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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679303/do-the-sglt-2-inhibitors-offer-more-than-hypoglycemic-activity
#1
REVIEW
Eduardo Flores, Carlos G Santos-Gallego, Nely Diaz-Mejía, Juan Jose Badimon
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most common chronic health conditions in the USA; it affects approximately 10% of adults with up to one-quarter being undiagnosed. T2DM is associated with substantial cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. T2DM is a pathological condition characterized by elevated levels of glucose and associated with high CV risk. Traditional hypoglycemic drugs have demonstrated their capability for effective and maintained management of high glucose levels, but they have not significantly impacted on the incidence of CV events...
April 20, 2018: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679226/national-estimates-of-emergency-department-visits-for-antibiotic-adverse-events-among-adults-united-states-2011-2015
#2
Andrew I Geller, Maribeth C Lovegrove, Nadine Shehab, Lauri A Hicks, Mathew R P Sapiano, Daniel S Budnitz
BACKGROUND: Detailed, nationally representative data describing high-risk populations and circumstances involved in antibiotic adverse events (AEs) can inform approaches to prevention. OBJECTIVE: Describe US burden, rates, and characteristics of emergency department (ED) visits by adults for antibiotic AEs. DESIGN: Nationally representative, public health surveillance of adverse drug events (National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-Cooperative Adverse Drug Event Surveillance [NEISS-CADES]) and a nationally projected database of dispensed prescriptions (QuintilesIMS), 2011-2015...
April 20, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678087/towards-pharmacogenomics-driven-medication-risk-assessment-in-people-with-polypharmacy
#3
Jiazhen Liu, Joseph Finkelstein
The main objective of this project was to introduce approaches for comprehensive medication risk assessment in people with polypharmacy that simultaneously account for multiple drug and gene effects. To achieve this goal, we developed an integrated knowledge repository of actionable pharmacogenes and a scoring algorithm that was pilot-tested using a data set containing pharmacogenomic information of people with polypharmacy. Metabolic phenotyping using resulting database demonstrated recall of 83.6% and precision of 87...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677921/implementation-and-effect-of-a-novel-electronic-medical-record-format-for-patient-allergy-information
#4
Masaharu Nakayama, Ryusuke Inoue
Adverse drug events (ADEs) are critical. Approximately 10% of fatal ADEs are believed to be allergic reactions. Therefore, sharing patient allergy information is beneficial to medical staff members in avoiding potentially lethal complications. We previously performed a nationwide study of patient allergy information in Japanese hospitals. The report showed that most of the responding hospitals needed a standard format for reporting the information. To establish this, we implemented a novel format for recording patient allergy information into the hospital information system at Tohoku University Hospital; this format was created through vigorous discussion among medical staff members with a variety of specialties, including doctors, nurses, pharmacists, nutritionists, and medical safety managers...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677454/combined-but-not-the-single-administration-of-vitamin-c-and-l-carnitine-ameliorates-cisplatin-induced-gastric-mucosa-damage-in-male-rats
#5
Modinat Adebukola Adefisayo, Wale Johnson Adeyemi, Quadri Kunle Alabi
Although cisplatin is a potent anticancer drug, it instigates oxidative and pro-inflammatory reactions which poses significant and distressing clinical symptoms in patients including nausea and vomiting which is related to damage of the gastric mucosa. This study investigated the effects of vitamin C and/or L-carnitine on cisplatin-induced gastric mucosa damage in rat. The rats were allocated into groups (n=5): a control group received distilled water and treatment groups received cisplatin (CIP) alone, cisplatin followed by vitamin C, L-carnitine or their combination...
April 20, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677301/association-between-baseline-ldl-c-level-and-total-and-cardiovascular-mortality-after-ldl-c-lowering-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Eliano P Navarese, Jennifer G Robinson, Mariusz Kowalewski, Michalina Kolodziejczak, Felicita Andreotti, Kevin Bliden, Udaya Tantry, Jacek Kubica, Paolo Raggi, Paul A Gurbel
Importance: Effects on specific fatal and nonfatal end points appear to vary for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)-lowering drug trials. Objective: To evaluate whether baseline LDL-C level is associated with total and cardiovascular mortality risk reductions. Data Sourcesand Study Selection: Electronic databases (Cochrane, MEDLINE, EMBASE, TCTMD, ClinicalTrials.gov, major congress proceedings) were searched through February 2, 2018, to identify randomized clinical trials of statins, ezetimibe, and PCSK9-inhibiting monoclonal antibodies...
April 17, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677197/a-novel-statistical-method-for-assessing-effective-adherence-to-medication-and-calculating-optimal-drug-dosages
#7
Garrett Greene, Richard W Costello, Breda Cushen, Imran Sulaiman, Elaine Mac Hale, Ronan M Conroy, Frank Doyle
OBJECTIVE: We derive a novel model-based metric for effective adherence to medication, and validate it using data from the INhaler Compliance Assessment device (INCATM). This technique employs dose timing data to estimate the threshold drug concentration needed to maintain optimal health. METHODS: The parameters of the model are optimised against patient outcome data using maximum likelihood methods. The model is fitted and validated by secondary analysis of two independent datasets from two remote-monitoring studies of adherence, conducted through clinical research centres of 5 Irish hospitals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677086/hematologic-adverse-events-associated-with-prolonged-valganciclovir-treatment-in-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection
#8
Liron Ziv, Joanne Yacobovich, Joseph Pardo, Havatzelet Yarden-Bilavsky, Jacob Amir, Micky Osovsky, Efraim Bilavsky
BACKGROUND: Valganciclovir (2/d) therapy for 6 months in neonates with symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection improves hearing and neurodevelopmental outcome. The only reported adverse event was neutropenia. Since 2009, our protocol for symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection was a 1-year treatment of 2/d for the first 3 months followed by 9 months of 1/d. METHODS: A retrospective study. Infants with congenital cytomegalovirus treated with valganciclovir for 1 year were recruited...
April 19, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677018/examining-the-efficacy-of-calcium-hydroxylapatite-filler-with-integral-lidocaine-in-correcting-volume-loss-of-the-jawline-a-pilot-study
#9
Margit L W Juhász, Ellen S Marmur
BACKGROUND: Patients seek 3-dimensional volume restoration of the jawline to obtain a "defined" line. Injection of filler into the jawline is not approved by the Food and Drug Administration; however, dermatologists have injected this area with positive results, minimal adverse events, and high patient satisfaction. OBJECTIVE: This study explores the efficacy of premixed calcium hydroxylapatite filler with integral lidocaine [CaHA(+)] to correct volume defects of the jawline...
April 19, 2018: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676870/-which-place-for-thiazide-and-thiazide-like-diuretics-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#10
A J Scheen, J M Krzesinski
The use of thiazides as antihypertensive agents has been challenged because associated metabolic adverse events, including new-onset diabetes. However, these metabolic disturbances are less marked with low-dose of hydrochlorothiazide and with thiazide-like diuretics such as chlorthalidone and indapamide. In post hoc analyses of subgroups of patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes, thiazide(-like) diuretics resulted in a significant reduction in cardiovascular events, all-cause mortality and hospitalization for heart failure compared to placebo...
April 2018: Revue Médicale de Liège
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676212/pro-140-a-monoclonal-antibody-targeting-ccr5-as-a-long-acting-single-agent-maintenance-therapy-for-hiv-1-infection
#11
Kush Dhody, Nader Pourhassan, Kazem Kazempour, Derry Green, Shide Badri, Hana Mekonnen, Paul J Maddon, Denis Burger
Background PRO 140 is a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting CCR5 with potent antiviral activity in patients with CCR5-tropic HIV-1 infection. In phase 2b studies, we evaluated the long-term efficacy, safety, and tolerability of PRO 140 monotherapy in maintaining viral suppression for over 24 months in patients who were stable on combination antiretroviral therapy on entry into the trials. Methods and Results Forty-one adult patients, infected exclusively with CCR5-tropic HIV-1 with viral loads <50 copies/mL, were switched from daily oral combination ART regimens to weekly PRO 140 monotherapy for 12 weeks...
April 20, 2018: HIV Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676197/pharmacokinetics-and-bioequivalence-of-two-strontium-ranelate-formulations-after-single-oral-administration-in-healthy-chinese-subjects
#12
Dan Zhang, Jingyi Ma, Aihua Du, Xiaolin Wang, Lina Zhang, Man Yang, Ming Deng, Huichen Liu
1. Pharmacokinetics of exogenous Sr and bioequivalence of a new oral formulation of strontium ranelate compared with the brand-name drug in healthy Chinese subjects was evaluated. 2. A balanced, randomized, single-dose, 2-treatment parallel study was conducted in 36 healthy Chinese subjects. Subjects were randomly allocated into two groups of 18 to receive a single oral dose of test formulation and reference formulation under a fasting state, respectively. Blood samples were collected at 19 designated time points up to 240 h post-dose...
April 20, 2018: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675798/a-systematic-literature-review-and-network-meta-analysis-comparing-once-weekly-semaglutide-with-other-glp-1-receptor-agonists-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-previously-receiving-1-2-oral-anti-diabetic-drugs
#13
Michal Witkowski, Lars Wilkinson, Neil Webb, Alan Weids, Divina Glah, Hrvoje Vrazic
INTRODUCTION: Once-weekly semaglutide is a new glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue administered at a 1.0 or 0.5 mg dose. As head-to-head trials assessing once-weekly semaglutide as an add-on to 1-2 oral anti-diabetic drugs (OADs) vs other GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) are limited, a network meta-analysis (NMA) was performed. The objective was to assess the relative efficacy and safety of once-weekly semaglutide vs GLP-1 RAs in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) inadequately controlled on 1-2 OADs...
April 19, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674237/eslicarbazepine-acetate-exposure-in-pregnant-women-with-epilepsy
#14
Raquel Costa, Luís M Magalhães, Joana Graça, Mariana Vieira, Helena Gama, Joana Moreira, José F Rocha, Patrício Soares-da-Silva
PURPOSE: Epilepsy is a common neurologic disorder requiring continued treatment during pregnancy. Treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is needed for seizure control, but the risk of adverse events has to be minimized for both mother and foetus. Available data on pregnancy and foetal/postnatal outcomes following eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) exposure via parent is herein presented for the first time. METHODS: ESL's global safety database was reviewed to identify pregnancy cases with exposure to ESL reported up to October 21st, 2017...
April 10, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673890/efficacy-and-safety-of-fixed-dose-combination-therapy-with-telmisartan-and-rosuvastatin-in-korean-patients-with-hypertension-and-dyslipidemia-telsta-yu-telmisartan-rosuvastatin-from-yuhan-a-multicenter-randomized-4-arm-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase
#15
Gyu Chul Oh, Jung-Kyu Han, Ki Hoon Han, Min-Su Hyon, Joon Hyung Doh, Moo Hyun Kim, Jin-Ok Jeong, Jang-Ho Bae, Sang Hyun Kim, Byung-Su Yoo, Sang Hong Baek, Moo-Yong Rhee, Sang-Hyun Ihm, Jung Hoon Sung, Young Jin Choi, Soo-Joong Kim, Kyung-Soon Hong, Byoung Kwon Lee, JangHyun Cho, Eun Seok Shin, Jay Young Rhew, Hyunsu Kim, Hyo-Soo Kim
PURPOSE: Hypertension and dyslipidemia are 2 risk factors of cardiovascular disease that often present simultaneously. Traditionally, treatment of these multiple conditions required separate medications for each disease, which may result in poor compliance and thus lead to possible treatment failure. Fixed-dose combination (FDC) therapy with a single pill may be a solution in these situations. METHODS: This multicenter, 8-week, randomized, double-blind, Phase III study evaluated the efficacy and safety of FDC treatment with telmisartan (80 mg) and rosuvastatin calcium (20 mg) in Korean patients with mild to moderate hypertension and dyslipidemia...
April 16, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673771/posaconazole-vs-voriconazole-in-the-prevention-of-invasive-fungal-diseases-in-patients-with-haematological-malignancies-a-retrospective-study
#16
L Tang, X-F Yang, M Qiao, L Zhang, X-W Tang, H-Y Qiu, D-P Wu, A-N Sun
BACKGROUND: Posaconazole is superior to fluconazole or itraconazole in preventing invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) in patients with haematological malignancies; however, there have been reports of the comparing posaconazole and voriconazole. METHODS: This single-centre, retrospective study in China enrolled AML, ALL and MDS patients, among others. Prophylaxis with posaconazole or voriconazole was administered for patients recovering from neutropenia or who had achieved complete remission...
April 16, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673735/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-triple-drug-therapy-with-albendazole-pyrantel-pamoate-and-oxantel-pamoate-compared-with-albendazole-plus-oxantel-pamoate-pyrantel-pamoate-plus-oxantel-pamoate-and-mebendazole-plus-pyrantel-pamoate-and-oxantel-pamoate-against-hookworm
#17
Wendelin Moser, Somphou Sayasone, Syda Xayavong, Bangon Bounheuang, Maxim Puchkov, Jörg Huwyler, Jan Hattendorf, Jennifer Keiser
BACKGROUND: Albendazole and mebendazole are commonly used to control hookworm, but have shortcomings in their efficacy profiles. We assessed whether triple drug therapy (TDT) with albendazole, pyrantel pamoate, and oxantel pamoate was more effective than the co-administration of two drugs for the treatment of hookworm infections. METHODS: A randomised, single-blind trial was done from Sept 27 until Nov 17, 2017, in Laos. Children (6-15 years) from six schools were invited to participate...
April 16, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673511/coronary-sinus-reducer-implantation-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-refractory-angina-a-single-center-experience
#18
Francesco Giannini, Luca Baldetti, Francesco Ponticelli, Neil Ruparelia, Satoru Mitomo, Azeem Latib, Matteo Montorfano, Richard J Jabbour, Andrea Aurelio, Luca Ferri, Antonio Mangieri, Damiano Regazzoli, Marco Ancona, Matteo Pagnesi, Alessia Faccini, Alaide Chieffo, Lorenzo Azzalini, Mauro Carlino, Antonio Colombo
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of the Reducer in a real-world cohort of patients presenting with refractory angina. BACKGROUND: The coronary sinus Reducer is a novel device to aid in the management of patients with severe angina symptoms refractory to optimal medical therapy and not amenable to further revascularization. METHODS: Fifty patients with refractory angina and objective evidence of myocardial ischemia who were judged unsuitable for revascularization were treated with coronary sinus Reducer implantation at a single center between March 2015 and August 2016...
April 23, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673465/effect-of-aspirin-coadministration-on-the-safety-of-celecoxib-naproxen-or-ibuprofen
#19
Grant W Reed, Mouin S Abdallah, Mingyuan Shao, Kathy Wolski, Lisa Wisniewski, Neville Yeomans, Thomas F Lüscher, Jeffrey S Borer, David Y Graham, M Elaine Husni, Daniel H Solomon, Peter Libby, Venu Menon, A Michael Lincoff, Steven E Nissen
BACKGROUND: The safety of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and aspirin coadministration is uncertain. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the safety of combining NSAIDs with low-dose aspirin. METHODS: This analysis of the PRECISION (Prospective Randomized Evaluation of Celecoxib Integrated Safety Versus Ibuprofen or Naproxen) trial included 23,953 patients with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis at increased cardiovascular risk randomized to celecoxib, ibuprofen, or naproxen...
April 24, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673395/shorter-treatment-for-minimal-tuberculosis-tb-in-children-shine-a-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#20
Chishala Chabala, Anna Turkova, Margaret J Thomason, Eric Wobudeya, Syed Hissar, Vidya Mave, Marieke van der Zalm, Megan Palmer, Monica Kapasa, Perumal K Bhavani, Sarath Balaji, Priyanka A Raichur, Anne-Marie Demers, Graeme Hoddinott, Ellen Owen-Powell, Aarti Kinikar, Philippa Musoke, Veronica Mulenga, Rob Aarnoutse, Helen McIlleron, Anneke Hesseling, Angela M Crook, Mark Cotton, Diana M Gibb
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) in children is frequently paucibacillary and non-severe forms of pulmonary TB are common. Evidence for tuberculosis treatment in children is largely extrapolated from adult studies. Trials in adults with smear-negative tuberculosis suggest that treatment can be effectively shortened from 6 to 4 months. New paediatric, fixed-dose combination anti-tuberculosis treatments have recently been introduced in many countries, making the implementation of World Health Organisation (WHO)-revised dosing recommendations feasible...
April 19, 2018: Trials
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