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Levamisole

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532295/resistance-to-a-triple-combination-anthelmintic-in-trichostrongylus-spp-on-a-commercial-sheep-farm-in-new-zealand
#1
Bas Hodgson, C J Mulvaney
AIM: To evaluate anthelmintic resistance to anthelmintics containing abamectin, levamisole, and oxfendazole (AB-LEV-OX), derquantal and abamectin (DEQ-AB), moxidectin, and monepantel in naturally acquired gastrointestinal nematodes present on a sheep farm. METHODS: A faecal nematode egg count reduction test (FECRT) was carried out on lambs that were approximately 7 months-old and infected with naturally acquired nematodes. Lambs were randomly allocated to one of five groups (n=15 per group): treatment with 2 mg/kg derquantel and 0...
May 22, 2017: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516071/levamisole-as-an-adjuvant-to-short-course-therapy-in-newly-diagnosed-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients
#2
Chetna Ashok Shamkuwar, Sushant Hiraman Meshram, Sunil M Mahakalkar
BACKGROUND: The estimated incidence and prevalence of tuberculosis in India are 2.1 and 2.6 million cases respectively. Immunotherapy may shorten tuberculosis treatments and improve the immunity of individuals as well. Hence we study the efficacy of levamisole (LVM) (immunomodulator) as an adjuvant to chemotherapy of pulmonary tuberculosis patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted for 21 months in newly diagnosed sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511052/phosphate-regulates-chondrogenesis-in-a-biphasic-and-maturation-dependent-manner
#3
Biming Wu, Emily K Durisin, Joseph T Decker, Evran E Ural, Lonnie D Shea, Rhima M Coleman
Inorganic phosphate (Pi) has been recognized as an important signaling molecule that modulates chondrocyte maturation and cartilage mineralization. However, conclusive experimental evidence for its involvement in early chondrogenesis is still lacking. Here, using high-density monolayer (2D) and pellet (3D) culture models of chondrogenic ATDC5 cells, we demonstrate that the cell response to Pi does not correlate with the Pi concentration in the culture medium but is better predicted by the availability of Pi on a per cell basis (Pi abundance)...
May 8, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487481/functional-genomics-in-brugia-malayi-reveal-diverse-muscle-nachrs-and-differences-between-cholinergic-anthelmintics
#4
Saurabh Verma, Sudhanva Srinivas Kashyap, Alan Patrick Robertson, Richard John Martin
Many techniques for studying functional genomics of important target sites of anthelmintics have been restricted to Caenorhabditis elegans because they have failed when applied to animal parasites. To overcome these limitations, we have focused our research on the human nematode parasite Brugia malayi, which causes elephantiasis. Here, we combine single-cell PCR, whole muscle cell patch clamp, motility phenotyping (Worminator), and dsRNA for RNAi for functional genomic studies that have revealed, in vivo, four different muscle nAChRs (M-, L-, P-, and N-)...
May 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473245/the-development-and-use-of-a-drug-induced-immunosuppressed-rat-model-to-screen-phela-for-mechanism-of-immune-stimulation
#5
Makhotso Rose Lekhooa, Andrew Walubo, Jan B du Plessis, Motlalepula Gilbert Matsabisa
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY RELEVANCY: Phela, is code name for a medicinal product made from four South African traditional medicinal plants (Clerodendrum glabrum E. Mey, Polianthes tuberosa (Linn.), Rotheca myricoides (Hochst.) Steane & Mabb. and Senna occidentalis (L.) Link). All these plants have established traditional use in a wide spectrum of diseases. It is under development for use as an immune booster in immunocompromised patients, which includes patients with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400215/levamisole-enhances-the-innate-immune-response-and-prevents-increased-cortisol-levels-in-stressed-pacu-piaractus-mesopotamicus
#6
Eduardo Pahor-Filho, Adriana Soliris Corredor Castillo, Nycolas Levy Pereira, Fabiana Pilarski, Elisabeth Criscuolo Urbinati
We analyzed the effects of levamisole on stress and the innate immune responses of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus). A total of 300 fish (180 ± 1.27 g) were fed a diet containing levamisole hydrochloride (LHC) for 15 days, then distributed into the following groups: T0 (control group); T1 (100), T2 (150), T3 (300) and T4 (500) mg kg(-1) LHC (15 fish per group and four replicates per treatment). After this, fish (n = 8 per treatment) were exposed to air for three minutes to simulate stress conditions and were then challenged with the bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila to stimulate the immune system...
April 8, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397288/extensive-levamisole-induced-vasculitis
#7
C Desvignes, C Becquart, D Launay, L Terriou, P Patenotre, S Deheul, G Peytavin, N Dupin, E Delaporte, D Staumont-Sallé
Levamisole (an increasingly frequent contaminant of cocaine) can cause antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis. Dermatologists should consider a diagnosis of cocaine/levamisole-associated cutaneous vasculopathy syndrome in cases of purpura of the ears and/or extensive retiform purpura in drug users. We report a case of particularly severe levamisole-induced necrotic purpura and immunological abnormalities in a 40-year-old woman.
April 10, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365925/prevalence-economic-analysis-and-chemotherapeutic-control-of-small-ruminant-fasciolosis-in-the-sargodha-district-of-punjab-pakistan
#8
Mansoor Ahmad, Muhammad Nisar Khan, Muhammad Sohail Sajid, Ghulam Muhammad, Abdul Qudoos, Hafiz Muhammad Rizwan
This study describes the epidemiology, the economic significance of small ruminant fasciolosis in animals slaughtered in the abattoirs of the Sargodha district, Punjab, Pakistan between January and June 2012. In vivo fasciolicidal efficacy of commercially available compounds was examined using a randomised complete block design. Microscopically screened faecal samples revealed 40.51% positive animals for fasciolosis. The prevalent species included Fasciola hepatica (35.64%) and Fasciola gigantica (8.21%). Mixed infections were noted in 3...
March 31, 2017: Veterinaria Italiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355139/levamisole-induced-necrosis-syndrome-presentation-and-management
#9
Charles Fredericks, James R Yon, Gillian Alex, Molly Morton, Thomas Messer, Faran Bokhari, Stathis Poulakidas
Levamisole is an antihelminthic drug with immunomod- ulatory properties. Recent estimates suggest the majority of the cocaine in the United States is adulterated with levamisole. Le- vamisole-induced necrosis syndrome (LINES) is characterized by vasculitis, neutropenia, and purpura that progresses to skin necro- sis. Diagnosis relies on physical examination ndings and history of previous cocaine use. The purpose of this case series is to describe the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of LINES. The au- thors' institutional database was reviewed from 2008 to 2015, and they found 3 patients with LINES...
March 2017: Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352962/helminthiasis-characterization-and-anthelmintic-efficacy-for-ewes-and-lambs-raised-in-tropical-semiarid-region
#10
Gabriela Almeida Bastos, Leydiana Duarte Fonseca, Adriano Vinícius de Paiva Ferreira, Marco Aurélio Morais Soares Costa, Maria Luiza França Silva, Viviane de Oliveira Vasconcelos, Rogério Marcos de Sousa, Eduardo Robson Duarte
In this study the helminthiasis and anthelmintic effectiveness in ewes and lambs were evaluated in a semiarid region of Brazil. Twelve sheep farms were investigated using semi-structured questionnaires and fecal egg count (FEC) reduction test was employed to analyze the profile of anthelmintic resistance. Groups of at least 10 animals with FEC ≥ 300 were selected. After 12 h of fasting, homogeneous groups of lambs or ewes were treated with albendazole, levamisole moxidectin, or oxfendazole and control groups were not treated...
March 28, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342672/an-in-vitro-larval-migration-assay-for-assessing-anthelmintic-activity-of-different-drug-classes-against-ascaris-suum
#11
Jianguo Zhao, Andrew R Williams, Tina Vicky Alstrup Hansen, Stig M Thamsborg, Jianping Cai, Shuaibao Song, Gang Chen, Ming Kang, Zhuangzhi Zhang, Qun Liu, Qian Han
In vitro methods have been developed for the detection of anthelmintic resistance in a range of nematode species. However, the life cycle of Ascaris suum renders the commonly used egg hatch assay and larval development assay unusable. In this study we developed a combined multi-well culture and agar gel larval migration assay to test the effect of benzimidazole and tetrahydropyrimidin/imidazothiazole anthelmintics against nine isolates of A. suum collected from locations in China and Denmark. Drugs tested were thiabendazole, fenbendazole, mebendazole, levamisole, and pyrantel...
March 18, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314885/adverse-effects-of-levamisole-in-cocaine-users-a-review-and-risk-assessment
#12
REVIEW
Tibor Markus Brunt, Jorrit van den Berg, Ed Pennings, Bastiaan Venhuis
The immunomodulatory adjuvant and antihelminth levamisole is increasingly used as an adulterant in cocaine worldwide. An accumulating body of clinical and toxicological literature has appeared since 2010 describing neutropenia, agranulocytosis, leukoencephalopathy and vasculitis in cases associated with levamisole-adulterated cocaine. Mostly, neutropenia and agranulocytosis were reported, characterized by a decimation of neutrophils. A large proportion of cases also involved vasculopathy, characterized by pronounced black and purple skin purpura with cutaneous necrosis...
March 17, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299461/efficacy-of-higher-dose-levamisole-in-maintaining-remission-in-steroid-dependant-nephrotic-syndrome
#13
Asiri S Abeyagunawardena, Umeshi Karunadasa, Heshan Jayaweera, Shenal Thalgahagoda, Sampath Tennakoon, Shamali Abeyagunawardena
OBJECTIVE: Levamisole (LEV) has been used successfully on an alternate-day regime of 2.5 mg/kg in steroid-dependant nephrotic syndrome (SDNS) to maintain remission. This pilot study was carried out between 2010 and 2015 at a single center in Sri Lanka to evaluate the efficacy of LEV prescribed at 2.5 mg/kg daily, which is double the alternate-day dose. METHODS: Sequential children with SDNS, relapsing more than twice in the preceding 12 months and previously treated with LEV and low-dose alternate-day prednisolone (0...
March 15, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287856/enzymatic-kinetics-regarding-reversible-metabolism-of-cs-0777-a-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-modulator-via-phosphorylation-and-dephosphorylation-in-humans
#14
Shin-Ichi Inaba, Maki Yamaguchi-Goto, Kaoru Tanaka-Takanaka, Kiyoaki Yonesu, Hidetaka Sakurai, Kazuishi Kubota, Takashi Izumi
1. CS-0777, a candidate compound for autoimmune diseases, becomes phosphorylated active metabolite, M1, by fructosamine 3-kinase (FN3K), FN3K-related protein (FN3K-RP); and M1 is reverted back to CS-0777 by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the body. We performed enzyme kinetic analysis of phosphorylation of CS-0777 by FN3K, FN3K-RP, human erythrocytes and human platelets; and dephosphorylation of M1 by various ALP isozymes and human liver, kidney, lung and small intestine microsomes. 2. The Michaelis constants of human FN3K, FN3K-RP and erythrocytes for CS-0777 phosphorylation were in the range from 498 μM to 1060 μM...
April 3, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286043/anthelmintic-effect-of-psidium-guajava-and-tagetes-erecta-on-wild-type-and-levamisole-resistant-caenorhabditis-elegans-strains
#15
Denia M Piña-Vazquez, Zyanya Mayoral-Peña, Maricela Gómez-Sánchez, Luis A Salazar-Olivo, Fausto Arellano-Carbajal
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Psidium guajava and Tagetes erecta have been used traditionally to treat gastrointestinal parasites, but their active metabolites and mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the anthelmintic potential of Psidium guajava and Tagetes erecta extracts on Levamisole-sensitive and Levamisole-resistant strains of the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aqueous extracts of Psidium guajava (PGE) and Tagetes erecta (TEE) were assayed on locomotion and egg-laying behaviors of the wild-type (N2) and Levamisole-resistant (CB193) strains of Caenorhabditis elegans...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284332/confirmed-case-of-levamisole-associated-multifocal-inflammatory-leukoencephalopathy-in-a-cocaine-user
#16
Jeffrey R Vitt, Ethan G Brown, Daniel S Chow, S Andrew Josephson
Levamisole is a common adulterant in cocaine and has previously been associated with a variety of serious complications including multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy (MIL). There have been several reports of MIL in patients taking cocaine and, though suspected, the presence of levamisole was not confirmed. We present a case of a 63-year-old woman presenting with stupor and spastic quadraparesis found to have urine positive for cocaine and levamisole. An MRI brain revealed innumerable FLAIR hyperintensities with restricted diffusion and incomplete ring-enhancement...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257952/in-vitro-immunomodulatory-effects-of-microemulsions-with-levamisole-delivery-systems-on-blood-phagocytes-interacting-with-giardia-lamblia
#17
Mara Rosa Gil Hernandes, Lucélia Campelo Albuquerque Moraes, Elton Brito Ribeiro, Danny Laura Gomes Fagundes, Adenilda Cristina Honorio-França, Eduardo Luzía França
BACKGROUND: Giardiasis is one of the main parasites that infect the gastrointestinal tract of humans, affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide, particularly in developing countries. Antiparasitics administered to treat giardiasis are inefficient in 20% of the cases, usually because of parasite resistance and side effects. In this scenario, microemulsions are a promising pharmaceutical alternative as carriers of molecules with therapeutic action that stimulate the immune system...
June 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217616/cocaine-induced-vasculitis-with-cutaneous-manifestation-a-recurrent-episode-after-2-years
#18
Thein Swe, Mona Pervil-Ulysse, Aam A Baqui
Cocaine is a popular recreational drug in the United States, and up to 70% of the seized cocaine contains levamisole which is an antihelminthic that can cause cutaneous vasculitis with necrosis and positive antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs). Here, we report a unique case of recurrent cocaine-induced vasculitis in a patient who smokes cocaine for more than 20 years. A 38-year-old woman complained of painful erythematous rash in her right arm and right thigh which appeared some hours after smoking cocaine...
July 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209522/the-role-of-alkaline-phosphatase-in-intracellular-lipid-accumulation-in-the-human-hepatocarcinoma-cell-line-hepg2
#19
George M Chirambo, Chantal van Niekerk, Nigel J Crowther
Inhibition of tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNALP) decreases intracellular lipid accumulation in human preadipocytes and the murine preadipocyte cell line, 3T3-L1. Therefore, the current study was performed to determine if TNALP is required for intracellular lipid deposition in the human hepatocyte cell line, HepG2. Intracellular lipid accumulation, TNALP activity and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) γ gene expression were measured in HepG2 and 3T3-L1 cells in the presence and absence of the TNALP inhibitors levamisole and histidine...
February 13, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203368/a-nationwide-survey-of-anthelmintic-treatment-failure-on-sheep-farms-in-ireland
#20
Jason D Keegan, Orla M Keane, Barbara Good, Theo De Waal, Marian Denny, James P Hanrahan, William Fitzgerald, Maresa Sheehan
BACKGROUND: Between 2013 and 2015 the Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (DAFM) administered a sheep technology adoption programme (STAP), with the aim of increasing profitability on Irish sheep farms by encouraging the adoption of best management practices. One of the options available to STAP participants was to test the efficacy of the anthelmintic treatment (benzimadazole, levamisole or macrocyclic lactone) used in their flocks by means of a drench test, which is a modification of the faecal egg count reduction test; individual faecal samples were collected from the same group of lambs before and after anthelmintic treatment, the number of eggs present pre and post treatment was subsequently determined from a pooled sample...
2017: Irish Veterinary Journal
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