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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324454/reward-circuitry-in-addiction
#1
REVIEW
Sarah Cooper, A J Robison, Michelle S Mazei-Robison
Understanding the brain circuitry that underlies reward is critical to improve treatment for many common health issues, including obesity, depression, and addiction. Here we focus on insights into the organization and function of reward circuitry and its synaptic and structural adaptations in response to cocaine exposure. While the importance of certain circuits, such as the mesocorticolimbic dopamine pathway, are well established in drug reward, recent studies using genetics-based tools have revealed functional changes throughout the reward circuitry that contribute to different facets of addiction, such as relapse and craving...
March 21, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316564/functional-circuitry-effect-of-ventral-tegmental-area-deep-brain-stimulation-imaging-and-neurochemical-evidence-of-mesocortical-and-mesolimbic-pathway-modulation
#2
Megan L Settell, Paola Testini, Shinho Cho, Jannifer H Lee, Charles D Blaha, Hang J Jo, Kendall H Lee, Hoon-Ki Min
Background: The ventral tegmental area (VTA), containing mesolimbic and mesocortical dopaminergic neurons, is implicated in processes involving reward, addiction, reinforcement, and learning, which are associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. Electrical stimulation of the VTA or the medial forebrain bundle and its projection target the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is reported to improve depressive symptoms in patients affected by severe, treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD) and depressive-like symptoms in animal models of depression...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286473/neurocognitive-predictors-of-response-in-treatment-resistant-depression-to-subcallosal-cingulate-gyrus-deep-brain-stimulation
#3
Shane J McInerney, Heather E McNeely, Joseph Geraci, Peter Giacobbe, Sakina J Rizvi, Amanda K Ceniti, Anna Cyriac, Helen S Mayberg, Andres M Lozano, Sidney H Kennedy
Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgical intervention with demonstrated effectiveness for treatment resistant depression (TRD), but longitudinal studies on the stability of cognitive parameters following treatment are limited. The objectives of this study are to (i) identify baseline cognitive predictors of treatment response to subcallosal cingulate gyrus (SCG) DBS for unipolar TRD and (ii) compare neurocognitive performance prior to and 12 months after DBS implantation. Methods: Twenty unipolar TRD patients received SCG DBS for 12 months...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268777/discriminating-clinical-phases-of-recovery-from-major-depressive-disorder-using-the-dynamics-of-facial-expression
#4
Sahar Harati, Andrea Crowell, Helen Mayberg, Jun Kong, Shamim Nemati
We used several metrics of variability to extract unsupervised features from video recordings of patients before and after deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). Our goal was to quantify the treatment effects on facial expressivity. Multiscale entropy (MSE) was used to capture the temporal variability in pixel intensity level at multiple time-scales. A dynamic latent variable model (DLVM) was used to learn a low dimensional (D = 20) set of dynamic factors that explain the observed covariance across the high-dimensional pixels (M = 30 × 30) within each video frame and across time...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259544/deep-brain-stimulation-to-the-medial-forebrain-bundle-for-depression-long-term-outcomes-and-a-novel-data-analysis-strategy
#5
Bettina H Bewernick, Sarah Kayser, Sabrina M Gippert, Christina Switala, Volker A Coenen, Thomas E Schlaepfer
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the supero-lateral branch of the medial forebrain bundle (slMFB) in treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is associated with acute antidepressant effects. OBJECTIVE: Long-term clinical effects including changes in quality of life, side effects and cognition as well as long-term data covering four years are assessed. METHODS: Eight TRD patients were treated with DBS bilateral to the slMFB. Primary outcome measure was a 50% reduction in Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) (response) and remission (MADRS <10) at 12 months compared to baseline...
February 9, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258308/underutilization-of-deep-brain-stimulation-for-parkinson-s-disease-a-survey-on-possible-clinical-reasons
#6
Max Lange, Josef Mauerer, Jürgen Schlaier, Annette Janzen, Florian Zeman, Ulrich Bogdahn, Alexander Brawanski, Andreas Hochreiter
BACKGROUND: Only 10% of the up to 15% of patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) eligible for deep brain stimulation (DBS) are referred to specialized centers. This survey evaluated the reasons for the reluctance of patients and referring physicians regarding DBS. METHODS: Two different questionnaires containing multiple choice and open verbalized questions were developed, one for neurologists and one for patients with PD. The first questionnaire was sent to 87 neurologists in private practice in the catchment area of the authors' medical center, the second to patient support groups in the same region with the help of the German Parkinson Association...
March 3, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238701/deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-subcallosal-cingulate-for-treatment-refractory-anorexia-nervosa-1-year-follow-up-of-an-open-label-trial
#7
Nir Lipsman, Eileen Lam, Matthew Volpini, Kalam Sutandar, Richelle Twose, Peter Giacobbe, Devin J Sodums, Gwenn S Smith, D Blake Woodside, Andres M Lozano
BACKGROUND: Anorexia nervosa is a life-threatening illness. Brain circuits believed to drive anorexia nervosa symptoms can be accessed with surgical techniques such as deep brain stimulation (DBS). Initial results suggest that DBS of the subcallosal cingulate is safe and associated with improvements in mood and anxiety. Here, we investigated the safety, clinical, and neuroimaging outcomes of DBS of the subcallosal cingulate in a group of patients during 12 months of active stimulation...
February 23, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236811/neuropsychological-performance-changes-following-subthalamic-versus-pallidal-deep-brain-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-systematic-review-and-metaanalysis
#8
Ahmed Elgebaly, Mohamed Elfil, Attia Attia, Mayar Magdy, Ahmed Negida
BACKGROUND: Studies comparing subthalamus (STN) and globus pallidus internus (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the management of Parkinson's disease in terms of neuropsychological performance are scarce and heterogeneous. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and metaanalysis to compare neuropsychological outcomes following STN DBS versus GPi DBS. METHODS: A computer literature search of PubMed, the Web of Science, and Cochrane Central was conducted. Records were screened for eligible studies, and data were extracted and synthesized using Review Manager (v...
February 27, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226968/discriminating-clinical-phases-of-recovery-from-major-depressive-disorder-using-the-dynamics-of-facial-expression
#9
Sahar Harati, Andrea Crowell, Helen Mayberg, Jun Kong, Shamim Nemati, Sahar Harati, Andrea Crowell, Helen Mayberg, Jun Kong, Shamim Nemati, Andrea Crowell, Helen Mayberg, Jun Kong, Shamim Nemati, Sahar Harati
We used several metrics of variability to extract unsupervised features from video recordings of patients before and after deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). Our goal was to quantify the treatment effects on facial expressivity. Multiscale entropy (MSE) was used to capture the temporal variability in pixel intensity level at multiple time-scales. A dynamic latent variable model (DLVM) was used to learn a low dimensional (D = 20) set of dynamic factors that explain the observed covariance across the high-dimensional pixels (M = 30 × 30) within each video frame and across time...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179035/impact-of-deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-ventral-anterior-limb-of-the-internal-capsule-on-cognition-in-depression
#10
I O Bergfeld, M Mantione, M L C Hoogendoorn, H G Ruhé, F Horst, P Notten, J van Laarhoven, P van den Munckhof, G Beute, P R Schuurman, D Denys
BACKGROUND: Preliminary studies report no negative and a possible positive impact of deep brain stimulation (DBS) on cognition of patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). However, these studies neither controlled for practice effects nor compared active with sham stimulation. METHOD: To address these limitations, we compared 25 TRD patients, who underwent DBS of the ventral anterior limb of the internal capsule (vALIC), with 21 healthy controls (HCs) matched on gender, age and education level...
February 9, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165911/acute-severe-depression-induced-by-stimulation-of-the-right-globus-pallidus-internus
#11
Johanna Philipsson, Rickard L Sjöberg, Jerome Yelnik, Patric Blomstedt
Depressive symptoms may occur after Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus. This is often explained by reduced pharmacological treatment after surgery, and not as a direct effect of DBS. Pallidal DBS seems not to be associated with such side effects and have not, to our knowledge, previously been reported. We present a patient with acute depressive symptoms induced by pallidal DBS. We believe this case strengthen the hypothesis that the basal ganglia and structures involved in the functional connectome of these nucleuses play a role not only in regulation of movement but also in regulation of mood...
February 6, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159909/organization-of-the-anterior-limb-of-the-internal-capsule-in-the-rat
#12
Veronique Coizet, Sarah R Heilbronner, Carole Carcenac, Philippe Mailly, Julia F Lehman, Marc Savasta, Oivier David, Jean-Michel Deniau, Henk J Groenewegen, Suzanne N Haber
Dysfunction of the orbitofrontal (OFC) and anterior cingulate (ACC) cortices has been linked with several psychiatric disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder, major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and addiction. These conditions are also associated with abnormalities in the anterior limb of the internal capsule, the white matter (WM) bundle carrying ascending and descending fibers from the OFC and ACC. Furthermore, deep-brain stimulation (DBS) for psychiatric disorders targets these fibers...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142056/using-probabilistic-tractography-to-target-the-subcallosal-cingulate-cortex-in-patients-with-treatment-resistant-depression
#13
Evangelia Tsolaki, Randall Espinoza, Nader Pouratian
The lack of efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of subcallosal cingulate (SCC) in treatment resistant depression (TRD) may be due in part to suboptimal targeting. In two patients treated with SCC DBS for TRD we assessed the voxel-wise probabilistic connectivity of SCC with four tractography-defined target areas implicated in depression, thereby identifying the tractography-optimized target (TOT). Compared to the non-responder, the responder's DBS leads were implanted and stimulation was delivered closer to the TOT...
January 20, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065487/the-effect-of-unilateral-subthalamic-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation-on-depression-in-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Elizabeth L Birchall, Harrison C Walker, Gary Cutter, Stephanie Guthrie, Allen Joop, Raima A Memon, Ray L Watts, David G Standaert, Amy W Amara
BACKGROUND: Depression is common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and adversely affects quality of life. Both unilateral and bilateral subthalamic (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) effectively treat the motor symptoms of PD, but questions remain regarding the impact of unilateral STN DBS on non-motor symptoms, such as depression. METHODS: We report changes in depression, as measured by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17), in 50 consecutive PD patients who underwent unilateral STN DBS...
December 27, 2016: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061418/memory-and-mood-outcomes-after-anterior-thalamic-stimulation-for-refractory-partial-epilepsy
#15
Alexander I Tröster, Kimford J Meador, Christopher P Irwin, Robert S Fisher
PURPOSE: Bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT) reduces seizures and is relatively safe but may be accompanied by complaints of memory problems and depression. This study examined incidence of memory and depression adverse events (AE) in the SANTE study blinded phase and their relationship to objective neurobehavioral measures, baseline characteristics, quality of life and long-term neurobehavioral outcome. METHOD: The neurobehavioral AE and neuropsychological data from a previously reported prospective randomized trial (SANTE) were analyzed...
February 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049077/computational-models-of-bitemporal-bifrontal-and-right-unilateral-ect-predict-differential-stimulation-of-brain-regions-associated-with-efficacy-and-cognitive-side-effects
#16
S Bai, V Gálvez, S Dokos, D Martin, M Bikson, C Loo
BACKGROUND: Extensive clinical research has shown that the efficacy and cognitive outcomes of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are determined, in part, by the type of electrode placement used. Bitemporal ECT (BT, stimulating electrodes placed bilaterally in the frontotemporal region) is the form of ECT with relatively potent clinical and cognitive side effects. However, the reasons for this are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: This study used computational modelling to examine regional differences in brain excitation between BT, Bifrontal (BF) and Right Unilateral (RUL) ECT, currently the most clinically-used ECT placements...
March 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994542/the-retrograde-connections-and-anatomical-segregation-of-the-g%C3%A3-ttingen-minipig-nucleus-accumbens
#17
Anders C Meidahl, Dariusz Orlowski, Jens C H Sørensen, Carsten R Bjarkam
Nucleus accumbens (NAcc) has been implicated in several psychiatric disorders such as treatment resistant depression (TRD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and has been an ongoing experimental target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in both rats and humans. In order to translate basic scientific results from rodents to the human setting a large animal model is needed to thoroughly study the effect of such therapeutic interventions. The aim of the study was, accordingly, to describe the basic anatomy of the Göttingen minipig NAcc and its retrograde connections...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965181/stimulation-of-the-bilateral-anterior-nuclei-of-the-thalamus-in-the-treatment-of-refractory-epilepsy-two-cases-of-subcortical-band-heterotopia
#18
Ana Franco, José Pimentel, Alexandre Rainha Campos, Carlos Morgado, Sara Pinelo, António Gonçalves Ferreira, Carla Bentes
Subcortical band heterotopia is a neuronal migration disorder that may cause refractory epilepsy. In these patients, resective surgery has yielded inadequate results. Deep brain stimulation of the anterior nuclei of the thalamus has been used for the treatment of refractory epilepsy with good results. We describe the first two patients with subcortical band heterotopia who were submitted to deep brain stimulation of the anterior nuclei of the thalamus, with evaluation of seizure outcome after 12 and 18 months of follow-up...
December 1, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964870/high-frequency-stimulation-of-the-infralimbic-cortex-induces-morphological-changes-in-rat-hippocampal-neurons
#19
Yarema B Bezchlibnyk, Scellig S D Stone, Clement Hamani, Andres M Lozano
BACKGROUND: Although a significant subset of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) fail to respond to medical or behavioural therapy, deep brain stimulation (DBS) applied to the subgenual cingulate cortex (SCC; sg25) has been shown to reduce depressive symptoms in a subset of patients. This area receives projections from neurons in the CA1 region and subiculum of the hippocampus (HC), a brain region implicated in the pathobiology and treatment of MDD. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether high frequency stimulation (HFS) of the infralimbic cortex is associated with changes in cellular morphology in the HC...
November 23, 2016: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930748/six-nine-year-follow-up-of-deep-brain-stimulation-for-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#20
Sarah M Fayad, Andrew G Guzick, Adam M Reid, Dana M Mason, Agustina Bertone, Kelly D Foote, Michael S Okun, Wayne K Goodman, Herbert E Ward
OBJECTIVE: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral capsule/ventral striatum (VC/VS) region has shown promise as a neurosurgical intervention for adults with severe treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Pilot studies have revealed improvement in obsessive-compulsive symptoms and secondary outcomes following DBS. We sought to establish the long-term safety and effectiveness of DBS of the VC/VS for adults with OCD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A long term follow-up study (73-112 months) was conducted on the six patients who were enrolled in the original National Institute of Mental Health pilot study of DBS for OCD...
2016: PloS One
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