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Li Liang, Jun Xu, Zhi-Tao Liang, Xiao-Ping Dong, Hu-Biao Chen, Zhong-Zhen Zhao
In commercial herbal markets, Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR, the tuberous roots of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.), a commonly-used Chinese medicinal material, is divided into different grades based on morphological features of size and weight. While more weight and larger size command a higher price, there is no scientific data confirming that the more expensive roots are in fact of better quality. To assess the inherent quality of various grades and of various tissues in PMR and to find reliable morphological indicators of quality, a method combining laser microdissection (LMD) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-QqQ-MS/MS) was applied...
May 8, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Sharon Y Y Low, Chen Min Wei, Kenneth T E Chang, Chan Yiong Huak, Ng Lee Ping, Seow Wan Tew, David C Y Low
INTRODUCTION: Leptomeningeal disease is a feared sequelae of malignant paediatric brain tumours. Current methods for its detection is the combined use of cranio-spinal MRI, and CSF cytology from a post-operative lumbar puncture. In this study, the authors hypothesize that CSF taken at the start of surgery, either from an external ventricular drain or neuroendoscope will have equal sensitivity for positive tumour cells, in comparison to lumbar puncture. Secondary hypotheses include positive correlation between CSF cytology and MRI findings of LMD...
2018: PloS One
Maximilian Hochmair
Brain metastases and/or leptomeningeal disease (LMD) with associated central nervous system (CNS) metastases are known complications of advanced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). It is important, therefore, to assess the activity of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) versus such CNS complications. This review explores the literature reporting the intracranial activity of EGFR TKIs, and finds that there is evidence for varying efficacy of the approved agents, erlotinib, gefitinib, afatinib, and osimertinib in patients with CNS metastases...
April 27, 2018: Targeted Oncology
Muhammad Naveed Yasir, Bong-Hwan Koh
This paper presents the local mean decomposition (LMD) integrated with multi-scale permutation entropy (MPE), also known as LMD-MPE, to investigate the rolling element bearing (REB) fault diagnosis from measured vibration signals. First, the LMD decomposed the vibration data or acceleration measurement into separate product functions that are composed of both amplitude and frequency modulation. MPE then calculated the statistical permutation entropy from the product functions to extract the nonlinear features to assess and classify the condition of the healthy and damaged REB system...
April 21, 2018: Sensors
Kyung Hyun Kim, Ga Youn Cho, Byung Hee Chun, Stefan Weckx, Ji Young Moon, Soo-Hwan Yeo, Che Ok Jeon
Twelve Acetobacter pasteurianus-related strains with publicly available genomes in GenBank shared high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (>99.59%), but average nucleotide identity (ANI) and in silico DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) values and multilocus sequence- and genome-based relatedness analyses suggested that they were divided into four different phylogenetic lineages. Relatedness analyses based on multilocus sequences, 1,194 core genes and whole-cell MALDI-TOF profiles supported that strains LMG 1590T and LMG 1591 (previously classified as the type strains of A...
April 5, 2018: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
Chunyan Zhang, Robert Alan Kemp, Paul Stothard, Zhiquan Wang, Nicholas Boddicker, Kirill Krivushin, Jack Dekkers, Graham Plastow
BACKGROUND: Increasing marker density was proposed to have potential to improve the accuracy of genomic prediction for quantitative traits; whole-sequence data is expected to give the best accuracy of prediction, since all causal mutations that underlie a trait are expected to be included. However, in cattle and chicken, this assumption is not supported by empirical studies. Our objective was to compare the accuracy of genomic prediction of feed efficiency component traits in Duroc pigs using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panels of 80K, imputed 650K, and whole-genome sequence variants using GBLUP, BayesB and BayesRC methods, with the ultimate purpose to determine the optimal method to increase genetic gain for feed efficiency in pigs...
April 6, 2018: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
Yingmei Li, Boxiang Liu, Ian David Connolly, Bina Wasunga Kakusa, Wenying Pan, Seema Nagpal, Stephen B Montgomery, Melanie Hayden Gephart
When compared to solid brain metastases from NSCLC, leptomeningeal disease (LMD) has unique growth patterns and is rapidly fatal. LMD does not undergo surgical resection, limiting the tissue available for scientific research. Here we performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) on 8 LMD samples to identify somatic mutations and compared the results with 26 solid brain metastases. We found that TAS2R31 and PDE4DIP were recurrently mutated among LMD samples, suggesting involvement in LMD progression. Together with retrospective chart review of an additional 44 NSCLC LMD patients, we discovered a surprisingly low number of KRAS mutations (n=4, 7...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Yogini Jaiswal, Zhitao Liang, Alan Ho, Hubiao Chen, Leonard Williams, Zhongzhen Zhao
Achyranthes bidentata and Achyranthes aspera are saponin and steroid rich medicinal plants, used extensively for therapeutic treatments in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda. A. bidentata is reported to be one of the rare and extensively exploited medicinal plant species that face the issue of being endangered. Finding qualitative substitute with identical phyto-constituents contributing to similar composition and pharmacological benefits will help in reducing the burden of exploitation of the natural habitats of such plants...
February 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis
Yu Jen Jan, Jie-Fu Chen, Yazhen Zhu, Yi-Tsung Lu, Szu Hao Chen, Howard Chung, Matthew Smalley, Yen-Wen Huang, Jiantong Dong, Hsiao-Hua Yu, James S Tomlinson, Shuang Hou, Vatche G Agopian, Edwin M Posadas, Hsian-Rong Tseng
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are cancer cells shredded from either a primary tumor or a metastatic site and circulate in the blood as the potential cellular origin of metastasis. By detecting and analyzing CTCs, we will be able to noninvasively monitor disease progression in individual cancer patients and obtain insightful information for assessing disease status, thus realizing the concept of "tumor liquid biopsy". However, it is technically challenging to identify CTCs in patient blood samples because of the extremely low abundance of CTCs among a large number of hematologic cells...
March 15, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
A Schrötter, A Oberhaus, K Kolbe, S Seger, T Mastalski, F El Magraoui, E Hoffmann-Posorske, M Bohnert, J Deckert, C Braun, M Graw, C Schmitz, T Arzberger, C Loosse, H Heinsen, H E Meyer, T Müller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
George S Mina, Hussam Watti, Demiana Soliman, Anand Shewale, Jessica Atkins, Pratap Reddy, Paari Dominic
BACKGROUND: Most data guiding revascularization of multivessel disease (MVD) and/or left main disease (LMD) favor coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) over percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, those data are based on trials comparing CABG to bare metal stents (BMS) or old generation drug eluting stents (OG-DES). Hence, it is essential to outcomes of CABG to those of new generation drug eluting stents (NG-DES). METHODS: We searched PUBMED and Cochrane database for trials evaluating revascularization of MVD and/or LMD with CABG and/or PCI...
January 5, 2018: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
Isabella C Glitza, Michelle Rohlfs, Nandita Guha-Thakurta, Roland L Bassett, Chantale Bernatchez, Adi Diab, Scott E Woodman, Cassian Yee, Rodabe N Amaria, Sapna P Patel, Hussein Tawbi, Michael Wong, Wen-Jen Hwu, Patrick Hwu, Amy Heimberger, Ian E McCutcheon, Nicholas Papadopoulos, Michael A Davies
Objectives: Metastatic melanoma patients with leptomeningeal disease (LMD) have an extremely poor prognosis, with a median survival measured in weeks, and few treatment options. Outcomes of a retrospective cohort of patients with LMD that were treated with intrathecal interleukin-2 (IT IL-2) were reviewed to assess the long-term efficacy of this therapy. Methods: The records of metastatic melanoma patients with LMD who were treated with IT IL-2 from 2006 to 2014 in a Compassionate Investigational New Drug study were reviewed...
2018: ESMO Open
David C Hondius, Jeroen J M Hoozemans, Annemieke J M Rozemuller, Ka Wan Li, August B Smit
Improved speed and sensitivity of mass spectrometry allow the simultaneous quantification of high numbers of proteins from increasingly smaller quantities of tissue sample. Quantitative data of the proteome is highly valuable for providing unbiased information on, for example, protein expression changes related to disease or identifying related biomarkers. In brain diseases the affected area can be small and pathogenic events can be related to a specific cell type in an otherwise heterogeneous tissue type. An emerging approach dedicated to analyzing this type of samples is laser micro-dissection (LMD) combined with LC-MS/MS into a single workflow...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Johanna Duda, Michael Fauler, Jan Gründemann, Birgit Liss
Cell specificity of gene expression analysis is from particular relevance when the abundance of target cells is not homogeneous in the compared tissue samples, like it is the case, e.g., when comparing brain tissues from controls and in neurodegenerative disease states. While single-cell gene expression profiling is already a methodological challenge per se, it becomes even more prone to artifacts when analyzing individual cells from human post-mortem samples. Not only because human samples can never be matched as precisely as those from animal models, but also, because the RNA-quality that can be obtained from human samples usually displays a high range of variability...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Sarah A Mauney, Tsung-Ung W Woo, Kai C Sonntag
Cell type-specific laser microdissection technologies in combination with molecular techniques to determine gene expression profiles have become powerful tools to gain insight into the neurobiological basis of neural circuit disturbances in various neurologic or psychiatric diseases. To identify specific cell populations in human postmortem brain tissue, one can use the inherent properties of the cells, such as pigmentation and morphology or their structural composition through immunohistochemistry (IHC). Here, we describe the isolation of homogeneous neurons and oligodendrocytes and the extraction of high-quality RNA from these cells in human postmortem brain using a combination of rapid IHC, Nissl staining, or simple morphology with Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM), or Laser Microdissection (LMD)...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Na Xu, Xiao-Fang Tang, Yi Yao, Xueyan- Zhao, Jue- Chen, Zhan- Gao, Yuejin- Yang, Run-Lin Gao, Bo Xu, Jin-Qing Yuan
OBJECTIVES: We sought to evaluate the independent predictive value of left main disease (LMD) and/or three-vessel disease (LMD/3VD) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. BACKGROUND: Patients with acute coronary syndrome resulting from LMD and/or three-vessel disease (LMD/3VD) are at the highest risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been proposed as a marker of cardiovascular risk, but the prognostic value of NLR in patients with LMD/3VD who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is not clearly defined...
February 15, 2018: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
John F Cahill, Vilmos Kertesz, Tiffany Porta, J C Yves LeBlanc, Ron M A Heeren, Gary J Van Berkel
RATIONALE: Laser microdissection-liquid vortex capture/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LMD-LVC/ESI-MS) has potential for on-line classification of tissue but an investigation into what analytical conditions provide best spectral differentiation has not been conducted. The effects of solvent, ionization polarity, and spectral acquisition parameters on differentiation of mouse brain tissue regions are described. METHODS: Individual 40 × 40 μm microdissections from cortex, white, grey, granular, and nucleus regions of mouse brain tissue were analyzed using different capture/ESI solvents, in positive and negative ion mode ESI, using time-of-flight (TOF)-MS and sequential window acquisitions of all theoretical spectra (SWATH)-MS (a permutation of tandem-MS), and combinations thereof...
March 15, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Mustafa Awd, Jochen Tenkamp, Markus Hirtler, Shafaqat Siddique, Markus Bambach, Frank Walther
The second-generation aluminum-magnesium-scandium (Al-Mg-Sc) alloy, which is often referred to as Scalmalloy® , has been developed as a high-strength aluminum alloy for selective laser melting (SLM). The high-cooling rates of melt pools during SLM establishes the thermodynamic conditions for a fine-grained crack-free aluminum structure saturated with fine precipitates of the ceramic phase Al₃-Sc. The precipitation allows tensile and fatigue strength of Scalmalloy® to exceed those of AlSi10Mg by ~70%. Knowledge about properties of other additive manufacturing processes with slower cooling rates is currently not available...
December 23, 2017: Materials
Paul M Foreman, Bradford E Jackson, Karan P Singh, Andrew K Romeo, Barton L Guthrie, Winfield S Fisher, Kristen O Riley, James M Markert, Christopher D Willey, Markus Bredel, John B Fiveash
In patients undergoing surgical resection of a metastatic brain tumor, whole brain radiation therapy reduces the risk of recurrence and neurologic death. Focal radiation has the potential to mitigate neurocognitive side effects. We present an institutional experience of postoperative radiosurgery for the treatment of brain metastases. A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained institutional radiosurgery database was performed for the years 2005-2015 identifying all adult patients treated with postoperative radiosurgery to the tumor bed...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Katharine Hall Thomas, Robert A Ramirez
Background: Leptomeningeal disease (LMD) is a complication that results from solid tumor metastasis. Prognosis is extremely poor. As therapeutic options for solid tumors improve, the rate of LMD continues to increase. Until recently, treatment has been limited to radiation therapy, intrathecal chemotherapy, and systemic chemotherapy, with an overall survival of 2-3 months. Targeted molecular therapy and immunotherapies are promising new options for increasing overall survival and clinical improvement; however, optimal clinical management remains unknown...
2017: Ochsner Journal
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