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A A Baker, A I Figueroa, D Pingstone, V K Lazarov, G van der Laan, T Hesjedal
We present a study of the interaction mechanisms in magnetic trilayer structures with an MgO barrier grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The interlayer exchange coupling, Aex, is determined using SQUID magnetometry and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR), displaying an unexpected oscillatory behaviour as the thickness, tMgO, is increased from 1 to 4 nm. Transmission electron microscopy confirms the continuity and quality of the tunnelling barrier, eliminating the prospect of exchange arising from direct contact between the two ferromagnetic layers...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Philip Robert Baker, Daniel Peter Francis, Noran Naqiah Mohd Hairi, Sajaratulnisah Othman, Wan Yuen Choo
There is evidence that elder abuse is a significant public health problem that is destined to grow as population age. Countries are considering how best to act and this requires an understanding of the complex causal mechanisms contributing to its occurrence and the identification of effective interventions which can potentially make a difference. Previously, a high quality synthesis of evidence for policy and practice has been missing. In this paper, we describe a new Cochrane review of interventions to prevent the occurrence or reoccurrence of elder abuse...
October 13, 2016: Age and Ageing
Paul C Pearlman, Rao Divi, Michael Gwede, Pushpa Tandon, Brian S Sorg, Miguel R Ossandon, Lokesh Agrawal, Vinay Pai, Houston Baker, Tiffani Bailey Lash
Point-of-care (POC) technologies have proved valuable in cancer detection, diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment in the developed world, and have shown promise in low-and-middle-income countries (LMIC) as well. Despite this promise, the unique design constraints presented in low-resource settings, coupled with the variety of country-specific regulatory and institutional dynamics, have made it difficult for investigators to translate successful POC cancer interventions to the LMIC markets. In response to this need, the National Cancer Institute has partnered with the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering to create the National Institutes of Health Affordable Cancer Technologies (ACTs) program...
2016: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
Joseph L Baker, Heba Jafri
F4 fimbriae are protein filaments found in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli cells and are implicated in the process of bacterial infection due to their function as bacterial adhesins. These filaments are comprised from several proteins, but the bacterial adhesin FaeG, which is a lactose-binding protein, is the major subunit comprising F4 fimbriae. Crystal structures for three variants of the FaeG protein were recently solved, including the ad variant of FaeG that was crystallized in complex with lactose. However, the dynamics of the FaeG protein bound to lactose have not been explored previously using molecular dynamics simulations...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Andrew N Keller, Yue Xin, Stephanie Boer, Jonathan Reinhardt, Rachel Baker, Lidia K Arciszewska, Peter J Lewis, David J Sherratt, Jan Löwe, Ian Grainge
Bacterial chromosomes are most often circular DNA molecules. This can produce a topological problem; a genetic crossover from homologous recombination results in dimerization of the chromosome. A chromosome dimer is lethal unless resolved. A site-specific recombination system catalyses this dimer-resolution reaction at the chromosomal site dif. In Escherichia coli, two tyrosine-family recombinases, XerC and XerD, bind to dif and carry out two pairs of sequential strand exchange reactions. However, what makes the reaction unique among site-specific recombination reactions is that the first step, XerD-mediated strand exchange, relies on interaction with the very C-terminus of the FtsK DNA translocase...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
Krishna S Vyas, Sibi Rajendran, Shane D Morrison, Afaaf Shakir, Samir Mardini, Valerie Lemaine, Maurice Y Nahabedian, Stephen B Baker, Brian D Rinker, Henry C Vasconez
BACKGROUND: Management of postoperative pain often requires multimodal approaches. Suboptimal dosages of current therapies can leave patients experiencing periods of insufficient analgesia, often requiring rescue therapy. With absence of a validated and standardized approach to pain management, further refinement of treatment protocols and targeted therapeutics is needed. Liposomal bupivacaine (Exparel) is a longer acting form of traditional bupivacaine that delivers the drug by means of a multivesicular liposomal system...
October 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Ana Hategan, James A Bourgeois, Jeremy Goldberg
From 1943, when Leo Kanner originally described autism, and to the first objective criteria for "infantile autism" in DSM-III and the inclusion of Asperger's disorder in DSM-IV, the subsequent classification scheme for autistic disorders has led to a substantial change with the 2013 issuance of the DSM-5 by including subcategories into one umbrella diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (Baker, 2013). ASD is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by social and communication impairments and restricted, stereotypical patterns of behavior (Baker, 2013)...
September 27, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
Marie Colombe Agahozo, Laura Peferoen, David Baker, Sandra Amor
MS is widely considered to be a T cell-mediated disease although T cell immunotherapy has consistently failed, demonstrating distinct differences with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS in which T cell therapies are effective. Accumulating evidence has highlighted that B cells also play key role in MS pathogenesis. The high frequency of oligoclonal antibodies in the CSF, the localization of immunoglobulin in brain lesions and pathogenicity of antibodies originally pointed to the pathogenic role of B cells as autoantibody producing plasma cells...
September 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Julia Eckhoff, R Jürgen Dohmen
SUMO-specific proteases, known as Ulps in baker's yeast and SENPs in humans, have important roles in controlling the dynamics of SUMO-modified proteins. They display distinct modes of action and specificity, in that they may act on the SUMO precursor, mono-sumoylated, and/or polysumoylated proteins, and they might be specific for substrates with certain SUMO paralogs. SUMO chains may be dismantled either by endo or exo mechanisms. Biochemical characterization of a protease usually requires purification of the protein of interest...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Marcelo G Kazanietz, Laura Barrio-Real, Victoria Casado-Medrano, Martin J Baker, Cynthia Lopez-Haber
Guanine nucleotide Exchange Factors (GEFs) are responsible for mediating GDP/GTP exchange for specific small G proteins, such as Rac. There has been substantial evidence for the involvement of Rac-GEFs in the control of cancer cell migration and metastatic progression. We have previously established that the Rac-GEF P-Rex1 is a mediator of actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and cell motility in breast cancer cells downstream of HER/ErbB receptors and the G-Protein Coupled Receptor (GPCR) CXCR4. P-Rex1 is highly expressed in luminal A and B breast cancer compared to normal mammary tissue, whereas expression is very low in basal breast cancer, and its expression correlates with the appearance of metastasis in patients...
September 2, 2016: Small GTPases
Chen Zhao, Haripriya Sridharan, Ran Chen, Darren P Baker, Shanshan Wang, Robert M Krug
The ubiquitin-like protein ISG15 and its conjugation to proteins (ISGylation) are strongly induced by type I interferon. Influenza B virus encodes non-structural protein 1 (NS1B) that binds human ISG15 and provides an appropriate model for determining how ISGylation affects virus replication in human cells. Here using a recombinant virus encoding a NS1B protein defective in ISG15 binding, we show that NS1B counteracts ISGylation-mediated antiviral activity by binding and sequestering ISGylated viral proteins, primarily ISGylated viral nucleoprotein (NP), in infected cells...
2016: Nature Communications
Samuel J Gershman, Tobias Gerstenberg, Chris L Baker, Fiery A Cushman
Human success and even survival depends on our ability to predict what others will do by guessing what they are thinking. If I accelerate, will he yield? If I propose, will she accept? If I confess, will they forgive? Psychologists call this capacity "theory of mind." According to current theories, we solve this problem by assuming that others are rational actors. That is, we assume that others design and execute efficient plans to achieve their goals, given their knowledge. But if this view is correct, then our theory of mind is startlingly incomplete...
2016: PloS One
Robbyn L Weaver, Jazeel F Limzerwala, Ryan M Naylor, Karthik B Jeganathan, Darren J Baker, Jan M van Deursen
BubR1 is a key component of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). Mutations that reduce BubR1 abundance cause aneuploidization and tumorigenesis in humans and mice, whereas BubR1 overexpression protects against these. However, how supranormal BubR1 expression exerts these beneficial physiological impacts is poorly understood. Here, we used Bub1b mutant transgenic mice to explore the role of the amino-terminal (BubR1(N)) and internal (BubR1(I)) Cdc20-binding domains of BubR1 in preventing aneuploidy and safeguarding against cancer...
2016: ELife
Travis J Wiles, Matthew Jemielita, Ryan P Baker, Brandon H Schlomann, Savannah L Logan, Julia Ganz, Ellie Melancon, Judith S Eisen, Karen Guillemin, Raghuveer Parthasarathy
The gut microbiota is a complex consortium of microorganisms with the ability to influence important aspects of host health and development. Harnessing this "microbial organ" for biomedical applications requires clarifying the degree to which host and bacterial factors act alone or in combination to govern the stability of specific lineages. To address this issue, we combined bacteriological manipulation and light sheet fluorescence microscopy to monitor the dynamics of a defined two-species microbiota within a vertebrate gut...
July 2016: PLoS Biology
Anuya Paranjape, Oksana Chernushevich, Amina Abdul Qayum, Andrew J Spence, Marcela T Taruselli, Daniel Abebayehu, Brian O Barnstein, Jamie Josephine Avila McLeod, Bianca Baker, Gurjas S Bajaj, Alena P Chumanevich, Carole A Oskeritzian, John J Ryan
Mast cells are critical effectors of allergic disease and can be activated by IL-33, a proinflammatory member of the IL-1 cytokine family. IL-33 worsens the pathology of mast cell-mediated diseases, but therapies to antagonize IL-33 are still forthcoming. Because steroids are the mainstay of allergic disease treatment and are well known to suppress mast cell activation by other stimuli, we examined the effects of the steroid dexamethasone on IL-33-mediated mast cell function. We found that dexamethasone potently and rapidly suppressed cytokine production elicited by IL-33 from murine bone marrow-derived and peritoneal mast cells...
July 21, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Yoshinao Katsu, Paul A Cziko, Charlie Chandsawangbhuwana, Joseph W Thornton, Rui Sato, Koari Oka, Yoshio Takei, Michael E Baker, Taisen Iguchi
Estrogens regulate many physiological responses in vertebrates by binding to the estrogen receptor (ER), a ligand-activated transcription factor. To understand the evolution of vertebrate ERs and to investigate how estrogen acts in a jawless vertebrate, we used degenerate primer sets and PCR to isolate DNA fragments encoding two distinct ER subtypes, Esr1a and Esr1b from the Japanese lamprey, Lethenteron japonicum. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that these two ERs are the result of lineage-specific gene duplication within the jawless fishes, different from the previous duplication event of Esr1 (ERα) and Esr2 (ERβ) within the jawed vertebrates...
September 15, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Beth Sundstrom, Merissa Ferrara, Andrea L DeMaria, Annalise Baker-Whitcomb, Jackelyn B Payne
Approximately 70% of pregnancies among young unmarried women living in the United States are unintended. Unintended pregnancy results in negative health and economic outcomes for infants, children, women, and families. Further research into the decision-making process of contraceptive selection is needed to meet young women's contraceptive needs in the United States. Overall, 53 women ages 18-24 years completed in-depth qualitative interviews. Researchers used analytical techniques from grounded theory and HyperRESEARCH 3...
July 15, 2016: Health Communication
Marianne Martinello, Gregory J Dore, Jasmine Skurowski, Rohan I Bopage, Robert Finlayson, David Baker, Mark Bloch, Gail V Matthews
Background.  Interferon-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens for hepatitis C virus (HCV) provide a major advance in clinical management, including in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV coinfection. Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) require consideration. This study aimed to characterize the cART regimens in HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals and assess the clinical significance of DDIs with DAAs in a real-world cohort. Methods.  This analysis included participants enrolled in CEASE-D, a prospective cohort of HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals in Sydney, Australia, between July 2014 and December 2015...
April 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Laura A Baker, Holly Holliday, Alexander Swarbrick
Inhibitor of differentiation (ID) proteins are key regulators of development and tumorigenesis. One member of this family, ID4, controls lineage commitment during mammary gland development by acting upstream of key developmental pathways. Recent evidence suggests an emerging role for ID4 as a lineage-dependent proto-oncogene that is overexpressed and amplified in a subset of basal-like breast cancers (BLBCs), conferring poor prognosis. Several lines of evidence suggest ID4 may suppress BRCA1 function in BLBC and in doing so, define a subset of BLBC patients who may respond to therapies traditionally used in BRCA1-mutant cancers...
September 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
H Hipperson, L T Dunning, W J Baker, R K Butlin, I Hutton, A S T Papadopulos, C M Smadja, T C Wilson, C Devaux, V Savolainen
We evaluated reproductive isolation in two species of palms (Howea) that have evolved sympatrically on Lord Howe Island (LHI, Australia). We estimated the strength of some pre- and post-zygotic mechanisms in maintaining current species boundaries. We found that flowering time displacement between species is consistent across in and ex situ common gardens and is thus partly genetically determined. On LHI, pre-zygotic isolation due solely to flowering displacement was 97% for H. belmoreana and 80% for H. forsteriana; this asymmetry results from H...
July 4, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
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