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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927840/%C3%AE-blockers-heart-disease-and-copd-current-controversies-and-uncertainties
#1
Jillian G Baker, Robert G Wilcox
Treating people with cardiovascular disease and COPD causes significant clinician anxiety. β-Blockers save lives in people with heart disease, specifically postinfarction and heart failure. COPD and heart disease frequently coexist and people with both disorders have particularly high cardiovascular mortality. There are concerns about giving β-blockers to people with concomitant COPD that include reduced basal lung function, diminished effectiveness of emergency β-agonist treatments, reduced benefit of long-acting β-agonist treatment and difficulty in discriminating between asthma and COPD...
December 7, 2016: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925187/depletion-of-cd52-positive-cells-inhibits-the-development-of-cns-autoimmune-disease-but-deletes-an-immune-tolerance-promoting-cd8-t-cell-population-implications-for-secondary-autoimmunity-of-alemtuzumab-in-multiple-sclerosis
#2
Stephanie von Kutzleben, Gareth Pryce, Gavin Giovannoni, David Baker
The objective was to determine whether CD52 lymphocyte depletion can act to promote immunological tolerance induction via intravenous antigen administration such that it could be used to either: improve efficiency of inhibition of MS or to inhibit secondary autoimmunities that may occur following alemtuzumab use in multiple sclerosis. Relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis was induced in ABH mice and immune cell depletion was therapeutically applied using mouse CD52 or CD4 (in conjunction with CD8 or CD20) depleting monoclonal antibodies...
December 7, 2016: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920276/studies-of-recombinant-twa1-reveal-constitutive-dimerisation
#3
Ore Francis, Genevieve E Baker, Paul R Race, Josephine C Adams
The mammalian muskelin/RanBP9/CTLH complex and the S. cerevisiae GID complex are large, multi-protein complexes that each contain a RING E3 ubiquitin ligase. The yeast GID complex acts to degrade a key enzyme of gluconeogenesis, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, under conditions of abundant fermentable carbon sources. However, the assembly and functions of the mammalian complex remain poorly understood. A striking feature of these complexes is the presence of multiple proteins that contain contiguous lissencephaly-1 homology (LisH), C-terminal to LisH (CTLH) and C-terminal CT11-RanBP9 (CRA) domains...
December 5, 2016: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906551/ald1613-a-novel-long-acting-monoclonal-antibody-to-control-acth-driven-pharmacology
#4
Andrew L Feldhaus, Katie Anderson, Benjamin Dutzar, Ethan Ojala, Patricia Dianne McNeill, Pei Fan, Jenny Mulligan, Sam Marzolf, Charlie Karasek, Michelle Scalley-Kim, Erica Stewart, Jens Billgren, Vanessa Rubin, Kathleen Schneider, David Jurchen, Kathy Snow, Shaun Barnett, Barbara Bengtsson, Brian Baker, John A Latham, Dan Allison, Leon F Garcia-Martinez
ACTH is the primary regulator of adrenal glucocorticoid production. Elevated levels of ACTH play a critical role in disease progression in several indications including congenital adrenal hyperplasia and Cushing's disease. We have generated a specific, high affinity, neutralizing monoclonal antibody (ALD1613) to ACTH. In vitro, ALD1613 neutralizes ACTH-induced signaling via all five melanocortin receptors and inhibited ACTH-induced cAMP accumulation in a mouse adrenal cell line (Y1). ALD1613 administration to wild-type rats significantly reduced plasma corticosterone levels in a dose dependent manner...
December 1, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901466/differentiation-alters-stem-cell-nuclear-architecture-mechanics-and-mechano-sensitivity
#5
Su-Jin Heo, Tristan P Driscoll, Stephen D Thorpe, Nandan L Nerurkar, Brendon M Baker, Michael T Yang, Christopher S Chen, David A Lee, Robert L Mauck
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation is mediated by soluble and physical cues. In this study, we investigated differentiation-induced transformations in MSC cellular and nuclear biophysical properties and queried their role in mechanosensation. Our data show that nuclei in differentiated bovine and human MSCs stiffen and become resistant to deformation. This attenuated nuclear deformation was governed by restructuring of Lamin A/C and increased heterochromatin content. This change in nuclear stiffness sensitized MSCs to mechanical-loading-induced calcium signaling and differentiated marker expression...
November 30, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888437/estimated-budget-impact-of-adopting-the-affordable-care-act-s-required-smoking-cessation-coverage-on-united-states-healthcare-payers
#6
Christine L Baker, Cheryl P Ferrufino, Marianna Bruno, Stacey Kowal
INTRODUCTION: Despite abundant information on the negative impacts of smoking, more than 40 million adult Americans continue to smoke. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires tobacco cessation as a preventive service with no patient cost share for all FDA-approved cessation medications. Health plans have a vital role in supporting smoking cessation by managing medication access, but uncertainty remains on the gaps between smoking cessation requirements and what is actually occurring in practice...
November 25, 2016: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883085/phenotypic-and-functional-characterization-of-the-major-lymphocyte-populations-in-the-fruit-eating-bat-pteropus-alecto
#7
Julia María Martínez Gómez, Pravin Periasamy, Charles-Antoine Dutertre, Aaron Trent Irving, Justin Han Jia Ng, Gary Crameri, Michelle L Baker, Florent Ginhoux, Lin-Fa Wang, Sylvie Alonso
The unique ability of bats to act as reservoir for viruses that are highly pathogenic to humans suggests unique properties and functional characteristics of their immune system. However, the lack of bat specific reagents, in particular antibodies, has limited our knowledge of bat's immunity. Using cross-reactive antibodies, we report the phenotypic and functional characterization of T cell subsets, B and NK cells in the fruit-eating bat Pteropus alecto. Our findings indicate the predominance of CD8(+) T cells in the spleen from wild-caught bats that may reflect either the presence of viruses in this organ or predominance of this cell subset at steady state...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864171/mitochondrial-superoxide-dismutase-and-yap1p-act-as-a-signaling-module-contributing-to-ethanol-tolerance-of-yeast-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#8
Anna N Zyrina, Ekaterina A Smirnova, Olga V Markova, Fedor F Severin, Dmitry A Knorre
: There are two superoxide dismutases in yeast: cytoplasmic and mitochondrial enzymes. Inactivation of the cytoplasmic enzyme, Sod1p, renders the cells sensitive to a variety of stresses while inactivation of the mitochondrial isoform, Sod2p, typically has a weaker effect. One exception is ethanol-induced stress. Here we studied the role of Sod2p in yeast ethanol tolerance. First, we found that repression of SOD2 prevents ethanol-induced relocalization of yeast hydrogen peroxide-sensing transcription factor Yap1p - one of the key stress-resistance proteins...
November 18, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857941/septin-organization-and-functions-in-budding-yeast
#9
REVIEW
Oliver Glomb, Thomas Gronemeyer
The septins are a conserved family of GTP-binding proteins present in all eukaryotic cells except plants. They were originally discovered in the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that serves until today as an important model organism for septin research. In yeast, the septins assemble into a highly ordered array of filaments at the mother bud neck. The septins are regulators of spatial compartmentalization in yeast and act as key players in cytokinesis. This minireview summarizes the recent findings about structural features and cell biology of the yeast septins...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842999/conceptualising-the-public-health-role-of-actors-operating-outside-of-formal-health-systems-the-case-of-social-enterprise
#10
Michael J Roy, Rachel Baker, Susan Kerr
This paper focuses on the role of actors that operate outside formal health systems, but nevertheless have a vital, if often under-recognised, role in supporting public health. The specific example used is the 'social enterprise', an organisation that seeks, through trading, to maximise social returns, rather than the distribution of profits to shareholders or owners. In this paper we advance empirical and theoretical understanding of the causal pathways at work in social enterprises, by considering them as a particularly complex form of public health 'intervention'...
November 9, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842569/efficacy-and-safety-of-psychostimulants-for-amphetamine-and-methamphetamine-use-disorders-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Meha Bhatt, Laura Zielinski, Lola Baker-Beal, Neera Bhatnagar, Natalia Mouravska, Phillip Laplante, Andrew Worster, Lehana Thabane, Zainab Samaan
BACKGROUND: Amphetamine and methamphetamine use disorders are associated with severe health and social consequences. No pharmacological therapy has been approved for the treatment of these disorders. Psychostimulants can act as maintenance-like therapies for managing substance use among these patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the literature examining the efficacy and safety of psychostimulant agents for increasing abstinence and treatment retention among patients with amphetamine and methamphetamine use disorders...
November 14, 2016: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815386/pten-signaling-in-the-postnatal-perivascular-progenitor-niche-drives-medulloblastoma-formation
#12
Guo Zhu, Sherri L Rankin, Jon D Larson, Xiaoyan Zhu, Lionel Ml Chow, Chunxu Qu, Jinghui Zhang, David W Ellison, Suzanne J Baker
Loss of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN exerts diverse outcomes on cancer in different developmental contexts. To gain insight into the effect of its loss on outcomes in the brain, we conditionally inactivated the murine Pten gene in neonatal neural stem/progenitor cells. Pten inactivation created an abnormal perivascular proliferative niche in the cerebellum that persisted in adult animals but did not progress to malignancy. Proliferating cells showed undifferentiated morphology and expressed the progenitor marker Nestin but not Math1, a marker of committed granule neuron progenitors...
November 4, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780028/just-and-realistic-expectations-for-persons-with-disabilities-practicing-nursing
#13
Patricia M Davidson, Cynda Hylton Rushton, Jennifer Dotzenrod, Christina A Godack, Deborah Baker, Marie N Nolan
The Americans with Disabilities Act prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability and requires schools to provide reasonable accommodations for persons with disabilities. The profession of nursing is striving for diversity and inclusion, but barriers still exist to realizing accommodations for people with disabilities. Promoting disclosure, a supportive and enabling environment, resilience, and realistic expectations are important considerations if we are to include among our ranks health professionals who can understand, based on similar life experiences of disability, a fuller range of perspectives of the patients we care for...
October 1, 2016: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769614/allergic-reaction-to-ketamine-as-monotherapy-for-procedural-sedation
#14
Tammy T Nguyen, Bethany Baker, Jeffrey D Ferguson
BACKGROUND: Ketamine is a cyclohexamine derivative that acts as a noncompetitive N-methyl D-aspartate receptor antagonist. Its use for procedural sedation is recommended by national clinical policy. However, its immunogenic potential is not well documented. CASE REPORT: We report a case of allergic reaction associated with the administration of intravenous ketamine for procedural sedation in a 16-year-old male. Minutes after administration, the patient developed a morbilliform, erythematous rash that extended to the upper and lower torso and resolved with intravenous diphenhydramine...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752117/spin-pumping-in-magnetic-trilayer-structures-with-an-mgo-barrier
#15
A A Baker, A I Figueroa, D Pingstone, V K Lazarov, G van der Laan, T Hesjedal
We present a study of the interaction mechanisms in magnetic trilayer structures with an MgO barrier grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The interlayer exchange coupling, Aex, is determined using SQUID magnetometry and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR), displaying an unexpected oscillatory behaviour as the thickness, tMgO, is increased from 1 to 4 nm. Transmission electron microscopy confirms the continuity and quality of the tunnelling barrier, eliminating the prospect of exchange arising from direct contact between the two ferromagnetic layers...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737827/interventions-for-preventing-elder-abuse-applying-findings-of-a-new-cochrane-review
#16
Philip Robert Baker, Daniel Peter Francis, Noran Naqiah Mohd Hairi, Sajaratulnisah Othman, Wan Yuen Choo
There is evidence that elder abuse is a significant public health problem that is destined to grow as population age. Countries are considering how best to act and this requires an understanding of the complex causal mechanisms contributing to its occurrence and the identification of effective interventions which can potentially make a difference. Previously, a high quality synthesis of evidence for policy and practice has been missing. In this paper, we describe a new Cochrane review of interventions to prevent the occurrence or reoccurrence of elder abuse...
October 13, 2016: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730015/the-national-institutes-of-health-affordable-cancer-technologies-program-improving-access-to-resource-appropriate-technologies-for-cancer-detection-diagnosis-monitoring-and-treatment-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#17
Paul C Pearlman, Rao Divi, Michael Gwede, Pushpa Tandon, Brian S Sorg, Miguel R Ossandon, Lokesh Agrawal, Vinay Pai, Houston Baker, Tiffani Bailey Lash
Point-of-care (POC) technologies have proved valuable in cancer detection, diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment in the developed world, and have shown promise in low-and-middle-income countries (LMIC) as well. Despite this promise, the unique design constraints presented in low-resource settings, coupled with the variety of country-specific regulatory and institutional dynamics, have made it difficult for investigators to translate successful POC cancer interventions to the LMIC markets. In response to this need, the National Cancer Institute has partnered with the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering to create the National Institutes of Health Affordable Cancer Technologies (ACTs) program...
2016: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721067/molecular-simulations-of-lactose-bound-and-unbound-forms-of-the-faeg-adhesin-reveal-critical-amino-acids-involved-in-sugar-binding
#18
Joseph L Baker, Heba Jafri
F4 fimbriae are protein filaments found in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli cells and are implicated in the process of bacterial infection due to their function as bacterial adhesins. These filaments are comprised from several proteins, but the bacterial adhesin FaeG, which is a lactose-binding protein, is the major subunit comprising F4 fimbriae. Crystal structures for three variants of the FaeG protein were recently solved, including the ad variant of FaeG that was crystallized in complex with lactose. However, the dynamics of the FaeG protein bound to lactose have not been explored previously using molecular dynamics simulations...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708355/activation-of-xer-recombination-at-dif-structural-basis-of-the-ftsk%C3%AE-xerd-interaction
#19
Andrew N Keller, Yue Xin, Stephanie Boer, Jonathan Reinhardt, Rachel Baker, Lidia K Arciszewska, Peter J Lewis, David J Sherratt, Jan Löwe, Ian Grainge
Bacterial chromosomes are most often circular DNA molecules. This can produce a topological problem; a genetic crossover from homologous recombination results in dimerization of the chromosome. A chromosome dimer is lethal unless resolved. A site-specific recombination system catalyses this dimer-resolution reaction at the chromosomal site dif. In Escherichia coli, two tyrosine-family recombinases, XerC and XerD, bind to dif and carry out two pairs of sequential strand exchange reactions. However, what makes the reaction unique among site-specific recombination reactions is that the first step, XerD-mediated strand exchange, relies on interaction with the very C-terminus of the FtsK DNA translocase...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673545/systematic-review-of-liposomal-bupivacaine-exparel-for-postoperative-analgesia
#20
Krishna S Vyas, Sibi Rajendran, Shane D Morrison, Afaaf Shakir, Samir Mardini, Valerie Lemaine, Maurice Y Nahabedian, Stephen B Baker, Brian D Rinker, Henry C Vasconez
BACKGROUND: Management of postoperative pain often requires multimodal approaches. Suboptimal dosages of current therapies can leave patients experiencing periods of insufficient analgesia, often requiring rescue therapy. With absence of a validated and standardized approach to pain management, further refinement of treatment protocols and targeted therapeutics is needed. Liposomal bupivacaine (Exparel) is a longer acting form of traditional bupivacaine that delivers the drug by means of a multivesicular liposomal system...
October 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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