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monoclonal antibodies in therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937963/ki67-and-lymphocytes-in-the-pretherapeutic-core-biopsy-of-primary-invasive-breast-cancer-positive-markers-of-therapy-response-prediction-and-superior-survival
#1
REVIEW
Claus M Schlotter, Lothar Tietze, Ulf Vogt, Carlos Villena Heinsen, Antje Hahn
Background Core needle biopsy plays a crucial role as diagnostic tool for BC. Both Ki67 and likely tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in the near future are determining the kind of systemic therapy. The role of TILs in BC is still an issue for clinical research, albeit preliminary results of neoadjuvant and adjuvant clinical studies already now highlight the crucial impact of TILs on therapy response and survival. Methods Evaluation of related publications (pubmed) and meeting abstracts (ASCO, SABCS). Results The monoclonal antibody Ki67 recognizing a nuclear antigene in proliferating cells is a positive marker of therapy response and superior survival...
September 22, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936339/utility-of-vs38c-in-the-diagnostic-and-prognostic-assessment-of-osteosarcoma-and-other-bone-tumours-tumour-like-lesions
#2
E S Hookway, Z Orosz, Y Uchihara, A Grigoriadis, A B Hassan, U Oppermann, N A Athanasou
BACKGROUND: VS38c is a monoclonal antibody that recognises a rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) intracellular antigen termed cytoskeleton-linking membrane protein 63. rER is typically found in viable tumour cells and is abundant in osteosarcoma cells. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic and prognostic utility of VS38c in the histological assessment of osteosarcoma and other bone tumours/tumour-like leisons. METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining with VS38c was carried out on formalin-fixed specimens of osteosarcoma (pre/post-chemotherapy) and a wide range of benign and malignant bone lesions...
2017: Clinical Sarcoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934410/approach-to-cardio-oncologic-patients-with-special-focus-on-patients-with-cardiac-implantable-electronic-devices-planned-for-radiotherapy-results-of-the-european-heart-rhythm-association-survey
#3
Radoslaw Lenarczyk, Tatjana S Potpara, Kristina H Haugaa, Jean-Claude Deharo, Antonio Hernandez-Madrid, Maria Del Carmen Exposito Pineda, Marek Kiliszek, Nikolaos Dagres
The aim of this European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) survey was to evaluate clinical practice regarding cardio-oncologic patients, with special focus on patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) planned for anticancer radiotherapy (RT), among members of the EHRA electrophysiology research network. Of the 36 responding centres, 89% managed patients who were diagnosed or treated oncologically, and this diagnosis affected 1-5% of cardiovascular patients in majority of centres (57%). The main side effects of anticancer therapy in patients treated by cardiologists were thromboembolic complications and left ventricular dysfunction (both reported as 'frequent' by 43% of the centres)...
September 1, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933516/anti-il5-therapies-for-asthma
#4
REVIEW
Hugo A Farne, Amanda Wilson, Colin Powell, Lynne Bax, Stephen J Milan
BACKGROUND: This review is the first update of a previously published review in The Cochrane Library (Issue 7, 2015). Interleukin-5 (IL-5) is the main cytokine involved in the activation of eosinophils, which cause airway inflammation and are a classic feature of asthma. Monoclonal antibodies targeting IL-5 or its receptor (IL-5R) have been developed, with recent studies suggesting that they reduce asthma exacerbations, improve health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and lung function...
September 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933132/effects-of-secukinumab-on-serum-adipocytokines-preliminary-data
#5
A Fassio, D Gatti, P Gisondi, G Girolomoni, O Viapiana, A Giollo, M Zamboni, M Rossini, L Idolazzi
Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects joints, connective tissues and the axial skeleton. Metabolic syndrome is an independent risk factor for psoriasis (Pso) development and is associated with more severe forms of Pso. Adipocytokines are secreted by white adipose tissue and are thought to link obesity with the development of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Secukinumab is a new monoclonal antibody with a different mechanism of action. This antibody selectively binds to and neutralizes interleukin-17 (IL-17) and it has shown efficacy in the treatment of PsA...
September 21, 2017: Reumatismo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931310/the-management-and-treatment-of-acute-leukemias-in-the-elderly-population
#6
Xavier Thomas
Treatment of elderly patients with acute leukemia is challenging. Older age is associated with increased risk of treatment-related toxicity. Currently, no consensus exists regarding optimal therapy in this patient population. Areas covered. The following review is a comprehensive summary of various therapeutic options reported over the past few years in elderly patients with acute leukemia. Expert commentary. While evidences can guide identification of frail older patients, sensitive assessment strategies are required to identify fit and vulnerable patients regardless of chronologic age...
September 21, 2017: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931235/monoclonal-antibody-protects-against-acinetobacter-baumannii-infection-by-enhancing-bacterial-clearance-and-evading-sepsis
#7
Travis B Nielsen, Paul Pantapalangkoor, Brian M Luna, Kevin W Bruhn, Jun Yan, Ken Dekitani, Sarah Hsieh, Brandon Yeshoua, Bryan Pascual, Evgeny Vinogradov, Kristine M Hujer, T Nicholas Domitrovic, Robert A Bonomo, Thomas A Russo, Magda Lesczcyniecka, Thomas Schneider, Brad Spellberg
Background: Extremely drug-resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most commonly encountered, highly resistant pathogens requiring novel therapeutic interventions. Methods: We developed C8, a monoclonal antibody (mAb), by immunizing mice with sublethal inocula of a hypervirulent XDR clinical isolate. Results: C8 targets capsular carbohydrate on the bacterial surface, enhancing opsonophagocytosis. Treating with a single dose of C8 as low as 0...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928949/plasmapheresis-in-neurological-disorders-six-years-experience-from-university-clinical-center-tuzla
#8
Osman Sinanović, Sanela Zukić, Adnan Burina, Nermina Pirić, Renata Hodžić, Mirza Atić, Mirna Alečković-Halilović, Enisa Mešić
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is an extracorporeal blood purification technique that is designed to remove substances with a large molecular weight. The TPE procedure includes removal of antibodies, alloantibodies, immune complexes, monoclonal protein, toxins or cytokines, and involves the replenishment of a specific plasma factor. The aim of the study was to describe the clinical response to TPE in various neurological patients, and to assess the clinical response to this therapy...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928842/significant-response-to-ramucirumab-monotherapy-in-chemotherapy-resistant-recurrent-alpha-fetoprotein-producing-gastric-cancer-a-case-report
#9
Yasuhiro Arakawa, Miho Tamura, Keisuke Aiba, Kazuhiko Morikawa, Daisuke Aizawa, Masahiro Ikegami, Masami Yuda, Katsunori Nishikawa
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing gastric cancer (AFPGC) is a relatively rare type of gastric cancer characterized by a high incidence of liver and lymph node metastases, and a poor prognosis. Few advanced AFPGC cases treated successfully with conventional chemotherapy have been reported thus far. Although the development of molecular-targeted therapy has improved the prognosis of various types of cancer, there are currently no tailored therapies for AFPGC. In the present report, the case of a chemotherapy-resistant recurrent AFPGC patient who exhibited a significant response to ramucirumab monotherapy is presented...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928083/preparation-and-characterization-of-a-high-affinity-monoclonal-antibody-against-human-epididymis-protein-4
#10
Yunlong Shen, Yuxi Wang, Xiaohua Jiang, Liang Lu, Chengdi Wang, Wenxin Luo, Yongxia Zhang, Pei Li, Zhengwei Du, Tengfei Dai, Congcong Wu, Aiping Fang, Yuqin Yao, Qian Peng, Jinliang Yang
Human epididymis protein-4 (HE4) may serve as a putative biomarker for the early diagnosis, therapy and especially prognosis of ovarian, lung and breast cancer. Detection and targeting of HE4 using the anti-HE4 antibody could be one of the effective strategies for the cancer diagnosis and treatment in clinical practice. In this study, a high-efficiency expression system was established to purify recombinant HE4. We obtained high purity HE4 in 400 mg quantity from 1 L culture supernatant of HEK293F cells. CCK-8 and cell cycle assays indicated that the purified recombinant HE4 protein could promote SKOV3 cell cycle and proliferation at the concentration of 0...
September 16, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923838/syngeneic-mouse-models-of-oral-cancer-are-effectively-targeted-by-anti-cd44-based-nir-pit
#11
Tadanobu Nagaya, Yuko Nakamura, Shuhei Okuyama, Fusa Ogata, Yasuhiro Maruoka, Peter L Choyke, Clint Alen, Hisataka Kobayashi
Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is considered one of the most aggressive subtypes of cancer. Anti-CD44 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are a potential therapy against CD44 expressing OSCC, however, to date the therapeutic effects have been disappointing. Here, a new cancer treatment is described, near-infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT), that uses anti-CD44 mAbs conjugated to the photoabsorber, IR700DX. This conjugate is injected into mice harboring one of three CD44 expressing syngeneic murine oral cancer cell (MOC) lines, MOC1 (immunogenic), MOC2 mKate2 (moderately immunogenic), and MOC2-luc (poorly immunogenic)...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923397/the-two-novel-dll4-targeting-antibody-drug-conjugates-mvm03-and-mgd03-show-potent-anti-tumour-activity-in-breast-cancer-xenograft-models
#12
Shijing Wang, Rihong Zhou, Fumou Sun, Renjie Li, Min Wang, Min Wu
The anti-human Delta-like 4 (DLL4) monoclonal antibody MMGZ01 has a high affinity to hrDLL4 and arrests the DLL4-mediated human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) phenotype, promotes immature vessels, and effectively reduces breast cancer cell growth in vivo. To develop a much more effective therapy, we conjugated MMGZ01 with two small-molecule cytotoxic agents, i.e., monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) and doxorubicin (DOX), with different linkers to generate antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), i.e., MMGZ01-vc-MMAE (named MvM03) and MMGZ01-GMBS-DOX (named MGD03), that are more potent therapeutic agents than naked antibody therapeutic agents...
September 15, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923100/checkpoint-inhibitor-is-active-against-large-cell-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-with-high-tumor-mutation-burden
#13
Victoria E Wang, Anatoly Urisman, Lee Albacker, Siraj Ali, Vincent Miller, Rahul Aggarwal, David Jablons
BACKGROUND: Large cell neuroendocrine tumor (LCNEC) of the lung is a rare and aggressive tumor similar to small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Thus, it is often treated similarly to SCLC in the front-line setting with a platinum doublet. However, treatment for patients beyond the first line remains undefined. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a patient with stage IB LCNEC (PD-L1 negative but positive for PD-L1 amplification and tumor mutation burden high) who progressed after adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery and subsequent therapy with an antibody drug conjugate targeting a neuroendocrine-specific cell surface marker but achieved a significant and durable response with pembrolizumab, a humanized IgG4 monoclonal anti-PD-1 antibody...
September 19, 2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921650/antibody-drug-conjugates-as-cancer-therapeutics-past-present-and-future
#14
Heather E Vezina, Monette Cotreau, Tae H Han, Manish Gupta
Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) represent an innovative therapeutic approach that provides novel treatment options and hope for patients with cancer. By coupling monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to cytotoxic small-molecule payloads with a plasma-stable linker, ADCs offer the potential for increased drug specificity and fewer off-target effects than systemic chemotherapy. As evidence for the potential of these therapies, many new ADCs are in various stages of clinical development. Because their structure poses unique challenges to pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characterization, it is critical to recognize the differences between ADCs and conventional chemotherapy in the design of ADC clinical development strategies...
October 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921644/clinical-pharmacology-considerations-for-the-development-of-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#15
Jennifer Sheng, Shivani Srivastava, Kinjal Sanghavi, Zheng Lu, Brian J Schmidt, Akintunde Bello, Manish Gupta
Immuno-oncology works through activation of the patient's immune system against cancer, with several advantages over other treatment approaches, including cytotoxic agents and molecular-targeted therapies. The most notable feature of immuno-oncology treatments is the nature of the patient responses achieved, which can be more durable and sustained than with other modalities. Increased understanding of immune system complexity has provided a number of opportunities to advance several strategies for the development of immuno-oncology therapies...
October 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921458/pharmacogenetics-and-pharmacogenomics-in-moderate-to-severe-psoriasis
#16
REVIEW
María C Ovejero-Benito, Ester Muñoz-Aceituno, Alejandra Reolid, Miriam Saiz-Rodríguez, Francisco Abad-Santos, Esteban Daudén
Pharmacogenetics is the study of variations in DNA sequence related to drug response. Moreover, the evolution of biotechnology and the sequencing of human DNA have allowed the creation of pharmacogenomics, a branch of genetics that analyzes human genes, the RNAs and proteins encoded by them, and the inter-and intra-individual variations in expression and function in relation to drug response. Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics are being used to search for biomarkers that can predict response to systemic treatments, including those for moderate-to-severe psoriasis...
September 18, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921443/polyester-based-nanoparticles-for-the-encapsulation-of-monoclonal-antibodies
#17
Flávia Sousa, Pedro Fonte, Andreia Cruz, Patrick J Kennedy, Inês Mendes Pinto, Bruno Sarmento
Aliphatic polyesters have been widely explored for biomedical applications (e.g., drug delivery systems, biomedical devices, and tissue engineering). Recently, polyesters have been used in nanoparticle formulations for the controlled release of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for the enhanced efficacy of antibody-based therapy. Polyester-based nanoparticles for mAb delivery provide decreased antibody dosage, increased antibody stability and protection and longer therapeutic action, ultimately translating to an increased therapeutic index...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921160/gp2013-a-rituximab-biosimilar
#18
Hannah A Blair
GP2013 is the second biosimilar of the reference monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody rituximab to be approved in the EU. It is approved for use in all indications for which reference rituximab is approved, including follicular lymphoma (FL), diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), granulomatosis with polyangiitis and microscopic polyangiitis. GP2013 has similar physicochemical and pharmacodynamic properties to those of reference rituximab, and the pharmacokinetic biosimilarity of the agents has been shown in patients with RA...
September 18, 2017: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919706/profile-of-pembrolizumab-in-the-treatment-of-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-design-development-and-place-in-therapy
#19
REVIEW
Sulsal Haque, Mahender Yellu, Jaskirat Randhawa, Nooshin Hashemi-Sadraei
Head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide, and despite advances in cytotoxic, surgical and radiation techniques, outcomes are still poor in those with both locally advanced and metastatic diseases. The need for development of better therapeutics along with a greater understanding of the relationship between the immune system and malignancies has led to a new therapeutic modality, immune modulators, particularly checkpoint inhibitors in HNSCC. It is now well recognized that HNSCC circumvents crucial pathways utilized by the immune system to escape surveillance...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917306/evaluation-of-surface-antigen-tf1-17-in-feline-tritrichomonas-foetus-isolates
#20
E N Gould, L B Corbeil, S A Kania, M K Tolbert
Tritrichomonas foetus (T. foetus) is a flagellated protozoa that infects the distal ileum and proximal colon of domestic cats, as well as the urogenital tract of cattle. Feline trichomonosis is recognized as a prevalent cause of chronic diarrhea in cats worldwide. The suspected route of transmission is fecal-oral, with cats in densely crowded environments at highest risk for infection. Thus, the recommended strategy for minimizing spread of infection is to identify and isolate T. foetus-positive cats from the general population...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
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