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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231604/variations-in-body-morphology-explain-gender-differences-in-thermoeffector-function-during-compensable-heat-stress
#1
Sean R Notley, Joonhee Park, Kyoko Tagami, Norikazu Ohnishi, Nigel A S Taylor
Gender is sometimes thought to independently modulate cutaneous vasomotor and sudomotor function during heat exposure. Nevertheless, it was hypothesised that, when assessed during compensable exercise that evoked equal heat-loss requirements across participants, gender differences in those thermoeffectors would be explained by variations in the ratio between body surface area and mass (specific surface area). To evaluate that possibility, vasomotor and sudomotor functions were assessed in sixty individuals (36 males, 24 females) with widely varying (overlapping) specific surface areas (range: 232...
February 23, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225205/greater-endurance-capacity-and-improved-dyspnoea-with-acute-oxygen-supplementation-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-patients-without-resting-hypoxaemia
#2
Leona M Dowman, Christine F McDonald, Steven Bozinovski, Ross Vlahos, Rebecca Gillies, Dodie Pouniotis, Catherine J Hill, Nicole S L Goh, Anne E Holland
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Supplemental oxygen is commonly prescribed in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), although its benefits have not been proven. The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of oxygen on oxidative stress, cytokine production, skeletal muscle metabolism and physiological response to exercise in IPF. METHODS: Eleven participants with IPF received either oxygen, at an FiO2 of 0.50, or compressed air for 1 h at rest and during a cycle endurance test at 85% of peak work rate...
February 22, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224971/biofabrication-of-bundles-of-poly-lactic-acid-collagen-blends-mimicking-the-fascicles-of-the-human-achille-tendon
#3
Alberto Sensini, Chiara Gualandi, Luca Cristofolini, Gianluca Tozzi, Manuela Dicarlo, Gabriella Teti, Monica Mattioli-Belmonte, Maria Letizia Focarete
Electrospinning is a promising technique for the production of scaffolds aimed at the regeneration of soft tissues. The aim of this work was to develop electrospun bundles mimicking the architecture and mechanical properties of the fascicles of the human Achille tendon. Two different blends of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and collagen (Coll) were tested, PLLA/Coll-75/25 and PLLA/Coll-50/50, and compared with bundles of pure PLLA. First, a complete physico-chemical characterization was performed on non-woven mats made of randomly arranged fibers...
February 22, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224921/lemna-minor-plants-chronically-exposed-to-ionising-radiation-rna-seq-analysis-indicates-a-dose-rate-dependent-shift-from-acclimation-to-survival-strategies
#4
Arne Van Hoeck, Nele Horemans, Robin Nauts, May Van Hees, Hildegarde Vandenhove, Ronny Blust
Ecotoxicological research provides knowledge on ionising radiation-induced responses in different plant species. However, the sparse data currently available are mainly extracted from acute exposure treatments. To provide a better understanding of environmental exposure scenarios, the response to stress in plants must be followed in more natural relevant chronic conditions. We previously showed morphological and biochemical responses in Lemna minor plants continuously exposed for 7days in a dose-rate dependent manner...
April 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222402/impact-of-anchor-type-on-porcine-lumbar-biomechanics-finite-element-modelling-and-in-vitro-validation
#5
Martin Brummund, Vladimir Brailovski, Yvan Petit, Yann Facchinello, Jean-Marc Mac-Thiong
BACKGROUND: Rigid posterior implants used for spinal stabilization can be anchored to the vertebrae using pedicle screws or screws combined with transverse process hooks. In the present study, a finite element model of a porcine lumbar spine instrumented with screws and hooks is presented and validated. METHODS: The porcine lumbar spine model was validated using in-vitro measurements on six porcine specimens. Validation metrics included intervertebral rotations (L1 to L6) and nucleus pressure in the topmost cranial instrumented disc...
February 14, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219898/sk4-k-channels-are-therapeutic-targets-for-the-treatment-of-cardiac-arrhythmias
#6
Shiraz Haron-Khun, David Weisbrod, Hanna Bueno, Dor Yadin, Joachim Behar, Asher Peretz, Ofer Binah, Edith Hochhauser, Michael Eldar, Yael Yaniv, Michael Arad, Bernard Attali
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a stress-provoked ventricular arrhythmia, which also manifests sinoatrial node (SAN) dysfunction. We recently showed that SK4 calcium-activated potassium channels are important for automaticity of cardiomyocytes derived from human embryonic stem cells. Here SK4 channels were identified in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) from healthy and CPVT2 patients bearing a mutation in calsequestrin 2 (CASQ2-D307H) and in SAN cells from WT and CASQ2-D307H knock-in (KI) mice...
February 20, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219850/the-effect-of-aging-on-the-mechanical-behaviour-of-cuticle-in-the-locust-schistocerca-gregaria
#7
Eoin Parle, David Taylor
Despite some previous work on the morphology and mechanical properties of parts of the insect exoskeleton, there is very little known about how these properties change over time during the life of the insect. We examined the hind tibia of the adult desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria) as a function of time up to 63 days following the final moult, a much longer period that previously studied. We identified an initial growth phase, lasting on average 21 days, in which leg thickness increased rapidly (averaging 1...
February 8, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219830/gut-microbiome-based-medical-methodologies-for-early-stage-disease-prevention
#8
REVIEW
Jing-Zhang Wang, Wen-Tao Du, Yan-Li Xu, Shu-Zhen Cheng, Zhi-Jun Liu
Recent advancements highlight the important role of gut microbiome in human health. However, a variety of endogenous and exogenous factors, such as genes, foods, drugs, environmental pollutions, oxidative stress, etc., may interfere with the gut microbiome in vivo and increase risks of digestive system diseases, cardiovascular diseases, neurological diseases, obesity, diabetes, cancers, and so on. Abundant discoveries listed in this work support that changes in the composition of the gut microbiome may be potentially used as sensitive early-stage diagnostic biomarkers and that the gut microbiome could be a promising therapeutic target for systemic prevention of multiple human diseases...
February 17, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219078/mechanical-metamaterials-at-the-theoretical-limit-of-isotropic-elastic-stiffness
#9
J B Berger, H N G Wadley, R M McMeeking
A wide variety of high-performance applications require materials for which shape control is maintained under substantial stress, and that have minimal density. Bio-inspired hexagonal and square honeycomb structures and lattice materials based on repeating unit cells composed of webs or trusses, when made from materials of high elastic stiffness and low density, represent some of the lightest, stiffest and strongest materials available today. Recent advances in 3D printing and automated assembly have enabled such complicated material geometries to be fabricated at low (and declining) cost...
February 20, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218994/maternal-stress-and-psychological-distress-preconception-association-with-offspring-atopic-eczema-at-age-12-months
#10
S El-Heis, S R Crozier, E Healy, S M Robinson, N C Harvey, C Cooper, H M Inskip, J Baird, K M Godfrey
BACKGROUND: Perinatal maternal stress and low mood have been linked to offspring atopic eczema. OBJECTIVES: To examine the relation of maternal stress/mood with atopic eczema in the offspring, focusing particularly on stress/psychological distress preconception. METHODS: At recruitment in the UK Southampton Women's Survey, preconception maternal reports of perceived stress in daily living and the effect of stress on health were recorded; in a sub-sample psychological distress was assessed (12-item General Health Questionnaire)...
February 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218868/-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-and-d-national-consensus-guideline-in-hungary-from-15-october-2016
#11
Gábor Horváth, Zsuzsanna Gerlei, Judit Gervain, Gabriella Lengyel, Mihály Makara, Alajos Pár, László Rókusz, Ferenc Szalay, István Tornai, Klára Werling, Béla Hunyady
Diagnosis and treatment of HBV/HDV infection means for the patient to be able to maintain working capacity, to increase quality of life, to prevent cancer, and to prolong life expectancy, while society benefits from eliminating the chances of further transmission of the viruses, and decreasing the overall costs of serious complications. The guideline delineates the treatment algorithms for 2017 set by a consensus meeting of physicians involved in the treatment of these diseases. The prevalence of HBV infection in the Hungarian general population is 0...
February 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217095/endogenous-protein-interactome-of-human-udp-glucuronosyltransferases-exposed-by-untargeted-proteomics
#12
Michèle Rouleau, Yannick Audet-Delage, Sylvie Desjardins, Mélanie Rouleau, Camille Girard-Bock, Chantal Guillemette
The conjugative metabolism mediated by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase enzymes (UGTs) significantly influences the bioavailability and biological responses of endogenous molecule substrates and xenobiotics including drugs. UGTs participate in the regulation of cellular homeostasis by limiting stress induced by toxic molecules, and by controlling hormonal signaling networks. Glucuronidation is highly regulated at genomic, transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. However, the UGT protein interaction network, which is likely to influence glucuronidation, has received little attention...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215154/stress-and-salivary-glands
#13
Beáta Kerémi, Anita Beck, Tibor Károly Fábián, Gábor Fábián, Géza Szabó, Ákos Nagy, Gábor Varga
Salivary glands produce a bicarbonate-rich fluid containing digestive and protective proteins and other components to be delivered into the gastrointestinal tract. Its function is under strict control of the autonomic nervous system. Salivary electrolyte and fluid secretion is primarily controlled by parasympathetic activity, while protein secretion is primaily triggered by sympathetic stimulation. Stress activates the hypothalamic - pituitary - adrenal axis. The peripheral limb of this axis is the efferent sympathetic/adrenomedullary system...
February 15, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214726/job-satisfaction-developmental-trajectories-and-health-a-life-course-perspective
#14
Jonathan Dirlam, Hui Zheng
Understanding the health consequence of job dissatisfaction becomes increasingly important because job insecurity, stress and dissatisfaction have significantly increased in the United States in the last decade. Despite the extensive work in this area, prior studies nonetheless may underestimate the harmful effect of job dissatisfaction due to the cross-sectional nature of their data and sample selection bias. This study applies a life-course approach to more comprehensively examine the relationship between job satisfaction and health...
January 24, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213588/a-differential-autophagy-dependent-response-to-dna-double-strand-brakes-in-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-sporadic-als-patients
#15
Shane Wald-Altman, Edward Pichinuk, Or Kakhlon, Miguel Weil
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is an incurable motor neurodegenerative disease caused by a diversity of genetic and environmental factors leading to neuromuscular degeneration and pathophysiological implications in non-neural systems. Our previous work showed abnormal transcriptional expression levels of biomarker genes in non-neuronal cell samples from ALS patients. The same genes proved to be differentially expressed in brain, spinal cord and muscle of the SOD1(G93A) ALS mouse model. These observations support the pathophysiological relevance of the ALS biomarkers discovered in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) isolated from bone marrow samples of ALS patients (ALS-hMSC)...
February 16, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213540/characterization-of-the-physical-and-functional-interplay-between-mazf1-bif-and-its-noncognate-antitoxins-from-bifidobacterium-longum
#16
Yanxia Wei, Yang Li, Fan Yang, Qiong Wu, Dianbin Liu, Xiangyang Li, Hui Hua, Xiaomei Liu, Yugang Wang, Kuiyang Zheng, Renxian Tang
Bifidobacterium longum strain JDM301, a widely used commercial strain in China, encodes at least two MazEF-like modules and one RelBE-like toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems in its chromosome, designated as MazE1F1(Bif), MazE2F2(Bif) and RelBE(Bif), respectively. Bacterial TA systems play an important role in several stress responses, but the relationship between these TA systems is largely unknown. In this study, the interaction between MazF1(Bif) and MazE2(Bif) or RelB(Bif) was assessed in B. longum strain JDM301...
February 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213205/sensory-trigeminal-ulf-tens-stimulation-reduces-hrv-response-to-experimentally-induced-arithmetic-stress-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#17
Monaco Annalisa, Cattaneo Ruggero, Ortu Eleonora, Constantinescu Marian Vladimir, Pietropaoli Davide
Ultra Low Frequency Transcutaneous Electric Nervous Stimulation (ULF-TENS) is extensively used for pain relief and for the diagnosis and treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). In addition to its local effects, ULF-TENS acts on the autonomic nervous system (ANS), with particular reference to the periaqueductal gray (PAG), promoting the release of endogenous opioids and modulating descending pain systems. It has been suggested that the PAG participates in the coupling between the emotional stimulus and the appropriate behavioral autonomic response...
February 14, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213145/how-are-you-feeling-a-personalized-methodology-for-predicting-mental-states-from-temporally-observable-physical-and-behavioral-information
#18
Suppawong Tuarob, Conrad S Tucker, Soundar Kumara, C Lee Giles, Aaron L Pincus, David E Conroy, Nilam Ram
It is believed that anomalous mental states such as stress and anxiety not only cause suffering for the individuals, but also lead to tragedies in some extreme cases. The ability to predict the mental state of an individual at both current and future time periods could prove critical to healthcare practitioners. Currently, the practical way to predict an individual's mental state is through mental examinations that involve psychological experts performing the evaluations. However, such methods can be time and resource consuming, mitigating their broad applicability to a wide population...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212626/a-global-characterization-of-the-translational-and-transcriptional-programs-induced-by-methionine-restriction-through-ribosome-profiling-and-rna-seq
#19
Ke Zou, Qi Ouyang, Hao Li, Jiashun Zheng
BACKGROUND: Among twenty amino acids, methionine has a special role as it is coded by the translation initiation codon and methionyl-tRNAi (Met-tRNAi) is required for the assembly of the translation initiation complex. Thus methionine may play a special role in global gene regulation. Methionine has also been known to play important roles in cell growth, development, cancer, and aging. In this work, we characterize the translational and transcriptional programs induced by methionine restriction (MetR) and investigate the potential mechanisms through which methionine regulates gene expression, using the budding yeast S...
February 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212522/taking-up-the-cudgels-for-the-traditional-reactive-oxygen-and-nitrogen-species-detection-assays-and-their-use-in-the-cardiovascular-system
#20
REVIEW
Andreas Daiber, Matthias Oelze, Sebastian Steven, Swenja Kröller-Schön, Thomas Münzel
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS such as H2O2, nitric oxide) confer redox regulation of essential cellular functions (e.g. differentiation, proliferation, migration, apoptosis), initiate and catalyze adaptive stress responses. In contrast, excessive formation of RONS caused by impaired break-down by cellular antioxidant systems and/or insufficient repair of the resulting oxidative damage of biomolecules may lead to appreciable impairment of cellular function and in the worst case to cell death, organ dysfunction and severe disease phenotypes of the entire organism...
February 7, 2017: Redox Biology
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