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Levamisole

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314885/adverse-effects-of-levamisole-in-cocaine-users-a-review-and-risk-assessment
#1
REVIEW
Tibor Markus Brunt, Jorrit van den Berg, Ed Pennings, Bastiaan Venhuis
The immunomodulatory adjuvant and antihelminth levamisole is increasingly used as an adulterant in cocaine worldwide. An accumulating body of clinical and toxicological literature has appeared since 2010 describing neutropenia, agranulocytosis, leukoencephalopathy and vasculitis in cases associated with levamisole-adulterated cocaine. Mostly, neutropenia and agranulocytosis were reported, characterized by a decimation of neutrophils. A large proportion of cases also involved vasculopathy, characterized by pronounced black and purple skin purpura with cutaneous necrosis...
March 17, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299461/efficacy-of-higher-dose-levamisole-in-maintaining-remission-in-steroid-dependant-nephrotic-syndrome
#2
Asiri S Abeyagunawardena, Umeshi Karunadasa, Heshan Jayaweera, Shenal Thalgahagoda, Sampath Tennakoon, Shamali Abeyagunawardena
OBJECTIVE: Levamisole (LEV) has been used successfully on an alternate-day regime of 2.5 mg/kg in steroid-dependant nephrotic syndrome (SDNS) to maintain remission. This pilot study was carried out between 2010 and 2015 at a single center in Sri Lanka to evaluate the efficacy of LEV prescribed at 2.5 mg/kg daily, which is double the alternate-day dose. METHODS: Sequential children with SDNS, relapsing more than twice in the preceding 12 months and previously treated with LEV and low-dose alternate-day prednisolone (0...
March 15, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287856/enzymatic-kinetics-regarding-reversible-metabolism-of-cs-0777-a-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-modulator-via-phosphorylation-and-dephosphorylation-in-humans
#3
Shin-Ichi Inaba, Maki Yamaguchi-Goto, Kaoru Tanaka-Takanaka, Kiyoaki Yonesu, Hidetaka Sakurai, Kazuishi Kubota, Takashi Izumi
1. CS-0777, a candidate compound for autoimmune diseases, becomes phosphorylated active metabolite, M1, by fructosamine 3-kinase (FN3K), FN3K-related protein (FN3K-RP); and M1 reverted back to CS-0777 by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the body. We performed enzyme kinetic analysis of phosphorylation of CS-0777 by FN3K, FN3K-RP, human erythrocytes and human platelets; and dephosphorylation of M1 by various ALP isozymes and human liver, kidney, lung and small intestine microsomes. 2. The Michaelis constants of human FN3K, FN3K-RP, and erythrocytes for CS-0777 phosphorylation were in the range from 498 μM to 1060 μM...
March 13, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286043/anthelmintic-effect-of-psidium-guajava-and-tagetes-erecta-on-wild-type-and-levamisole-resistant-caenorhabditis-elegans-strains
#4
Denia M Piña-Vazquez, Zyanya Mayoral-Peña, Maricela Gómez-Sánchez, Luis A Salazar-Olivo, Fausto Arellano-Carbajal
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Psidium guajava and Tagetes erecta have been used traditionally to treat gastrointestinal parasites, but their active metabolites and mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the anthelmintic potential of Psidium guajava and Tagetes erecta extracts on Levamisole-sensitive and Levamisole-resistant strains of the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aqueous extracts of Psidium guajava (PGE) and Tagetes erecta (TEE) were assayed on locomotion and egg-laying behaviors of the wild-type (N2) and Levamisole-resistant (CB193) strains of Caenorhabditis elegans...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284332/confirmed-case-of-levamisole-associated-multifocal-inflammatory-leukoencephalopathy-in-a-cocaine-user
#5
Jeffrey R Vitt, Ethan G Brown, Daniel S Chow, S Andrew Josephson
Levamisole is a common adulterant in cocaine and has previously been associated with a variety of serious complications including multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy (MIL). There have been several reports of MIL in patients taking cocaine and, though suspected, the presence of levamisole was not confirmed. We present a case of a 63-year-old woman presenting with stupor and spastic quadraparesis found to have urine positive for cocaine and levamisole. An MRI brain revealed innumerable FLAIR hyperintensities with restricted diffusion and incomplete ring-enhancement...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257952/in-vitro-immunomodulatory-effects-of-microemulsions-with-levamisole-delivery-systems-on-blood-phagocytes-interacting-with-giardia-lamblia
#6
Mara Rosa Gil Hernandes, Lucélia Campelo Albuquerque Moraes, Elton Brito Ribeiro, Danny Laura Gomes Fagundes, Adenilda Cristina Honorio-França, Eduardo Luzía França
BACKGROUND: Giardiasis is one of the main parasites that infect the gastrointestinal tract of humans, affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide, particularly in developing countries. Antiparasitics administered to treat giardiasis are inefficient in 20% of the cases, usually because of parasite resistance and side effects. In this scenario, microemulsions are a promising pharmaceutical alternative as carriers of molecules with therapeutic action that stimulate the immune system...
February 28, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217616/cocaine-induced-vasculitis-with-cutaneous-manifestation-a-recurrent-episode-after-2-years
#7
Thein Swe, Mona Pervil-Ulysse, Aam A Baqui
Cocaine is a popular recreational drug in the United States, and up to 70% of the seized cocaine contains levamisole which is an antihelminthic that can cause cutaneous vasculitis with necrosis and positive antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs). Here, we report a unique case of recurrent cocaine-induced vasculitis in a patient who smokes cocaine for more than 20 years. A 38-year-old woman complained of painful erythematous rash in her right arm and right thigh which appeared some hours after smoking cocaine...
July 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209522/the-role-of-alkaline-phosphatase-in-intracellular-lipid-accumulation-in-the-human-hepatocarcinoma-cell-line-hepg2
#8
George M Chirambo, Chantal van Niekerk, Nigel J Crowther
Inhibition of tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNALP) decreases intracellular lipid accumulation in human preadipocytes and the murine preadipocyte cell line, 3T3-L1. Therefore, the current study was performed to determine if TNALP is required for intracellular lipid deposition in the human hepatocyte cell line, HepG2. Intracellular lipid accumulation, TNALP activity and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) γ gene expression were measured in HepG2 and 3T3-L1 cells in the presence and absence of the TNALP inhibitors levamisole and histidine...
February 13, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203368/a-nationwide-survey-of-anthelmintic-treatment-failure-on-sheep-farms-in-ireland
#9
Jason D Keegan, Orla M Keane, Barbara Good, Theo De Waal, Marian Denny, James P Hanrahan, William Fitzgerald, Maresa Sheehan
BACKGROUND: Between 2013 and 2015 the Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (DAFM) administered a sheep technology adoption programme (STAP), with the aim of increasing profitability on Irish sheep farms by encouraging the adoption of best management practices. One of the options available to STAP participants was to test the efficacy of the anthelmintic treatment (benzimadazole, levamisole or macrocyclic lactone) used in their flocks by means of a drench test, which is a modification of the faecal egg count reduction test; individual faecal samples were collected from the same group of lambs before and after anthelmintic treatment, the number of eggs present pre and post treatment was subsequently determined from a pooled sample...
2017: Irish Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194438/a-role-for-muscarinic-receptors-in-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation-and-levamisole-induced-autoimmunity
#10
Carmelo Carmona-Rivera, Monica M Purmalek, Erica Moore, Meryl Waldman, Peter J Walter, H Martin Garraffo, Karran A Phillips, Kenzie L Preston, Jonathan Graf, Mariana J Kaplan, Peter C Grayson
Levamisole, an anthelmintic drug with cholinergic properties, has been implicated in cases of drug-induced vasculitis when added to cocaine for profit purposes. Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation is a cell death mechanism characterized by extrusion of chromatin decorated with granule proteins. Aberrant NET formation and degradation have been implicated in idiopathic autoimmune diseases that share features with levamisole-induced autoimmunity as well as in drug-induced autoimmunity. This study's objective was to determine how levamisole modulates neutrophil biology and its putative effects on the vasculature...
February 9, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182663/dihydrobenz-e-1-4-oxazepin-2-3h-ones-a-new-anthelmintic-chemotype-immobilising-whipworm-and-reducing-infectivity-in-vivo
#11
Frederick A Partridge, Emma A Murphy, Nicky J Willis, Carole J R Bataille, Ruth Forman, Narinder Heyer-Chauhan, Bruno Marinič, Daniel J C Sowood, Graham M Wynne, Kathryn J Else, Angela J Russell, David B Sattelle
Trichuris trichiura is a human parasitic whipworm infecting around 500 million people globally, damaging the physical growth and educational performance of those infected. Current drug treatment options are limited and lack efficacy against the worm, preventing an eradication programme. It is therefore important to develop new treatments for trichuriasis. Using Trichuris muris, an established model for T. trichiura, we screened a library of 480 novel drug-like small molecules for compounds causing paralysis of the ex vivo adult parasite...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166084/unexpected-complication-of-cocaine-associated-anti-neutrophil-cytoplasmic-antibody-vasculitis-related-to-persistent-in-hospital-cocaine-use
#12
Travis D Olives, Rebecca L Kornas, Russell Fujisawa, Jon B Cole
INTRODUCTION: Levamisole-adulterated cocaine has been implicated in anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) vasculitis. We present a case of spontaneous intraperitoneal hemorrhage, an unexpectedly severe complication of cocaine-related ANCA vasculitis, developing late during hospitalization. CASE REPORT: An adult male with a history of hepatitis C, distant cocaine use, and limited health care presented to a local emergency department (ED) with volume overload, renal failure, hyperkalemia and non-anion gap metabolic acidosis...
March 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137984/alkaline-phosphatase-inhibitors-attenuate-renovascular-responses-to-norepinephrine
#13
Edwin K Jackson, Yumeng Zhang, Dongmei Cheng
Tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) contributes to the production of adenosine by the kidney, and A1-receptor activation enhances renovascular responses to norepinephrine. Therefore, we hypothesized that TNAP regulates renovascular responsiveness to norepinephrine. In isolated, perfused rat kidneys, the TNAP inhibitor l-p-bromotetramisole (0.1 mmol/L) decreased renal venous levels of 5'-AMP (adenosine precursor) and adenosine by 61% (P<0.0384) and 62% (P=0.0013), respectively, at 1 hour into treatment and caused a 10-fold rightward shift of the concentration-response relationship to exogenous norepinephrine (P<0...
March 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132051/anca-associated-vasculitis-secondary-to-levamisole-adultered-cocaine-with-associated-membranous-nephropathy-a-case-series
#14
David Collister, Christie Sathianathan, Krista Ryz, Martin Karpinski, Keevin Bernstein, Ian W Gibson
BACKGROUND: Cocaine is a risk factor for acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease with progression to end-stage renal disease. Levamisole is an adulterant that is added to cocaine to enhance its euphoric effects. Levamisole-adulterated cocaine (LAC) is associated with the distinct clinical syndromes of agranulocytosis, leukocytoclastic vasculitis, cocaine-induced midline destructive lesions (CIMDL), and ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) with pauci-immune necrotizing glomerulonephritis...
2017: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119441/painful-purpura-associated-with-exposure-to-levamisole-adulterated-cocaine
#15
Christina Yek, Xiaoxiao Li, Melissa Mauskar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 24, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091356/resistance-to-gastrointestinal-parasite-infection-in-djallonk%C3%A3-sheep
#16
A Traoré, D R Notter, A Soudre, A Kaboré, I Álvarez, I Fernández, M Sanou, M Shamshuddin, K Periasamy, H H Tamboura, F Goyache
Gastrointestinal parasitism places serious constraints on small ruminant production. The situation has been exacerbated by development of drug resistance in many parasite populations, leading to interest in identification of animals with genetically mediated resistance or tolerance to nematode infections. This study assessed the response to natural infection with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in Djallonké sheep during the rainy season in the Sudan-Guinea Savannah region of Burkina Faso. Haemonchus contortus is the most prevalent GIN at this site and time...
January 16, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039309/tissue-nonspecific-alkaline-phosphatase-expression-is-needed-for-the-full-stimulation-of-t-cells-and-t-cell-dependent-colitis
#17
Cristina Hernández-Chirlaque, Reyes Gámez-Belmonte, Borja Ocón, Patricia Martínez-Moya, Stefan Wirtz, Fermín Sánchez de Medina, Olga Martínez-Augustin
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Two alkaline phosphatase isoforms, intestinal (IAP) and tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), are coexpressed in mouse colon, with the latter predominating in colitis. We aimed to examine the role of TNAP in T lymphocytes using heterozygous TNAP(+/-) mice (as TNAP(-/-) mice are nonviable). METHODS: In vitro primary cultures and in vivo T cell models using TNAP(+/-) mice were used. RESULTS: Stimulated splenocytes (lipopolysaccharide and concanavalin A) and T lymphocytes (concanavalin A and a-CD3/a-CD28) showed a decreased cytokine production and expression when compared with WT cells...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033523/-s-5-ethynyl-anabasine-a-novel-compound-is-a-more-potent-agonist-than-other-nicotine-alkaloids-on-the-nematode-asu-acr-16-receptor
#18
Fudan Zheng, Xiangwei Du, Tsung-Han Chou, Alan P Robertson, Edward W Yu, Brett VanVeller, Richard J Martin
Nematode parasites infect ∼2 billion people world-wide. Infections are treated and prevented by anthelmintic drugs, some of which act on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). There is an unmet need for novel therapeutic agents because of concerns about the development of resistance. We have selected Asu-ACR-16 from a significant nematode parasite genus, Ascaris suum, as a pharmaceutical target and nicotine as our basic moiety (EC50 6.21 ± 0.56 μM, Imax 82.39 ± 2.52%) to facilitate the development of more effective anthelmintics...
December 9, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030345/dictyocaulosis-in-dairy-cows-in-brazil-an-epidemiological-clinical-pathological-and-therapeutic-approach
#19
Luan C Henker, Claiton I Schwertz, Neuber J Lucca, Manoela M Piva, Patricia Giacomin, Anderson Gris, Leandro A Rhoden, Luke J Norbury, Aleksandro S da Silva, Rafael A da Rosa, Ricardo E Mendes
An outbreak of severe parasitic pneumonia caused by Dictyocaulus viviparus was diagnosed in adult dairy cows in the municipality of Arabutã, Southern Brazil. The total morbidity in the herd was 71.9%, and the morbidity amongst adult lactating cattle was 100%. The main clinical signs observed were dyspnea, tachypnea, nasal discharge, decreased milk production, and cough. A necropsy was conducted on one animal in order to establish the diagnosis. The herd had been treated previously with levamisole; however, clinical signs persisted and became worse...
March 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995347/the-cholinomimetic-morantel-as-an-open-channel-blocker-of-the-ascaris-suum-acr-16-nachr
#20
Melanie Abongwa, Katherine E Baber, Richard J Martin, Alan P Robertson
Nematode parasite infections pose a significant threat in human and veterinary medicine. At least a third of the world's population is at risk from nematode parasite infections. These infections not only cause health problems, but also cause loss of livestock production and hence, economic losses. Anthelmintic drugs are the mainstay by which control of nematode parasite infections is achieved. Many of the currently available anthelmintics act on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). However, the detailed mode of action (MOA) of these anthelmintics is not clearly understood...
December 2016: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
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