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Levamisole

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908269/levamisole-a-positive-allosteric-modulator-for-the-%C3%AE-3%C3%AE-4-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-prevents-weight-gain-in-cd-1-mice-on-a-high-fat-diet
#1
Jeanne A Lewis, Jerrel L Yakel, Anshul A Pandya
Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) regulate the function of multiple neurotransmitter pathways throughout the central nervous system. This includes nAChRs found on the proopiomelanocortin neurons in the hypothalamus. Activation of these nAChRs by nicotine causes a decrease in consumption of food in rodents. In this study, we tested the effect of subtype selective allosteric modulators for nAChRs on the body weight of CD-1 mice. Levamisole, an allosteric modulator for the α3β4 subtype of nAChRs, prevented weight gain in mice that were fed a high fat diet...
December 1, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833440/levamisole-therapy-in-children-with-frequently-relapsing-and-steroid-dependent-nephrotic-syndrome-a-single-center-experience
#2
Elżbieta Kuźma-Mroczkowska, Piotr Skrzypczyk, Małgorzata Pańczyk-Tomaszewska
INTRODUCTION: Numerous studies suggest that levamisole, an antihelmintic agent with an immunomodulatory effect, reduces the number of relapses in children with frequently relapsing and steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (FRNS/SDNS). The aim of the study was to present a single center's experience in treatment of FRNS and SDNS with levamisole. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Among 72 children with FRNS/SDNS treated in our department with levamisole in the years 1984-2011 we studied in detail 53 patients (mean age: 6...
2016: Central-European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828699/levamisole-adulterated-cocaine-toxicity-would-you-recognize-it
#3
Suneela Cherlopalle, Manasa Enja, Melanie Lippmann, Steven Lippmann
Adulteration of cocaine with levamisole is common and can induce serious medical complications. Levamisole is an antihelminthic agent originally approved as an immunomodulator in the treatment of autoimmune disorders and as a chemotherapy adjunct. It was withdrawn from the US market in 2000 but is available in veterinary medicine. Cocaine-using patients may present with nonspecific constitutional symptoms, cutaneous eruptions, leukopenia, vasculitis, and organ damage. Skin manifestations may include severe necrosis, especially of the ear lobes...
July 14, 2016: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824551/cocaine-induced-vasculitis
#4
REVIEW
Mark Berman, Daphna Paran, Ori Elkayam
The use of cocaine continues to grow worldwide. One of the possible side-effects of cocaine is vasculitis. Two distinct vasculitic syndromes have been described due to cocaine. One is cocaine-induced midline destructive lesion, secondary to a direct vasoconstrictor effect of cocaine, inducing ischemic necrosis of the septal cartilage and perforation of the nasal septum, mimicking findings of granulomatosis with polyangiitis in the upper airways. The other is ANCA-associated vasculitis, attributed to the levamisole component that contaminates about 70% of the cocaine...
October 31, 2016: Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809971/vaccination-of-goats-against-haemonchus-contortus-with-the-gut-membrane-proteins-h11-h-gal-gp
#5
Lorena Meier, Paul R Torgerson, Hubertus Hertzberg
Forty goats, aged from 2 to 5 months were subjected to two different immunization protocols with a vaccine containing Haemonchus contortus gut membrane proteins H11/H-gal-GP to evaluate protection against H. contortus on pre-contaminated pastures. Goats were allocated to four groups of ten, three of them received their first vaccination before turnout. One group (V4) was then vaccinated at 4-week-intervals whereas another two groups (V6 and V6SEP) were vaccinated at 6-week-intervals. A control group (CTRL) remained unvaccinated...
October 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809969/confirmation-of-ivermectin-resistance-in-ostertagia-ostertagi-in-cattle-in-new-zealand
#6
Tania S Waghorn, Chris M Miller, Dave M Leathwick
Six suspected cases of ivermectin resistance in Ostertagia spp. in cattle were investigated after routine anthelmintic efficacy testing on commercial farms. On four farms a comprehensive faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) was undertaken using oral formulations of ivermectin (0.2mg/kg), albendazole (10mg/kg) and levamisole (7.5mg/kg) while on two farms only ivermectin was tested. The proportions of Ostertagia spp. in the untreated control and post-treatment larval cultures were used to apportion egg counts to genera and determine efficacy against this genus...
October 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760094/-ocular-toxocariasis-in-a-boy-with-idiopathic-nephrotic-syndrome-a-case-report
#7
Agnieszka Antonowicz, Piotr Skrzypczyk, Beata Kępa, Małgorzata Pańczyk-Tomaszewska
: Toxocariasis is a common zoonosis caused by infection with Toxocara canis or cati larvae. Ocular toxocariasis is one of the forms of infestation found in 1/1,000 - 1/10,000 children. Children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) are at high risk of infections, also parasitic infestations, which can, in turn, cause relapses of the disease. A CASE REPORT: We present a case of a 6-year-old boy with steroiddependent nephrotic syndrome. The disease started at age of 2, the boy had 9 relapses of INS, and was treated with oral prednisone, levamisole, and cyclophosphamide...
October 19, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730031/evolving-role-of-immunotherapy-in-the-treatment-of-refractory-warts
#8
Devinder M Thappa, Minu J Chiramel
Cutaneous and genital warts are common dermatological conditions caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). Although it is a benign condition, it causes disfigurement, has a tendency to koebnerize, and can be transmitted to others. This makes adequate and timely treatment important. There are several conventional treatments available with variable response. Topical and systemic immunotherapy has now found a significant place in the treatment of warts because of its nondestructive action, ease of use, and promising results...
September 2016: Indian Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727787/efficacy-and-safety-of-levamisole-as-an-immunomodulator-in-the-treatment-of-drugresistant-tuberculosis
#9
K C Mohanty, Agam Vora, Salil Bendre, Nikhil Sarangdhar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706395/in-vitro-susceptibility-of-nematophagous-fungi-to-antiparasitic-drugs-interactions-and-implications-for-biological-control
#10
J N Vieira, F S Maia, G F Ferreira, J F Mendes, C L Gonçalves, M M Villela, D I B Pereira, P S Nascente
The fast anthelmintic resistance development has shown a limited efficiency in the control of animal's endoparasitosis and has promoted research using alternative control methods. The use of chemicals in animal anthelmintic treatment, in association with nematophagous fungi used for biological control, is a strategy that has proven to be effective in reducing the nematode population density in farm animals. This study aims to verify the in vitro susceptibility of the nematophagous fungi Arthrobotrys oligospora, Duddingtonia flagrans and Paecilomyces lilacinus against the antiparasitic drugs albendazole, thiabendazole, ivermectin, levamisole and closantel by using the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC)...
October 3, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692335/thymus-vulgaris-l-essential-oil-and-its-main-component-thymol-anthelmintic-effects-against-haemonchus-contortus-from-sheep
#11
Luis E Ferreira, Bruno I Benincasa, Ana L Fachin, Suzelei C França, Silvia S H T Contini, Ana C S Chagas, Rene O Beleboni
Haemonchus contortus is an important gastrointestinal parasite on sheep farms in tropical regions. The resistance of the parasite against most anthelmintic drugs represents a great economic problem to sheep farming and is a major challenge that needs to be overcome. The searches for new anthelmintic agents that act on different stages of the parasite's life cycle are necessary for the development of new therapeutic options. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of Thymus vulgaris essential oil against H...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692328/efficacy-of-closantel-against-ivermectin-and-fenbendazole-resistant-haemonchus-sp-in-sheep-in-ontario-canada
#12
T Westers, A Jones-Bitton, P Menzies, J Van Leeuwen, Z Poljak, A S Peregrine
In Ontario, Canada, widespread resistance to ivermectin and fenbendazole, the only readily available ovine anthelmintics, has been documented, primarily in Haemonchus sp. In other parts of the world, closantel has been used to control such infections; however, the drug was not currently licensed for use in Canada and the USA. A randomized controlled trial was conducted on six client-owned farms in Ontario in 2013 and 2014 to determine the efficacy of closantel (Flukiver(®) 5% Oral Suspension, Elanco Animal Health, 10mg/kg bodyweight) against ivermectin- and fenbendazole-resistant Haemonchus sp...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692326/resistance-of-haemonchus-sp-to-monepantel-and-reduced-efficacy-of-a-derquantel-abamectin-combination-confirmed-in-sheep-in-nsw-australia
#13
Narelle Sales, Stephen Love
Early in 2015, sheep in a summer rainfall area of NSW, Australia, displayed signs of haemonchosis despite treatment with monepantel. A faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) was performed on yearlings with natural field infections using various anthelmintics. Only a four-way combination drench achieved a reduction in faecal egg count (FEC) greater than 95%. The combination contained abamectin, albendazole, levamisole and closantel. Treatments with a derquantel/abamectin combination, monepantel and moxidectin reduced FECs by 93, 31, and 30% respectively...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682865/increased-expression-of-atp-binding-cassette-transporter-genes-following-exposure-of-haemonchus-contortus-larvae-to-a-high-concentration-of-monepantel-in-vitro
#14
Ali Raza, Neil H Bagnall, Abdul Jabbar, Steven R Kopp, Andrew C Kotze
BACKGROUND: There is some evidence that ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters play a role in resistance to anthelmintics, particularly against macrocyclic lactones. Some anthelmintics, including ivermectin (IVM), have been shown to induce transcription of multiple ABC transporters in nematodes; however, the effects of monepantel (MPL) on transcription of these transporter genes has not been studied. METHODS: Larvae of two MPL-susceptible isolates of Haemonchus contortus were exposed to MPL at two concentrations (2...
September 29, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622263/prednisone-and-vardenafil-hydrochloride-for-refractory-levamisole-induced-vasculitis
#15
Joshua Mandrell, Christina L Kranc
Levamisole is an immunomodulatory drug that was previously used to treat various medical conditions, including parasitic infections, nephrotic syndrome, and colorectal cancer. Over the last few years, increasing amounts of levamisole have been used as an adulterant in cocaine. Levamisole-cut cocaine has become a concern because it is known to cause a necrotizing purpuric rash, autoantibody production, and life-threatening leukopenia. Mixed histologic findings of vasculitis and thrombosis are characteristic of levamisole-induced purpura...
August 2016: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606557/surgical-management-of-levamisole-adulterated-cocaine-induced-soft-tissue-necrosis-case-study-and-treatment-algorithm
#16
Giancarlo Mcevenue, Michael Brichacek, Sarvesh Logsetty, Shar Shahrokhi
Levamisole is an increasingly common cocaine adulterant that can cause severe and rapid onset cutaneous vasculitis in humans. While most cases may be managed conservatively, we describe a series of patients in whom the extent of skin and soft tissue necrosis mandated surgical intervention. A retrospective review of all patients admitted to one of two regional burn centers between 2006 and 2016 for soft tissue necrosis after exposure to levamisole-adulterated cocaine was included in our study. Ten patients, majority female (9/10) with an average age of 43...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605787/impact-of-treatment-of-gastrointestinal-nemathelminths-on-body-weight-of-sheep-and-goats
#17
Deepesh Sharma, Stuti Vatsya, Rajeev Ranjan Kumar
Gastrointestinal nemathelminths affect productive as well as reproductive performance of a wide range of ruminants. To assess the impact of anthelmintic treatment on gain in body weight (b. wt.) of sheep and goat, a study was conducted using two different flocks of sheep and goats each maintained in semi intensive system. Infected animals in both the flocks were divided into three groups each. Group I and II in each flock were treated with levamisole (@7.5 mg/kg b. wt. subcutaneously) and fenbendazole (@5 mg/kg b...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605759/in-vitro-anthelmintic-effect-of-tobacco-nicotiana-tabacum-extract-on-parasitic-nematode-marshallagia-marshalli
#18
Fatemeh Nouri, Saeid R Nourollahi-Fard, Hamid R Foroodi, Hamid Sharifi
Because of developing resistance to the existing anthelmintic drugs, there is a need for new anthelmintic agents. Tobacco plant has alkaloid materials that have antiparasitic effect. We investigated the in vitro anthelminthic effect of aqueous and alcoholic extract of Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) against M. marshalli. For investigating this effect, we prepared three dilutions of aqueous and alcoholic extract of Tobacco (25, 50 and 75 mg/ml). The worms exposed to extracts for 10 h at 25-30 °C. The buffer PBS used as negative control and 50 mg/ml dilution of Levamisole used as standard reference...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601592/high-risk-premenopausal-luminal-a-breast-cancer-patients-derive-no-benefit-from-adjuvant-cyclophosphamide-based-chemotherapy-results-from-the-dbcg77b-clinical-trial
#19
Torsten O Nielsen, Maj-Britt Jensen, Samantha Burugu, Dongxia Gao, Charlotte L Tykjaer Jorgensen, Eva Balslev, Bent Ejlertsen
PURPOSE: Luminal A breast cancers have better prognosis than other molecular subtypes. Luminal A cancers may also be insensitive to adjuvant chemotherapy, although there is little high level evidence to confirm this concept. The primary hypothesis in this formal prospective-retrospective analysis was to assess interaction between subtype (Luminal A vs. other) and treatment (chemotherapy vs. not) for the primary endpoint (10-year invasive disease free survival) of a breast cancer trial randomizing women to adjuvant chemotherapy, analyzed in multivariate Cox proportional hazards models using the Wald interaction test...
September 6, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596506/metformin-attenuates-a%C3%AE-pathology-mediated-through-levamisole-sensitive-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-a-c-elegans-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Waqar Ahmad, Paul R Ebert
The metabolic disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is a major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). This suggests that drugs such as metformin that are used to treat T2DM may also be therapeutic toward AD and indicates an interaction between AD and energy metabolism. In this study, we have investigated the effects of metformin and another T2DM drug, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) in C. elegans expressing human Aβ42. We found that Aβ expressed in muscle inhibited levamisole sensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and that metformin delayed Aβ-linked paralysis and improved acetylcholine neurotransmission in these animals...
September 5, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
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