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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637262/qualitative-exploration-of-a-smoking-cessation-trial-for-people-living-with-hiv-in-south-africa
#1
Nandita Krishnan, Joel Gittelsohn, Alexandra Ross, Jessica Elf, Sandy Chon, Raymond Niaura, Neil Martinson, Jonathan E Golub
Introduction: In South Africa, people living with HIV (PLWH) have a high prevalence of smoking, which undermines the beneficial effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, little is known about barriers to smoking cessation and what interventions work for PLWH in this setting. Methods: A randomized trial comparing intensive anti-smoking counseling versus counseling and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) was recently concluded in Klerksdorp, South Africa. In a post-trial follow-up, 23 in-depth interviews with patients and one focus group discussion with counselors from the trial were conducted...
June 16, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636950/structural-evidence-of-quercetin-multi-target-bioactivity-a-reverse-virtual-screening-strategy
#2
Diego Carvalho, Margot Paulino, Fabio Polticelli, Florencia Arredondo, Robert J Williams, Juan A Abin-Carriquiry
The ubiquitous flavonoid quercetin is broadly recognized for showing diverse biological and health-promoting effects, such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective activities. The therapeutic potential of quercetin and similar compounds for preventing such diverse oxidative stress-related pathologies has been generally attributed to their direct antioxidant properties. Nevertheless, accumulated evidence indicates that quercetin is also able to interact with multiple cellular targets influencing the activity of diverse signaling pathways...
June 18, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636830/attenuation-of-hepatic-steatosis-by-purple-sweet-potato-color-is-associated-with-blocking-src-erk-c-ebp%C3%AE-signalling-in-high-fat-diet-treated-mice
#3
Xin Wang, Zi-Feng Zhang, Gui-Hong Zheng, Ai-Min Wang, Chun-Hui Sun, Su-Ping Qin, Juan Zhuang, Jun Lu, Dai-Fu Ma, Yuan-Lin Zheng
Our previous work showed that purple sweet potato color (PSPC), a class of naturally occurring anthocyanins, effectively improved hepatic glucose metabolic dysfunction in high-fat diet (HFD)-treated mice. This study investigated the effects of PSPC on HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and the signalling events associated with these effects. Mice were divided into four groups: Control group, HFD group, HFD+PSPC group and PSPC group. PSPC was administered daily for 20 weeks at oral doses of 700 mg/kg/day. Our results showed that PSPC significantly improved obesity and related metabolic parameters, as well as liver injury in HFD-treated mice...
June 21, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633657/patient-safety-culture-in-norwegian-nursing-homes
#4
Gunnar Tschudi Bondevik, Dag Hofoss, Bettina Sandgathe Husebø, Ellen Catharina Tveter Deilkås
BACKGROUND: Patient safety culture concerns leader and staff interaction, attitudes, routines, awareness and practices that impinge on the risk of patient-adverse events. Due to their complex multiple diseases, nursing home patients are at particularly high risk of adverse events. Studies have found an association between patient safety culture and the risk of adverse events. This study aimed to investigate safety attitudes among healthcare providers in Norwegian nursing homes, using the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire - Ambulatory Version (SAQ-AV)...
June 20, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633376/keeping-things-in-balance-family-experiences-of-living-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Nuria Esandi, Mike Nolan, Cristina Alfaro, Ana Canga-Armayor
Background and Objectives: Historically, research, practice, and policy on Alzheimer's family care has been largely focused on dyadic relationships and the experience of burden and stress, often failing to capture the complex caring dynamics as they unfold over time. This study sought to develop a more nuanced understanding of how people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their families are affected by the disease and how they respond to the challenges AD poses. Research Design and Methods: Using constructivist grounded theory, the study explored the experiences of living with AD for native Spanish families residing in Navarra...
June 15, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631419/the-cpxr-cpxa-system-contributes-to-salmonella-gold-resistance-by-controlling-the-gols-dependent-gesabc-transcription
#6
Sebastián Cerminati, Germán F Giri, Julián I Mendoza, Fernando C Soncini, Susana K Checa
Several regulatory systems contribute to bacterial resistance to heavy metals controlling the expression of factors required to eliminate the intoxicant and/or to repair the damage caused by it. In Salmonella, the response to Au ions is mediated by the specific metalloregulator GolS that, among other genes, controls the expression of the RND-efflux pump GesABC. In this work, we demonstrate that CpxR/CpxA, a main cell-envelope stress-responding system, promotes gesABC transcription in the presence of Au ions at neutral pH...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630756/fast-track-in-hip-arthroplasty
#7
Torben Bæk Hansen
'Fast-track' surgery was introduced more than 20 years ago and may be defined as a co-ordinated peri-operative approach aimed at reducing surgical stress and facilitating post-operative recovery.The fast-track programmes have now been introduced into total hip arthroplasty (THA) surgery with reduction in post-operative length of stay, shorter convalescence and rapid functional recovery without increased morbidity and mortality. This has been achieved by focusing on a multidisciplinary collaboration and establishing 'fast-track' units, with a well-defined organisational set-up tailored to deliver an accelerated peri-operative course of fast-track surgical THA procedures...
May 2017: EFORT open reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630705/physiological-effects-of-stress-related-to-helicopter-travel-in-federal-emergency-management-agency-search-and-rescue-canines
#8
E Perry, N Gulson, T-W Liu Cross, K S Swanson
Working canines are deployed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), as part of a National Disaster Response Plan. Stress associated with helicopter flight and the resulting physical effects on the dog are unknown. Our objective was to test the hypotheses that (1) helicopter travel affects the physiology and faecal microbiota of working canines, but that (2) physiological consequences of helicopter travel will not negatively affect their work performance. A total of nine FEMA canines were loaded onto helicopters and flown for 30 min in July 2015...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629892/engineered-myocardium-model-to-study-the-roles-of-hif-1%C3%AE-and-hif1a-as1-in-paracrine-only-signaling-under-pathological-level-oxidative-stress
#9
Aylin Acun, Pinar Zorlutuna
Studying heart tissue is critical for understanding and developing treatments for cardiovascular diseases. In this work, we fabricated precisely controlled and biomimetic engineered model tissues to study how cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions influence myocardial cell survival upon exposure to pathological level oxidative stress. Specifically, the interactions of endothelial cells (ECs) and cardiomyocytes (CMs), and the role of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), with its novel alternative regulator, HIF-1α antisense RNA1 (HIF1A-AS1), in these interactions were investigated...
June 16, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629890/perceived-social-stress-and-symptom-severity-among-help-seeking-adolescents-with-versus-without-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis
#10
Zachary B Millman, Steven C Pitts, Elizabeth Thompson, Emily R Kline, Caroline Demro, Marc J Weintraub, Jordan E DeVylder, Vijay A Mittal, Gloria M Reeves, Jason Schiffman
Research suggests that social stress exposure influences illness presentation and course among youth at clinical high-risk (CHR) for psychosis, though less is known about the extent to which self-reported perceptions of social stress relate to the severity of positive symptoms. Importantly, despite the notion that youth at CHR are especially susceptible to elevations in positive symptoms under conditions of stress, no study has examined this presumption relative to other psychiatric groups. Extending previous work demonstrating that perceived social stress was higher in a CHR group than in a clinical group of non-CHR, help-seeking controls, the current study aimed to: (1) examine whether perceived social stress is related to the severity of attenuated positive symptoms in the full sample (N=110); and (2) determine whether CHR status moderates the stress-symptom relation...
June 16, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629886/-evaluation-of-the-effectiveness-of-a-mindfulness-and-self-compassion-program-to-reduce-stress-and-prevent-burnout-in-primary-care-health-professionals
#11
Gloria Aranda Auserón, M Rosario Elcuaz Viscarret, Carmen Fuertes Goñi, Victoria Güeto Rubio, Pablo Pascual Pascual, Enrique Sainz de Murieta García de Galdeano
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a Mindfulness and Self-Compassion Program on the levels of stress and burnout in Primary Care health professionals. DESIGN: Randomised, controlled clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Training in Mindfulness was offered to 1,281 health professionals in Navarra (Spain) Primary Care, and 48 of them accepted. The participants were randomly assigned to groups: 25 to the intervention group, and the remaining 23 to the control group...
June 16, 2017: Atencion Primaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629352/male-suicide-among-construction-workers-in-australia-a-qualitative-analysis-of-the-major-stressors-precipitating-death
#12
Allison Milner, Humaira Maheen, Dianne Currier, Anthony D LaMontagne
BACKGROUND: Suicide rates among those employed in male-dominated professions such as construction are elevated compared to other occupational groups. Thus far, past research has been mainly quantitative and has been unable to identify the complex range of risk and protective factors that surround these suicides. METHODS: We used a national coronial database to qualitatively study work and non-work related influences on male suicide occurring in construction workers in Australia...
June 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628750/ergonomic-benefits-from-a-laparoscopic-instrument-with-rotatable-handle-piece-depend-on-the-area-of-the-operating-field-and-working-height
#13
Benjamin Steinhilber, Florian Reiff, Robert Seibt, Monika A Rieger, Peter Martus, Bernhard Kraemer, Ralf Rothmund
Objective To evaluate the effect of a laparoscopic instrument with a 360° rotatable handle piece (rot-HP) on biomechanical stress and precision in different areas of a simulated operating field at two working heights. Background Surgeons performing laparoscopic procedures are exposed to biomechanical stress and have an increased risk of musculoskeletal complaints. Method Fifty-seven healthy subjects (27 men, median age 26) without experience in laparoscopy performed a precision task in four quadrants (A-D) of the operating field using the rot-HP or a common fixed handle piece (fixed-HP) at an individually adjusted lower or higher working height...
June 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628668/dose-dependent-effects-of-gamma-radiation-on-the-early-zebrafish-development-and-gene-expression
#14
Selma Hurem, Leonardo Martín Martín, Dag Anders Brede, Eystein Skjerve, Rasoul Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, Ole Christian Lind, Terje Christensen, Vidar Berg, Hans-Christian Teien, Brit Salbu, Deborah Helen Oughton, Peter Aleström, Jan Ludvig Lyche
Ionizing radiation from natural sources or anthropogenic activity has the potential to cause oxidative stress or genetic damage in living organisms, through the ionization and excitation of molecules and the subsequent production of free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The present work focuses on radiation-induced biological effects using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) vertebrate model. Changes in developmental traits and gene expression in zebrafish were assessed after continuous external gamma irradiation (0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627355/-recent-advances-in-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-hypoproteinemia-after-surgical-stress
#15
Siyuan Jiang, Jin Zhang
After major operation, a series of complicated pathological and physiological changes will occur during the trauma and stress state. The protein synthesis is affected, which results in negative nitrogen balance. In addition, the release of inflammatory factors can damage the capillary endothelial cells and increase the permeability of micrangium, induce vascular colloidal albumin leakage to the extravascular tissue, decrease plasma albumin, make wound edema, eventually lead to postoperative hypoproteinemia...
March 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625960/production-of-an-antibiotic-enterocin-from-a-marine-actinobacteria-strain-h1003-by-metal-stress-technique-with-enhanced-enrichment-using-response-surface-methodology
#16
Syed Shamsul Hassan, Sayed Asmat Ali Shah, Chengqian Pan, Leilei Fu, Xun Cao, Yutong Shi, Xiaodan Wu, Kuiwu Wang, Bin Wu
Elicitation by chemical means including heavy metals is one of a new technique for drug discoveries. In this research, the effect of heavy metals on marine actinobacteria Streptomyces sp. H-1003 for the production of enterocin, with a strong broad spectrum activity, along optimized fermented medium was firstly investigated. The optimum metal stress conditions consisted of culturing marine actinobacteria strain H-1003 with addition of cobalt ions at 2mM in optimized Gause's medium having starch at 20mg/L for 10 days at 180 revolution/min...
January 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625430/sensorimotor-and-executive-function-slowing-in-anesthesiology-residents-after-overnight-shifts
#17
George W Williams, Bairavi Shankar, Eliana M Klier, Alice Z Chuang, Salma El Marjiya-Villarreal, Omonele O Nwokolo, Aanchal Sharma, Anne B Sereno
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Medical residents working overnight call shifts experience sleep deprivation and circadian clock disruption. This leads to deficits in sensorimotor function and increases in workplace accidents. Using quick tablet-based tasks, we investigate whether measureable executive function differences exist following a single overnight call versus routine shift, and whether factors like stress, rest and caffeine affect these measures. DESIGN: A prospective, observational, longitudinal, comparison study was conducted...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624946/impact-of-heavy-metal-contamination-on-oxidative-stress-of-eisenia-andrei-and-bacterial-community-structure-in-tunisian-mine-soil
#18
Iteb Boughattas, Sabrine Hattab, Hamadi Boussetta, Mohamed Banni, Elisabeth Navarro
The aims of this work were firstly to study the effect of heavy metal-polluted soils from Tunisian mine on earthworm biochemical biomarkers and on bacterial communities and therefore to analyze the interaction between earth worms and bacterial communities in these contaminated soils. For this purpose, we had introduced earthworm Eisenia andrei in six soils: one from mine spoils and five from agricultural soils, establishing a gradient of contamination. The response of worms to the presence of heavy metal was analyzed at the biochemical and transcriptional levels...
June 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624761/factors-influencing-psychological-social-and-health-outcomes-after-major-burn-injuries-in-adults-cohort-study-protocol
#19
Martha Druery, Peter A Newcombe, Cate M Cameron, Jeffrey Lipman
INTRODUCTION: The goal of burn care is that 'the quality of the outcome must be worth the pain of survival'. More research is needed to understand how best to deliver care for patients with burns to achieve this aim. Loss of independence, function as well as loss of income for patients with burns and carers cause a significant burden at both individual and societal levels. Much is being done to advance knowledge in the clinical care field; however, there has been a paucity of research exploring psychosocial outcomes...
June 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624676/predictors-of-daily-life-suicidal-ideation-in-adults-recently-discharged-after-a-serious-suicide-attempt-a-pilot-study
#20
Mathilde Husky, Joel Swendsen, Adela Ionita, Isabelle Jaussent, Catherine Genty, Philippe Courtet
The aims of the study are to examine the predictive role of fluctuations in daily life mood, social contexts, and behavior on subsequent suicidal ideation (SI); and to identify clinical and psychological factors associated with the general frequency of SI in a high-risk sample. The sample comprised 42 adults (73.8% female) hospitalized for a suicide attempt. Immediately following hospital discharge, they used Ecological Momentary Assessment for seven consecutive days, providing repeated measures of SI, environmental, contextual, and behavioral factors...
June 12, 2017: Psychiatry Research
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