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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035947/cross-reactivity-of-hiv-vaccine-responses-and-the-microbiome
#1
Wilton B Williams, Qifeng Han, Barton F Haynes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A successful HIV-type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine will require immunogens that induce protective immune responses. However, recent studies suggest that the response to HIV-1 and perhaps other viruses may be altered by immune system exposure to intestinal microbiota-antigens. This review will discuss select aspects of these studies. RECENT FINDINGS: Naïve CD4 T and B cell repertoires can be imprinted by intestinal microbiota-antigens to respond to virus epitopes prior to virus infection...
October 14, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035945/the-functional-consequences-of-the-microbiome-in-hiv-insights-from-metabolomic-studies
#2
Sergio Serrano-Villar, Santiago Moreno, Manuel Ferrer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is critical to gain insight into the metabolic pathways by which the microbiota might influence HIV immunopathogenesis to exploit host-microbiota interactions. The aim of this review is to sketch a very broad picture of recent advances in our knowledge of how HIV might affect the microbiota, with a focus on specific gene products, particularly, metabolites produced by the microbiota that may affect HIV immunopathogenesis. RECENT FINDINGS: First, we describe the different approaches used to explore imbalances in effector microbial products during HIV infection...
October 14, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035156/cd4-t-memory-stem-cells-correlate-with-disease-progression-in-chronically-hiv-1-infected-patients
#3
Xiaofan Lu, Bingbing Song, Wenjia Weng, Huan Xia, Bin Su, Hao Wu, Tong Zhang, Wei Li, Yanqing Gao
Recently identified T memory stem (Tscm) cells have stem-cell-like properties, including long lifespan, self-renewal capacity, and multipotency to differentiate into other memory T cell types. In the study of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection, selective depletion of CCR5(+)CD4(+) Tscm cells and the high proliferation rate of these cells are believed to be responsible for the pathogenesis of SIV-infected rhesus macaques. Here, we conducted a cohort study to investigate the influence of chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection on CD4(+) Tscm cell homeostasis, and the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on CD4(+) Tscm cells...
October 16, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034105/changes-of-the-intestinal-microbiome-host-homeostasis-in-hiv-infected-individuals-a-focus-on-the-bacterial-gut-microbiome
#4
REVIEW
Ana Beatriz Dein Terra Mota Ribeiro, Markus M Heimesaat, Stefan Bereswill
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections cause severe CD4+ T cell depletion leading to chronic inflammation and immune activation, impaired barrier function, and microbial translocation. Even under effective antiretroviral therapy, these processes persist, leading to gut microbiome dysbiosis and disturbance of microbiome-host homeostasis. This systematic review aims at analyzing how gut microbiome and host immune system influence each other during HIV pathogenesis. An online search applying the PubMed database was conducted...
September 2017: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033936/coinhibitory-receptor-expression-and-immune-checkpoint-blockade-maintaining-a-balance-in-cd8-t-cell-responses-to-chronic-viral-infections-and-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Isobel S Okoye, Michael Houghton, Lorne Tyrrell, Khaled Barakat, Shokrollah Elahi
In cancer and chronic viral infections, T cells are exposed to persistent antigen stimulation. This results in expression of multiple inhibitory receptors also called "immune checkpoints" by T cells. Although these inhibitory receptors under normal conditions maintain self-tolerance and prevent immunopathology, their sustained expression deteriorates T cell function: a phenomenon called exhaustion. Recent advances in cancer immunotherapy involve blockade of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 and programmed cell death 1 in order to reverse T cell exhaustion and reinvigorate immunity, which has translated to dramatic clinical remission in many cases of metastatic melanoma and lung cancer...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029940/antibody-dependent-phagocytosis-adp-responses-following-trivalent-inactivated-influenza-vaccination-of-younger-and-older-adults
#6
Fernanda Ana-Sosa-Batiz, Angus P R Johnston, P Mark Hogarth, Bruce D Wines, Ian Barr, Adam K Wheatley, Stephen J Kent
Globally the most commonly utilised immunisation against influenza is the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) derived from an A/H1N1, an A/H3N2 and aB type influenza virus. Vaccine effectiveness of TIV varies year to year, depending on how well antigenically matched the strains in the vaccine are compared to circulating strains [1,2]. Moreover, vaccine effectiveness can vary within certain subpopulations such as HIV-positive, young children and the elderly. Decreased vaccine effectiveness in the elderly is associated with impaired Ab production, as measured by standard hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assays...
October 10, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029171/effect-of-hiv-on-the-frequency-and-number-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-specific-cd4-t-cells-in-blood-and-the-airways-in-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#7
Rubina Bunjun, Catherine Riou, Andreia P Soares, Narjis Thawer, Tracey L Müller, Agano Kiravu, Zekarias Ginbot, Tolu Oni, Rene Goliath, Barbara Kalsdorf, Florian von Groote-Bidlingmaier, Willem Hanekom, Gerhard Walzl, Robert J Wilkinson, Wendy A Burgers
HIV-1 infection substantially increases the risk of developing tuberculosis (TB). There is extensive depletion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tuberculosis)-specific CD4+ T cells in blood in early HIV infection, but little is known about responses in the lungs at this stage. Given that mucosal organs are a principal target for HIV-mediated CD4 destruction, we investigated M.tuberculosis-specific responses in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), in persons with latent TB infection and untreated HIV-1 co-infection with preserved CD4 counts...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028973/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-newborn-mva85a-vaccination-and-selective-delayed-bacille-calmette-guerin-bcg-for-infants-of-hiv-infected-mothers-a-phase-2-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Elisa Nemes, Anneke C Hesseling, Michele Tameris, Katya Mauff, Katrina Downing, Humphrey Mulenga, Penelope Rose, Marieke van der Zalm, Sharon Mbaba, Danelle Van As, Willem A Hanekom, Gerhard Walzl, Thomas J Scriba, Helen McShane, Mark Hatherill
Background: Vaccination of HIV-infected infants with bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is contraindicated. HIV-exposed newborns need a new tuberculosis (TB) vaccination strategy that protects against TB early in life; and avoids the potential risk of BCG disease until after HIV infection has been excluded. Methods: This double-blind randomized controlled trial compared newborn MVA85A prime vaccination (1 x10 8 PFU) vs. Candin® control, followed by selective deferred BCG vaccination at 8 weeks of age for HIV-uninfected infants, and 12 months follow-up for safety and immunogenicity...
September 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028943/a-joint-model-for-mixed-and-truncated-longitudinal-data-and-survival-data-with-application-to-hiv-vaccine-studies
#9
Tingting Yu, Lang Wu, Peter B Gilbert
In HIV vaccine studies, a major research objective is to identify immune response biomarkers measured longitudinally that may be associated with risk of HIV infection. This objective can be assessed via joint modeling of longitudinal and survival data. Joint models for HIV vaccine data are complicated by the following issues: (i) left truncations of some longitudinal data due to lower limits of quantification; (ii) mixed types of longitudinal variables; (iii) measurement errors and missing values in longitudinal measurements; (iv) computational challenges associated with likelihood inference...
September 23, 2017: Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028658/immunologic-response-to-art-by-age-among-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-in-sub-saharan-africa
#10
Kristen A Stafford, Laurence S Magder, Laura L Hungerford, Jack M Guralnik, Samer S El-Kamary, Mona Baumgarten, Robert R Redfield
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the association between age at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and immunologic response over time by stratum of baseline CD4 cell counts. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort analysis of data pooled from four PEPFAR funded countries in sub-Saharan Africa METHODS:: General linear models were used to estimate the mean CD4 cell count by age group within groups defined by baseline CD4 cell count. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to estimate time to achieving a CD4 cell count of at least 500 cells/mm3 by age group and stratified by baseline CD4 cell count...
October 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026141/combined-skin-and-muscle-vaccination-differentially-impact-the-quality-of-effector-t-cell-functions-the-cuthivac-001-randomized-trial
#11
G Haidari, A Cope, A Miller, S Venables, C Yan, H Ridgers, K Reijonen, D Hannaman, A Spentzou, P Hayes, G Bouliotis, A Vogt, S Joseph, B Combadiere, S McCormack, R J Shattock
Targeting of different tissues via transcutaneous (TC), intradermal (ID) and intramuscular (IM) injection has the potential to tailor the immune response to DNA vaccination. In this Phase I randomised controlled clinical trial in HIV-1 negative volunteers we investigate whether the site and mode of DNA vaccination influences the quality of the cellular immune responses. We adopted a strategy of concurrent immunization combining IM injection with either ID or TC administration. As a third arm we assessed the response to IM injection administered with electroporation (EP)...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026137/opiate-use-inhibits-tlr9-signaling-pathway-in-vivo-possible-role-in-pathogenesis-of-hiv-1-infection
#12
Yanyan Liao, Junjun Jiang, Bingyu Liang, Fumei Wei, Jiegang Huang, Peijiang Pan, Jinming Su, Bo Zhou, Ning Zang, Li Ye, Hao Liang
The molecular mechanism of opiate use promoting HIV-1 infection is not fully understood. TLR9 is expressed in many immune cells, including monocytes, macrophages, which can recognize viruses and viral products and consequently induce the production of antiviral factors and initiate immune responses. Previous studies have shown that chronic viral infections can overcome and impair TLR9 pathway. We aimed to explore whether opiate use enhances HIV infection through inhibition of TLR9 pathway via a population-based study...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022569/syphilis
#13
REVIEW
Rosanna W Peeling, David Mabey, Mary L Kamb, Xiang-Sheng Chen, Justin D Radolf, Adele S Benzaken
Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum (T. pallidum) causes syphilis via sexual exposure or via vertical transmission during pregnancy. T. pallidum is renowned for its invasiveness and immune-evasiveness; its clinical manifestations result from local inflammatory responses to replicating spirochaetes and often imitate those of other diseases. The spirochaete has a long latent period during which individuals have no signs or symptoms but can remain infectious. Despite the availability of simple diagnostic tests and the effectiveness of treatment with a single dose of long-acting penicillin, syphilis is re-emerging as a global public health problem, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) in high-income and middle-income countries...
October 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021408/repeat-syphilis-has-a-different-immune-response-compared-with-initial-syphilis-an-analysis-of-biomarker-kinetics-in-two-cohorts
#14
Chris Kenyon, Achilleas Tsoumanis, Kara Osbak, Marjan Van Esbroeck, Eric Florence, Tania Crucitti, Luc Kesten
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to asses if there are differences in the clinical presentation and immune response of repeat as compared with initial syphilis. METHODS: Prospective study: we prospectively recruited all patients with a new diagnosis of syphilis and tested their plasma for a range of cytochemokines and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) at baseline pretreatment and 6 months following therapy. Retrospective study: we compared RPR assay response kinetics between initial and repeat syphilis in persons attending our HIV/STI clinic from 1993 to 2016...
October 11, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021402/hiv-exposed-infants-vaccinated-with-a-mf59-rgp120-vaccine-have-higher-magnitude-anti-v1v2-igg-responses-than-adults-immunized-with-the-same-vaccine
#15
Erin P McGuire, Youyi Fong, Christopher Toote, Coleen K Cunningham, Elizabeth J McFarland, William Borkowsky, Susan Barnett, Hannah L Itell, Amit Kumar, Glenda Gray, M Julianna McElrath, Georgia D Tomaras, Sallie R Permar, Genevieve G Fouda
In the RV144 vaccine trial, IgG responses against the HIV envelope variable loops 1 and 2 (V1V2) were associated with decreased HIV acquisition risk. We previously reported that infants immunized with a MF59 adjuvanted rgp120 vaccine developed higher magnitude anti-V1V2 IgG responses than adult RV144 vaccinees. To determine if the robust antibody response in infants is due to differences in vaccine regimens or to inherent differences between the adult and infant immune systems, we compared Env-specific IgG responses in adults and infants immunized with the same MF59 and Alum adjuvanted HIV envelope vaccines...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021396/quiescence-promotes-latent-hiv-infection-and-resistance-to-reactivation-from-latency-with-histone-deacetylase-inhibitors
#16
Mark M Painter, Thomas D Zaikos, Kathleen L Collins
Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) establishes transcriptionally silent latent infections in many cell types, including resting memory T cells and hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), which allow the virus to persist in infected individuals despite antiretroviral therapy. Developing in vitro models of HIV-1 latency that recapitulate the characteristics of latently-infected cells in vivo is crucial to identifying and developing effective latency-reversing therapies. HSPCs exist in a quiescent state in vivo, and quiescence is correlated with latent infections in T cells...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021394/hiv-1-gp120-protein-and-mvagp140-boost-immunogens-increase-immunogenicity-of-a-dna-mva-hiv-1-vaccine
#17
Xiaoying Shen, Rahul Basu, Sheetal Sawant, David Beaumont, Sue Fen Kwa, Celia LaBranche, Kelly E Seaton, Nicole L Yates, David C Montefiori, Guido Ferrari, Linda S Wyatt, Bernard Moss, S Munir Alam, Barton F Haynes, Georgia D Tomaras, Harriet L Robinson
An important goal of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine design is identification of strategies that elicit effective antiviral humoral immunity. One novel approach comprises priming with DNA and boosting with modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) expressing HIV-1 Env on virus like particles. Here we evaluated whether the addition of a gp120 protein in alum or MVA expressed secreted gp140 (MVAgp140) could improve immunogenicity of a DNA prime - MVA boost vaccine. Five rhesus macaques per group received two DNA primes at weeks 0 and 8 followed by three MVA boosts (with or without additional protein or MVAgp140) at weeks 18, 26 and 40...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020090/saporin-conjugated-tetramers-identify-efficacious-anti-hiv-cd8-t-cell-specificities
#18
Ellen M Leitman, Christine D Palmer, Søren Buus, Fabian Chen, Lynn Riddell, Stuart Sims, Paul Klenerman, Asier Sáez-Cirión, Bruce D Walker, Paul R Hess, Marcus Altfeld, Philippa C Matthews, Philip J R Goulder
Antigen-specific T-cells are highly variable, spanning potent antiviral efficacy and damaging auto-reactivity. In virus infections, identifying the most efficacious responses is critical to vaccine design. However, current methods depend on indirect measures or on ex vivo expanded CTL clones. We here describe a novel application of cytotoxic saporin-conjugated tetramers to kill antigen-specific T-cells without significant off-target effects. The relative efficacy of distinct antiviral CD8+ T-cell specificity can be directly assessed via antigen-specific CD8+ T-cell depletion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019351/hot-news-exosomes-as-new-players-in-hiv-pathogenesis-new-data-from-the-ias-2017
#19
Eva Poveda, Michael L Freeman
Exosomes are nanovesicles that can be released into the extracellular medium by different cell types and are considered an important system of intercellular communication. In some instances, on secretion, exosomes break down and release their content into the extracellular space. Alternatively, intact exosomes can interact with other cells and discharge their content directly into the target cell cytoplasm. Exosomes are rich in endosome-associated proteins (i.e., the tetraspanin family) but also carry different molecules in their lumen including proteins, RNAs (i...
October 11, 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017536/a-strongly-selected-mutation-in-the-hiv-1-genome-is-independent-of-t-cell-responses-and-neutralizing-antibodies
#20
Donglai Liu, Chu Wang, Bhavna Hora, Tao Zuo, Nilu Goonetilleke, Michael K P Liu, Mark Berrong, Guido Ferrari, Andrew J McMichael, Tanmoy Bhattacharya, Alan S Perelson, Feng Gao
BACKGROUND: Mutations rapidly accumulate in the HIV-1 genome after infection. Some of those mutations are selected by host immune responses and often cause viral fitness losses. This study is to investigate whether strongly selected mutations that are not associated with immune responses result in fitness losses. RESULTS: Strongly selected mutations were identified by analyzing 5'-half HIV-1 genome (gag/pol) sequences from longitudinal samples of subject CH0131...
October 10, 2017: Retrovirology
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