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Yu Jen Jan, Jie-Fu Chen, Yazhen Zhu, Yi-Tsung Lu, Szu Hao Chen, Howard Chung, Matthew Smalley, Yen-Wen Huang, Jiantong Dong, Hsiao-Hua Yu, James S Tomlinson, Shuang Hou, Vatche G Agopian, Edwin M Posadas, Hsian-Rong Tseng
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are cancer cells shredded from either a primary tumor or a metastatic site and circulate in the blood as the potential cellular origin of metastasis. By detecting and analyzing CTCs, we will be able to noninvasively monitor disease progression in individual cancer patients and obtain insightful information for assessing disease status, thus realizing the concept of "tumor liquid biopsy". However, it is technically challenging to identify CTCs in patient blood samples because of the extremely low abundance of CTCs among a large number of hematologic cells...
March 15, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
A Schrötter, A Oberhaus, K Kolbe, S Seger, T Mastalski, F El Magraoui, E Hoffmann-Posorske, M Bohnert, J Deckert, C Braun, M Graw, C Schmitz, T Arzberger, C Loosse, H Heinsen, H E Meyer, T Müller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
George S Mina, Hussam Watti, Demiana Soliman, Anand Shewale, Jessica Atkins, Pratap Reddy, Paari Dominic
BACKGROUND: Most data guiding revascularization of multivessel disease (MVD) and/or left main disease (LMD) favor coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) over percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, those data are based on trials comparing CABG to bare metal stents (BMS) or old generation drug eluting stents (OG-DES). Hence, it is essential to outcomes of CABG to those of new generation drug eluting stents (NG-DES). METHODS: We searched PUBMED and Cochrane database for trials evaluating revascularization of MVD and/or LMD with CABG and/or PCI...
January 5, 2018: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
Isabella C Glitza, Michelle Rohlfs, Nandita Guha-Thakurta, Roland L Bassett, Chantale Bernatchez, Adi Diab, Scott E Woodman, Cassian Yee, Rodabe N Amaria, Sapna P Patel, Hussein Tawbi, Michael Wong, Wen-Jen Hwu, Patrick Hwu, Amy Heimberger, Ian E McCutcheon, Nicholas Papadopoulos, Michael A Davies
Objectives: Metastatic melanoma patients with leptomeningeal disease (LMD) have an extremely poor prognosis, with a median survival measured in weeks, and few treatment options. Outcomes of a retrospective cohort of patients with LMD that were treated with intrathecal interleukin-2 (IT IL-2) were reviewed to assess the long-term efficacy of this therapy. Methods: The records of metastatic melanoma patients with LMD who were treated with IT IL-2 from 2006 to 2014 in a Compassionate Investigational New Drug study were reviewed...
2018: ESMO Open
David C Hondius, Jeroen J M Hoozemans, Annemieke J M Rozemuller, Ka Wan Li, August B Smit
Improved speed and sensitivity of mass spectrometry allow the simultaneous quantification of high numbers of proteins from increasingly smaller quantities of tissue sample. Quantitative data of the proteome is highly valuable for providing unbiased information on, for example, protein expression changes related to disease or identifying related biomarkers. In brain diseases the affected area can be small and pathogenic events can be related to a specific cell type in an otherwise heterogeneous tissue type. An emerging approach dedicated to analyzing this type of samples is laser micro-dissection (LMD) combined with LC-MS/MS into a single workflow...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Johanna Duda, Michael Fauler, Jan Gründemann, Birgit Liss
Cell specificity of gene expression analysis is from particular relevance when the abundance of target cells is not homogeneous in the compared tissue samples, like it is the case, e.g., when comparing brain tissues from controls and in neurodegenerative disease states. While single-cell gene expression profiling is already a methodological challenge per se, it becomes even more prone to artifacts when analyzing individual cells from human post-mortem samples. Not only because human samples can never be matched as precisely as those from animal models, but also, because the RNA-quality that can be obtained from human samples usually displays a high range of variability...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Sarah A Mauney, Tsung-Ung W Woo, Kai C Sonntag
Cell type-specific laser microdissection technologies in combination with molecular techniques to determine gene expression profiles have become powerful tools to gain insight into the neurobiological basis of neural circuit disturbances in various neurologic or psychiatric diseases. To identify specific cell populations in human postmortem brain tissue, one can use the inherent properties of the cells, such as pigmentation and morphology or their structural composition through immunohistochemistry (IHC). Here, we describe the isolation of homogeneous neurons and oligodendrocytes and the extraction of high-quality RNA from these cells in human postmortem brain using a combination of rapid IHC, Nissl staining, or simple morphology with Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM), or Laser Microdissection (LMD)...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Na Xu, Xiao-Fang Tang, Yi Yao, Xueyan- Zhao, Jue- Chen, Zhan- Gao, Yuejin- Yang, Run-Lin Gao, Bo Xu, Jin-Qing Yuan
OBJECTIVES: We sought to evaluate the independent predictive value of left main disease (LMD) and/or three-vessel disease (LMD/3VD) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. BACKGROUND: Patients with acute coronary syndrome resulting from LMD and/or three-vessel disease (LMD/3VD) are at the highest risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been proposed as a marker of cardiovascular risk, but the prognostic value of NLR in patients with LMD/3VD who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is not clearly defined...
January 13, 2018: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
John F Cahill, Vilmos Kertesz, Tiffany Porta, J C Yves LeBlanc, Ron M A Heeren, Gary J Van Berkel
RATIONALE: Laser microdissection-liquid vortex capture/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LMD-LVC/ESI-MS) has potential for on-line classification of tissue but an investigation into what analytical conditions provide best spectral differentiation has not been conducted. The effects of solvent, ionization polarity, and spectral acquisition parameters on differentiation of mouse brain tissue regions are described. METHODS: Individual 40 × 40 μm microdissections from cortex, white, grey, granular, and nucleus regions of mouse brain tissue were analyzed using different capture/ESI solvents, in positive and negative ion mode ESI, using time-of-flight (TOF)-MS and sequential window acquisitions of all theoretical spectra (SWATH)-MS (a permutation of tandem-MS), and combinations thereof...
January 3, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Mustafa Awd, Jochen Tenkamp, Markus Hirtler, Shafaqat Siddique, Markus Bambach, Frank Walther
The second-generation aluminum-magnesium-scandium (Al-Mg-Sc) alloy, which is often referred to as Scalmalloy®, has been developed as a high-strength aluminum alloy for selective laser melting (SLM). The high-cooling rates of melt pools during SLM establishes the thermodynamic conditions for a fine-grained crack-free aluminum structure saturated with fine precipitates of the ceramic phase Al₃-Sc. The precipitation allows tensile and fatigue strength of Scalmalloy® to exceed those of AlSi10Mg by ~70%. Knowledge about properties of other additive manufacturing processes with slower cooling rates is currently not available...
December 23, 2017: Materials
Paul M Foreman, Bradford E Jackson, Karan P Singh, Andrew K Romeo, Barton L Guthrie, Winfield S Fisher, Kristen O Riley, James M Markert, Christopher D Willey, Markus Bredel, John B Fiveash
In patients undergoing surgical resection of a metastatic brain tumor, whole brain radiation therapy reduces the risk of recurrence and neurologic death. Focal radiation has the potential to mitigate neurocognitive side effects. We present an institutional experience of postoperative radiosurgery for the treatment of brain metastases. A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained institutional radiosurgery database was performed for the years 2005-2015 identifying all adult patients treated with postoperative radiosurgery to the tumor bed...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Katharine Hall Thomas, Robert A Ramirez
Background: Leptomeningeal disease (LMD) is a complication that results from solid tumor metastasis. Prognosis is extremely poor. As therapeutic options for solid tumors improve, the rate of LMD continues to increase. Until recently, treatment has been limited to radiation therapy, intrathecal chemotherapy, and systemic chemotherapy, with an overall survival of 2-3 months. Targeted molecular therapy and immunotherapies are promising new options for increasing overall survival and clinical improvement; however, optimal clinical management remains unknown...
2017: Ochsner Journal
Rémi Longuespée, Deborah Alberts, Dominique Baiwir, Gabriel Mazzucchelli, Nicolas Smargiasso, Edwin De Pauw
Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) imaging is widely used for in situ proteomic mapping and finds multiple applications in pathology. However, low fragmentation yields in MALDI avoid an optimal identification of peptides from tissues. On the other hand, LMD-based microproteomic analyses allow for the identification of hundreds to thousands of proteins from small tissue regions. Herein, we present the combination of MALDI imaging and LMD-based microproteomic approaches for parallel identification...
December 10, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Lisa M Tussing-Humphreys, Jessica L Thomson, Nefertiti OjiNjideka Hemphill, Melissa H Goodman, Alicia S Landry
Background: Excessive postnatal weight retention may pose a threat to a woman's health and future pregnancies. Women in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region of Mississippi suffer from among the highest rates of obesity in the U.S. and are more likely to gain an excessive amount of weight during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine if LMD women who received a lifestyle enhanced maternal, infant, and early childhood home visiting (MIECHV) curriculum had more favorable weight outcomes through 12-months postpartum compared to women who received a standard MIECHV curriculum...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Jin Woo Bae, Eun Kyung Hong, Ho-Shin Gwak
The incidence of leptomeningeal dissemination (LMD) of anaplastic glioma has been increasing. LMD can be observed at the time of initial presentation or the time of recurrence. As a result of both rarity and unusual presentation, a standard therapy has not yet been suggested. In contrast to leptomeningeal carcinomatosis for systemic solid cancers, a relatively prolonged survival is observed in some patients with LMD of anaplastic gliomas. Treatment modalities include whole craniospinal irradiation, intra-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) chemotherapy, and systemic chemotherapy...
October 2017: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
Michiko Oya, Hiromi Suzuki, Andrea Roxanne J Anas, Koichi Oishi, Kenji Ono, Shun Yamaguchi, Megumi Eguchi, Makoto Sawada
Mass spectrometry (MS) imaging is a useful tool for direct and simultaneous visualization of specific molecules. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is used to evaluate the abundance of molecules in tissues using sample homogenates. To date, however, LC-MS/MS has not been utilized as an imaging tool because spatial information is lost during sample preparation. Here we report a new approach for LC-MS/MS imaging using a thermal film-based laser microdissection (LMD) technique. To isolate tissue spots, our LMD system uses a 808-nm near infrared laser, the diameter of which can be freely changed from 2...
January 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Tavish Nanda, Andrew Yaeh, Cheng-Chia Wu, Ashish Jani, Shumaila Saad, Yasir H Qureshi, Keith A Cauley, Jeraldine Lesser, Simon K Cheng, Steven R Isaacson, Michael B Sisti, Jeffrey N Bruce, Guy M McKhann, Sameer A Sheth, Andrew B Lassman, Tony J C Wang
Prior studies of post-operative stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) have not distinguished between Adjuvant SRS (ARS) versus Adjuvant SRS to residual/recurrent disease (ARD). In this study, we defined ARS and ARD and investigated local control (LC), overall survival (OS), distant development of brain metastases (DBF), and leptomeningeal disease (LMD). We retrospectively identified BM patients who received surgical resection and SRS for BM from an IRB approved database between Jan 2009-Aug 2015. Patients were stratified into two groups: ARS and ARD...
January 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Farrokh Saidi, Farrokh Habibzadeh
BACKGROUND: Cystic echinococcosis is common in many countries and involves the liver in 75% of cases. The current belief is that all incidentally discovered asymptomatic liver hydatids must be subjected to some types of interventional treatments pre-emptively for fear of some presumably impending complications. We conducted this study to assess the prognosis of patients with liver hydatids without any surgical interventions. Furthermore, we tried to predict the outcome of the cyst using two radiological signs...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
Christopher A de Solis, Anna A Morales, Matthew P Hosek, Alex C Partin, Jonathan E Ploski
There have been several attempts to identify which RNAs are localized to dendrites; however, no study has determined which RNAs localize to the dendrites following the induction of synaptic activity. We sought to identify all RNA transcripts that localize to the distal dendrites of dentate gyrus granule cells following unilateral high frequency stimulation of the perforant pathway (pp-HFS) using Sprague Dawley rats. We then utilized laser microdissection (LMD) to very accurately dissect out the distal 2/3rds of the molecular layer (ML), which contains these dendrites, without contamination from the granule cell layer, 2 and 4 h post pp-HFS...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Ho-Fung Chan, Neil J Stewart, Graham Norquay, Guilhem J Collier, Jim M Wild
PURPOSE: To obtain whole lung morphometry measurements from (129) Xe in a single breath-hold with 3D multiple b-value (129) Xe diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) with an empirically optimized diffusion time and compressed sensing for scan acceleration. METHODS: Prospective three-fold undersampled 3D multiple b-value hyperpolarized (129) Xe DW-MRI datasets were acquired, and the diffusion time (Δ) was iterated so as to provide diffusive length scale (LmD ) estimates from the stretched exponential model (SEM) that are comparable to those from (3) He...
October 16, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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