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monoclonal antibodies in therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214283/prognostic-role-of-n-cadherin-expression-in-patients-with-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#1
Mohammad Abufaraj, Shahrokh F Shariat, Andrea Haitel, Marco Moschini, Beat Foerster, Piotr Chłosta, Kilian Gust, Marek Babjuk, Alberto Briganti, Pierre I Karakiewicz, Walter Albrecht
PURPOSE: To assess the role of N-cadherin as a prognostic biomarker in patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) treated with transurethral resection with or without adjuvant intravesical therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemistry using monoclonal mouse antibody was used to evaluate the expression status of N-cadherin in 827 patients with NMIBC. N-cadherin was considered positive if any immunoreactivity with membranous staining was detected...
February 14, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212372/molecular-biology-of-gastroesophageal-cancers-opportunities-and-challenges
#2
Shaheer Khan, Sameh Mikhail, Joanne Xiu, Mohamed E Salem
Gastroesophageal (GE) malignancies make up a significant and growing segment of newly diagnosed cancers. Approximately 80% of patients who have GE cancers die within 5 years of diagnosis, which means that effective treatments for these malignancies need to be found. Currently, targeted therapies have a minimal role in this disease group. Intensive study of the molecular biology of GE cancers is a relatively new and ongoing venture, but it has already led to a significant increase in our understanding of these malignancies...
January 2017: Clinical Advances in Hematology & Oncology: H&O
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212060/pembrolizumab-as-second-line-therapy-for-advanced-urothelial-carcinoma
#3
Joaquim Bellmunt, Ronald de Wit, David J Vaughn, Yves Fradet, Jae-Lyun Lee, Lawrence Fong, Nicholas J Vogelzang, Miguel A Climent, Daniel P Petrylak, Toni K Choueiri, Andrea Necchi, Winald Gerritsen, Howard Gurney, David I Quinn, Stéphane Culine, Cora N Sternberg, Yabing Mai, Christian H Poehlein, Rodolfo F Perini, Dean F Bajorin
Background Patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma that progresses after platinum-based chemotherapy have a poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Methods In this open-label, international, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 542 patients with advanced urothelial cancer that recurred or progressed after platinum-based chemotherapy to receive pembrolizumab (a highly selective, humanized monoclonal IgG4κ isotype antibody against programmed death 1 [PD-1]) at a dose of 200 mg every 3 weeks or the investigator's choice of chemotherapy with paclitaxel, docetaxel, or vinflunine...
February 17, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211007/daclizumab-a-review-in-relapsing-multiple-sclerosis
#4
Matt Shirley
Daclizumab (Zinbryta(®); previously known as daclizumab high-yield process) is a therapeutic monoclonal antibody that has recently been approved for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) in adults. Daclizumab is a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against CD25, the alpha subunit of the high-affinity interleukin-2 receptor. As demonstrated in the phase III DECIDE trial, once-monthly subcutaneous daclizumab was superior to once-weekly intramuscular interferon (IFN) β-1a in reducing the clinical relapse rate and radiological measures of disease in patients with relapsing-remitting MS...
February 17, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210004/monoclonal-antibody-therapy-in-multiple-myeloma
#5
REVIEW
Cyrille Touzeau, Philippe Moreau, Charles Dumontet
The therapeutic landscape of multiple myeloma (MM) has evolved spectacularly over the past decade with the discovery and validation of proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory agents as highly active agents, both in front-line therapy as well as in the relapse and maintenance settings. While previous attempts to apply available monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) to the treatment of patients with MM has until recently been disappointing, novel targets specifically explored in the context of MM have recently lead to the first approvals of Mabs for the treatment of patients with MM...
February 17, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209555/detection-of-soluble-erbb2-in-breast-cancer-cell-lysates-using-a-combined-label-free-fluorescence-platform-based-on-bloch-surface-waves
#6
Alberto Sinibaldi, Camilla Sampaoli, Norbert Danz, Peter Munzert, Leonardo Sibilio, Frank Sonntag, Agostino Occhicone, Elisabetta Falvo, Elisa Tremante, Patrizio Giacomini, Francesco Michelotti
We report on the use of one-dimensional photonic crystals to detect clinically relevant concentrations of ERBB2/neu/Her2 in cell lysates. ERBB2 is a pivotal breast cancer biomarker and targetable oncogenic driver associated with aggressive breast cancer subtypes. To quantitate soluble ERBB2, we developed an optical platform that combines label-free and fluorescence detection modes. Such platform makes use of a sandwich assay in which the one-dimensional photonic crystals sustaining Bloch surface waves are tailored with a monoclonal antibody for highly specific biological recognition (BSW biochip)...
February 9, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208047/targeted-therapy-for-chronic-respiratory-disease-a-new-paradigm
#7
Peter G Gibson, Matthew J Peters, Claire E Wainwright
Targeted therapy has emerged as a highly effective treatment approach for chronic respiratory diseases. Many of these conditions have dismal outcomes; however, targeted therapy shows great results for the subgroup who respond. This represents a new way to approach these conditions and offers great promise as a future treatment direction. In severe eosinophilic asthma, therapy that targets the interleukin-5 pathway with monoclonal antibodies leads to a 50% reduction in asthma exacerbations in previously refractory disease...
February 20, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205194/novel-and-expanded-oncology-drug-approvals-of-2016-part-2-new-options-in-the-management-of-hematologic-malignancies
#8
REVIEW
Todd C Knepper, James Saller, Christine M Walko
The recent past has brought pharmacotherapeutic advances that benefit patients with hematologic malignancies. In 2016, two novel hematology drugs were approved and four previously approved hematology drugs were granted expanded use for the treatment of appropriate patient populations by the US Food and Drug Administration. These new approvals and indications represent significant steps forward in patient management: they include the first-in-class B-cell lymphoma 2 inhibitor, venetoclax, the newest targeted therapy available for the treatment of hematologic malignancies; and nivolumab, the first immune checkpoint inhibitor to be approved for treatment of a hematologic malignancy...
February 15, 2017: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205191/novel-and-expanded-oncology-drug-approvals-of-2016-part-1-new-options-in-solid-tumor-management
#9
REVIEW
Todd C Knepper, James Saller, Christine M Walko
The nonradiologic medical management of solid tumors has evolved from the use of traditional cytotoxic agents to modern targeted therapies, monoclonal antibodies, and immunotherapies. Advances in the understanding of cancer biology and therapeutic strategies have resulted in increasing numbers of new drug applications and approvals. Consequently, practicing oncologists need to learn how the newly available agents function and what toxicities to watch for, as well as ways to optimize the use of both new drugs and previously approved drugs with new indications...
February 15, 2017: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203342/optimizing-current-and-emerging-therapies-in-multiple-myeloma-a-guide-for-the-hematologist
#10
REVIEW
Shahzad Raza, Rachael A Safyan, Evan Rosenbaum, Alex S Bowman, Suzanne Lentzsch
Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematologic malignancy. The diagnosis of MM requires ⩾10% clonal plasma cells in the bone marrow or biopsy-proven plasmacytoma, plus evidence of end-organ damage (hypercalcemia, renal failure, anemia, and lytic bone lesions). The definition of MM has recently been expanded to include a ⩾60% clonal plasma cell burden in the bone marrow, serum involved/uninvolved light chain ratio of ⩾100, or more than one focal lesion on magnetic resonance imaging ⩾5 mm in the absence of end-organ damage...
February 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203341/new-monoclonal-antibodies-on-the-horizon-in-multiple-myeloma
#11
REVIEW
Elizabeth K O'Donnell, Noopur S Raje
Across all cancers, monoclonal antibodies have emerged as a potential strategy for cancer therapy. Monoclonal antibodies target antigens expressed on the surface of cancer cells and accessory cells. This targeted approach uses the host's immune system to promote the killing of cancer cells. Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematologic malignancy that remains incurable in the majority of patients. The treatment of MM has evolved dramatically over the past decade and continues to evolve with the approval of four new drugs in 2015...
February 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203302/antiangiogenic-therapy-for-refractory-colorectal-cancer-current-options-and-future-strategies
#12
REVIEW
Rachel Riechelmann, Axel Grothey
Even though significant improvements in the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) have been made in recent years, survival rates for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) are poor. Effective treatment options for metastatic colorectal cancer remain limited, and new therapeutic strategies are desperately needed. Several tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that target angiogenesis, a critical process for facilitating tumor cell growth, invasion, and metastasis, are either approved or in clinical development for the treatment of mCRC...
February 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203118/human-u87-glioblastoma-cells-with-stemness-features-display-enhanced-sensitivity-to-natural-killer-cell-cytotoxicity-through-altered-expression-of-nkg2d-ligand
#13
Se-Jeong Oh, Jung-In Yang, Ok Kim, Eun-Jung Ahn, Woo Dae Kang, Jae-Hyuk Lee, Kyung-Sub Moon, Kyung-Hwa Lee, Duck Cho
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most lethal tumors with a poor prognosis. Its inevitable recurrence is frequently explained by the presence of cancer stem cells. We aimed to show that human GBM cells with stemness features are more sensitive to natural killer (NK) cells than GBM cells without stemness characteristics. METHODS: Natural killer cell cytotoxicity was measured using flow cytometry in neurosphere-forming U87 GBM cells cultured with neurobasal media (NBE condition) and compared with that in serum-cultured U87 GBM cells (serum condition)...
2017: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199814/baricitinib-versus-placebo-or-adalimumab-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#14
Peter C Taylor, Edward C Keystone, Désirée van der Heijde, Michael E Weinblatt, Liliana Del Carmen Morales, Jaime Reyes Gonzaga, Sergey Yakushin, Taeko Ishii, Kahaku Emoto, Scott Beattie, Vipin Arora, Carol Gaich, Terence Rooney, Douglas Schlichting, William L Macias, Stephanie de Bono, Yoshiya Tanaka
Background Baricitinib is an oral, reversible inhibitor of the Janus kinases JAK1 and JAK2 that may have therapeutic value in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods We conducted a 52-week, phase 3, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled trial in which 1307 patients with active rheumatoid arthritis who were receiving background therapy with methotrexate were randomly assigned to one of three regimens in a 3:3:2 ratio: placebo (switched to baricitinib after 24 weeks), 4 mg of baricitinib once daily, or 40 mg of adalimumab (an anti-tumor necrosis factor α monoclonal antibody) every other week...
16, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199785/assessment-of-tocilizumab-anti-il-6-receptor-monoclonal-as-a-potential-treatment-for-chronic-antibody-mediated-rejection-and-transplant-glomerulopathy-in-hla-sensitized-renal-allograft-recipients
#15
Jua Choi, Olivier Aubert, Ashley Vo, Alexandre Loupy, Mark Haas, Dechu Puliyanda, Irene Kim, Sabrina Louie, Alexis Kang, Alice Peng, Joe Kahwaji, Nancy Reinsmoen, Mieko Toyoda, Stanley C Jordan
Extending the functional integrity of renal allografts is the primary goal of transplant medicine. Development of donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) post-transplant leads to chronic active antibody-mediated rejection (cABMR) and transplant glomerulopathy (TG), resulting in the majority of graft losses in the U.S. This reduces the quality & length of life for patients and increases cost. There are no approved treatments for cABMR. Evidence suggests the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6) may play an important role in DSA generation and cABMR...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197963/a-concise-review-of-autoimmune-cytopenias-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#16
REVIEW
Mazie Tsang, Sameer A Parikh
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is frequently associated with autoimmune complications such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenia, pure red cell aplasia, and autoimmune granulocytopenia. It is critical to diagnose cytopenias from these secondary complications of CLL accurately, since prognosis and therapy are substantially different from patients who have cytopenias due to extensive bone marrow infiltration by CLL. The pathogenesis of autoimmune cytopenias in CLL is complex; and it involves antigen presentation by CLL cells to polyclonal B cells resulting in production of autoantibody, and alteration of the T cell milieu tilting the balance in favor of an autoimmune response...
February 14, 2017: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193502/development-of-a-preclinical-211-rn-211-at-generator-system-for-targeted-alpha-therapy-research-with-211-at
#17
Jason R Crawford, Hua Yang, Peter Kunz, D Scott Wilbur, Paul Schaffer, Thomas J Ruth
INTRODUCTION: The availability of (211)At for targeted alpha therapy research can be increased by the (211)Rn/(211)At generator system, whereby (211)At is produced by (211)Rn electron capture decay. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using generator-produced (211)At to label monoclonal antibody (BC8, anti-human CD45) for preclinical use, following isolation from the (207)Po contamination also produced by these generators (by (211)Rn α-decay). METHODS: (211)Rn was produced by (211)Fr electron capture decay following mass separated ion beam implantation and chemically isolated in liquid alkane hydrocarbon (dodecane)...
January 29, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191976/preloading-with-unlabeled-ca19-9-targeted-human-monoclonal-antibody-leads-to-improved-pet-imaging-with-89zr%C3%A2-5b1
#18
Jacob Lee Houghton, Dalya Abdel-Atti, Wolfgang W Scholz, Jason S Lewis
CA19.9 is one of the most commonly occurring and highest density antigens in >90% of pancreatic cancers, making it an excellent target for monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based imaging and therapy applications. Preloading of unlabeled antibodies to enhance targeting of a radiolabeled mAb has been previously described both for imaging and radioimmunotherapy studies for other targets. We investigated the effect of preloading with the unmodified anti-CA19.9 antibody 5B1 on the uptake and contrast of the PET tracer 89Zr-5B1 in subcutaneous and orthotopic murine models of pancreatic cancer utilizing Capan-2 xenografts, known to both expresses CA19...
February 13, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191609/complement-blockade-in-anca-associated-vasculitis-an-index-case-current-concepts-and-future-perspectives
#19
REVIEW
Lucio Manenti, Maria Letizia Urban, Federica Maritati, Maricla Galetti, Augusto Vaglio
Complement alternative pathway (cAP) hyperactivation seems to be involved in ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). We here describe a case of AAV with severe activation of cAP that developed acute renal failure. No mutation predisposing to cAP dysregulation was identified. We treated our patient with the standard immunosuppressive therapy, but disease progression was only reversed after the addition of eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody against C5; the patient eventually achieved an almost complete renal function recovery...
February 13, 2017: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191453/anti-tnf-mediated-modulation-of-prohepcidin-improves-iron-availability-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-an-il-6-mediated-fashion
#20
Flaminia Cavallaro, Lorena Duca, Laura Francesca Pisani, Roberta Rigolini, Luisa Spina, Gian Eugenio Tontini, Nadia Munizio, Elena Costa, Maria Domenica Cappellini, Maurizio Vecchi, Luca Pastorelli
Background. Anaemia is common in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), frequently resulting from a combination of iron deficiency and of anaemia of chronic disease (ACD). ACD is characterized by macrophage iron retention induced by proinflammatory cytokines. Hepcidin is the master inducer of iron accumulation during ACD, and its production is mainly regulated by IL-6 and the novel erythroid hormone erythroferrone (ERFE). This study evaluates whether anti-TNF monoclonal antibodies therapy modurates hepcidin production and the levels of its main regulators, leading to a restoration of iron homeostasis...
2017: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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