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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239123/seeing-the-light-to-change-colour-an-evolutionary-perspective-on-the-role-of-melanopsin-in-neuroendocrine-circuits-regulating-light-mediated-skin-pigmentation
#1
REVIEW
Gabriel E Bertolesi, Sarah McFarlane
Melanopsin photopigments, Opn4x and Opn4m, were evolutionary selected to "see the light" in systems that regulate skin colour change. In this review, we analyze the roles of melanopsins, and how critical evolutionary developments, including the requirement for thermoregulation and ultraviolet protection, the emergence of a background adaptation mechanism in land-dwelling amphibian ancestors, and the loss of a photosensitive pineal gland in mammals, may have helped sculpt the mechanisms that regulate light-controlled skin pigmentation...
December 14, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237331/autism-spectrum-disorder-consensus-guidelines-on-assessment-treatment-and-research-from-the-british-association-for-psychopharmacology
#2
Oliver D Howes, Maria Rogdaki, James L Findon, Robert H Wichers, Tony Charman, Bryan H King, Eva Loth, Gráinne M McAlonan, James T McCracken, Jeremy R Parr, Carol Povey, Paramala Santosh, Simon Wallace, Emily Simonoff, Declan G Murphy
An expert review of the aetiology, assessment, and treatment of autism spectrum disorder, and recommendations for diagnosis, management and service provision was coordinated by the British Association for Psychopharmacology, and evidence graded. The aetiology of autism spectrum disorder involves genetic and environmental contributions, and implicates a number of brain systems, in particular the gamma-aminobutyric acid, serotonergic and glutamatergic systems. The presentation of autism spectrum disorder varies widely and co-occurring health problems (in particular epilepsy, sleep disorders, anxiety, depression, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and irritability) are common...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236363/diabetic-status-influences-the-storage-of-melatonin-in-human-salivary-glands
#3
Michela Isola, Maria Alberta Lilliu, Francesco Loy, Raffaella Isola
Recently we reported on the detailed localization of melatonin (and its receptors) in human salivary glands, revealing that serous cells are able to store and secrete melatonin into saliva. Since we found that type 2 diabetic patients display reduced melatonin content in saliva, our next step was to examine the presence of melatonin in salivary glands removed from type 2 diabetic subjects. The resulting data were compared with those previously obtained by identical procedures in non diabetics, to establish if the diabetic status may affect melatonin distribution...
December 13, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234342/melatonin-is-involved-in-regulation-of-bermudagrass-growth-and-development-and-response-to-low-k-stress
#4
Liang Chen, Jibiao Fan, Zhengrong Hu, Xuebing Huang, Erick Amombo, Ao Liu, Aoyue Bi, Ke Chen, Yan Xie, Jinmin Fu
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) plays critical roles in plant growth and development and during the response to multiple abiotic stresses. However, the roles of melatonin in plant response to K+ deficiency remain largely unknown. In the present study, we observed that the endogenous melatonin contents in bermudagrass were remarkably increased by low K+ (LK) treatment, suggesting that melatonin was involved in bermudagrass response to LK stress. Further phenotype analysis revealed that exogenous melatonin application conferred Bermudagrass enhanced tolerance to LK stress...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232847/five-and-six-membered-nitrogen-containing-compounds-as-selective-carbonic-anhydrase-activators
#5
Adriano Mollica, Giorgia Macedonio, Azzurra Stefanucci, Simone Carradori, Atilla Akdemir, Andrea Angeli, Claudiu T Supuran
It has been proven that specific isoforms of human carbonic anhydrase (hCA) are able to fine-tune physiological pathways connected to signal processing, and that decreased CAs expression negatively influences cognition, leading to mental retardation, Alzheimer's disease, and aging-related cognitive dysfunctions. For this reason, a small library of natural and synthetic nitrogen containing cyclic derivatives was assayed as activators of four human isoforms of carbonic anhydrase (hCA I, II, IV and VII). Most of the compounds activated hCA I, IV and VII in the micromolar range, with KAs ranging between 3...
December 9, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229321/the-role-of-aspirin-heparin-and-other-interventions-in-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-fetal-growth-restriction
#6
REVIEW
Katie M Groom, Anna L David
Fetal growth restriction and related placental pathologies such as preeclampsia, stillbirth, and placental abruption are believed to arise in early pregnancy when inadequate remodeling of the maternal spiral arteries leads to persistent high-resistance and low-flow uteroplacental circulation. The consequent placental ischaemia, reperfusion injury, and oxidative stress are associated with an imbalance in angiogenic/antiangiogenic factors. Many interventions have centered on the prevention and/or treatment of preeclampsia with results pertaining to fetal growth restriction and small-for-gestational-age pregnancy often included as secondary outcomes because of the common pathophysiology...
December 8, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229227/the-importance-of-the-circadian-system-sleep-for-bone-health
#7
Christine M Swanson, Wendy M Kohrt, Orfeu M Buxton, Carol A Everson, Kenneth P Wright, Eric S Orwoll, Steven A Shea
Adequate sleep timed appropriately during the circadian night is important for numerous biological processes and systems. New evidence suggests that both sleep timing and duration may be important for optimal bone health as well. This review examines the diurnal variation of bone turnover markers (BTMs) and the importance of circadian clock genes in regulating bone mass. In addition, this review explores the evidence for a link between shift work (and its associated disturbances in sleep duration/quality and circadian alignment) and alterations in bone metabolism and bone health...
December 8, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228639/role-of-melatonin-combined-with-exercise-as-a-switch-like-regulator-for-circadian-behavior-in-advanced-osteoarthritic-knee
#8
Yunkyung Hong, Hyunsoo Kim, Seunghoon Lee, Yunho Jin, Jeonghyun Choi, Sang-Rae Lee, Kyu-Tae Chang, Yonggeun Hong
Here, we show the role of melatonin combined with or without exercise as a determinant of multicellular behavior in osteoarthritis. We address the relationship between the molecular components governing local circadian clock and changes in the osteoarthritic musculoskeletal axis. Melatonin was injected subcutaneously in animals with advanced knee osteoarthritis (OA) for 4 weeks. Concurrently, moderate treadmill exercise was applied for 30 min/day. Morphometric, histological, and gene/protein-level analyses were performed in the cartilage, synovium, bone, and gastrocnemius muscle...
November 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227581/aging-of-lymphoid-organs-can-photobiomodulation-reverse-age-associated-thymic-involution-via-stimulation-of-extrapineal-melatonin-synthesis-and-bone-marrow-stem-cells
#9
REVIEW
Denis Odinokov, Michael R Hamblin
Thymic atrophy and the subsequent reduction in T cell production are the most noticeable age-related changes affecting lymphoid organs in the immune system. In fact thymic involution has been described as "programmed aging". New therapeutic approaches such as photobiomodulation (PBM) may reduce or reverse these changes. PBM (also known as low-level laser therapy or LLLT) involves the delivery of non-thermal levels of red or near-infrared light that are absorbed by mitochondrial chromophores, in order to prevent tissue death and stimulate healing and regeneration...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225920/relationship-between-shift-work-and-the-onset-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#10
Anna Karin Hedström, Torbjörn Åkerstedt, Lars Klareskog, Lars Alfredsson
Background: Environmental factors play a prominent role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) aetiology. Shift work has previously been associated with increased RA risk in females. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association, including a dose-response association, between permanent night shift work, rotating shift work and day-oriented shift work and risk of developing anticitrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA)-positive and ACPA-negative RA. Methods: The present report is based on a population-based, case-control study with incident cases of RA (1951 cases and 2225 controls matched by age, gender and residential area)...
2017: RMD Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224667/the-hormone-melatonin-animal-studies
#11
REVIEW
P Pevet, P Klosen, M P Felder-Schmittbuhl
The Melatonin (MLT), secreted rhythmically by the pineal, is an efferent hormonal signal of the circadian clock. MLT presents overall pleitropic effects but it is the role of MLT as a hormonal circadian signal which is the best documented. MLT-receptors are present in numerous structures/organs and the MLT is now considered as an endogenous synchronizer within the circadian system. The presence of MLT-receptors within the circadian clock, explains that exogenous MLT is a chronobiotic drug. Trials in humans, have confirmed the efficacy of MLT in circadian rhythm disorders...
December 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223712/correlated-colour-temperature-of-morning-light-influences-alertness-and-body-temperature
#12
Marije Te Kulve, Luc Schlangen, Lisje Schellen, Jan L Souman, Wouter van Marken Lichtenbelt
Though several studies have reported human alertness to be affected by the intensity and spectral composition of ambient light, the mechanism behind this effect is still largely unclear, especially for daytime exposure. Alerting effects of nocturnal light exposure are correlated with melatonin suppression, but melatonin levels are generally low during the day. The aim of this study was to explore the alerting effect of light in the morning for different correlated colour temperature (CCT) values, as well as its interaction with ambient temperature...
December 6, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221469/correction-to-the-role-of-melatonin-in-the-onset-and-progression-of-type-3-diabetes
#13
Juhyun Song, Daniel J Whitcomb, Byeong C Kim
MOLECULAR BRAIN (2017) 10:35 DOI: 10.1186/S13041-017-0315-X: In the original version of this article [1], published on 1 August 2017, Fig. 3 contains a typo. In this Correction the incorrect and correct version of Fig. 3 are shown. - Fig. 3 was originally published like this: - The correct version of Fig. 3 looks like this.
December 8, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221159/melatonin-suppresses-fibrotic-responses-induced-by-cigarette-smoke-via-downregulation-of-tgf-%C3%AE-1
#14
Na-Rae Shin, Ji-Won Park, In-Chul Lee, Je-Won Ko, Sung-Hyeuk Park, Joong-Sun Kim, Jong-Choon Kim, Kyung-Seop Ahn, In-Sik Shin
Cigarette smoke (CS) is the most important risk factor in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Pulmonary fibrosis is an irreversible response and important feature of COPD. In this study, we investigated the effects of melatonin on fibrotic response in development of COPD using a CS and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced COPD model and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC)-stimulated NCI-H292 cells, a human mucoepidermoid cell line. Mice were exposed to CS for 1 h per day (8 cigarettes per day) from day 1 to day 7 and were treated intranasally with LPS on day 4...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220388/a-three-month-longitudinal-study-of-changes-in-day-night-serum-total-antioxidant-capacity-in-paranoid-schizophrenia
#15
Armando L Morera-Fumero, Estefanía Díaz-Mesa, Pedro Abreu-Gonzalez, Lourdes Fernandez-Lopez, Fernando Guillen-Pino
Free radicals and an oxidant/antioxidant imbalance have been involved in the schizophrenia pathophysiology. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) is a measure of the antioxidant capacity of a system. Day/night changes are a biological characteristic of hormones such as melatonin or cortisol. There is little information about TAC day/night changes in schizophrenia patients. The aim of this research is to study if there are day/night changes in serum TAC levels of schizophrenia patients. Thirty-two DSM-IV schizophrenia paranoid patients were studied...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219947/dendritic-cell-nuclear-protein-1-regulates-melatonin-biosynthesis-by-binding-to-bmal1-and-inhibiting-the-transcription-of-n-acetyltransferase-in-c6-cells
#16
Dong Chen, Yi-Pei Li, Yan-Xia Yu, Tian Zhou, Chao Liu, Er-Kang Fei, Feng Gao, Chen-Chen Mu, Hai-Gang Ren, Guang-Hui Wang
Dendritic cell nuclear protein-1 (DCNP1) is a protein associated with major depression. In the brains of depression patients, DCNP1 is up-regulated. However, how DCNP1 participates in the pathogenesis of major depression remains unknown. In this study, we first transfected HEK293 cells with EGFP-DCNP1 and demonstrated that the full-length DCNP1 protein was localized in the nucleus, and RRK (the residues 117-119) composed its nuclear localization signal (NLS). An RRK-deletion form of DCNP1 (DCNP1ΔRRK) and truncated form (DCNP11-116), each lacking the RRK residues, did not show the specific nuclear localization like full-length DCNP1 in the cells...
December 7, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219316/from-the-promiscuous-asenapine-to-potent-fluorescent-ligands-acting-at-a-series-of-aminergic-g-protein-coupled-receptors
#17
Candide Hounsou, Corinne Baehr, Vincent Gasparik, Doria Alili, Abderazak Belhocine, Thiéric Rodriguez, Elodie Dupuis, Thomas Roux, André Mann, Denis Heissler, Jean-Philippe Pin, Thierry Durroux, Dominique Bonnet, Marcel Hibert
Monoamine neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, histamine and noradrenaline have important and varied physiological functions and similar chemical structures. Representing important pharmaceutical drug targets, the corresponding G protein coupled receptors (termed aminergic GPCRs) belong to the class of cell membrane receptors and share many levels of similarity as well. Given their pharmacological and structural closeness, one could hypothesize the possibility to derivatize a ubiquitous ligand to afford rapidly fluorescent probes for a large set of GPCRs to be used for instance in FRET-based binding assays...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215159/sleep-disorders-in-obese-children-are-not-limited-to-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-syndrome
#18
C Carriere, O Coste, M C Meiffred-Drouet, P Barat, H Thibault
AIM: This study was to characterised respiratory and non-respiratory sleep disorders in obese children and evaluated the diagnostic and therapeutic impact of a specific sleep consultation. METHODS: A descriptive study was conducted in obese French children who received multidisciplinary care management from the hospital centre for paediatric obesity in Bordeaux. This followed a specific sleep consultation between 2007 and 2015, because their paediatrician had identified symptoms suggestive of sleep disorders...
December 7, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213108/the-potential-therapeutic-effect-of-melatonin-on-human-ovarian-cancer-by-inhibition-of-invasion-and-migration-of-cancer-stem-cells
#19
Maryam Akbarzadeh, Ali Akbar Movassaghpour, Hossein Ghanbari, Maryam Kheirandish, Nazila Fathi Maroufi, Reza Rahbarghazi, Mohammad Nouri, Nasser Samadi
There is an urgent need to identify targeting molecules to control invasion and metastasis in cancer patients. We first isolated cancer stem cells (CSCs) from SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells and then investigated the role of melatonin in invasiveness and migration of CSCs compared to SKOV3 cells. The proportion of CSCs in SKOV3 cells was as low as 1.28% with overexpression of both CD133 and CD44. The ability of spheroid formation along with SOX2 overexpression revealed a high self-renewal potential in isolated cells...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212174/melatonin-attenuates-hypoxia-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-cell-aggressive-via-smad7-ccl20-in-glioma
#20
Xueran Chen, Zhen Wang, Huihui Ma, Shangrong Zhang, Haoran Yang, Hongzhi Wang, Zhiyou Fang
Tumor recurrence in gliomas is partly attributed to increased epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and enhanced tumor cell dissemination in the adjacent brain parenchyma. Thus, exploring effective strategies for against EMT-like changes in glioma invasion and recurrence will be important for glioma treatment. In this study, we investigated the roles of melatonin in hypoxia-induced EMT suppression, and found that melatonin could significantly suppress the release of the cytokine, CCL20, from cancer cells and antagonize glioma cell metastasis and invasion under hypoxic stress in glioma cells...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
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