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Mitochondrial DNA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334293/dna-barcoding-for-species-identification-in-deep-sea-clams-mollusca-bivalvia-vesicomyidae
#1
Jun Liu, Haibin Zhang
Deep-sea clams (Bivalvia: Vesicomyidae) have been found in reduced environments over the world oceans, but taxonomy of this group remains confusing at species and supraspecific levels due to their high-morphological similarity and plasticity. In the present study, we collected mitochondrial COI sequences to evaluate the utility of DNA barcoding on identifying vesicomyid species. COI dataset identified 56 well-supported putative species/operational taxonomic units (OTUs), approximately covering half of the extant vesicomyid species...
January 15, 2018: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332303/mitochondrial-dna-nuclear-context-and-the-risk-for-carcinogenesis
#2
REVIEW
Brett A Kaufman, Martin Picard, Neal Sondheimer
The inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from mother to child is complicated by differences in the stability of the mitochondrial genome. Although the germ line mtDNA is protected through the minimization of replication between generations, sequence variation can occur either through mutation or due to changes in the ratio between distinct genomes that are present in the mother (known as heteroplasmy). Thus, the unpredictability in transgenerational inheritance of mtDNA may cause the emergence of pathogenic mitochondrial and cellular phenotypes in offspring...
January 14, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331679/molecular-identification-of-forensically-important-calliphoridae-and-sarcophagidae-species-using-its2-nucleotide-sequences
#3
Ji Hye Park, Yu-Hoon Kim, Chan Seon Ham, Sang Eon Shin, Hyun Ju Lee, Kwang Soo Ko, Jinhyuk Choi, Gi Hoon Son, Seong Hwan Park
The application of insect evidence to forensic investigations is mainly based on the estimation of postmortem interval and the identification of insect species from samples that are collected from the crime scene. Due to the limited number of expert taxonomists, species identification is one of the major barriers for crime scene investigators to utilize forensic entomology. Therefore, the molecular identification of species, using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene, has been suggested as an alternative strategy...
January 3, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330893/mitogenomic-differences-between-the-normal-and-tumour-cells-of-colorectal-cancer-patients
#4
Katarzyna Skonieczna, Boris Malyarchuk, Arkadiusz Jawień, Andrzej Marszałek, Zbigniew Banaszkiewicz, Paweł Jarmocik, Tomasz Grzybowski
So far, a reliable spectrum of mitochondrial DNA mutations in colorectal cancer cells is still unknown, and neither is their significance in carcinogenesis. Indeed, it remains debatable whether mtDNA mutations are "drivers" or "passengers" of colorectal carcinogenesis. Thus, we analyzed 200 mitogenomes from normal and cancer tissues of 100 colorectal cancer patients. Minority variant mutations were detected at the 1% level. We showed that somatic mutations frequently occur in colorectal cancer cells (75%) and are randomly distributed across the mitochondrial genome...
January 12, 2018: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330875/performance-of-the-early-access-ampliseq%C3%A2-mitochondrial-panel-with-degraded-dna-samples-using-the-ion-torrent%C3%A2-platform
#5
Ka Tak Wai, Mark Barash, Peter Gunn
The Early Access AmpliSeq™ Mitochondrial Panel amplifies whole mitochondrial genomes for phylogenetic and kinship identifications, using Ion Torrent™ technology. There is currently limited information on its performance with degraded DNA, a common occurrence in forensic samples. This study evaluated the performance of the Panel with DNA samples degraded in vitro, to mimic conditions commonly found in forensic investigations. Purified DNA from five individuals was heat-treated at five time points each (125°C for 0, 30, 60, 120 and 240 minutes; total n = 25)...
January 13, 2018: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330691/bis-guanylhydrazones-as-efficient-anti-candida-compounds-through-dna-interaction
#6
Jelena Lazić, Vladimir Ajdačić, Sandra Vojnovic, Mario Zlatović, Marina Pekmezovic, Selene Mogavero, Igor Opsenica, Jasmina Nikodinovic-Runic
Candida spp. are leading causes of opportunistic mycoses, including life-threatening hospital-borne infections, and novel antifungals, preferably aiming targets that have not been used before, are constantly needed. Hydrazone- and guanidine-containing molecules have shown a wide range of biological activities, including recently described excellent antifungal properties. In this study, four bis-guanylhydrazone derivatives (BG1-4) were generated following a previously developed synthetic route. Anti-Candida (two C...
January 12, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329720/discoveries-of-extrachromosomal-circles-of-dna-in-normal-and-tumor-cells
#7
REVIEW
Teressa Paulsen, Pankaj Kumar, M Murat Koseoglu, Anindya Dutta
While the vast majority of cellular DNA in eukaryotes is contained in long linear strands in chromosomes, we have long recognized some exceptions like mitochondrial DNA, plasmids in yeasts, and double minutes (DMs) in cancer cells where the DNA is present in extrachromosomal circles. In addition, specialized extrachromosomal circles of DNA (eccDNA) have been noted to arise from repetitive genomic sequences like telomeric DNA or rDNA. Recently eccDNA arising from unique (nonrepetitive) DNA have been discovered in normal and malignant cells, raising interesting questions about their biogenesis, function and clinical utility...
January 9, 2018: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329337/mitochondrial-dna-ancestry-hpv-infection-and-the-risk-of-cervical-cancer-in-a-multiethnic-population-of-northeastern-argentina
#8
Ines Badano, Daiana J Sanabria, Maria E Totaro, Samara Rubinstein, Juan A Gili, Domingo J Liotta, Maria A Picconi, Rodolfo H Campos, Theodore G Schurr
BACKGROUND: Misiones Province in northeastern Argentina is considered to be a region with a high prevalence of HPV infection and a high mortality rate due to cervical cancer. The reasons for this epidemiological trend are not completely understood. To gain insight into this problem, we explored the relationship between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) ancestry, HPV infection, and development of cervical lesions/cancer in women from the city of Posadas in Misiones Province. METHODS: Two hundred and sixty-one women, including 92 cases of patients diagnosed with cervical lesions and 169 controls, were analyzed...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329300/symmetric-dimeric-bisbenzimidazoles-dbp-n-reduce-methylation-of-rarb-and-pten-while-significantly-increase-methylation-of-rrna-genes-in-mcf-7-cancer-cells
#9
Svetlana V Kostyuk, Margarita A Kvasha, Daria A Khrabrova, Olga V Kirsanova, Elizaveta S Ershova, Elena M Malinovskaya, Natalia N Veiko, Alexander A Ivanov, Vasiliy S Koval, Alexei L Zhuze, Vadim H Tashlitsky, Pavel E Umriukhin, Sergey I Kutsev, Elizaveta S Gromova
BACKGROUND: Hypermethylation is observed in the promoter regions of suppressor genes in the tumor cancer cells. Reactivation of these genes by demethylation of their promoters is a prospective strategy of the anticancer therapy. Previous experiments have shown that symmetric dimeric bisbenzimidazoles DBP(n) are able to block DNA methyltransferase activities. It was also found that DBP(n) produces a moderate effect on the activation of total gene expression in HeLa-TI population containing epigenetically repressed avian sarcoma genome...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329071/synthesis-anticancer-activity-and-mechanism-of-action-of-new-thiazole-derivatives
#10
Temístocles Italo de Santana, Miria de Oliveira Barbosa, Paulo André Teixeira de Moraes Gomes, Anne Cecília Nascimento da Cruz, Teresinha Gonçalves da Silva, Ana Cristina Lima Leite
Thiazole derivatives are recognized to possess various biological activities as antiparasitic, antifungal, antimicrobial and antiproliferative. The present work reports the synthesis of 22 new substances belonging to two classes of compounds: thiosemicarbazones and thiazoles, with the purpose of developing new drugs that present high specificity for tumor cells and low toxicity to the organism. A cytotoxic screening was performed to evaluate the performance of the new derivatives in five tumor cell lines. Eight compounds were shown to be promising in at least three tumor cell lines...
December 14, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328920/snapshot-mitochondrial-nucleoid
#11
Nina A Bonekamp, Nils-Göran Larsson
Mitochondrial DNA is compacted into nucleoprotein complexes denoted mitochondrial nucleoids, the focus of this SnapShot.
January 11, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327637/evidence-of-shallow-mitochondrial-divergence-in-the-slender-armorhead-pentaceros-wheeleri-pisces-pentacerotidae-from-the-emperor-seamount-chain
#12
Seung Eun Bae, Hanna Kim, Seok-Gwan Choi, Jin-Koo Kim
Competitive overexploitation of the slender armorhead, Pentaceros wheeleri, a deep-sea fish inhabiting the Emperor Seamount Chain caused a serious population decline. Therefore, it is urgently necessary to clarify its genetic diversity and connectivity among populations of P. wheeleri for appropriate stock management. For this, we compared 677 base pairs (bp) of mitochondrial (mt) DNA control region (CR) sequences of 80 individuals from three seamounts (the Milwaukee, Kinmei, and Koko Seamounts) in the southern part of the Emperor Seamount Chain...
January 12, 2018: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325416/igy-reduces-afb1-induced-cytotoxicity-cellular-dysfunction-and-genotoxicity-in-human-l-02-hepatocytes-and-swan-71-trophoblasts
#13
Taotao Qiu, Xing Shen, Zhen Tian, Riming Huang, Xiangmei Li, Juan Wang, Rong Wang, Yuanming Sun, Yiguo Jiang, Huidong Zhang, Hongtao Lei
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) causes hepatotoxic, genotoxic, and immuno¬toxic effects in a variety of species. Although various neutralizing agents of AFB1 toxicity have been studied, the egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgY) detoxification of small molecular toxins and the mechanisms underlying such effects have not yet been reported. In this investigation, anti-AFB1 IgY against AFB1 was successfully raised, and a competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was established with a sensitive half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50, 2...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325368/-the-effects-and-related-mechanism-of-salvianolate-on-rats-with-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#14
R C Yue, X L Yang, R Y Zhang, S Liu, J Liu, J Zeng, H Liang, W Wang, H X Hu, C Y Zeng
Objective: To investigate the effect and related mechanism of salvianolate on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. Methods: Thirty-six adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups (n=12 each) using random number table method: control group (coronary artery was not ligated) , I/R group (myocardial I/R model was established by ligation and opening of left anterior descending coronary artery) , and salvianolate+I/R group (5 mg/kg of salvianolate was injected through the tail vein at the time of reperfusion) ...
December 24, 2017: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324793/phylogeography-of-screaming-hairy-armadillo-chaetophractus-vellerosus-successive-disjunctions-and-extinctions-due-to-cyclical-climatic-changes-in-southern-south-america
#15
Sebastián Poljak, Alejandro M Ferreiro, Marina B Chiappero, Julieta Sánchez, Magalí Gabrielli, Marta S Lizarralde
Little is known about phylogeography of armadillo species native to southern South America. In this study we describe the phylogeography of the screaming hairy armadillo Chaetophractus vellerosus, discuss previous hypothesis about the origin of its disjunct distribution and propose an alternative one, based on novel information on genetic variability. Variation of partial sequences of mitochondrial DNA Control Region (CR) from 73 individuals from 23 localities were analyzed to carry out a phylogeographic analysis using neutrality tests, mismatch distribution, median-joining (MJ) network and paleontological records...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324336/new-1-5-and-2-5-disubstituted-tetrazoles-dependent-activity-towards-surface-barrier-of-candida-albicans
#16
Monika Staniszewska, Małgorzata Gizińska, Ewa Mikulak, Klaudia Adamus, Mirosława Koronkiewicz, Edyta Łukowska-Chojnacka
A series of novel tetrazole derivatives was synthetized using N-alkylation or Michael-type addition reactions, and screened for their fungistatic potential against Candida albicans (the lack of endpoint = 100%). Among them, the selected compounds 2d, 4b, and 6a differing in substituents at the tetrazole ring were non-toxic to Galleria mellonella larvae in vivo and exerted slight toxicity against Caco-2 in vitro (CC50 at 256 μg/mL). An antagonistic effect of tetrazole derivatives 2d, 4b, and 6a respectively in combination with Fluconazole was shown using the checker board and colorimetric methods (fractional inhibitory concentration indexes FICIs >1)...
December 30, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324039/phylogeny-and-evolution-of-neuropterida-where-have-wings-of-lace-taken-us
#17
Michael S Engel, Shaun L Winterton, Laura C V Breitkreuz
The last 25 years of phylogenetic investigation into the three orders constituting the superorder Neuropterida-Raphidioptera, Megaloptera, and Neuroptera-have brought about a dramatic revision in our understanding of the evolution of lacewings, snakeflies, dobsonflies, and their diverse relatives. Phylogenetic estimations based on combined analyses of diverse data sources, ranging from adult and larval morphology to full mitochondrial genomic DNA, have begun to converge on similar patterns, many times in accordance with hypotheses put forth by Cyril Withycombe nearly a century ago...
January 7, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323753/associations-of-mitochondrial-polymorphisms-with-sporadic-colorectal-adenoma
#18
Bharat Thyagarajan, Weihua Guan, Veronika Fedirko, Helene Barcelo, Ramya Ramasubramaian, Myron Gross, Michael Goodman, Roberd M Bostick
Somatic mutations in mitochondrial DNA have been reported in colorectal adenomatous polyps (adenomas), the precursors to most colorectal cancers. However, there are no reports of associations of germline variation in mitochondrial DNA with adenoma risk. We investigated associations of germline polymorphisms in the displacement loop (D-loop) and non-D-loop region of the mitochondrial genome with incident, sporadic colorectal adenoma in three pooled colonoscopy-based case-control studies (n = 327 adenoma cases, 420 controls) that used identical methods for case and risk factor ascertainment...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323231/mice-deficient-in-the-shmt2-gene-have-mitochondrial-respiration-defects-and-are-embryonic-lethal
#19
Haruna Tani, Sakiko Ohnishi, Hiroshi Shitara, Takayuki Mito, Midori Yamaguchi, Hiromichi Yonekawa, Osamu Hashizume, Kaori Ishikawa, Kazuto Nakada, Jun-Ichi Hayashi
Accumulation of somatic mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been proposed to be responsible for human aging and age-associated mitochondrial respiration defects. However, our previous findings suggested an alternative hypothesis of human aging-that epigenetic changes but not mutations regulate age-associated mitochondrial respiration defects, and that epigenetic downregulation of nuclear-coded genes responsible for mitochondrial translation [e.g., glycine C-acetyltransferase (GCAT), serine hydroxymethyltransferase 2 (SHMT2)] is related to age-associated respiration defects...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321908/rapid-song-divergence-leads-to-discordance-between-genetic-distance-and-phenotypic-characters-important-in-reproductive-isolation
#20
Emmanuel C Nwankwo, Chryso Th Pallari, Louis Hadjioannou, Andreas Ioannou, Ronald K Mulwa, Alexander N G Kirschel
The criteria for species delimitation in birds have long been debated, and several recent studies have proposed new methods for such delimitation. On one side, there is a large consensus of investigators who believe that the only evidence that can be used to delimit species is molecular phylogenetics, and with increasing numbers of markers to gain better support, whereas on the other, there are investigators adopting alternative approaches based largely on phenotypic differences, including in morphology and communication signals...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
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