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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550120/hiv-1-decreases-nrf2-are-activity-and-phagocytic-function-in-alveolar-macrophages
#1
Bashar S Staitieh, Lingmei Ding, Wendy A Neveu, Paul Spearman, David M Guidot, Xian Fan
Respiratory complications occur frequently in individuals living with human immunodeficiency-1 virus (HIV) infection, and there is evidence that HIV-related oxidative stress impairs alveolar macrophage immune function. We hypothesized that nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), a master transcription factor that activates the antioxidant response element (ARE) and regulates antioxidant defenses, has an important role in alveolar macrophage (AMs) immune dysfunction in individuals with HIV infections...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543773/degradation-of-heme-oxygenase-1-by-the-immunoproteasome-in-astrocytes-a-potential-interferon-%C3%AE-dependent-mechanism-contributing-to-hiv-neuropathogenesis
#2
Colleen E Kovacsics, Alexander J Gill, Surendra S Ambegaokar, Benjamin B Gelman, Dennis L Kolson
Induction of the detoxifying enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a critical protective host response to cellular injury associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. We previously found that HO-1 protein expression is reduced in brains of HIV-infected individuals with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and in HIV-infected macrophages, where this reduction associates with enhanced glutamate release and neurotoxicity. Because HIV-infected macrophages are a small component of the cellular content of the brain, the reduction of macrophage HO-1 expression likely accounts for a small portion of brain HO-1 loss in HIV infection...
May 22, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542092/approach-to-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-in-non-hiv-immunocompromised-hosts
#3
Victoria E Burke, Fred A Lopez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Skin and soft tissue infections are frequent contributors to morbidity and mortality in the immunocompromised host. This article reviews the changing epidemiology and clinical manifestations of the most common cutaneous pathogens in non-HIV immunocompromised hosts, including patients with solid organ transplants, stem cell transplants, solid tumors, hematologic malignancies, and receiving chronic immunosuppressive therapy for inflammatory disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Defects in the innate or adaptive immune response can predispose the immunocompromised host to certain cutaneous infections in a predictive fashion...
May 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539451/reducing-v3-antigenicity-and-immunogenicity-on-soluble-native-like-hiv-1-env-sosip-trimers
#4
Rajesh P Ringe, Gabriel Ozorowski, Kimmo Rantalainen, Weston B Struwe, Katie Matthews, Jonathan L Torres, Anila Yasmeen, Christopher A Cottrell, Thomas J Ketas, Celia C LaBranche, David C Montefiori, Albert Cupo, Max Crispin, Ian A Wilson, Andrew B Ward, Rogier W Sanders, P J Klasse, John P Moore
Native-like trimers of the SOSIP design are being developed as immunogens in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine development programs. These trimers display the epitopes for multiple broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), but can also expose binding sites for some types of non-neutralizing antibodies (non-NAbs). Among the latter are epitopes in the gp120 V3 region that are highly immunogenic when SOSIP trimers are evaluated in animal models. It is presently uncertain whether antibodies against V3 can interfere with the induction of NAbs, but there are good arguments in favor of suppressing such "off-target" immune responses...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539254/prevalence-of-primary-resistance-among-acutely-recently-hiv-infected-patients-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#5
Ana Cristina G Ferreira, Lara E Coelho, Eduarda Grinsztejn, Carlos S de Jesus, Monick L Guimarães, Valdilea G Veloso, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Sandra W Cardoso
INTRODUCTION: The widespread use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) increased the transmission of antiretroviral resistant HIV strains. ART initiation during acute/recent HIV infection limits HIV reservoirs and improves immune response in HIV infected individuals. Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) may jeopardize the early goals of early ART among acute/recent HIV infected patients. METHODS: Patients with acute/recent HIV infection who underwent resistance test before ART initiation were included in this analysis...
May 21, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538901/sexually-transmitted-infections-and-pro-lives-based-on-a-clinical-report
#6
Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira Velho
Physicians are also responsible for the increase in sexually transmitted infections. We report a case of patient inadequately monitored, that shows the importance of physicians to take basic measures with any individual at risk of acquiring such infections. We propose the following mnemonic acrostic: PRO-LIVES (Protection: usual and proper codom use, Responsibility, Other orientations, Laboratory tests -HIV infection, syphilis and B and C hepatitis-, Immunization: B hepatitis vaccination, Various: at least two patients, Ensure: case history and physical examination, Single dose treatment: whenever possible)...
March 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536578/expansion-of-cd25-negative-forkhead-box-p3-positive-t-cells-during-hiv-and-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#7
Matías T Angerami, Guadalupe V Suarez, María B Vecchione, Natalia Laufer, Diego Ameri, Graciela Ben, Hector Perez, Omar Sued, Horacio Salomón, María F Quiroga
Tuberculosis (TB) and HIV alter the immune system, and coinfected (HIV-TB) individuals usually present deregulations of T-lymphocytic immune response. We previously observed an increased frequency of "unconventional" CD4(+)CD25(-)FoxP3(+) Treg (uTreg) population during HIV-TB disease. Therefore, we aimed to explore the phenotype and function of uTreg and conventional CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) Treg subsets (cTreg) in this context. We evaluated the expression of CD39, programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1), glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR), and the effector/memory distribution by flow cytometry in cTreg and uTreg...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536264/exosomes-from-uninfected-cells-activate-transcription-of-latent-hiv-1
#8
Robert A Barclay, Angela Schwab, Catherine DeMarino, Yao Akpamagbo, Benjamin Lepene, Seble Kassaye, Sergey Iordanskiy, Fatah Kashanchi
HIV-1 infection causes AIDS, infecting millions worldwide. The virus can persist in a state of chronic infection due to its ability to become latent. We have previously shown a link between HIV-1 infection and exosome production. Specifically, we have reported that exosomes transport viral proteins and RNA from infected cells to neighboring uninfected cells. These viral products could then elicit an innate immune response, leading to activation of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) and NF-κB pathways. In this study, we asked whether exosomes from uninfected cells could activate latent HIV-1 in infected cells...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535936/lipids-in-infectious-diseases-the-case-of-aids-and-tuberculosis
#9
REVIEW
Fabrice Dumas, Evert Haanappel
Lipids play a central role in many infectious diseases. AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) and tuberculosis are two of the deadliest infectious diseases to have struck mankind. The pathogens responsible for these diseases, Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, rely on lipids and on lipid membrane properties to gain access to their host cells, to persist in them and ultimately to egress from their hosts. In this Review, we discuss the life cycles of these pathogens and the roles played by lipids and membranes...
May 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524736/effect-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factors-a-c-and-d-in-hiv-associated-pre-eclampsia
#10
Gugulethu Promise Shange, Jagidesa Moodley, Thajasvarie Naicker
OBJECTIVE: To measure and correlate the level of vascular endothelial growth factors A, C, and D in HIV-associated pre-eclampsia. METHODS: VEGF-A, VEGF-C, and VEGF-D were measured in serum of 76 normotensive and pre-eclamptic pregnant women stratified by HIV status using Bio-Plex. RESULTS: No significant difference was shown between pre-eclamptic and normotensive and between HIV negative and positive women. A strong significant positive correlation was demonstrated between VEGF-A and VEGF-C, VEGF-A and VEGF-D, and VEGF-C and VEGF D (p < 0...
May 19, 2017: Hypertension in Pregnancy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521720/the-role-of-il-27-and-its-receptor-in-the-pathogenesis-of-hiv-aids-and-anti-viral-immune-response
#11
Yu-Huang Zheng, Shui-Ling Xiao, Bo He, Yan He, Hua-Ying Zhou, Zi Chen, Mei He, Hong-Yan Wang, Yi-He Lin, Jing Cao
BACKGROUND: Cytokines have been widely demonstrated to involve in the pathogenesis of AIDS and the mechanisms of antiretroviral therapy. Interleukin 27 (IL-27) is a new member of the IL-12 cytokine family and has been shown to interfere HIV-1 virus replication with controversial findings. This study is to investigate the dynamic changes in plasma IL-27 level and cell surface IL-27 receptor expression in HIV/AIDS patients who underwent HAART. METHODS: Whole blood was collected from 34 HIV-positive/AIDS patients 0, 6, and 12 months after initiation of HAART and 27 healthy subjects...
May 17, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520969/cell-mediated-immunity-to-target-the-persistent-human-immunodeficiency-virus-reservoir
#12
James L Riley, Luis J Montaner
Effective clearance of virally infected cells requires the sequential activity of innate and adaptive immunity effectors. In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, naturally induced cell-mediated immune responses rarely eradicate infection. However, optimized immune responses could potentially be leveraged in HIV cure efforts if epitope escape and lack of sustained effector memory responses were to be addressed. Here we review leading HIV cure strategies that harness cell-mediated control against HIV in stably suppressed antiretroviral-treated subjects...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520963/humoral-and-innate-antiviral-immunity-as-tools-to-clear-persistent-hiv-infection
#13
Guido Ferrari, Justin Pollara, Georgia D Tomaras, Barton F Haynes
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 uses the CD4 molecule as its principal receptor to infect T cells. HIV-1 integrates its viral genome into the host cell, leading to persistent infection wherein HIV-1 can remain transcriptionally silent in latently infected CD4+ T cells. On reactivation of replication-competent provirus, HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env) are expressed and accumulate on the cell surface, allowing infected cells to be detected and targeted by endogenous immune responses or immune interventions...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518089/laparoscopic-technique-for-serial-collection-of-liver-and-mesenteric-lymph-nodes-in-macaques
#14
Alexander S Zevin, Cassie Moats, Drew May, Solomon Wangari, Charlene Miller, Joel Ahrens, Naoto Iwayama, Megan Brown, Debbie Bratt, Nichole R Klatt, Jeremy Smedley
The mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and the liver are exposed to microbes and microbial products from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, making them immunologically unique. The GI tract and associated MLN are sites of early viral replication in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the MLN are likely important reservoir sites that harbor latently-infected cells even after prolonged antiretroviral therapy (ART). The liver has been shown to play a significant role in immune responses to lentiviruses and appears to play a significant role in clearance of virus from circulation...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513983/book-review-the-foundations-of-immunology-and-their-pertinence-to-medicine
#15
REVIEW
A Corthay
We are in the era cursed with overspecialization. Charles Darwin's foundational Origin of Species, published in 1859 was accessible to the broadly educated individual. Starting with this statement, Peter Bretscher in his new book aims at explaining foundational concepts of immunology to a broad public. His standpoint is that foundational ideas usually can be simply expressed. This book describes first how foundational concepts of immunology have evolved over the last two and a half centuries. The importance of self-nonself discrimination by the immune system is acknowledged and models for immunological tolerance are compared...
May 17, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507544/within-epitope-interactions-can-bias-ctl-escape-estimation-in-early-hiv-infection
#16
Victor Garcia, Marcus W Feldman
As human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) begins to replicate within hosts, immune responses are elicited against it. Escape mutations in viral epitopes-immunogenic peptide parts presented on the surface of infected cells-allow HIV to partially evade these responses, and thus rapidly go to fixation. The faster they go to fixation, i.e., the higher their escape rate, the larger the selective pressure exerted by the immune system is assumed to be. This relation underpins the rationale for using escapes to assess the strength of immune responses...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505204/compartment-specific-distribution-of-human-intestinal-innate-lymphoid-cells-is-altered-in-hiv-patients-under-effective-therapy
#17
Benjamin Krämer, Felix Goeser, Philipp Lutz, Andreas Glässner, Christoph Boesecke, Carolynne Schwarze-Zander, Dominik Kaczmarek, Hans Dieter Nischalke, Vittorio Branchi, Steffen Manekeller, Robert Hüneburg, Tobias van Bremen, Tobias Weismüller, Christian P Strassburg, Jürgen K Rockstroh, Ulrich Spengler, Jacob Nattermann
Innate lymphocyte cells (ILCs), a novel family of innate immune cells are considered to function as key orchestrators of immune defences at mucosal surfaces and to be crucial for maintaining an intact intestinal barrier. Accordingly, first data suggest depletion of ILCs to be involved in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated damage of the intestinal mucosa and subsequent microbial translocation. However, although ILCs are preferentially localized at mucosal surfaces, only little is known regarding distribution and function of ILCs in the human gastrointestinal tract...
May 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503933/highly-hiv-exposed-seronegative-men-have-lower-mucosal-innate-immune-reactivity
#18
Jennifer A Fulcher, Laura Romas, Jennifer C Hoffman, Julie Elliott, Terry Saunders, Adam Burgener, Peter A Anton, Otto O Yang
Risk of HIV acquisition varies, and some individuals are highly HIV-1-exposed yet persistently seronegative (HESN). The immunologic mechanisms contributing to this phenomenon are an area of intense interest. As immune activation and inflammation facilitate disease progression in HIV-1-infected persons, and gastrointestinal-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is a highly susceptible site for transmission, we hypothesized that reduced gut mucosal immune reactivity may contribute to reduced HIV-1 susceptibility in HESN men with a history of numerous rectal sexual exposures...
May 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500742/amino-acids-at-positions-3-168-and-169-are-associated-with-the-ability-of-nef-proteins-from-hiv-1-crf01_ae-to-downmodulate-cd4
#19
Wen-Dong Kuang, Yan-Heng Zhou, Ping Zhong, Chiyu Zhang, Jian-Hua Wang
Several HIV-1 subtypes are co-circulating among various high-risk groups in China, and an increasing prevalence of CRF01_AE was observed among MSM (men who have sex with men) within recent years. Patients infected with CRF01_AE may experience a more rapid disease progression than patients infected with non-CRF01_AE; however, the underlying mechanisms remains elusive. HIV-1 Nef is a multifunctional protein and plays critical roles in viral pathogenesis. Nef downregulates CD4 and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) to promote viral transmission and escape from the host immune response...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500326/intranasal-drug-delivery-of-small-interfering-rna-targeting-beclin1-encapsulated-with-polyethylenimine-pei-in-mouse-brain-to-achieve-hiv-attenuation
#20
Myosotys Rodriguez, Jessica Lapierre, Chet Raj Ojha, Ajeet Kaushik, Elena Batrakova, Fatah Kashanchi, Seth M Dever, Madhavan Nair, Nazira El-Hage
We previously reported that activation of the host autophagic protein, Beclin1, by HIV-1 infection represents an essential mechanism in controlling HIV replication and viral-induced inflammatory responses in microglial cells. Existing antiretroviral therapeutic approaches have been limited in their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier effectively and recognize and selectively eliminate persistent HIV-infected brain reservoirs. In the present study and for the first time, the bio-distribution and efficacy of noninvasive intranasal delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) against the Beclin1 gene using the cationic linear polyethylenimines (PEI) as a gene carrier was investigated in adult mouse brain...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
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