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Mitochondrial DNA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167438/checkpoint-kinase-1-is-essential-for-normal-b-cell-development-and-lymphomagenesis
#1
Fabian Schuler, Johannes G Weiss, Silke E Lindner, Michael Lohmüller, Sebastian Herzog, Simon F Spiegl, Philipp Menke, Stephan Geley, Verena Labi, Andreas Villunger
Checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) is critical for intrinsic cell cycle control and coordination of cell cycle progression in response to DNA damage. Despite its essential function, CHK1 has been identified as a target to kill cancer cells and studies using Chk1 haploinsufficient mice initially suggested a role as tumor suppressor. Here, we report on the key role of CHK1 in normal B-cell development, lymphomagenesis and cell survival. Chemical CHK1 inhibition induces BCL2-regulated apoptosis in primary as well as malignant B-cells and CHK1 expression levels control the timing of lymphomagenesis in mice...
November 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167359/genome-diversity-in-the-neolithic-globular-amphorae-culture-and-the-spread-of-indo-european-languages
#2
Francesca Tassi, Stefania Vai, Silvia Ghirotto, Martina Lari, Alessandra Modi, Elena Pilli, Andrea Brunelli, Roberta Rosa Susca, Alicja Budnik, Damian Labuda, Federica Alberti, Carles Lalueza-Fox, David Reich, David Caramelli, Guido Barbujani
It is unclear whether Indo-European languages in Europe spread from the Pontic steppes in the late Neolithic, or from Anatolia in the Early Neolithic. Under the former hypothesis, people of the Globular Amphorae culture (GAC) would be descended from Eastern ancestors, likely representing the Yamnaya culture. However, nuclear (six individuals typed for 597 573 SNPs) and mitochondrial (11 complete sequences) DNA from the GAC appear closer to those of earlier Neolithic groups than to the DNA of all other populations related to the Pontic steppe migration...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166859/divergent-clades-or-cryptic-species-mito-nuclear-discordance-in-a-daphnia-species-complex
#3
Anne Thielsch, Alexis Knell, Ali Mohammadyari, Adam Petrusek, Klaus Schwenk
BACKGROUND: Genetically divergent cryptic species are frequently detected by molecular methods. These discoveries are often a byproduct of molecular barcoding studies in which fragments of a selected marker are used for species identification. Highly divergent mitochondrial lineages and putative cryptic species are even detected in intensively studied animal taxa, such as the crustacean genus Daphnia. Recently, eleven such lineages, exhibiting genetic distances comparable to levels observed among well-defined species, were recorded in the D...
November 22, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165562/the-diversity-of-recent-and-ancient-human-dream-a-new-microarray-for-genetic-anthropology-and-genealogy-forensics-and-personalized-medicine
#4
Eran Elhaik, Leeban Yusuf, Ainan I J Anderson, Mehdi Pirooznia, Dimitrios Arnellos, Gregory Vilshansky, Gunes Ercal, Yontao Lu, Teresa Webster, Michael L Baird, Umberto Esposito
The human population displays wide variety in demographic history, ancestry, content of DNA derived from hominins or ancient populations, adaptation, traits, copy number variation (CNVs), drug response, and more. These polymorphisms are of broad interest to population geneticists, forensics investigators, and medical professionals. Historically, much of that knowledge was gained from population survey projects. While many commercial arrays exist for genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping, their design specifications are limited and they do not allow a full exploration of biodiversity...
November 20, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165486/optical-control-of-mitochondrial-reductive-reactions-in-living-cells-using-an-electron-donor-acceptor-linked-molecule
#5
Yuta Takano, Reina Munechika, Vasudevanpillai Biju, Hideyoshi Harashima, Hiroshi Imahori, Yuma Yamada
It has been known for decades that intracellular redox reactions control various vital functions in living systems, which include the synthesis of biomolecules, the modulation of protein functions, and cell signaling. Although there have been several reports on the control of such functions using DNA and RNA, the non-invasive optical control of biological functions is an important ongoing challenge. In this study, a hybrid of an electron donor-acceptor linked molecule based on a ferrocene(Fc)-porphyrin(ZnP)-fullerene(C60) analogue and an elaborately designed nano-carrier, referred to herein as a MITO-Porter, resulted in a successful photoinduced intermolecular electron transfer reaction via the long-lived intramolecular charge separation, leading to site-specific reductive reactions in the mitochondria of living HeLa cells...
November 22, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165144/isolation-and-identification-of-acanthamoeba-strains-from-soil-and-tap-water-in-yanji-china
#6
Yinghua Xuan, Yanqin Shen, Yuxi Ge, Gen Yan, Shanzi Zheng
BACKGROUND: Members of the genus Acanthamoeba are widely distributed throughout the world, and some of them are considered pathogenic, as they are capable of causing corneal and central nervous system diseases. In this study, we isolated Acanthamoeba strains from soil and tap water in Yanji, China. METHODS: We identified four strains of Acanthamoeba (CJY/S1, CJY/S2, CJY/S3, and CJY/W1) using mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (mtDNA RFLP) analysis...
June 30, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165056/citrinin-induces-apoptosis-in-human-hct116-colon-cancer-cells-through-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#7
Amal Salah, Chayma Bouaziz, Alexandre Prola, Julie Pires Da Silva, Hassen Bacha, Salwa Abid-Essefi, Christophe Lemaire
The mycotoxin citrinin (CTN) is a natural contaminant of various human foods that may produce serious adverse health problems. Several studies demonstrated that citrinin exerts cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in both in vivo and in vitro systems. However, the precise mechanisms of action (MOA), particularly in intestinal cells remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine the precise MOA of citrinin in vitro. Data demonstrated that CTN significantly decreased the number of viable human intestinal HCT116 cells and induced apoptotic events including (1) decrease in ΔѰm indicative of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, (2) activation of caspase 3, (3) elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and (4) relative persistence of plasma membrane integrity...
2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164653/gradient-sperm-selection-for-reproductive-techniques-in-cattle-is-isolate-a-suitable-replacement-for-percoll
#8
B Sepúlveda, M E Arias, L Aguila, F Zambrano, R Sánchez, R Felmer
In assisted reproductive techniques, it is essential to perform a sperm selection to obtain spermatozoa with high motility and membrane integrity for in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and high-DNA integrity for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). In this study, we evaluated whether Isolate(®) was a suitable substitute for Percoll(®) for assisted reproductive techniques. Commercial cryopreserved bovine semen was used after selection in both gradients, and plasma and acrosome membrane integrity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, DNA integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) were assessed by flow cytometry...
November 21, 2017: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164616/protection-against-%C3%AE-amyloid-neurotoxicity-by-a-non-toxic-endogenous-n-terminal-%C3%AE-amyloid-fragment-and-its-active-hexapeptide-core-sequence
#9
Kelly H Forest, Naghum Alfulaij, Komal Arora, Ruth Taketa, Tessi Sherrin, Cedomir Todorovic, James L M Lawrence, Gene T Yoshikawa, Ho-Leung Ng, Victor J Hruby, Robert A Nichols
High levels (μM) of beta amyloid (Aβ) oligomers are known to trigger neurotoxic effects, leading to synaptic impairment, behavioral deficits and apoptotic cell death. The hydrophobic C-terminal domain of Aβ, together with sequences critical for oligomer formation, is essential for this neurotoxicity. However, Aβ at low levels (pM-nM) has been shown to function as a positive neuromodulator and this activity resides in the hydrophilic N-terminal domain of Aβ. An N-terminal Aβ fragment (1-15/16), found in cerebrospinal fluid, was also shown to be a highly active neuromodulator and to reverse Aβ-induced impairments of long-term potentiation...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164120/expression-of-mitochondrial-encoded-genes-in-blood-differentiate-acute-renal-allograft-rejection
#10
Silke Roedder, Tara Sigdel, Szu-Chuan Hsieh, Jennifer Cheeseman, Diana Metes, Camila Macedo, Elaine F Reed, H A Gritsch, Adriana Zeevi, Ron Shapiro, Allan D Kirk, Minnie M Sarwal
Despite potent immunosuppression, clinical and biopsy confirmed acute renal allograft rejection (AR) still occurs in 10-15% of recipients, ~30% of patients demonstrate subclinical rejection on biopsy, and ~50% of them can show molecular inflammation, all which increase the risk of chronic dysfunction and worsened allograft outcomes. Mitochondria represent intracellular endogenous triggers of inflammation, which can regulate immune cell differentiation, and expansion and cause antigen-independent graft injury, potentially enhancing the development of acute rejection...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163634/evidence-suggesting-absence-of-mitochondrial-dna-methylation
#11
Mie Mechta, Lars R Ingerslev, Odile Fabre, Martin Picard, Romain Barrès
Methylation of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins participates in the regulation of mitochondria function. The existence of cytosine methylation in the mitochondrial genome is debated. To investigate whether mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is methylated, we used both targeted- and whole mitochondrial genome bisulfite sequencing in cell lines and muscle tissue from mouse and human origin. While unconverted cytosines were detected in some portion of the mitochondrial genome, their abundance was inversely associated to the sequencing depth, indicating that sequencing analysis can bias the estimation of mtDNA methylation levels...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163365/functional-mitochondria-in-health-and-disease
#12
REVIEW
Patries M Herst, Matthew R Rowe, Georgia M Carson, Michael V Berridge
The ability to rapidly adapt cellular bioenergetic capabilities to meet rapidly changing environmental conditions is mandatory for normal cellular function and for cancer progression. Any loss of this adaptive response has the potential to compromise cellular function and render the cell more susceptible to external stressors such as oxidative stress, radiation, chemotherapeutic drugs, and hypoxia. Mitochondria play a vital role in bioenergetic and biosynthetic pathways and can rapidly adjust to meet the metabolic needs of the cell...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162845/helicobacter-pylori-targets-mitochondrial-import-and-components-of-mitochondrial-dna-replication-machinery-through-an-alternative-vaca-dependent-and-a-vaca-independent-mechanisms
#13
Laurent Chatre, Julien Fernandes, Valérie Michel, Laurence Fiette, Patrick Avé, Giuseppe Arena, Utkarsh Jain, Rainer Haas, Timothy C Wang, Miria Ricchetti, Eliette Touati
Targeting mitochondria is a powerful strategy for pathogens to subvert cell physiology and establish infection. Helicobacter pylori is a bacterial pathogen associated with gastric cancer development that is known to target mitochondria directly and exclusively through its pro-apoptotic and vacuolating cytotoxin VacA. By in vitro infection of gastric epithelial cells with wild-type and VacA-deficient H. pylori strains, treatment of cells with purified VacA proteins and infection of a mouse model, we show that H...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162031/norgal-extraction-and-de-novo-assembly-of-mitochondrial-dna-from-whole-genome-sequencing-data
#14
Kosai Al-Nakeeb, Thomas Nordahl Petersen, Thomas Sicheritz-Pontén
BACKGROUND: Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) projects provide short read nucleotide sequences from nuclear and possibly organelle DNA depending on the source of origin. Mitochondrial DNA is present in animals and fungi, while plants contain DNA from both mitochondria and chloroplasts. Current techniques for separating organelle reads from nuclear reads in WGS data require full reference or partial seed sequences for assembling. RESULTS: Norgal (de Novo ORGAneLle extractor) avoids this requirement by identifying a high frequency subset of k-mers that are predominantly of mitochondrial origin and performing a de novo assembly on a subset of reads that contains these k-mers...
November 21, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161943/analysis-of-sequence-divergence-in-redfin-cypriniformes-cyprinidae-tribolodon-based-on-mtdna-and-ndna-markers-with-inferences-in-systematics-and-genetics-of-speciation
#15
Anna O Zolotova, Yuri Ph Kartavtsev
To clarify relationship of species of the genus Tribolodon in the Russian part of their distribution ranges, two mitochondrial markers (Co-1 and Cyt-b), a nuclear marker (Rho), and a gene marker of rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1,2) were used. Depending on the marker, different numbers of species groups were detected by the ABGD method, but in combination with the analysis of phylograms, these data generally support the known species clusters and regional intraspecies groups. A complex analysis of sequences from three redfin species within the area of the study, based on four marker genes and using the methods of molecular phylogenetics, ordination of genetic distances, recombinant analysis, and population genetic approaches, has revealed clusters of three commonly recognized species, regional intraspecific groups or individuals of local populations, and few hybrid individuals...
November 21, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161486/-phylogenetic-signal-at-the-cytb-sertrna-ig1-nd1-mitochondrial-region-in-anopheles-kerteszia-neivai-howard-dyar-knab-1913
#16
Andrés López-Rubio, Juan David Suaza, Charles Porter, Sandra Uribe, Gabriel Bedoya, Iván Darío Vélez
INTRODUCTION: Mitochondrial DNA has proven its utility for the study of insect evolution. Genes such as cytochrome b (Cytb) and the transfer gene for serine (SertRNA) can be used to compare closely related organisms. OBJECTIVE: The phylogenetic utility of Cytb-SertRNA-IG1-ND1 was tested for polymorphisms, and secondary structure modeling in SertRNA was done to detect possible cryptic species in Anopheles neivai. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Specimens from Colombia, Guatemala, and the type locality in Panamá were collected and sequenced for specimen comparison based on DNA polymorphisms, and secondary structure modeling for the SertRNA gene...
March 29, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161481/-eco-epidemiological-aspects-natural-detection-and-molecular-identification-of-leishmania-spp-in-lutzomyia-reburra-lutzomyia-barrettoi-majuscula-and-lutzomyia-trapidoi
#17
Jazzmín Arrivillaga-Henríquez, Sandra Enríquez, Vanessa Romero, Gustavo Echeverría, Jorge Pérez-Barrera, Ana Poveda, Juan-Carlos Navarro, Alon Warburg, Washington Benítez
INTRODUCTION: The province of Pichincha in Ecuador is an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis, where anthropophilic sand flies with natural infection by Leishmania, have been reported as vectors. However, the role in transmission of zoophilic species has not been evaluated. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate natural infection by Leishmania in two zoophilic phlebotomine sand fly species, Lutzomyia reburra and Lu. barrettoi majuscula, and one anthropophilic species, Lu. trapidoi, as well as the endophagy and synanthropism of these species in the northwest of Pichincha...
March 29, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161289/mitochondrial-dna-sequence-context-in-the-penetrance-of-mitochondrial-t-rna-mutations-a-study-across-multiple-lineages-with-diagnostic-implications
#18
Rachel A Queen, Jannetta S Steyn, Phillip Lord, Joanna L Elson
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are well recognized as an important cause of inherited disease. Diseases caused by mtDNA mutations exhibit a high degree of clinical heterogeneity with a complex genotype-phenotype relationship, with many such mutations exhibiting incomplete penetrance. There is evidence that the spectrum of mutations causing mitochondrial disease might differ between different mitochondrial lineages (haplogroups) seen in different global populations. This would point to the importance of sequence context in the expression of mutations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161229/sex-and-dose-specific-effects-of-maternal-bisphenol-a-exposure-on-pancreatic-islets-of-first-and-second-generation-adult-mice-offspring
#19
Amita Bansal, Cetewayo Rashid, Frances Xin, Changhong Li, Erzsebet Polyak, Anna Duemler, Tom van der Meer, Martha Stefaniak, Sana Wajid, Nicolai Doliba, Marisa S Bartolomei, Rebecca A Simmons
BACKGROUND: Exposure to the environmental endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) is ubiquitous and associated with the increased risk of diabetes and obesity. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We recently demonstrated that perinatal BPA exposure is associated with higher body fat, impaired glucose tolerance, and reduced insulin secretion in first- (F1) and second-generation (F2) C57BL/6J male mice offspring. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the multigenerational effects of maternal bisphenol A exposure on mouse pancreatic islets...
September 27, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159324/dna-repair-after-oxidative-stress-current-challenges
#20
Bennett Van Houten, Gloria A Santa-Gonzalez, Mauricio Camargo
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species damage cellular macromolecules including DNA. Cells have a robust base excision repair pathway to deal with this damage in both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. However, mitochondria lack nucleotide excision repair. Evidence suggests that chronic oxidative stress can induce protective pathways lowering genotoxicity. Understanding oxidant injury to DNA and its repair is critical for our understanding the pathophysiology of a wide range of human disorders.
February 2018: Current Opinion in Toxicology
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