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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822928/combined-effects-of-salinity-temperature-and-hypoxia-on-daphnia-magna-metabolism
#1
Elba Garreta-Lara, Bruno Campos, Carlos Barata, Silvia Lacorte, Romà Tauler
Metabolic changes of Daphnia magna pools due different abiotic factors linked to global climate change (salinity, temperature and hypoxia) were investigated using untargeted GC-MS and advanced chemometric strategies using a three factors two-level full factorial experimental design (DoE). Effects of these three factors and identity of the metabolites whose concentrations changed because of them were investigated. The simultaneous analysis of GC-MS data sets using Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) allowed the resolution of the elution and mass spectra profiles of a large number of D...
August 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822104/comparison-of-the-toxic-effects-of-quinolinic-acid-and-3-nitropropionic-acid-in-c-elegans-involvement-of-the-skn-1-pathway
#2
Ilan Kotlar, Aline Colonnello, María Fernanda Aguilera-González, Daiana Silva Avila, María Eduarda de Lima, Rodolfo García-Contreras, Alma Ortíz-Plata, Félix Alexandre Antunes Soares, Michael Aschner, Abel Santamaría
The tryptophan metabolite, quinolinic acid (QUIN), and the mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) are two important tools for toxicological research commonly used in neurotoxic models of excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, energy depletion, and neuronal cell death in mammals. However, their toxic properties have yet to be explored in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) for the establishment of novel, simpler, complementary, alternative, and predictive neurotoxic model of mammalian neurotoxicity...
August 18, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821958/midlife-work-related-stress-is-associated-with-late-life-cognition
#3
Shireen Sindi, Ingemar Kåreholt, Alina Solomon, Babak Hooshmand, Hilkka Soininen, Miia Kivipelto
To investigate the associations between midlife work-related stress and late-life cognition in individuals without dementia from the general population. The Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia (CAIDE) study population (n = 2000) was randomly selected from independent Finnish population-based surveys (baseline mean age 50 years). Participants underwent two re-examinations in late life (mean age 71 and 78 years, respectively). 1511 subjects participated in at least one re-examination (mean total follow-up 25 years)...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821590/three-dimensional-analysis-of-chloroplast-structures-associated-with-virus-infection
#4
Xuejiao Jin, Zhihao Jiang, Kun Zhang, Pengfei Wang, Xiuling Cao, Ning Yue, Xueting Wang, Xuan Zhang, Yunqin Li, Dawei Li, Byung-Ho Kang, Yongliang Zhang
Chloroplasts are multifunctional organelles whose morphology is affected by environmental stresses. Although the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of thylakoid membranes has been reported previously, a 3D visualization of chloroplast under stress has not been explored. In this work, we used a positive-strand RNA [(+)RNA] virus, Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) to observe chloroplast structural changes during infection by electron tomography (ET). The analyses revealed remodeling of the chloroplast membranes, characterized by the clustering of outer membrane-invaginated spherules in inner membrane-derived packets...
August 18, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820966/reactive-oxygen-species-responsive-polymeric-nanoparticles-for-alleviating-sepsis-induced-acute-liver-injury-in-mice
#5
Gan Chen, Hongzhang Deng, Xiang Song, Mingzi Lu, Lian Zhao, Sha Xia, Guoxing You, Jingxiang Zhao, Yulong Zhang, Anjie Dong, Hong Zhou
Sepsis-associated acute liver injury contributes to the pathogenesis of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and is associated with increased mortality. Currently, no specific therapeutics for sepsis-associated liver injury are available. With excess levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) being implicated as key players in sepsis-induced liver injury, we hypothesize that ROS-responsive nanoparticles (NPs) formed via the self-assembly of diblock copolymers of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(propylene sulfide) (PPS) may function as an effective drug delivery system for alleviating sepsis-induced liver injury by preferentially releasing drug molecules at the disease site...
August 11, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820860/not-extent-of-telecommuting-but-job-characteristics-as-proximal-predictors-of-work-related-well-being
#6
Tinne Vander Elst, Ronny Verhoogen, Maarten Sercu, Anja Van den Broeck, Elfi Baillien, Lode Godderis
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the curvilinear relationship between extent of telecommuting and work-related well-being (ie, burnout, work engagement, and cognitive stress complaints), as well as to test whether job characteristics act as explanatory mechanisms underlying this relationship. METHODS: A sample of 878 employees from an international telecommunication company with a long history of telecommuting participated in a survey on psychosocial risk factors and well-being at work...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820394/the-c-terminal-region-of-the-focal-adhesion-kinase-f1-domain-binds-akt1-and-inhibits-pressure-induced-cell-adhesion
#7
M D Basson, B Zeng, S Wang
Increased extracellular pressure or shear stress activate a complex signal pathway that stimulates integrin binding affinity and potentiates metastatic cell adhesion. Inhibiting either focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Akt1 can block this pathway, but risks interfering with the diverse other functions of each kinase. However, the mechanotransduced signal pathway involves a novel Akt1-FAK interaction not required for most FAK or Akt1 function, so modeling and blocking this interaction seems a desirable target...
June 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819083/the-forgotten-realm-of-the-new-and-emerging-psychosocial-risk-factors
#8
Francesco Chirico
In Europe, employers of all private and public enterprises have a legal obligation to protect their employers by all the different types of workplace hazards to the safety and health of workers. The most important methods developed for the work-related stress risk assessment are based on the Cox's research commissioned by European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA) and are the Management Standard HSE for work-related stress in United Kingdom, the START method in Germany, the Screening, Observation, Analysis, Expertise (SOBANE) in Belgium, and the National Institute for Prevention and Safety at Work (INAIL-ISPESL) model in Italy, the latter based on the British Management Standard...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818759/increased-cell-wall-thickness-of-endodermis-and-protoxylem-in-aeluropus-littoralis-roots-under-salinity-the-role-of-lac4-and-per64-genes
#9
Behrouz Barzegargolchini, Ali Movafeghi, Ali Dehestani, Pooyan Mehrabanjoubani
Enhanced cell wall lignification is one of the major salinity tolerance strategies in the roots of halophytes. A deep insight into the exact root developmental system in halophytes may be of great importance for understanding plant salt tolerance mechanisms. In this work the developmental and anatomical changes in the roots of halophyte Aeluropus littoralis along with expression patterns of two genes encoding for cell wall laccase (LAC4) and peroxidase (PER64) were investigated. The plants were treated with 0, 300 and 600mM NaCl and root samples were collected 3, 6 and 9days after treatment (DAT)...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818587/phenanthrene-responsive-micrornas-and-their-targets-in-wheat-roots
#10
Jinfeng Li, Le Yue, Yu Shen, Yu Sheng, Xinhua Zhan, Guohua Xu, Baoshan Xing
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in plant growth, development and responses to abiotic stress. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants. However, it is yet unknown how miRNAs work during PAH uptake by plant roots. Thus, in this study we ascertain phenanthrene (a model PAH)-responsive miRNAs using small RNA high-throughput deep sequencing and their target genes in wheat roots. We identified 108 conserved and non-conserved miRNA members belonging to 82 miRNA families and found 11 differentially expressed miRNAs, among which four miRNAs (miR156, miR164, miR171a and miR9678-3p) were up-regulated and the other seven miRNAs (miR398, miR531, miR1121, miR5048-5p, miR9653b, miR9773 and miR9778) were down-regulated...
August 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817953/the-evidence-base-for-interventions-targeting-individuals-with-work-related-ptsd-a-systematic-review-and-recommendations
#11
Iris Torchalla, Verena Strehlau
The purpose of this study was to summarize the evidence base for interventions targeting individuals with work-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), to make recommendations for clinicians and administrative decision makers involved in their rehabilitation, and to guide future research in this area. Particular attention was given to studies that were conducted in naturalistic clinical settings or in a workers' compensation claim context. Electronic searches of Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, PILOTS, and EMBASE identified 11 articles...
August 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817724/from-the-animal-house-to-the-field-are-there-consistent-individual-differences-in-immunological-profile-in-wild-populations-of-field-voles-microtus-agrestis
#12
Elena Arriero, Klara M Wanelik, Richard J Birtles, Janette E Bradley, Joseph A Jackson, Steve Paterson, Mike Begon
Inbred mouse strains, living in simple laboratory environments far removed from nature, have been shown to vary consistently in their immune response. However, wildlife populations are typically outbreeding and face a multiplicity of challenges, parasitological and otherwise. In this study we seek evidence of consistent difference in immunological profile amongst individuals in the wild. We apply a novel method in this context, using longitudinal (repeated capture) data from natural populations of field voles, Microtus agrestis, on a range of life history and infection metrics, and on gene expression levels...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816733/on-duty-nonfatal-injury-that-lead-to-work-absences-among-police-officers-and-level-of-perceived-stress
#13
Christine West, Desta Fekedulegn, Michael Andrew, Cecil M Burchfiel, Siobán Harlow, C Raymond Bingham, Marjorie McCullagh, Sung Kyun Park, John Violanti
OBJECTIVE: We examined prevalence, frequency, duration, and recency of injury leave and the association of duty-related injury with perceived stress in U.S. police officers. METHODS: This cross-sectional study contained 422 active duty police officers from a mid-sized urban police department. For each participating officer, work history records were used to assess on-duty injuries that lead to work absences. Linear regression analyses were used for analyses. RESULTS: Most participants had experienced at least one injury (62%), and among those injured, 67% experienced more than one duty-related injury...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816488/direct-and-indirect-effects-of-child-abuse-and-environmental-stress-a-lifecourse-perspective-on-adversity-and-depressive-symptoms
#14
Cindy Sousa, W Alex Mason, Todd I Herrenkohl, Dana Prince, Roy C Herrenkohl, M Jean Russo
There is a great deal of evidence about the mental health implications of physical child abuse and environmental stressors, or hardships that people experience at the household and neighborhood level (e.g., neighborhood violence; economic hardship, substance abuse, or conflict among family members). Yet, studies often focus on either abuse or environmental stress, not both, or examine abuse and environmental stressors as a combined set of experiences. Less is known, therefore, about how child abuse and environmental stress might work as either distinct or interrelated risks to diminish mental health over time...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816059/atherothrombosis-and-oxidative-stress-mechanisms-and-management-in-elderly
#15
Francesco Violi, Lorenzo Loffredo, Roberto Carnevale, Pasquale Pignatelli, Daniele Pastori
SIGNIFICANCE The incidence of cardiovascular events increases by aging, representing the main cause of death in old population. Aging is associated with over-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may affect clotting and platelet activation, and impair endothelial function so predisposing elderly patients to thrombotic complications. RECENT ADVANCES There are increasing evidences to suggest that aging is associated with an imbalance between oxidative stress and antioxidant status. Thus, up-regulation of ROS-producing enzymes such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and myeloperoxidase, along with down-regulation of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, occur during aging...
August 17, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815790/evaluation-of-wastewater-treatment-by-ozonation-for-reducing-the-toxicity-of-contaminants-of-emerging-concern-to-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#16
Nicholas Maya, Jaden Evans, Deniz Nasuhoglu, Siavash Isazadeh, Viviane Yargeau, Chris D Metcalfe
While conventional wastewater treatment technologies are effective at removing many contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) from municipal wastewater, some contaminants are not removed efficiently. Ozonation may be a treatment option for reducing the concentrations of recalcitrant CECs in wastewater, but this process may generate toxic transformation-products. In the present study, we conducted semi-batch experiments to ozonate municipal wastewater effluent (WWE) spiked with 5 commonly detected CECs. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether ozonation increased or decreased biological responses indicative of sublethal toxicity in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) injected intraperitoneally (i...
August 16, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815426/identification-and-red-blood-cell-automated-counting-from-blood-smear-images-using-computer-aided-system
#17
Vasundhara Acharya, Preetham Kumar
Red blood cell count plays a vital role in identifying the overall health of the patient. Hospitals use the hemocytometer to count the blood cells. Conventional method of placing the smear under microscope and counting the cells manually lead to erroneous results, and medical laboratory technicians are put under stress. A computer-aided system will help to attain precise results in less amount of time. This research work proposes an image-processing technique for counting the number of red blood cells. It aims to examine and process the blood smear image, in order to support the counting of red blood cells and identify the number of normal and abnormal cells in the image automatically...
August 17, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814467/input-from-the-medial-geniculate-nucleus-modulates-amygdala-encoding-of-fear-memory-discrimination
#18
Nicole C Ferrara, Patrick K Cullen, Shane P Pullins, Elena K Rotondo, Fred J Helmstetter
Generalization of fear can involve abnormal responding to cues that signal safety and is common in people diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder. Differential auditory fear conditioning can be used as a tool to measure changes in fear discrimination and generalization. Most prior work in this area has focused on elevated amygdala activity as a critical component underlying generalization. The amygdala receives input from auditory cortex as well as the medial geniculate nucleus (MgN) of the thalamus, and these synapses undergo plastic changes in response to fear conditioning and are major contributors to the formation of memory related to both safe and threatening cues...
September 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813501/durum-wheat-mirnas-in-response-to-nitrogen-starvation-at-the-grain-filling-stage
#19
Diana L Zuluaga, Domenico De Paola, Michela Janni, Pasquale Luca Curci, Gabriella Sonnante
Durum wheat highly depends on nitrogen for seed development and yield, and the obtainment of varieties with a better nitrogen use efficiency is crucial to reduce production costs and environmental pollution. In this study, sequencing of two small RNA libraries obtained from tissues of Ciccio and Svevo cultivars grown under nitrogen starvation conditions produced 84 novel, and 161 conserved miRNAs. Of these, 7 novel and 13 known miRNAs were newly identified in this work. Quantitative PCR analysis of selected miRNAs highlighted that the expression levels of some of them depends on the tissue and on the cultivar, Svevo being the most responsive to nitrogen starvation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813475/evaluation-of-the-adaptogenic-potential-exerted-by-ginsenosides-rb1-and-rg1-against-oxidative-stress-mediated-neurotoxicity-in-an-in-vitro-neuronal-model
#20
Carlos Fernández-Moriano, Elena González-Burgos, Irene Iglesias, Rafael Lozano, M Pilar Gómez-Serranillos
BACKGROUND: Ginseng (Panax sp.) is a drug with multiple pharmacological actions that has been largely used in traditional medicines for the treatment of many health problems. In the therapy of neurodegenerative disorders, it has been employed due to its capacity to strengthen mental processes by enhancing cognitive performance and psychological function. Current work aimed at evaluating the adaptogenic potential of Rb1 and Rg1 against oxidative-stress mediated degeneration in a model of nervous cells...
2017: PloS One
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