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Levamisole

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735356/evaluation-of-anthelmintic-antimicrobial-and-antioxidant-activity-of-chenopodium-album
#1
Bashir A Lone, M Z Chishti, Fayaz Ahmad Bhat, Hidayatullah Tak, Suhaib A Bandh, Abida Khan
The objective of this study was to evaluate the anthelmintic, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Chenopodium album against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep and some pathogenic microbes. A worm motility inhibition assay was used for in vitro study, and a faecal egg count reduction assay was used for an in vivo study. Various concentrations ranging from 100 to 500 μg/ml of the extract were subjected to antimicrobial screening by disc diffusion method against four selected bacterial (Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas multocida and Escherichia coli) and two fungal (Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans) strains in order to estimate the medicinal potential of the herb...
July 22, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732435/the-effect-of-oral-levamisole-co-administration-on-the-level-of-immune-response-to-hepatitis-b-vaccine-in-healthy-individuals-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#2
Mousalreza Hosseini, Payman Shalchiantabrizi, Maliheh Dadgarmoghaddam, Saeideh Ahmady-Simab, Azizollah Behjati, Masoumeh Salari
Despite its proven efficacy, the hepatitis B vaccine requires improvements in immune enhancement and durability, especially in the elderly. Levamisole, an immune modulator, has been tested as an adjuvant to hepatitis B vaccine in several studies in immune-compromised populations. However, we aimed to evaluate the effect of levamisole on the immune response to hepatitis B vaccine in healthy subjects. In this randomized clinical trial, healthy family members of chronic hepatitis B patients were given twenty-microgram intramuscular injections of hepatitis B vaccine at 0, 1, and 6 months and 50 miligrams of oral  levamisole twice a day for two weeks with every vaccination dose...
June 2017: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699616/levamisole-in-frequently-relapsing-and-steroid-dependent-nephrotic-syndrome
#3
Evangeline Mary Kiruba Samuel, Sriram Krishnamurthy, Singanamalla Bhanudeep, Sravani Muske
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of levamisole in children with frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome (FRNS) and steroid dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS) when administered on an alternate day ('initial therapy' in all cases) or daily basis ('rescue therapy' in whom alternate day therapy failed). METHODS: The records of 95 children (age 1-18y) with FRNS and SDNS, who were treated at the Pediatric nephrology clinic, and received levamisole therapy (maximum 2 years duration, between 2010-2013) with a follow-up period of minimum1 year, were included...
July 11, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699480/adulteration-practices-of-psychoactive-illicit-drugs-an-updated-review
#4
Renata Solimini, Maria Concetta Rotolo, Manuela Pellegrini, Adele Minutillo, Roberta Pacifici, Francesco Paolo Busardò, Simona Zaami
BACKGROUND: It is well known that powdery drugs such as cocaine and heroin are frequently adulterated or diluted predominantly to obtain more doses and to increase the drug dealer's profits, but also to enhance, to modify or to oppose drug effects. METHODS: The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the recent scientific literature on medicines as well as on new psychoactive substances, used as cutting agents (i.e. pharmacologically active adulterants) and on the related adverse health effects on consumers, possibly due to the synergistic effect of the adulterants laced with substances of abuse, which represent a matter of great concern because of the frequent fatalities...
July 10, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695609/pharmaco-parasitological-evaluation-of-the-ricobendazole-plus-levamisole-nematodicidal-combination-in-cattle
#5
C Canton, L Ceballos, M P Domínguez, L Moreno, C Fiel, G Bernat, C Farías, C Lanusse, L Alvarez
The goals of the current study were to evaluate the potential pharmacokinetic (PK) interactions and the clinical efficacy occurring after the subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of ricobendazole (RBZ) and levamisole (LEV) given both separately and co-administered to calves naturally infected with susceptible gastrointestinal nematodes. The clinical efficacy was shown in two seasons, winter and spring, with predominance of different nematode populations. Groups of 15 calves were treated with RBZ alone, LEV alone and RBZ + LEV combination, and an untreated group was kept as a Control...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619473/cocaine-adulteration
#6
REVIEW
Oliver Kudlacek, Tina Hofmaier, Anton Luf, Felix P Mayer, Thomas Stockner, Constanze Nagy, Marion Holy, Michael Freissmuth, Rainer Schmid, Harald H Sitte
Cocaine is a naturally occurring and illicitly used psychostimulant drug, which exerts its activity at monoaminergic neurotransmitter transporters. These transporters mediate the reuptake of the monoamines dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine and are blocked by cocaine. The increase of monoamines in the extracellular space is the phenomenon underlying the drug effects that cocaine users seek. Currently, it is one of the most important illicit drugs on the European market. However, this increase in monoamines is also the underlying cause for the development of addiction and a number of severe side effects...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612332/cocaine-levamisole-induced-vasculitis-vasculopathy-syndrome
#7
REVIEW
Javier Marquez, Lina Aguirre, Carolina Muñoz, Andres Echeverri, Mauricio Restrepo, Luis F Pinto
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To understand the clinical spectrum of cocaine-levamisole-induced vasculitis. Worldwide recreational drug consumption is high among the adult population from various social strata. The use of cocaine with levamisole, a frequently added antiparasitic diluent, favors the manifestations of vasculitic lesions, especially in the skin. RECENT FINDINGS: New insights into immunological mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. There are still many unknown aspects in the pathogenesis of this disease, such as the immune system interaction with p-ANCAs and the release of inflammatory NETs (neutrophil extracellular traps), which are the origin of auto-antigens and tissue damage, manifesting as vasculitic purpura on the skin...
June 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602438/vasculitides-induced-by-cocaine-and-or-levamisole
#8
EDITORIAL
Antoine Néel, Christian Agard, Mohamed Hamidou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 10, 2017: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595672/in-vitro-larvicidal-and-in-vivo-anthelmintic-effects-of-oxalis-tetraphylla-oxalidaceae-hydroalcoholic-extract-against-haemonchus-contortus-in-lambs
#9
B J González-Cruz, M Rodríguez-Labastida, M González-Cortázar, A Zamilpa, M E López-Arellano, L Aguilar-Marcelino, R González-Garduño, J F J Torres-Acosta, A Olmedo-Juárez, P Mendoza-de Gives
The in vitro larvicidal and in vivo anthelmintic effects of Oxalis tetraphylla hydroalcoholic extract (HE), against Haemonchus contortus in experimentally infected lambs, were assessed. We used a microtitration plate method, comprising the following two stages. Stage 1: 20 μl of water containing 200 sheathed H. contortus infective larvae (ShHcl) were deposited in every well of three series; then, the series 2 and 3 wells were treated with 80 μl 1% ivermectin and O. tetraphylla HE at 20 mg/ml, respectively...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592788/levamisole-induced-leukocytoclastic-vasculitis-with-negative-serology-in-a-cocaine-user
#10
Mashal Salehi, Michael P Morgan, Abigail Gabriel
BACKGROUND Levamisole is a common adulterant of cocaine. It can cause agranulocytosis and cutaneous vasculitis that can possibly lead to cutaneous necrosis. In all reported cases of levamisole-induced vasculitis, it has been described as a clinical syndrome characterized by a constellation of typical clinical features and a positive serum serology for ANCA levels, especially very high-titer p-ANCA levels, in the background of cocaine abuse. However, patients may have a negative serology and here, we present the first such case...
June 8, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589070/agranulocytosis-sequelae-of-chronic-cocaine-use-case-series-and-literature-review
#11
Roma Srivastava, Maira Rizwan, Muhammad Omer Jamil, Palaniandy Kogulan, Donna Salzman
Agranulocytosis is a rare condition with a reported incidence ranging from one to five cases per million population per year. Most commonly, agranulocytosis is secondary to chemotherapeutic agents, however, other medications have also been associated with it. An immune mediated destruction of circulating granulocytes and/or granulocyte precursors secondary to drug-dependent or drug-induced antibodies is the postulated mechanism. Agranulocytosis has also been reported secondary to recreational drug use...
May 3, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579030/broad-spectrum-anthelmintic-resistance-of-haemonchus-contortus-in-northern-nsw-of-australia
#12
Jane Lamb, Tim Elliott, Michael Chambers, Bruce Chick
On a sheep farm in Northern New South Wales (NSW) of Australia a degree of anthelmintic resistance was suspected. With noticeable clinical signs of infection and sheep not responding to treatment, a faecal egg count reduction test was conducted to ascertain the broad spectrum of anthelmintic resistance at this farm. A number of classes of anthelmintics were assessed including organophosphate, macrocyclic lactone (ML) and in combination an ML, benzimidazole, levamisole and salicylanilide. In addition, the more recently registered classes of anthelmintics, monepantel (amino-acetonitrile derivative) and derquantel/abamectin combination (spiroindole+ML) were included...
July 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532295/resistance-to-a-triple-combination-anthelmintic-in-trichostrongylus-spp-on-a-commercial-sheep-farm-in-new-zealand
#13
Bas Hodgson, C J Mulvaney
AIM: To evaluate resistance to anthelmintics containing abamectin, levamisole, and oxfendazole (AB-LEV-OX), derquantal and abamectin (DEQ-AB), moxidectin, and monepantel in naturally acquired gastrointestinal nematodes present on a sheep farm. METHODS: Faecal nematode egg count reduction tests (FECRT) were carried out on lambs that were approximately 7 months-old and infected with naturally acquired nematodes. Lambs were randomly allocated to one of five groups (n=15 per group): treatment with 2 mg/kg derquantel and 0...
June 5, 2017: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516071/levamisole-as-an-adjuvant-to-short-course-therapy-in-newly-diagnosed-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients
#14
Chetna Ashok Shamkuwar, Sushant Hiraman Meshram, Sunil M Mahakalkar
BACKGROUND: The estimated incidence and prevalence of tuberculosis in India are 2.1 and 2.6 million cases respectively. Immunotherapy may shorten tuberculosis treatments and improve the immunity of individuals as well. Hence we study the efficacy of levamisole (LVM) (immunomodulator) as an adjuvant to chemotherapy of pulmonary tuberculosis patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted for 21 months in newly diagnosed sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511052/phosphate-regulates-chondrogenesis-in-a-biphasic-and-maturation-dependent-manner
#15
Biming Wu, Emily K Durisin, Joseph T Decker, Evran E Ural, Lonnie D Shea, Rhima M Coleman
Inorganic phosphate (Pi) has been recognized as an important signaling molecule that modulates chondrocyte maturation and cartilage mineralization. However, conclusive experimental evidence for its involvement in early chondrogenesis is still lacking. Here, using high-density monolayer (2D) and pellet (3D) culture models of chondrogenic ATDC5 cells, we demonstrate that the cell response to Pi does not correlate with the Pi concentration in the culture medium but is better predicted by the availability of Pi on a per cell basis (Pi abundance)...
May 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487481/functional-genomics-in-brugia-malayi-reveal-diverse-muscle-nachrs-and-differences-between-cholinergic-anthelmintics
#16
Saurabh Verma, Sudhanva Srinivas Kashyap, Alan Patrick Robertson, Richard John Martin
Many techniques for studying functional genomics of important target sites of anthelmintics have been restricted to Caenorhabditis elegans because they have failed when applied to animal parasites. To overcome these limitations, we have focused our research on the human nematode parasite Brugia malayi, which causes elephantiasis. Here, we combine single-cell PCR, whole muscle cell patch clamp, motility phenotyping (Worminator), and dsRNA for RNAi for functional genomic studies that have revealed, in vivo, four different muscle nAChRs (M-, L-, P-, and N-)...
May 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473245/the-development-and-use-of-a-drug-induced-immunosuppressed-rat-model-to-screen-phela-for-mechanism-of-immune-stimulation
#17
Makhotso Rose Lekhooa, Andrew Walubo, Jan B du Plessis, Motlalepula Gilbert Matsabisa
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY RELEVANCY: Phela, is code name for a medicinal product made from four South African traditional medicinal plants (Clerodendrum glabrum E. Mey, Polianthes tuberosa (Linn.), Rotheca myricoides (Hochst.) Steane & Mabb. and Senna occidentalis (L.) Link). All these plants have established traditional use in a wide spectrum of diseases. Phela is under development for use as an immune booster in immunocompromised patients, which includes patients with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400215/levamisole-enhances-the-innate-immune-response-and-prevents-increased-cortisol-levels-in-stressed-pacu-piaractus-mesopotamicus
#18
Eduardo Pahor-Filho, Adriana Soliris Corredor Castillo, Nycolas Levy Pereira, Fabiana Pilarski, Elisabeth Criscuolo Urbinati
We analyzed the effects of levamisole on stress and the innate immune responses of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus). A total of 300 fish (180 ± 1.27 g) were fed a diet containing levamisole hydrochloride (LHC) for 15 days, then distributed into the following groups: T0 (control group); T1 (100), T2 (150), T3 (300) and T4 (500) mg kg(-1) LHC (15 fish per group and four replicates per treatment). After this, fish (n = 8 per treatment) were exposed to air for three minutes to simulate stress conditions and were then challenged with the bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila to stimulate the immune system...
April 8, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397288/extensive-levamisole-induced-vasculitis
#19
C Desvignes, C Becquart, D Launay, L Terriou, P Patenotre, S Deheul, G Peytavin, N Dupin, E Delaporte, D Staumont-Sallé
Levamisole (an increasingly frequent contaminant of cocaine) can cause antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis. Dermatologists should consider a diagnosis of cocaine/levamisole-associated cutaneous vasculopathy syndrome in cases of purpura of the ears and/or extensive retiform purpura in drug users. We report a case of particularly severe levamisole-induced necrotic purpura and immunological abnormalities in a 40-year-old woman.
April 10, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365925/prevalence-economic-analysis-and-chemotherapeutic-control-of-small-ruminant-fasciolosis-in-the-sargodha-district-of-punjab-pakistan
#20
Mansoor Ahmad, Muhammad Nisar Khan, Muhammad Sohail Sajid, Ghulam Muhammad, Abdul Qudoos, Hafiz Muhammad Rizwan
This study describes the epidemiology, the economic significance of small ruminant fasciolosis in animals slaughtered in the abattoirs of the Sargodha district, Punjab, Pakistan between January and June 2012. In vivo fasciolicidal efficacy of commercially available compounds was examined using a randomised complete block design. Microscopically screened faecal samples revealed 40.51% positive animals for fasciolosis. The prevalent species included Fasciola hepatica (35.64%) and Fasciola gigantica (8.21%). Mixed infections were noted in 3...
March 31, 2017: Veterinaria Italiana
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