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Neoadjuvant chemotherapy bladder cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232021/investigation-of-diffusion-kurtosis-imaging-for-discriminating-tumors-from-inflammatory-lesions-after-treatment-for-bladder-cancer
#1
Fang Wang, Di Jin, Xiao-Lan Hua, Zi-Zhou Zhao, Lian-Ming Wu, Wei-Bo Chen, Guang-Yu Wu, Xiao-Xi Chen, Hai-Ge Chen
BACKGROUND: The bladder wall may thicken resulting from chronic inflammation after initial treatment (transurethral resection [TUR] or neoadjuvant chemotherapy), which may mimic the feature of recurrent or residual bladder tumors (RBT). Therefore, it is critical to discriminate RBT from benign lesions after initial treatment. PURPOSE: To investigate whether diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) could discriminate RBT from post-therapy bladder inflammatory lesions. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226744/the-role-of-adjuvant-chemotherapy-in-locally-advanced-bladder-cancer
#2
Waqar Haque, Gary D Lewis, Vivek Verma, Jorge G Darcourt, E Brian Butler, Bin S Teh
PURPOSE: The standard of care for locally advanced bladder cancer (LABC) is neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by cystectomy. However, the role of adjuvant therapy is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with LABC following neoadjuvant chemotherapy and cystectomy, and to determine whether select patients may benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS: The National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) was queried (2004-2013) for patients with newly diagnosed pT3-4N0-3M0 bladder cancer that received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and cystectomy...
December 11, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185045/preoperative-chronic-kidney-disease-is-predictive-of-oncological-outcome-of-radical-cystectomy-for-bladder-cancer
#3
Akihiko Matsumoto, Tohru Nakagawa, Atsushi Kanatani, Masaomi Ikeda, Taketo Kawai, Jimpei Miyakawa, Satoru Taguchi, Akihiro Naito, Masafumi Otsuka, Yasukazu Nakanishi, Motofumi Suzuki, Fumitaka Koga, Yasushi Nagase, Yasushi Kondo, Toshikazu Okaneya, Yoshinori Tanaka, Hideyo Miyazaki, Tetsuya Fujimura, Hiroshi Fukuhara, Haruki Kume, Yasuhiko Igawa, Yukio Homma
PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of preoperative chronic kidney disease (CKD) on oncological outcomes after radical cystectomy (RC) for bladder cancer. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of patients with urothelial bladder carcinoma who underwent RC with curative intent at seven hospitals between 1990 and 2013. After excluding patients with a history of upper urinary tract urothelial cancer or neoadjuvant chemotherapy, we analyzed 594 cases for the study. Preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the three-variable Japanese equation for GFR estimation from serum creatinine level and age...
November 28, 2017: World Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169845/impact-of-adequate-pelvic-lymph-node-dissection-on-overall-survival-after-radical-cystectomy-a-stratified-analysis-by-clinical-stage-and-receipt-of-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy
#4
Nicolas von Landenberg, Jacqueline M Speed, Alexander P Cole, Thomas Seisen, Stuart R Lipsitz, Philipp Gild, Mani Menon, Adam S Kibel, Florian Roghmann, Joachim Noldus, Maxine Sun, Quoc-Dien Trinh
PURPOSE: An adequate pelvic lymph node dissection (LND) during radical cystectomy (RC) for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (BCa) has been shown to provide a survival benefit. We designed a study to assess the effect of adequate LND on overall survival (OS) according to cT stage and receipt of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We identified 16,505 patients with localized BCa who received RC in the National Cancer Database (2004-2012). Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW)-adjusted Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to compare OS between patients who received adequate LND (defined as ≥10 nodes removed) and those who did not, stratified by cT stage and receipt of NAC...
November 20, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156782/trends-in-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-use-and-oncological-outcomes-for-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-in-japan-a-multicenter-study
#5
Go Anan, Shingo Hatakeyama, Naoki Fujita, Hiromichi Iwamura, Toshikazu Tanaka, Hayato Yamamoto, Yuki Tobisawa, Tohru Yoneyama, Takahiro Yoneyama, Yasuhiro Hashimoto, Takuya Koie, Hiroyuki Ito, Kazuaki Yoshikawa, Toshiaki Kawaguchi, Makoto Sato, Chikara Ohyama
Objective: Despite benefits of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), the adoption of guideline recommendations for NAC use in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) has been slow. We aimed to evaluate temporal trends in NAC use and oncological outcomes in a representative cohort of patients with MIBC. Methods: We included 532 patients from 4 hospitals who underwent radical cystectomy (RC) for ≥ cT2 MIBC in 1996-2017. We retrospectively evaluated temporal changes in NAC use and progression-free and overall survival...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154041/patient-characteristics-treatment-patterns-and-prognostic-factors-in-squamous-cell-bladder-cancer
#6
Haris Zahoor, Paul Elson, Andrew Stephenson, Georges-Pascal Haber, Jihad Kaouk, Amr Fergany, Byron Lee, Vadim Koshkin, Moshe Ornstein, Timothy Gilligan, Jorge A Garcia, Brian Rini, Petros Grivas
BACKGROUND: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is an uncommon histologic subtype of bladder cancer with limited data on treatment patterns, outcomes, and prognostic factors. "Real world" information might inform decision-making, prognostic estimates, and clinical trial designs. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of patients with tissue-confirmed bladder SCC treated at Cleveland Clinic from 2007 to 2016 was performed. Data on patient characteristics, treatment patterns, and clinical follow-up were extracted...
October 17, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152554/prevalence-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-patients-after-radical-cystectomy-and-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy
#7
Katherine J Cotter, Yunhua Fan, Gretchen K Sieger, Christopher J Weight, Badrinath R Konety
Background and Objectives: Clostridium Difficile is the most common cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea. This study evaluates the prevalence and predictors of Clostridium Difficile infections in patients undergoing radical cystectomy with or without neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods: Retrospective chart review was performed of all patients undergoing cystectomy and urinary diversion at a single institution from 2011-2017. Infection was documented in all cases with testing for Clostridium Difficile polymerase chain reaction toxin B...
October 27, 2017: Bladder Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152548/quantitative-assessment-of-heterogeneity-in-bladder-tumor-mri-diffusivity-can-response-be-predicted-prior-to-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy
#8
Huyen T Nguyen, Amir Mortazavi, Kamal S Pohar, Debra L Zynger, Lai Wei, Zarine K Shah, Guang Jia, Michael V Knopp
Background: It is a critical unmet need to predict chemosensitivity in muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients who receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Quantification of tumor heterogeneity has been shown to be useful in the assessment of therapeutic response. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) is derived from diffusion weighted MRI (DWI) to quantify the water diffusivity which characterizes micro-cellularity in tumor tissues. Objective: The aim of this study is to assess if a quantitative measurement of ADC heterogeneity in bladder tumors can be a predictor of therapeutic response to NAC...
October 27, 2017: Bladder Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133939/precision-medicine-for-urothelial-bladder-cancer-update-on-tumour-genomics-and-immunotherapy
#9
REVIEW
Kenneth M Felsenstein, Dan Theodorescu
Effective management of advanced urothelial bladder cancer is challenging. New discoveries that improve our understanding of molecular bladder cancer subtypes have revealed numerous potentially targetable genomic alterations and demonstrated the efficacy of treatments that harness the immune system. These findings have begun to change paradigms of bladder cancer therapy. For example, DNA repair pathway mutations in genes such as ERCC2, FANCC, ATM, RB1, and others can predict responses to neoadjuvant platinum-based chemotherapies and to targeted therapies on the basis of mutation status...
November 14, 2017: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123257/prostaglandin-receptors-induce-urothelial-tumourigenesis-as-well-as-bladder-cancer-progression-and-cisplatin-resistance-presumably-via-modulating-pten-expression
#10
Eiji Kashiwagi, Satoshi Inoue, Taichi Mizushima, Jinbo Chen, Hiroki Ide, Takashi Kawahara, Leonardo O Reis, Alexander S Baras, George J Netto, Hiroshi Miyamoto
BACKGROUND: We investigated the role of prostaglandin receptors (e.g. prostaglandin E2 receptor 2 (EP2), EP4) and the efficacy of celecoxib in urothelial tumourigenesis and cancer progression. METHODS: We performed immunohistochemistry in bladder cancer (BC) tissue microarrays, in vitro transformation assay in a normal urothelial SVHUC line, and western blot/reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction/cell growth assays in BC lines. RESULTS: EP2/EP4 expression was elevated in BCs compared with non-neoplastic urothelial tissues and in BCs from those who were resistant to cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy...
November 9, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102254/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-on-the-oncological-long-term-outcomes-after-trimodality-therapy-and-radical-cystectomy-with-or-without-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-for-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Omar Fahmy, Mohd Ghani Khairul-Asri, Tina Schubert, Markus Renninger, Rohan Malek, Hubert Kübler, Arnulf Stenzl, Georgios Gakis
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to comprehensively analyze the oncological long-term outcomes of trimodal therapy (TMT) and radical cystectomy (RC) for the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer (BC) with or without neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A systematic search was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines for studies reporting on outcomes after TMT and RC. A total of 57 studies including 30,293 patients were included. The 10-year overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates for TMT and RC were assessed...
October 25, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094888/bladder-cancer-diagnosis-and-treatment
#12
REVIEW
Katharine C DeGeorge, Harry R Holt, Stephanie C Hodges
Bladder cancer is the sixth most prevalent malignancy in the United States and causes more than 16,000 deaths annually. The most common clinical presentation is asymptomatic hematuria, which should prompt evaluation with cystoscopy, renal function testing, and upper urinary tract imaging in adults 35 years and older and in those with irritative voiding symptoms, risk factors for bladder cancer, or gross hematuria at any age. Transurethral resection of the bladder tumor allows for definitive diagnosis, staging, and primary treatment...
October 15, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066704/-two-cases-of-unresectable-advanced-rectal-cancer-with-a-long-term-survival-for-which-pathological-complete-response-was-achieved-through-neoadjuvant-effective-chemotherapy
#13
Kenji Gonda, Yosuke Tachiya, Yuichi Hatakeyama, Masahiko Shibata, Koji Kono, Yuichi Rokkaku
We report 2 unusual cases of Stage IV rectal cancer for which pathological complete response was achieved with neoadjuvant chemotherapy(NAC)consisting of a combination of 5-fluorouracil(5-FU), oxaliplatin, Leucovorin(mFOLFOX6)or irinotecan(FOLFIRI), and bevacizumab, without radiotherapy. Case 1: A 65-year-old man was diagnosed as having rectal cancer with an invasive carcinoma of the prostate and lymph node metastasis. He refused to undergo surgery and received NAC instead. After NAC with mFOLFOX6 and FOLFIRI was performed, CT scan and colonoscopy revealed no evidence of disease...
October 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066649/urothelial-carcinoma-in-an-orthotopic-neobladder-an-unusual-pattern-of-recurrence-and-metastasis
#14
Veerle H Groen, Tycho M T W T Lock, Bart de Keizer, Simon Horenblas, Richard P Meijer
We report a case of a 65-year-old patient with muscle invasive bladder cancer that was treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, followed by radical cystoprostatectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection and orthotopic neobladder according to Hautmann. Nine years later, routine follow-up showed local recurrence in the neobladder and metastatic disease of the urothelial carcinoma in the related mesenteric lymph nodes. The entire neobladder specimen was removed including the mesentery of the neobladder. Based on the anatomical lymph drainage of the ileal neobladder, we considered the metastatic disease in the mesentery lymph node as locoregional disease spread...
October 24, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063301/significance-of-a-frozen-section-analysis-of-the-ureteral-margin-in-bladder-cancer-patients-treated-with-radical-cystectomy-and-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy
#15
Kyohei Hakozaki, Eiji Kikuchi, Keishiro Fukumoto, Suguru Shirotake, Yasumasa Miyazaki, Takahiro Maeda, Gou Kaneko, Shunsuke Yoshimine, Nobuyuki Tanaka, Kunimitsu Kanai, Masafumi Oyama, Yosuke Nakajima, Tetsuo Momma, Mototsugu Oya
Although the clinical utility of a frozen section analysis (FSA) at the time of radical cystectomy (RC) has already been established, its significance and utility in bladder cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) have not yet been fully evaluated. We identified 458 patients (937 ureters) who underwent open RC for bladder cancer at our 7 Japanese institutions between 2004 and 2015. Among these patients, 139 (284 ureters) received NAC before RC (NAC group), while 319 (653 ureters) underwent RC alone (non-NAC group)...
October 23, 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061832/neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-for-patients-with-muscle-invasive-urothelial-bladder-cancer-candidates-for-curative-surgery-a-prospective-clinical-trial-based-on-cisplatin-feasibility
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Giovanni Schinzari, Santa Monterisi, Francesco Pierconti, Giulia Nazzicone, Laura Marandino, Armando Orlandi, Marco Racioppi, Alessandra Cassano, Pierfrancesco Bassi, Carlo Barone, Ernesto Rossi
BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy demonstrated a survival benefit versus cystectomy alone in muscle-invasive urothelial bladder cancer. Despite this advantage, preoperative chemotherapy is not widely employed. When patients are unfit for cisplatin-based regimen, they are often candidates for immediate surgery. In our study, patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The principal objective was the rate of complete pathological response (pCR)...
November 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043112/tumor-infiltrating-cd8-lymphocytes-predict-different-clinical-outcomes-in-organ-and-non-organ-confined-urothelial-carcinoma-of-the-bladder-following-radical-cystectomy
#17
Shiqiang Zhang, Jun Wang, Xinyu Zhang, Fangjian Zhou
Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are associated with better clinical outcomes in many tumors. TILs represent a cell-mediated immune response against the carcinoma. CD8+ TILs are a crucial component of cell-mediated immunity. The significance of CD8+ TILs has not been reported respectively in organ- and non-organ-confined urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder. We explored the prognostic value of CD8+ TILs in the two groups. The presence of CD8+ TILs was assessed by immunohistochemical staining of whole tissue sections from 75 organ and 51 non-organ-confined disease patients with long-term follow-up, and its correlation with clinicopathological features and overall survival (OS) was determined...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032239/outcomes-following-clinical-complete-response-to-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-for-muscle-invasive-urothelial-carcinoma-of-the-bladder-in-patients-refusing-radical-cystectomy
#18
Dennis Robins, Justin Matulay, Michael Lipsky, Alexa Meyer, Rashed Ghandour, Guarionex DeCastro, Christopher Anderson, Charles Drake, Mitchell Benson, James McKiernan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate survival outcomes of patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) that demonstrate complete clinical response (cT0) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and then reject subsequent radical cystectomy (RC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review identified MIBC patients who were cT0 after platinum-based NAC. CT0 was defined as negative cytology, cystoscopy with transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT), and imaging...
October 12, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030318/the-association-between-mortality-and-distance-to-treatment-facility-in-patients-with-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#19
Stephen Ryan, Emily C Serrell, Patrick Karabon, Gregory Mills, Moritz Hansen, Matthew Hayn, Mani Menon, Quoc-Dien Trinh, Firas Abdollah, Jesse D Sammon
PURPOSE: Regionalization of bladder cancer treatment is suggested to improve quality of care. As an unintended consequence some patients travel farther for care with unknown implications on outcomes. We characterized the relationship between distance and overall mortality in patients with invasive bladder cancer and those who underwent radical cystectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study using NCDB (National Cancer Database) from 2004 to 2012 to identify patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer (cT2a-T4 N0 M0)...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982751/clinical-significance-of-histologic-variants-of-bladder-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Joshua I Warrick
Pathologists have identified many "histologic variants" of bladder cancer (BCA): histologic patterns that differ from conventional urothelial carcinoma (transitional cell carcinoma). Several of these are biologically aggressive, and their identification may aid in clinical decision-making. This article reviews several histologic variants and their value in deciding management of cT1 disease and predicting response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Diagnostic issues are also addressed, such as interobserver variability among pathologists...
October 2017: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
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