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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973321/visual-search-behavior-in-individuals-with-retinitis-pigmentosa-during-level-walking-and-obstacle-crossing
#1
Matthew A Timmis, Jon Allsop, Mohammad Baranian, James Baker, Itay Basevitch, Keziah Latham, Shahina Pardhan, Kjell N van Paridon
Purpose: Investigate the visual search strategy of individuals with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) when negotiating a floor-based obstacle compared with level walking, and compared with those with normal vision. Methods: Wearing a mobile eye tracker, individuals with RP and normal vision walked along a level walkway or walked along the walkway negotiating a floor-based obstacle. In the level walking condition, tape was placed on the floor to act as an object attracting visual attention...
September 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972577/genome-wide-association-study-across-european-and-african-american-ancestries-identifies-a-snp-in-dnmt3b-contributing-to-nicotine-dependence
#2
D B Hancock, Y Guo, G W Reginsson, N C Gaddis, S M Lutz, R Sherva, A Loukola, C C Minica, C A Markunas, Y Han, K A Young, D F Gudbjartsson, F Gu, D W McNeil, B Qaiser, C Glasheen, S Olson, M T Landi, P A F Madden, L A Farrer, J Vink, N L Saccone, M C Neale, H R Kranzler, J McKay, R J Hung, C I Amos, M L Marazita, D I Boomsma, T B Baker, J Gelernter, J Kaprio, N E Caporaso, T E Thorgeirsson, J E Hokanson, L J Bierut, K Stefansson, E O Johnson
Cigarette smoking is a leading cause of preventable mortality worldwide. Nicotine dependence, which reduces the likelihood of quitting smoking, is a heritable trait with firmly established associations with sequence variants in nicotine acetylcholine receptor genes and at other loci. To search for additional loci, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of nicotine dependence, totaling 38,602 smokers (28,677 Europeans/European Americans and 9925 African Americans) across 15 studies...
October 3, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971014/occurrence-of-tongue-worm-linguatula-cf-serrata-pentastomida-linguatulidae-in-wild-canids-and-livestock-in-south-eastern-australia
#3
Shokoofeh Shamsi, Kate McSpadden, Sara Baker, David J Jenkins
Pentastomids are obligate zoonotic arthropod parasites utilising canids and vulpids as their definitive hosts and several herbivorous species as their intermediate hosts. Reported only 10 times in Australia over the last 150 years as incidental findings, adult Pentastomids referred to as Linguatula serrata have been encountered in nasal cavities of domestic and wild dogs, and foxes. Nymphs have been reported in cattle and rabbits. In the present study, a number of potential definitive hosts, including red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), wild dogs (Canis lupus dingo and C...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965353/corticosterone-regulates-both-naturally-occurring-and-cocaine-induced-dopamine-signaling-by-selectively-decreasing-dopamine-uptake
#4
Daniel S Wheeler, Amanda L Ebben, Beliz Kurtoglu, Marissa E Lovell, Austin T Bohn, Isabella A Jasek, David A Baker, John R Mantsch, Paul J Gasser, Robert A Wheeler
Stressful and aversive events promote maladaptive reward-seeking behaviors such as drug addiction by acting, in part, on the mesolimbic dopamine system. Using animal models, data from our lab and others show that stress and cocaine can interact to produce a synergistic effect on reward circuitry. This effect is also observed when the stress hormone corticosterone is administered directly into the nucleus accumbens (NAc), indicating that glucocorticoids act locally in dopamine terminal regions to enhance cocaine's effects on dopamine signaling...
October 1, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963853/the-effect-of-a-behavioral-activation-treatment-for-substance-use-on-post-treatment-abstinence-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Stacey B Daughters, Jessica F Magidson, Deepika Anand, C J Seitz-Brown, Yun Chen, Sydney Baker
AIMS: to compare outcomes for a behavioral activation group treatment for substance use (LETS ACT), versus a time and group size matched control condition delivered in a residential treatment setting. DESIGN: single-site two-arm parallel-group randomized clinical trial with follow-up assessment at 3, 6 and 12 months post-treatment. SETTING: residential substance use treatment facility in the USA. PARTICIPANTS: participants were 263 adults [mean age 42...
September 30, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953069/e-scripts-and-cell-phones-a-blessing-or-curse
#6
Susie T Harris, Paul D Bell, Elizabeth A Baker
E-scripts have been used as part of computerized provider order entry implementation for several years now, particularly with the passage of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, Meaningful Use, the Health Information Portability and Accountability Act, the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, and other laws and regulations. This case study seeks to focus on 2 specific aspects of the effect of increasing electronic technology within health care: e-prescriptions and cell phones or smartphones...
September 26, 2017: Health Care Manager
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944233/protein-structure-and-phenotypic-analysis-of-pathogenic-and-population-missense-variants-in-stxbp1
#7
Mohnish Suri, Jochem M G Evers, Roman A Laskowski, Sinead O'Brien, Kate Baker, Jill Clayton-Smith, Tabib Dabir, Dragana Josifova, Shelagh Joss, Bronwyn Kerr, Alison Kraus, Meriel McEntagart, Jenny Morton, Audrey Smith, Miranda Splitt, Janet M Thornton, Caroline F Wright
BACKGROUND: Syntaxin-binding protein 1, encoded by STXBP1, is highly expressed in the brain and involved in fusing synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane. Studies have shown that pathogenic loss-of-function variants in this gene result in various types of epilepsies, mostly beginning early in life. We were interested to model pathogenic missense variants on the protein structure to investigate the mechanism of pathogenicity and genotype-phenotype correlations. METHODS: We report 11 patients with pathogenic de novo mutations in STXBP1 identified in the first 4293 trios of the Deciphering Developmental Disorder (DDD) study, including six missense variants...
September 2017: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919436/the-notch-pathway-regulates-the-second-mitotic-wave-cell-cycle-independently-of-bhlh-proteins
#8
Abhishek Bhattacharya, Ke Li, Manon Quiquand, Gerard Rimesso, Nicholas E Baker
Notch regulates both neurogenesis and cell cycle activity to coordinate precursor cell generation in the differentiating Drosophila eye. Mosaic analysis with mitotic clones mutant for Notch components was used to identify the pathway of Notch signaling that regulates the cell cycle in the Second Mitotic Wave. Although S phase entry depends on Notch signaling and on the transcription factor Su(H), the transcriptional co-activator Mam and the bHLH repressor genes of the E(spl)-Complex were not essential, although these are Su(H) coactivators and targets during the regulation of neurogenesis...
September 14, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916264/sidt2-transports-extracellular-dsrna-into-the-cytoplasm-for-innate-immune-recognition
#9
Tan A Nguyen, Blake R C Smith, Michelle D Tate, Gabrielle T Belz, Marilou H Barrios, Kirstin D Elgass, Alexandra S Weisman, Paul J Baker, Simon P Preston, Lachlan Whitehead, Alexandra Garnham, Rachel J Lundie, Gordon K Smyth, Marc Pellegrini, Meredith O'Keeffe, Ian P Wicks, Seth L Masters, Craig P Hunter, Ken C Pang
Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is a common by-product of viral infections and acts as a potent trigger of antiviral immunity. In the nematode C. elegans, sid-1 encodes a dsRNA transporter that is highly conserved throughout animal evolution, but the physiological role of SID-1 and its orthologs remains unclear. Here, we show that the mammalian SID-1 ortholog, SIDT2, is required to transport internalized extracellular dsRNA from endocytic compartments into the cytoplasm for immune activation. Sidt2-deficient mice exposed to extracellular dsRNA, encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) show impaired production of antiviral cytokines and-in the case of EMCV and HSV-1-reduced survival...
September 19, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910559/the-impact-of-fda-regulatory-activities-on-incident-dispensing-of-laba-containing-medication-2005-2011
#10
Meghan A Baker, Melissa G Butler, Sally Seymour, Fang Zhang, Yute Wu, Ann Chen Wu, Mark S Levenson, Pingsheng Wu, Aarthi Iyer, Sengwee Toh, Solomon Iyasu, Esther H Zhou
OBJECTIVE: Evidence of safety issues associated with long-acting beta2-agonist (LABA) treatment has led to multiple regulatory activities by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on this class of medications. This study describes the impact of the regulatory activities on incident LABA-containing medication dispensing. METHODS: A monthly rolling cohort of asthma patients who were eligible to initiate a LABA-containing product was created in the Mini-Sentinel Distributed Database between January 2005 and June 2011...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903864/effectiveness-of-fluticasone-furoate-plus-vilanterol-on-asthma-control-in-clinical-practice-an-open-label-parallel-group-randomised-controlled-trial
#11
Ashley Woodcock, Jørgen Vestbo, Nawar Diar Bakerly, John New, J Martin Gibson, Sheila McCorkindale, Rupert Jones, Susan Collier, James Lay-Flurrie, Lucy Frith, Loretta Jacques, Joanne L Fletcher, Catherine Harvey, Henrik Svedsater, David Leather
BACKGROUND: Evidence for management of asthma comes from closely monitored efficacy trials done in highly selected patient groups. There is a need for randomised trials that are closer to usual clinical practice. METHODS: We did an open-label, randomised, controlled, two-arm effectiveness trial at 74 general practice clinics in Salford and South Manchester, UK. Patients aged 18 years or older with a general practitioner's diagnosis of symptomatic asthma and on maintenance inhaler therapy were randomly assigned to initiate treatment with a once-daily inhaled combination of either 100 μg or 200 μg fluticasone furoate with 25 μg vilanterol or optimised usual care and followed up for 12 months...
September 10, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895076/new-botanical-anxiolytics-for-use-in-companion-animals-and-humans
#12
Rui Liu, Fida Ahmed, Christian Cayer, Martha Mullally, Ana Francis Carballo, Marco Otarola Rojas, Mario Garcia, John Baker, Aleksandar Masic, Pablo E Sanchez, Luis Poveda, Zul Merali, Tony Durst, John T Arnason
As part of our ongoing research into botanical therapies for anxiety disorders, the neotropical vine Souroubea sympetala was chosen for study as a phytochemical discovery strategy focusing on rare Central American plant families. When orally administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats, the crude plant extract, its ethyl acetate fraction, supercritical carbon dioxide fraction, or its isolated triterpenes reduced anxiety and/or fear-related behavior in standardized behavioral models. Pharmacological studies showed that the extracts acted at the benzodiazepine GABAA receptor and reduced corticosterone levels...
September 11, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887383/atspx1-affects-the-atphr1-dna-binding-equilibrium-by-binding-monomeric-atphr1-in-solution
#13
Wanjun Qi, Iain W Manfield, Stephen P Muench, Alison Baker
Phosphorus is an essential macronutrient for plant growth, and is deficient in about 50% of agricultural soils. The transcription factor Phosphate Starvation Response 1 (PHR1) plays a central role in regulating the expression of a subset of Phosphate Starvation Induced (PSI) genes through binding to a cis acting DNA element termed P1BS. In Arabidopsis and rice, activity of AtPHR1/OsPHR2 is regulated in part by their downstream target SPX proteins through protein-protein interaction. Here we provide kinetic and affinity data for interaction between AtPHR1 and P1BS sites...
September 8, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875332/the-population-education-transition-curve-education-gradients-across-population-exposure-to-new-health-risks
#14
David P Baker, William C Smith, Ismael G Muñoz, Haram Jeon, Tian Fu, Juan Leon, Daniel Salinas, Renata Horvatek
The salutary effect of formal education on health-risk behaviors and mortality is extensively documented: ceteris paribus, greater educational attainment leads to healthier lives and longevity. Even though the epidemiological evidence has strongly indicated formal education as a leading "social vaccine," there is intermittent reporting of counter-education gradients for health-risk behavior and associated outcomes for certain populations during specific periods. How can education have both beneficial and harmful effects on health, and under which contexts do particular effects emerge? It is useful to conceptualize the influence of education as a process sensitive to the nature, timing of entry, and uniqueness of a new pleasurable and desirable lifestyle and/or product (such as smoking) with initially unclear health risks for populations...
September 5, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845336/elimination-of-cancer-health-disparities-through-the-acceleration-of-hpv-vaccines-and-vaccinations-a-simplified-version-of-the-president-s-cancer-panel-report-on-hpv-vaccinations
#15
Eva McGhee, Hill Harper, Adaku Ume, Melanie Baker, Cheick Diarra, John Uyanne, Sebhat Afework, Keosha Partlow, Lucy Tran, Judith Okoro, Anh Doan, Karen Tate, Mechelle Rouse, Meidrah Tyler, Kamilah Evans, Tonya Sanchez, Ishmum Hasan, Enijah Smith-Joe, Jasmine Maniti, Liliana Zarate, Camille King, Antoinette Alugbue, Chiamaka Opara, Bileko Wissa, Joanne Maniti, Roland Pattillo
The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major public health concern affecting both females and males. HPV is associated with cervical, anal, head and neck cancers. About 99% of all cervical cancers are related to HPV. HPV vaccines, Gardasil, Cervarix, and Gardasil 9 are used in the primary prevention of HPV related cancers. Gardasil and Gardasil 9 are available for use in both females and males ages 9 to 26, while Cervarix is available for females ages 9 to 25. Gardasil 9 was approved by the FDA for prevention against additional HPV types...
June 2017: Journal of Vaccines & Vaccination
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836761/high-speed-4d-computational-microscopy-of-bacterial-surface-motility
#16
Jaime de Anda, Ernest Y Lee, Calvin K Lee, Rachel R Bennett, Xiang Ji, Soheil Soltani, Mark C Harrison, Amy E Baker, Yun Luo, Tom Chou, George A O'Toole, Andrea M Armani, Ramin Golestanian, Gerard C L Wong
Bacteria exhibit surface motility modes that play pivotal roles in early-stage biofilm community development, such as type IV pili-driven "twitching" motility and flagellum-driven "spinning" and "swarming" motility. Appendage-driven motility is controlled by molecular motors, and analysis of surface motility behavior is complicated by its inherently 3D nature, the speed of which is too fast for confocal microscopy to capture. Here, we combine electromagnetic field computation and statistical image analysis to generate 3D movies close to a surface at 5 ms time resolution using conventional inverted microscopes...
September 26, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827832/mlh3-mutations-in-baker-s-yeast-alter-meiotic-recombination-outcomes-by-increasing-noncrossover-events-genome-wide
#17
Najla Al-Sweel, Vandana Raghavan, Abhishek Dutta, V P Ajith, Luigi Di Vietro, Nabila Khondakar, Carol M Manhart, Jennifer A Surtees, K T Nishant, Eric Alani
Mlh1-Mlh3 is an endonuclease hypothesized to act in meiosis to resolve double Holliday junctions into crossovers. It also plays a minor role in eukaryotic DNA mismatch repair (MMR). To understand how Mlh1-Mlh3 functions in both meiosis and MMR, we analyzed in baker's yeast 60 new mlh3 alleles. Five alleles specifically disrupted MMR, whereas one (mlh3-32) specifically disrupted meiotic crossing over. Mlh1-mlh3 representatives for each class were purified and characterized. Both Mlh1-mlh3-32 (MMR+, crossover-) and Mlh1-mlh3-45 (MMR-, crossover+) displayed wild-type endonuclease activities in vitro...
August 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827526/measuring-and-modelling-the-response-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-kpc-prey-to-bdellovibrio-bacteriovorus-predation-in-human-serum-and-defined-buffer
#18
Michelle Baker, David Negus, Dhaarini Raghunathan, Paul Radford, Chris Moore, Gemma Clark, Mathew Diggle, Jess Tyson, Jamie Twycross, R Elizabeth Sockett
In worldwide conditions of increasingly antibiotic-resistant hospital infections, it is important to research alternative therapies. Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus bacteria naturally prey on Gram-negative pathogens, including antibiotic-resistant strains and so B. bacteriovorus have been proposed as "living antibiotics" to combat antimicrobially-resistant pathogens. Predator-prey interactions are complex and can be altered by environmental components. To be effective B. bacteriovorus predation needs to work in human body fluids such as serum where predation dynamics may differ to that studied in laboratory media...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817068/a-critical-review-on-the-effect-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-on-cancer-cell-cycle-progression
#19
REVIEW
Marnie Newell, Kristi Baker, Lynne M Postovit, Catherine J Field
Globally, there were 14.1 million new cancer diagnoses and 8.2 million cancer deaths in 2012. For many cancers, conventional therapies are limited in their successes and an improved understanding of disease progression is needed in conjunction with exploration of alternative therapies. The long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has been shown to enhance many cellular responses that reduce cancer cell viability and decrease proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. A small number of studies suggest that DHA improves chemotherapy outcomes in cancer patients...
August 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816422/dolichol-kinase-deficiency-dolk-cdg-two-new-cases-and-expansion-of-phenotype
#20
Eric T Rush, Craig V Baker, William B Rizzo
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) are a group of genetic diseases caused by mutations in genes that are necessary for the addition of oligosaccharides to acceptor proteins or lipids. An early step in this process requires dolichol kinase (DK) to catalyze the formation of dolichyl phosphate, which acts as a membrane anchor for initial attachment of sugar residues that are subsequently built up to oligosaccharides and transferred to acceptor proteins and lipids for further processing. Biallelic mutations in DOLK, the gene for DK, result in human in a CDG with variable symptoms, ranging from nonsyndromic dilated cardiomypopathy to severe multiorgan involvement...
September 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
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