIV+ women undergoing HAART and 18 from HIV-uninfected (HIV-) women. In general, we observed that C...
2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792942/hiv-1-neutralizing-antibody-induced-by-simian-adenovirus-and-poxvirus-mva-vectored-bg505-native-like-envelope-trimers
#14
Silvia Capucci, Edmund G Wee, Torben Schiffner, Celia C LaBranche, Nicola Borthwick, Albert Cupo, Jonathan Dodd, Hansi Dean, Quentin Sattentau, David Montefiori, Per J Klasse, Rogier W Sanders, John P Moore, Tomáš Hanke
Rabbits and monkeys immunized with HIV type 1 (HIV-1) native-like BG505 SOSIP.664 (BG505s) glycoprotein trimers are known to induce antibodies that can neutralize the autologous tier-2 virus. Here, we assessed the induction of HIV-1 trimer binding and neutralizing antibody (nAb) titres when BG505s trimers were also delivered by non-replicating simian (chimpanzee) adenovirus and non-replicating poxvirus modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vaccine vectors. First, we showed that approximately two-thirds and one-third of the trimers secreted from the ChAdOx1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791125/nkg2c-memory-like-nk-cells-contribute-to-the-control-of-hiv-viremia-during-primary-infection-optiprim-anrs-147
#15
Françoise Gondois-Rey, Antoine Chéret, Samuel Granjeaud, Françoise Mallet, Ghislain Bidaut, Camille Lécuroux, Mickaël Ploquin, Michaela Müller-Trutwin, Christine Rouzioux, Véronique Avettand-Fenoël, Alessandro Moretta, Gilles Pialoux, Cécile Goujard, Laurence Meyer, Daniel Olive
Natural-killer (NK) cells are important immune effectors during a viral infection. Latent CMV infection is widely spread and was demonstrated to shape the NK cell repertoire through the NKG2C receptor. An expansion of NKG2C(+) NK cells has been reported during primary HIV infection (PHI), but their role is not known. We previously found a correlation between the maturation state of the NK cell compartment and a lower viral load by studying patients from the ANRS 147 Optiprim trial. We investigated here extensively the NKG2C(+) NK cells at the time of PHI and its evolution after 3 months of early antiretroviral therapy (combination antiretroviral therapy (cART))...
July 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783704/constitutive-resistance-to-viral-infection-in-human-cd141-dendritic-cells
#16
Aymeric Silvin, Chun I Yu, Xavier Lahaye, Francesco Imperatore, Jean-Baptiste Brault, Sylvain Cardinaud, Christian Becker, Wing-Hong Kwan, Cécile Conrad, Mathieu Maurin, Christel Goudot, Santy Marques-Ladeira, Yuanyuan Wang, Virginia Pascual, Esperanza Anguiano, Randy A Albrecht, Matteo Iannacone, Adolfo García-Sastre, Bruno Goud, Marc Dalod, Arnaud Moris, Miriam Merad, A Karolina Palucka, Nicolas Manel
Dendritic cells (DCs) are critical for the launching of protective T cell immunity in response to viral infection. Viruses can directly infect DCs, thereby compromising their viability and suppressing their ability to activate immune responses. How DC function is maintained in light of this paradox is not understood. By analyzing the susceptibility of primary human DC subsets to viral infections, we report that CD141(+) DCs have an innate resistance to infection by a broad range of enveloped viruses, including HIV and influenza virus...
July 7, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780736/vaccinations-for-the-hiv-infected-adult-a-review-of-the-current-recommendations-part-ii
#17
REVIEW
Nancy F Crum-Cianflone, Eva Sullivan
Vaccination is a critical component for ensuring the ongoing health HIV-infected adults. Since this group may have reduced immune responses and shorter durations of protection post-vaccination, HIV-specific guidelines have been published. This review article provides a comprehensive discussion of the current guidelines and evidence-based data for vaccinating HIV-infected adults, including data on dosing schedules, immunogenicity studies, and safety. In the current paper, part II of the review, live vaccines, as well as vaccines for travelers and specific occupational groups, will be discussed...
August 5, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774417/treatment-of-hepatitis-b-virus-with-combination-therapy-now-and-in-the-future
#18
REVIEW
Joel S Emery, Jordan J Feld
Chronic Hepatitis B continues as a significant public health problem despite the availability of safe and effective antivirals and a highly effective protective vaccine. Current therapy, however rarely leads to cure and lifelong therapy is often required, contributing to poor uptake and ongoing morbidity. New insights into the hepatitis B viral life cycle and the host immune response have expanded the potential targets for drug therapies with interesting antiviral candidates and novel immunotherapeutic approaches in early stage development...
June 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771107/hla-dqb1-06-and-breadth-of-nef-core-region-specific-t-cell-response-are-associated-with-slow-disease-progression-in-antiretroviral-therapy-naive-chinese-hiv-1-subtype-b-patients
#19
Weihua Li, Chuanyun Li, Wei Xia, Xiuhui Li
Vaccines still are an important way to prevent and treat acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (1) For developing an effective T cell-based AIDS vaccine, it is critical to define the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) type and epitope that elicit the most potent responses. This study involved 29 antiretroviral therapy-naive and chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 subtype B-infected individuals. A polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primer was used to detect the HLA typing, and the enzyme-linked immunospot assay to quantify the T-cell immune function...
August 3, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769934/human-leukocyte-antigen-hla-and-immune-regulation-how-do-classical-and-non-classical-hla-alleles-modulate-immune-response-to-human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-hepatitis-c-virus-infections
#20
REVIEW
Nicole B Crux, Shokrollah Elahi
The genetic factors associated with susceptibility or resistance to viral infections are likely to involve a sophisticated array of immune response. These genetic elements may modulate other biological factors that account for significant influence on the gene expression and/or protein function in the host. Among them, the role of the major histocompatibility complex in viral pathogenesis in particular human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), is very well documented. We, recently, added a novel insight into the field by identifying the molecular mechanism associated with the protective role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27/B57 CD8(+) T cells in the context of HIV-1 infection and why these alleles act as a double-edged sword protecting against viral infections but predisposing the host to autoimmune diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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