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Levamisole

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619473/cocaine-adulteration
#1
REVIEW
Oliver Kudlacek, Tina Hofmaier, Anton Luf, Felix P Mayer, Thomas Stockner, Constanze Nagy, Marion Holy, Michael Freissmuth, Rainer Schmid, Harald H Sitte
Cocaine is a naturally occurring and illicitly used psychostimulant drug, which exerts its activity at monoaminergic neurotransmitter transporters. These transporters mediate the reuptake of the monoamines dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine and are blocked by cocaine. The increase of monoamines in the extracellular space is the phenomenon underlying the drug effects that cocaine users seek. Currently, it is one of the most important illicit drugs on the European market. However, this increase in monoamines is also the underlying cause for the development of addiction and a number of severe side effects...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612332/cocaine-levamisole-induced-vasculitis-vasculopathy-syndrome
#2
REVIEW
Javier Marquez, Lina Aguirre, Carolina Muñoz, Andres Echeverri, Mauricio Restrepo, Luis F Pinto
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To understand the clinical spectrum of cocaine-levamisole-induced vasculitis. Worldwide recreational drug consumption is high among the adult population from various social strata. The use of cocaine with levamisole, a frequently added antiparasitic diluent, favors the manifestations of vasculitic lesions, especially in the skin. RECENT FINDINGS: New insights into immunological mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. There are still many unknown aspects in the pathogenesis of this disease, such as the immune system interaction with p-ANCAs and the release of inflammatory NETs (neutrophil extracellular traps), which are the origin of auto-antigens and tissue damage, manifesting as vasculitic purpura on the skin...
June 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602438/vasculitides-induced-by-cocaine-and-or-levamisole
#3
EDITORIAL
Antoine Néel, Christian Agard, Mohamed Hamidou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 5, 2017: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595672/in-vitro-larvicidal-and-in-vivo-anthelmintic-effects-of-oxalis-tetraphylla-oxalidaceae-hydroalcoholic-extract-against-haemonchus-contortus-in-lambs
#4
B J González-Cruz, M Rodríguez-Labastida, M González-Cortázar, A Zamilpa, M E López-Arellano, L Aguilar-Marcelino, R González-Garduño, J F J Torres-Acosta, A Olmedo-Juárez, P Mendoza-de Gives
The in vitro larvicidal and in vivo anthelmintic effects of Oxalis tetraphylla hydroalcoholic extract (HE), against Haemonchus contortus in experimentally infected lambs, were assessed. We used a microtitration plate method, comprising the following two stages. Stage 1: 20 μl of water containing 200 sheathed H. contortus infective larvae (ShHcl) were deposited in every well of three series; then, the series 2 and 3 wells were treated with 80 μl 1% ivermectin and O. tetraphylla HE at 20 mg/ml, respectively...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592788/levamisole-induced-leukocytoclastic-vasculitis-with-negative-serology-in-a-cocaine-user
#5
Mashal Salehi, Michael P Morgan, Abigail Gabriel
BACKGROUND Levamisole is a common adulterant of cocaine. It can cause agranulocytosis and cutaneous vasculitis that can possibly lead to cutaneous necrosis. In all reported cases of levamisole-induced vasculitis, it has been described as a clinical syndrome characterized by a constellation of typical clinical features and a positive serum serology for ANCA levels, especially very high-titer p-ANCA levels, in the background of cocaine abuse. However, patients may have a negative serology and here, we present the first such case...
June 8, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589070/agranulocytosis-sequelae-of-chronic-cocaine-use-case-series-and-literature-review
#6
Roma Srivastava, Maira Rizwan, Muhammad Omer Jamil, Palaniandy Kogulan, Donna Salzman
Agranulocytosis is a rare condition with a reported incidence ranging from one to five cases per million population per year. Most commonly, agranulocytosis is secondary to chemotherapeutic agents, however, other medications have also been associated with it. An immune mediated destruction of circulating granulocytes and/or granulocyte precursors secondary to drug-dependent or drug-induced antibodies is the postulated mechanism. Agranulocytosis has also been reported secondary to recreational drug use...
May 3, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579030/broad-spectrum-anthelmintic-resistance-of-haemonchus-contortus-in-northern-nsw-of-australia
#7
Jane Lamb, Tim Elliott, Michael Chambers, Bruce Chick
On a sheep farm in Northern New South Wales (NSW) of Australia a degree of anthelmintic resistance was suspected. With noticeable clinical signs of infection and sheep not responding to treatment, a faecal egg count reduction test was conducted to ascertain the broad spectrum of anthelmintic resistance at this farm. A number of classes of anthelmintics were assessed including organophosphate, macrocyclic lactone (ML) and in combination an ML, benzimidazole, levamisole and salicylanilide. In addition, the more recently registered classes of anthelmintics, monepantel (amino-acetonitrile derivative) and derquantel/abamectin combination (spiroindole+ML) were included...
July 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532295/resistance-to-a-triple-combination-anthelmintic-in-trichostrongylus-spp-on-a-commercial-sheep-farm-in-new-zealand
#8
Bas Hodgson, C J Mulvaney
AIM: To evaluate resistance to anthelmintics containing abamectin, levamisole, and oxfendazole (AB-LEV-OX), derquantal and abamectin (DEQ-AB), moxidectin, and monepantel in naturally acquired gastrointestinal nematodes present on a sheep farm. METHODS: Faecal nematode egg count reduction tests (FECRT) were carried out on lambs that were approximately 7 months-old and infected with naturally acquired nematodes. Lambs were randomly allocated to one of five groups (n=15 per group): treatment with 2 mg/kg derquantel and 0...
June 5, 2017: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516071/levamisole-as-an-adjuvant-to-short-course-therapy-in-newly-diagnosed-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients
#9
Chetna Ashok Shamkuwar, Sushant Hiraman Meshram, Sunil M Mahakalkar
BACKGROUND: The estimated incidence and prevalence of tuberculosis in India are 2.1 and 2.6 million cases respectively. Immunotherapy may shorten tuberculosis treatments and improve the immunity of individuals as well. Hence we study the efficacy of levamisole (LVM) (immunomodulator) as an adjuvant to chemotherapy of pulmonary tuberculosis patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted for 21 months in newly diagnosed sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511052/phosphate-regulates-chondrogenesis-in-a-biphasic-and-maturation-dependent-manner
#10
Biming Wu, Emily K Durisin, Joseph T Decker, Evran E Ural, Lonnie D Shea, Rhima M Coleman
Inorganic phosphate (Pi) has been recognized as an important signaling molecule that modulates chondrocyte maturation and cartilage mineralization. However, conclusive experimental evidence for its involvement in early chondrogenesis is still lacking. Here, using high-density monolayer (2D) and pellet (3D) culture models of chondrogenic ATDC5 cells, we demonstrate that the cell response to Pi does not correlate with the Pi concentration in the culture medium but is better predicted by the availability of Pi on a per cell basis (Pi abundance)...
May 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487481/functional-genomics-in-brugia-malayi-reveal-diverse-muscle-nachrs-and-differences-between-cholinergic-anthelmintics
#11
Saurabh Verma, Sudhanva Srinivas Kashyap, Alan Patrick Robertson, Richard John Martin
Many techniques for studying functional genomics of important target sites of anthelmintics have been restricted to Caenorhabditis elegans because they have failed when applied to animal parasites. To overcome these limitations, we have focused our research on the human nematode parasite Brugia malayi, which causes elephantiasis. Here, we combine single-cell PCR, whole muscle cell patch clamp, motility phenotyping (Worminator), and dsRNA for RNAi for functional genomic studies that have revealed, in vivo, four different muscle nAChRs (M-, L-, P-, and N-)...
May 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473245/the-development-and-use-of-a-drug-induced-immunosuppressed-rat-model-to-screen-phela-for-mechanism-of-immune-stimulation
#12
Makhotso Rose Lekhooa, Andrew Walubo, Jan B du Plessis, Motlalepula Gilbert Matsabisa
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY RELEVANCY: Phela, is code name for a medicinal product made from four South African traditional medicinal plants (Clerodendrum glabrum E. Mey, Polianthes tuberosa (Linn.), Rotheca myricoides (Hochst.) Steane & Mabb. and Senna occidentalis (L.) Link). All these plants have established traditional use in a wide spectrum of diseases. Phela is under development for use as an immune booster in immunocompromised patients, which includes patients with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400215/levamisole-enhances-the-innate-immune-response-and-prevents-increased-cortisol-levels-in-stressed-pacu-piaractus-mesopotamicus
#13
Eduardo Pahor-Filho, Adriana Soliris Corredor Castillo, Nycolas Levy Pereira, Fabiana Pilarski, Elisabeth Criscuolo Urbinati
We analyzed the effects of levamisole on stress and the innate immune responses of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus). A total of 300 fish (180 ± 1.27 g) were fed a diet containing levamisole hydrochloride (LHC) for 15 days, then distributed into the following groups: T0 (control group); T1 (100), T2 (150), T3 (300) and T4 (500) mg kg(-1) LHC (15 fish per group and four replicates per treatment). After this, fish (n = 8 per treatment) were exposed to air for three minutes to simulate stress conditions and were then challenged with the bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila to stimulate the immune system...
April 8, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397288/extensive-levamisole-induced-vasculitis
#14
C Desvignes, C Becquart, D Launay, L Terriou, P Patenotre, S Deheul, G Peytavin, N Dupin, E Delaporte, D Staumont-Sallé
Levamisole (an increasingly frequent contaminant of cocaine) can cause antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis. Dermatologists should consider a diagnosis of cocaine/levamisole-associated cutaneous vasculopathy syndrome in cases of purpura of the ears and/or extensive retiform purpura in drug users. We report a case of particularly severe levamisole-induced necrotic purpura and immunological abnormalities in a 40-year-old woman.
April 10, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365925/prevalence-economic-analysis-and-chemotherapeutic-control-of-small-ruminant-fasciolosis-in-the-sargodha-district-of-punjab-pakistan
#15
Mansoor Ahmad, Muhammad Nisar Khan, Muhammad Sohail Sajid, Ghulam Muhammad, Abdul Qudoos, Hafiz Muhammad Rizwan
This study describes the epidemiology, the economic significance of small ruminant fasciolosis in animals slaughtered in the abattoirs of the Sargodha district, Punjab, Pakistan between January and June 2012. In vivo fasciolicidal efficacy of commercially available compounds was examined using a randomised complete block design. Microscopically screened faecal samples revealed 40.51% positive animals for fasciolosis. The prevalent species included Fasciola hepatica (35.64%) and Fasciola gigantica (8.21%). Mixed infections were noted in 3...
March 31, 2017: Veterinaria Italiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355139/levamisole-induced-necrosis-syndrome-presentation-and-management
#16
Charles Fredericks, James R Yon, Gillian Alex, Molly Morton, Thomas Messer, Faran Bokhari, Stathis Poulakidas
Levamisole is an antihelminthic drug with immunomod- ulatory properties. Recent estimates suggest the majority of the cocaine in the United States is adulterated with levamisole. Le- vamisole-induced necrosis syndrome (LINES) is characterized by vasculitis, neutropenia, and purpura that progresses to skin necro- sis. Diagnosis relies on physical examination ndings and history of previous cocaine use. The purpose of this case series is to describe the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of LINES. The au- thors' institutional database was reviewed from 2008 to 2015, and they found 3 patients with LINES...
March 2017: Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352962/helminthiasis-characterization-and-anthelmintic-efficacy-for-ewes-and-lambs-raised-in-tropical-semiarid-region
#17
Gabriela Almeida Bastos, Leydiana Duarte Fonseca, Adriano Vinícius de Paiva Ferreira, Marco Aurélio Morais Soares Costa, Maria Luiza França Silva, Viviane de Oliveira Vasconcelos, Rogério Marcos de Sousa, Eduardo Robson Duarte
In this study the helminthiasis and anthelmintic effectiveness in ewes and lambs were evaluated in a semiarid region of Brazil. Twelve sheep farms were investigated using semi-structured questionnaires and fecal egg count (FEC) reduction test was employed to analyze the profile of anthelmintic resistance. Groups of at least 10 animals with FEC ≥ 300 were selected. After 12 h of fasting, homogeneous groups of lambs or ewes were treated with albendazole, levamisole moxidectin, or oxfendazole and control groups were not treated...
March 28, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342672/an-in-vitro-larval-migration-assay-for-assessing-anthelmintic-activity-of-different-drug-classes-against-ascaris-suum
#18
Jianguo Zhao, Andrew R Williams, Tina Vicky Alstrup Hansen, Stig M Thamsborg, Jianping Cai, Shuaibao Song, Gang Chen, Ming Kang, Zhuangzhi Zhang, Qun Liu, Qian Han
In vitro methods have been developed for the detection of anthelmintic resistance in a range of nematode species. However, the life cycle of Ascaris suum renders the commonly used egg hatch assay and larval development assay unusable. In this study we developed a combined multi-well culture and agar gel larval migration assay to test the effect of benzimidazole and tetrahydropyrimidin/imidazothiazole anthelmintics against nine isolates of A. suum collected from locations in China and Denmark. Drugs tested were thiabendazole, fenbendazole, mebendazole, levamisole, and pyrantel...
March 18, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314885/adverse-effects-of-levamisole-in-cocaine-users-a-review-and-risk-assessment
#19
REVIEW
Tibor Markus Brunt, Jorrit van den Berg, Ed Pennings, Bastiaan Venhuis
The immunomodulatory adjuvant and antihelminth levamisole is increasingly used as an adulterant in cocaine worldwide. An accumulating body of clinical and toxicological literature has appeared since 2010 describing neutropenia, agranulocytosis, leukoencephalopathy and vasculitis in cases associated with levamisole-adulterated cocaine. Mostly, neutropenia and agranulocytosis were reported, characterized by a decimation of neutrophils. A large proportion of cases also involved vasculopathy, characterized by pronounced black and purple skin purpura with cutaneous necrosis...
March 17, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299461/efficacy-of-higher-dose-levamisole-in-maintaining-remission-in-steroid-dependant-nephrotic-syndrome
#20
Asiri S Abeyagunawardena, Umeshi Karunadasa, Heshan Jayaweera, Shenal Thalgahagoda, Sampath Tennakoon, Shamali Abeyagunawardena
OBJECTIVE: Levamisole (LEV) has been used successfully on an alternate-day regime of 2.5 mg/kg in steroid-dependant nephrotic syndrome (SDNS) to maintain remission. This pilot study was carried out between 2010 and 2015 at a single center in Sri Lanka to evaluate the efficacy of LEV prescribed at 2.5 mg/kg daily, which is double the alternate-day dose. METHODS: Sequential children with SDNS, relapsing more than twice in the preceding 12 months and previously treated with LEV and low-dose alternate-day prednisolone (0...
March 15, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
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