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Juan Andrés Abin-Carriquiry, Marcela Martínez-Busi, Martín Galvalisi, Manuel Minteguiaga, José Pedro Prieto, María Cecilia Scorza
Adulteration is a common practice in the illicit drugs market, but the psychoactive and toxic effects provided by adulterants are clinically underestimated. Coca-paste (CP) is a smokable form of cocaine which has an extremely high abuse liability. CP seized samples are sold adulterated; however, qualitative and quantitative data of CP adulteration in forensic literature is still scarce. Besides, it is unknown if adulterants remain stable when CP is heated. This study was designed to report the chemical content of an extensive series of CP seized samples and to demonstrate the stability (i...
March 13, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Lohrasb Sayadi, Donald Laub
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Eplasty
Hui-Lin Chen, Chen-Chen Cai, Jun-Yuan Ma, Mei-Ling Yu, Mei-Hui Zhao, Jian-Bo Guo, Hui Xu
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dispersion states of azone in gels on the transdermal permeation of levamisole hydrochloride (LH). LH hydro-alcoholic gels containing azone of different dispersion states were prepared by varying the contents of azone and Tween80, and the in vitro transdermal permeation of LH across excised rat skin was evaluated. Depending on the content of azone, mixed solvents and solubilizer used, azone presented as dissolved molecules, solubilized in micelles, and fine or coarse emulsion droplets in gels...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Eyup Eren Gultepe, Cangir Uyarlar, İsmail Bayram
This study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary chromium methionine (Cr-Met) supplementation on the production and immunological parameters of dairy cows during the dry and postpartum period and their offspring. Forty-five Holstein transition cows were randomly assigned to experimental groups with control, positive control (levamisole-injected cows), and treatment groups (5 g dietary Cr-Met/day/cow). Production, immunological, and biochemical parameters were analyzed during the dry and postpartum period...
March 1, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Dawn E Barnes, Eichi Watabe, Kanako Ono, Euiyoung Kwak, Hidehito Kuroyanagi, Shoichiro Ono
Tropomyosin, one of major actin-filament binding proteins, regulates actin-myosin interaction and actin filament stability. Multicellular organisms express a number of tropomyosin isoforms, but understanding of isoform-specific tropomyosin functions is incomplete. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has a single tropomyosin gene, lev-11 , which has been reported to express four isoforms by using two separate promoters and alternative splicing. Here, we report a fifth tropomyosin isoform, LEV-11O, which is produced by alternative splicing which includes a newly identified seventh exon, exon 7a...
March 1, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Mats de Jong, Anca Florea, Anne-Mare de Vries, Alexander L N van Nuijs, Adrian Covaci, Filip Van Durme, Jose C Martins, Nele Samyn, Karolien De Wael
The present work investigates the electrochemical determination of cocaine in the presence of levamisole, one of the most common adulterants found in cocaine street samples. Levamisole misleads cocaine colour tests, giving a blue colour (positive test) even in the absence of cocaine. Moreover, the electrochemical detection of cocaine is also affected by the presence of levamisole, with a suppression of the oxidation signal of cocaine. When levamisole is present in the sample in ratios higher than 1:1, the cocaine signal is no longer detected, thus leading to false negative results...
February 23, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Therese Woodring, Ronnie Abraham, Stephanie Frisch
Cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis (LCV) can occur as skin-limited disease or as part a systemic vasculitis. Appropriate workup includes the evaluation of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs), with a positive titer raising concern for the associated primary vasculitides including microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), or eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA). In the absence of systemic findings, however, a drug etiology must also be considered. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors, propylthiouracil, levamisole-adulterated cocaine, hydralazine, and minocycline have been previously documented to induce ANCA-positive vasculitis (APV), which may present with conspicuously high ANCA titers...
August 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
Shoaib Ashraf, Umer Chaudhry, Ali Raza, Debasri Ghosh, Xin Zhao
Background: Ivermectin is an endectocide against many parasites. Though being a macrocyclic lactone, its activity against bacteria has been less known, possibly due to the fact that micromolar concentrations at tissue levels are required to achieve a therapeutic effect. Among pathogenic bacteria of major medical significance, Staphylococcus aureus cause a number of diseases in a wide variety of hosts including humans and animals. It has been attributed as one of the most pathogenic organisms...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Marianne Knuth, Oliver Temme, Thomas Daldrup, Evelyn Pawlik
For different reasons, street cocaine is often diluted with pharmacologically active substances, the so-called adulterants such as levamisole or hydroxyzine. A controversial debate exists currently on the uptake of adulterants from cocaine preparations and drug-related death. Previous research convincingly argues that serious adverse side effects that affect the central nervous and cardiovascular systems can be a consequence of adulterated cocaine. AIMS: Having identified the presence of adulterants in lung tissue and blood, the concentrations of these substances in brain, an important target location, was of interest...
February 10, 2018: Forensic Science International
Paul M Candy, Tania S Waghorn, Chris M Miller, Siva Ganesh, Dave M Leathwick
A replicated field trial was conducted to measure the effect on liveweight gain of failing to adequately control anthelmintic resistant populations of Cooperia oncophora and to determine whether populations, and hence production losses, increased with time. Eight mobs of 10 Friesian-Hereford calves were run on independent farmlets from January to December, over each of two years. All mobs were routinely treated with a pour-on formulation of eprinomectin every six weeks, which controlled parasites other than Cooperia...
February 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
A K Dewan, J Pinard, S Jadeja, S Granter, J F Merola
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
A Kahmann, M J Anzanello, F S Fogliatto, M C A Marcelo, M F Ferrão, R S Ortiz, K C Mariotti
Street cocaine is typically altered with several compounds that increase its harmful health-related side effects, most notably depression, convulsions, and severe damages to the cardiovascular system, lungs, and brain. Thus, determining the concentration of cocaine and adulterants in seized drug samples is important from both health and forensic perspectives. Although FTIR has been widely used to identify the fingerprint and concentration of chemical compounds, spectroscopy datasets are usually comprised of thousands of highly correlated wavenumbers which, when used as predictors in regression models, tend to undermine the predictive performance of multivariate techniques...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Shuo Li, Roni Manyevitch, Kaltrina Sedaliu, Ahmed Abdelbaki, Nishant Gupta, Anil Kumar, Yogesh Kumar, Mark Rosovsky
Cocaine use has been known to cause a number of adverse neurological conditions, such as cerebral ischemia and posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy. The radiologic appearance of cocaine-induced leukoencephalopathy is confounded by a common contaminant, levamisole, which is also known to cause multifocal leukoencephalopathy. However, we encountered a case of diffuse leukoencephalopathy in a patient with cocaine use that had extensive involvement of the cerebral white matter, globus pallidi as well as the cerebellum...
January 1, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
J Eliaerts, N Meert, F Van Durme, N Samyn, K De Wael, P Dardenne
Large quantities of illicit drugs are frequently seized by law enforcement. In such cases, a representative number of samples needs to be quickly examined prior to destruction. No procedure has yet been set up which rapidly provides information regarding the homogeneity of the samples, the presence of controlled substances and the degree of purity. This study establishes a protocol for fast analysis of cocaine and its most common cutting agent, levamisole, in large seizures. The protocol is based on a hypergeometric sampling approach combined with FTIR spectrometry and Support Vector Machines (SVM) algorithms as analysis methods...
February 2, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Markus J Kemper, Thomas J Neuhaus
Many patients with steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome develop a relapsing course; therefore, alternative treatment may be necessary to avoid steroid toxicity. In this issue, a multicenter controlled study in relapsing steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome shows the effectiveness of levamisole. Time to first relapse was significantly increased compared with placebo. In addition, possible differential treatment effects were suggested for subgroups: patients with frequent relapses might have a superior response to those with steroid dependency...
February 2018: Kidney International
Melanie Abongwa, Djordje S Marjanovic, James G Tipton, Fudan Zheng, Richard J Martin, Sasa M Trailovic, Alan P Robertson
Zolvix® is a recently introduced anthelmintic drench containing monepantel as the active ingredient. Monepantel is a positive allosteric modulator of DEG-3/DES-2 type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in several nematode species. The drug has been reported to produce hypercontraction of Caenorhabditis elegans and Haemonchus contortus somatic muscle. We investigated the effects of monepantel on nAChRs from Ascaris suum and Oesophagostomum dentatum heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes...
December 16, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
J M Fernandez Armenteros, A Veà Jódar, C Matas Nadal, C Cortés Pinto, X Soria Gili, R M Martí Laborda, F Vilardell Villellas, J M Casanova Seuma
Levamisole-induced vasculopathy is a thrombotic and necrotic vasculitis usually seen in cocaine users due to adulteration of the drug with this veterinary medication. Some cases can be severe or very extensive, which could lead to sepsis and death.
January 18, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
Michael J Cascio, Kuang-Yu Jen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Levamisole was previously used for its immunomodulatory properties to treat rheumatoid arthritis and some cancers. However, because of serious side-effects, it was taken off the market in the United States. Recently, levamisole has reemerged as a popular cocaine adulterant. Some individuals who consume levamisole-adulterated cocaine can develop a life-threatening autoimmune syndrome. In this review, the medical consequences of levamisole exposure and postulated mechanisms by which levamisole induces these adverse effects are discussed...
January 2018: Current Opinion in Hematology
Katarzyna Popko, Elżbieta Górska, Elżbieta Kuźma-Mroczkowska
Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) is a common chronic illness characterized by massive proteinuria and hypo-albuminemia in children. Baseline treatment is 6 month-corticotherapy. In cases of steroid resistant/dependent INS several types of treatment are used, including course of methyloprednisolone "pulses", alkylating agents, cyclosporin A, levamisole and mycophenolate mofetil. It has been suggested that children with frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome or steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome had a significantly longer relapse-free period if rituximab (RTX) treatment was additionally applied...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Jung-Ren Chen, Yu-Heng Lai, Jhih-Jie Tsai, Chung-Der Hsiao
Currently, drug screening relies on cell-based experiments or on animal models to confirm biological effects. The mammalian system is considered too time-consuming, expensive and complex to perform high-throughput drug screening. There is a gap between in vitro cell-based models and the in vivo mammalian models. The zebrafish is an ideal model that could link preclinical toxicity screening with the drug development pipeline. Taking advantage of a highly conservative genomic, rapid development, large number of offspring, low cost and easy manipulation, zebrafish has been considered an excellent animal model for disease-based drug screening...
November 27, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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