keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

immune response hiv

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222332/stabilization-of-the-gp120-v3-loop-through-hydrophobic-interactions-reduces-the-immunodominant-v3-directed-non-neutralizing-response-to-hiv-1-envelope-trimers
#1
Steven W de Taeye, Alba Torrents de la Peña, Andrea Vecchione, Enzo Scutigliani, Kwinten Sliepen, Judith A Burger, Patricia van der Woude, Anna Schorcht, Edith E Schermer, Marit J van Gils, Celia C LaBranche, David C Montefiori, Ian A Wilson, John P Moore, Andrew B Ward, Rogier W Sanders
To provide protective immunity against circulating primary HIV-1 strains, a vaccine most likely has to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) to the HIV-1 envelope (Env) glycoprotein spike. Recombinant Env trimers such as the prototype BG505 SOSIP.664 that closely mimic the native Env spike can induce autologous neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against relatively resistant (tier-2) primary viruses. Ideally, Env immunogens should present bNAb epitopes, but limit the presentation of immunodominant non-NAb epitopes that might induce off-target and potentially interfering responses...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218036/the-macrophage-a-disputed-fortress-in-the-battle-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#2
REVIEW
Christophe J Queval, Roland Brosch, Roxane Simeone
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the etiological agent of human tuberculosis (TB), has plagued humans for thousands of years. TB still remains a major public health problem in our era, causing more than 4,400 deaths worldwide every day and killing more people than HIV. After inhaling Mtb-contaminated aerosols, TB primo-infection starts in the terminal lung airways, where Mtb is taken up by alveolar macrophages. Although macrophages are known as professional killers for pathogens, Mtb has adopted remarkable strategies to circumvent host defenses, building suitable conditions to survive and proliferate...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213274/natural-killer-cells-in-antifungal-immunity
#3
REVIEW
Stanislaw Schmidt, Lars Tramsen, Thomas Lehrnbecher
Invasive fungal infections are still an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients such as patients suffering from hematological malignancies or patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantion. In addition, other populations such as human immunodeficiency virus-patients are at higher risk for invasive fungal infection. Despite the availability of new antifungal compounds and better supportive care measures, the fatality rate of invasive fungal infection remained unacceptably high...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212942/factors-leading-to-the-loss-of-natural-elite-control-of-hiv-1-infection
#4
María Pernas, Laura Tarancón-Diez, Esther Rodríguez-Gallego, Josep Gómez, Julia G Prado, Concepción Casado, Beatriz Dominguez-Molina, Isabel Olivares, Maite Coiras, Agathe León, Carmen Rodriguez, Jose Miguel Benito, Norma Rallón, Montserrat Plana, Onofre Martinez-Madrid, Marta Dapena, Jose Antonio Iribarren, Jorge Del Romero, Felipe García, José Alcamí, M Ángeles Muñoz-Fernández, Francisco Vidal, Manuel Leal, Cecilio Lopez-Galindez, Ezequiel Ruiz-Mateos
HIV-1 elite controllers (EC) maintain undetectable viral load (VL) in the absence of antiretroviral treatment. However, these subjects have heterogeneous clinical outcomes including a proportion loosing HIV-1 control over time. In this work we compared, in a longitudinal design, transient EC, analyzed before and after the loss of virological control, versus persistent EC. The aim was to identify factors leading to the loss of natural virological control of HIV-1-infection with a longitudinal retrospective study design...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212716/a-randomized-controlled-safety-efficacy-trial-of-therapeutic-vaccination-in-hiv-infected-individuals-who-initiated-antiretroviral-therapy-early-in-infection
#5
Michael C Sneller, J Shawn Justement, Kathleen R Gittens, Mary E Petrone, Katherine E Clarridge, Michael A Proschan, Richard Kwan, Victoria Shi, Jana Blazkova, Eric W Refsland, Daryl E Morris, Kristen W Cohen, M Juliana McElrath, Rong Xu, Michael A Egan, John H Eldridge, Erika Benko, Colin Kovacs, Susan Moir, Tae-Wook Chun, Anthony S Fauci
Despite substantial clinical benefits, complete eradication of HIV has not been possible using antiretroviral therapy (ART) alone. Strategies that can either eliminate persistent viral reservoirs or boost host immunity to prevent rebound of virus from these reservoirs after discontinuation of ART are needed; one possibility is therapeutic vaccination. We report the results of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of a therapeutic vaccine regimen in patients in whom ART was initiated during the early stage of HIV infection and whose immune system was anticipated to be relatively intact...
December 6, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212041/soluble-prefusion-closed-ds-sosip-664-env-trimers-of-diverse-hiv-1-strains
#6
M Gordon Joyce, Ivelin S Georgiev, Yongping Yang, Aliaksandr Druz, Hui Geng, Gwo-Yu Chuang, Young Do Kwon, Marie Pancera, Reda Rawi, Mallika Sastry, Guillaume B E Stewart-Jones, Angela Zheng, Tongqing Zhou, Misook Choe, Joseph G Van Galen, Rita E Chen, Christopher R Lees, Sandeep Narpala, Michael Chambers, Yaroslav Tsybovsky, Ulrich Baxa, Adrian B McDermott, John R Mascola, Peter D Kwong
The elicitation of autologous neutralizing responses by immunization with HIV-1 envelope (Env) trimers conformationally stabilized in a prefusion closed state has generated considerable interest in the HIV-1 vaccine field. However, soluble prefusion closed Env trimers have been produced from only a handful of HIV-1 strains, limiting their utility as vaccine antigens and B cell probes. Here, we report the engineering from 81 HIV-1 strains of soluble, fully cleaved, prefusion Env trimers with appropriate antigenicity...
December 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210833/influence-of-injection-drug-use-related-hiv-acquisition-on-cd4-response-to-first-antiretroviral-therapy-regimen-among-virally-suppressed-individuals
#7
Keri L Calkins, Catherine R Lesko, Geetanjali Chander, Richard D Moore, Bryan Lau
BACKGROUND: The inflammatory effects of injection drug use may result in an impaired immune response to antiretroviral therapy (ART). We examined CD4 response to first ART regimen among individuals in routine HIV care, stratified by injection drug use-related HIV acquisition. SETTING: Cohort study including patients who initiated ART between 2000-2015 in the Johns Hopkins HIV Clinic. METHODS: We followed individuals from ART initiation until death, loss to follow-up, loss of viral load suppression (<500 copies/mL) or administrative censoring...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210536/hiv-and-aids-an-overview-of-the-current-issues-treatment-and-prevention
#8
Elizabeth Anne Crock
The theme of World AIDS Day 2017 is 'let's end it'. After almost 40 years since the first occurrences of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), it is possible to envision an end to the HIV epidemic, one of the most serious health and development challenges humanity has faced. This article provides an overview of the current approaches to the treatment, care and support of people living with HIV and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). It also discusses the challenges associated with HIV and AIDS that remain, HIV prevention strategies, and the nurse's role in caring for people living with HIV...
December 6, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209326/retroviruses-as-myeloid-cell-riders-what-natural-human-siglec-1-knockouts-tell-us-about-pathogenesis
#9
Javier Martinez-Picado, Paul J McLaren, Amalio Telenti, Nuria Izquierdo-Useros
Myeloid cells initiate immune responses and are crucial to control infections. In the case of retroviruses, however, myeloid cells also promote pathogenesis by enabling viral dissemination; a process extensively studied in vitro using human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). This viral hijacking mechanism does not rely on productive myeloid cell infection but requires HIV-1 capture via Siglec-1/CD169, a receptor expressed on myeloid cells that facilitates the infection of bystander target cells. Murine retroviruses are also recognized by Siglec-1, and this interaction is required for robust retroviral infection in vivo...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209323/non-neutralizing-antibodies-directed-against-hiv-and-their-functions
#10
REVIEW
Luzia M Mayr, Bin Su, Christiane Moog
B cells produce a plethora of anti-HIV antibodies (Abs) but only few of them exhibit neutralizing activity. This was long considered a profound limitation for the enforcement of humoral immune responses against HIV-1 infection, especially since these neutralizing Abs (nAbs) are extremely difficult to induce. However, increasing evidence shows that additional non-neutralizing Abs play a significant role in decreasing the viral load, leading to partial and sometimes even total protection. Mechanisms suspected to participate in protection are numerous...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204303/maxillary-sinus-kaposi-sarcoma-case-report-in-an-hiv-negative-patient-with-thymoma
#11
Bernardo Carvalho Araújo, Sara Viana Baptista, Luís Mascarenhas, Ezequiel Barros
Introduction: Kaposi sarcoma is an angioproliferative disorder that requires infection with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) for its development. The majority of cases are associated with HIV infection or other immunocompromising conditions. Thymomas are occasionally associated to cytopenia, which may alter the patients' immune responses. Methods: Case report using clinical records. Results: Case report of a 46-year-old male patient diagnosed with thymoma and myasthenia gravis...
2017: Case Reports in Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197988/impact-of-circulating-bacterial-dna-in-long-term-glucose-homeostasis-in-non-diabetic-patients-with-hiv-infection-cohort-study
#12
Ó Moreno-Pérez, L Giner, S Reus, V Boix, R Alfayate, R Frances, E Merino, A Pico, J Portilla
In HIV-infected patients, the damage in the gut mucosal immune system is not completely restored after antiretroviral therapy (ART). It results in microbial translocation, which could influence the immune and inflammatory response. We aimed at investigating the long-term impact of bacterial-DNA translocation (bactDNA) on glucose homeostasis in an HIV population. This was a cohort study in HIV-infected patients whereby inclusion criteria were: patients with age >18 years, ART-naïve or on effective ART (<50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL) and without diabetes or chronic hepatitis C...
December 2, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197600/alveolar-t-helper-17-responses-to-streptococcus-pneumoniae-are-preserved-in-art-untreated-and-treated-hiv-infected-malawian-adults
#13
Chikondi Peno, Dominic H Banda, Ndaru Jambo, Anstead M Kankwatira, Rose D Malamba, Theresa J Allain, Daniela Ferreira, Robert S Heyderman, David G Russell, Henry C Mwandumba, Kondwani C Jambo
OBJECTIVE: We explored if HIV infection is associated with impaired T-Helper 17 responses against Streptococcus pneumoniae in the lung METHODS: We recruited 30 HIV-uninfected healthy controls, 23 asymptomatic HIV-infected adults not on ART, and 40 asymptomatic HIV-infected adults on ART (Median time 3.5yrs), in whom we collected bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. We measured alveolar CD4+ T cell immune responses following stimulation with pneumococcal cell culture supernatant using flow cytometry-based intracellular cytokine staining...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197533/cervical-cancer-screening-uptake-among-hiv-positive-women-in-ontario-canada-a-population-based-retrospective-cohort-study
#14
Ann N Burchell, Claire E Kendall, Stephanie Y Cheng, Aisha Lofters, Michelle Cotterchio, Ahmed M Bayoumi, Richard H Glazier, Tony Antoniou, Janet Raboud, Mark H Yudin, Mona Loutfy
Cervical cancer caused by oncogenic types of the human papillomavirus (HPV) is of concern among HIV-positive women due to impairment of immune responses required to control HPV infection. Our objectives were to describe patterns of cervical cancer screening using Pap cytology testing among HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada from 2008 to 2013 and to identify factors associated with adequate screening. We conducted a retrospective, population-based cohort study among screen-eligible HIV-positive women using provincial administrative health data...
November 29, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196729/peripheral-t-follicular-helper-cells-make-a-difference-in-hiv-reservoir-size-between-elite-controllers-and-patients-on-successful-cart
#15
Marcial García, Miguel Górgolas, Alfonso Cabello, Vicente Estrada, José Manuel Ligos, Manuel Fernández-Guerrero, Carlos Barros, Juan Carlos López-Bernaldo, Francisco Javier De La Hera, María Montoya, José Miguel Benito, Norma Rallón
HIV latency is the main barrier to HIV eradication. Peripheral T follicular helper (pTfh) cells have a prominent role in HIV persistence. Herein, we analyzed the HIV reservoir size within memory CD4+ T-cell subsets in patients with HIV replication control. Twenty HIV-infected patients with suppressed HIV replication were included, with 10 elite controllers (EC) and 10 treated (TX) individuals. The HIV reservoir size was analyzed in resting memory CD4+ T-cells (Trm), pTfh, and non-pTfh cells using an ultrasensitive digital-droplet-PCR assay...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194124/humanized-mouse-models-to-study-pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-hiv-infection
#16
Guillemette Masse-Ranson, Hugo Mouquet, James P Di Santo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immunodeficient mice that lack all lymphocyte subsets and have phagocytic cells that are tolerant of human cells can be stably xenografted with human hematopoietic stem cell as well as other human tissues (fetal liver and thymus) creating 'human immune system' (HIS) mice. HIS mice develop all major human lymphocyte classes (B, T, natural killer, and innate lymphoid cell) and their specialized subsets as well as a variety of myeloid cells (dendritic cell, monocytes, and macrophages) thereby providing a small animal model in which to interrogate human immune responses to infection...
November 30, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194105/immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-in-a-case-of-nonspecific-orbital-inflammation
#17
Alexandra Manta, Shoaib Ugradar, Fabiola Murta, Daniel Ezra, Ian Cormack
The immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome is an exaggerated abnormal immune response, typically seen in HIV-positive patients following restoration of a normal CD4 count as a result of initiation of antiretroviral therapy. It has been described in relation to either occult opportunistic infections or to a paradoxical relapse of a previously successfully treated infection with negative microbiological cultures. The authors report the case of a 60-year-old HIV-positive African male who presented with 2 episodes of orbital inflammation that occurred in conjunction with improvements of CD4 count following Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy...
November 15, 2017: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193564/ifn-free-therapy-is-associated-with-restoration-of-type-i-ifn-response-in-hiv-1-patients-with-acute-hcv-infection-who-achieve-svr
#18
Charles Carlton-Smith, Jacinta A Holmes, Susanna Naggie, Anna Lidofsky, Georg M Lauer, Arthur Y Kim, Raymond T Chung
Interferon (IFN)-free direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) have revolutionized chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment; early studies suggest excellent efficacy in acute HCV. However, changes in innate immune responses during DAA therapy for acute HCV are unknown. We studied interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression and related cytokines/chemokines in HIV-infected patients with acute HCV receiving sofosbuvir plus ribavirin (SOF+RBV) as part of the A5327 clinical trial. ISG expression was determined from PBMCs and circulating cytokines/chemokines were quantified from serum from study participants...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191707/changes-in-inflammatory-cardiac-markers-of-hiv-positive-patients
#19
João F P Rezer, Stephen A Adefegha, Assis Ecker, Daniela F Passos, Renata S P Saccol, Tatiana M D Bertoldo, Daniela B R Leal
HIV replication promotes atherogenesis and participates in the immune response to the virus, thereby influencing the inflammatory profile. These changes may, in turn, contribute to the risk of cardiovascular diseases with involvement of platelets. However, adenine nucleotides and nucleosides involved in thromboregulation and modulation of immune response may therefore be affected by these alterations. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the profile of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10, IL-6, IL-17, TNF, IL-4, IL-2 and IFN-gamma), cardiac markers (troponin, CK, CK MB, LDH, CRP) in HIV-positive patients and assess the in vitro effect of antiretroviral therapy on the activities of ectonucleotidases (E-NTPDase and E-5'-nucleotidase) in human platelets...
November 27, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187855/cd4-binding-site-directed-cross-neutralizing-scfv-monoclonals-from-hiv-1-subtype-c-infected-indian-children
#20
Sanjeev Kumar, Rajesh Kumar, Lubina Khan, Muzamil Ashraf Makhdoomi, Ramachandran Thiruvengadam, Madhav Mohata, Mudit Agarwal, Rakesh Lodha, Sushil Kumar Kabra, Subrata Sinha, Kalpana Luthra
Progression of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection in children is faster than adults. HIV-1 subtype C is responsible for more than 50% of the infections globally and more than 90% infections in India. To date, there is no effective vaccine against HIV-1. Recent animal studies and human Phase I trials showed promising results of the protective effect of anti-HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). Interaction between CD4 binding site (CD4bs) on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein and CD4 receptor on the host immune cells is the primary event leading to HIV-1 infection...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
keyword
keyword
40911
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"