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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432693/multimodal-neurophysiological-monitoring-in-healthy-infants-born-at-term-normative-continuous-somatosensory-evoked-potentials-data
#1
Silvia Lori, Simonetta Gabbanini, Maria Bastianelli, Giovanna Bertini, Iuri Corsini, Carlo Dani
AIM: To describe accurate, standardized 1h-multimodal neurophysiological monitoring (1h-MNM), while simultaneously recording VEEG, aEEG, and SEP-C bilaterally from median nerves, and to collect neonatal normative SEP-C data related to behavioural states. METHOD: Twenty healthy, term newborn infants (13 males, 7 females; gestational age 37-42wks; mean 39.6wks, standard deviation [SD] 1.3wks) underwent 1h-MNM within 2 days of life, with focus on recording of the SEP-C (band-pass setting 1-100 Hz, rate of stimulation 1...
April 22, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432140/visually-evoked-3-5-hz-membrane-potential-oscillations-reduce-the-responsiveness-of-visual-cortex-neurons-in-awake-behaving-mice
#2
Michael C Einstein, Pierre-Olivier Polack, Duy T Tran, Peyman Golshani
Low frequency membrane potential (Vm) oscillations were once thought to only occur in sleeping and anesthetized states. Recently, low frequency Vm oscillations have been described in inactive awake animals, but it is unclear if they shape sensory processing in neurons and whether they occur during active awake behavioral states. To answer these questions, we performed two-photon guided whole-cell Vm recordings from primary visual cortex layer 2/3 excitatory and inhibitory neurons in awake mice during passive visual stimulation and performance of visual and auditory discrimination tasks...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431323/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-developmental-stuttering-relations-with-previous-neurophysiological-research-and-future-perspectives
#3
REVIEW
P Busan, P P Battaglini, M Sommer
Developmental stuttering (DS) is a disruption of the rhythm of speech, and affected people may be unable to execute fluent voluntary speech. There are still questions about the exact causes of DS. Evidence suggests there are differences in the structure and functioning of motor systems used for preparing, executing, and controlling motor acts, especially when they are speech related. Much research has been obtained using neuroimaging methods, ranging from functional magnetic resonance to diffusion tensor imaging and electroencephalography/magnetoencephalography...
April 3, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430976/acute-and-chronic-noradrenergic-effects-on-cortical-excitability-in-healthy-humans
#4
Hsiao-I Kuo, Walter Paulus, Giorgi Batsikadze, Asif Jamil, Min-Fang Kuo, Michael A Nitsche
Background: Noradrenaline is a major neuromodulator in the central nervous system, and it is involved in the pathophysiology of diverse neuropsychiatric diseases. Previous transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies suggested that acute application of selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (NRI) enhances cortical excitability in the human brain. However, other, such like clinical effects, usually require prolonged NRI treatment, which might go along with different physiological effects...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430860/increased-brainstem-perfusion-but-no-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-during-attacks-of-migraine-with-aura
#5
Anders Hougaard, Faisal M Amin, Casper E Christensen, Samaira Younis, Frauke Wolfram, Stig P Cramer, Henrik B W Larsson, Messoud Ashina
The migraine aura is characterized by transient focal cortical disturbances causing dramatic neurological symptoms that are usually followed by migraine headache. It is currently not understood how the aura symptoms are related to the headache phase of migraine. Animal studies suggest that cortical spreading depression, the likely mechanism of migraine aura, causes disruption of the blood-brain barrier and noxious stimulation of trigeminal afferents leading to activation of brainstem nuclei and triggering of migraine headache...
April 18, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428560/combination-of-high-density-microelectrode-array-and-patch-clamp-recordings-to-enable-studies-of-multisynaptic-integration
#6
David Jäckel, Douglas J Bakkum, Thomas L Russell, Jan Müller, Milos Radivojevic, Urs Frey, Felix Franke, Andreas Hierlemann
We present a novel, all-electric approach to record and to precisely control the activity of tens of individual presynaptic neurons. The method allows for parallel mapping of the efficacy of multiple synapses and of the resulting dynamics of postsynaptic neurons in a cortical culture. For the measurements, we combine an extracellular high-density microelectrode array, featuring 11'000 electrodes for extracellular recording and stimulation, with intracellular patch-clamp recording. We are able to identify the contributions of individual presynaptic neurons - including inhibitory and excitatory synaptic inputs - to postsynaptic potentials, which enables us to study dendritic integration...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427888/dopamine-elevates-intracellular-zinc-concentration-in-cultured-rat-embryonic-cortical-neurons-through-the-camp-nitric-oxide-signaling-cascade
#7
Hui-Hsing Hung, Lung-Sen Kao, Pei-Shan Liu, Chien-Chang Huang, De-Ming Yang, Chien-Yuan Pan
Zinc ion (Zn(2+)), the second most abundant transition metal after iron in the body, is essential for neuronal activity and also induces toxicity if the concentration is abnormally high. Our previous results show that exposure of cultured cortical neurons to dopamine elevates intracellular Zn(2+) concentrations ([Zn(2+)]i) and induces autophagosome formation but the mechanism is not clear. In this study, we characterized the signaling pathway responsible for the dopamine-induced elevation of [Zn(2+)]i and the effect of [Zn(2+)]i in modulating the autophagy in cultured rat embryonic cortical neurons...
April 17, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427472/optimising-conservative-management-of-chronic-low-back-pain-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#8
Katherine J Simson, Clint T Miller, Jon Ford, Andrew Hahne, Luana Main, Timo Rantalainen, Wei-Peng Teo, Megan Teychenne, David Connell, Guy Trudel, Guoyan Zheng, Gary Thickbroom, Daniel L Belavy
BACKGROUND: Lower back pain is a global health issue affecting approximately 80% of people at some stage in their life. The current literature suggests that any exercise is beneficial for reducing back pain. However, as pain is a subjective evaluation and physical deficits are evident in low back pain, using it as the sole outcome measure to evaluate superiority of an exercise protocol for low back pain treatment is insufficient. The overarching goal of the current clinical trial is to implement two common, conservative intervention approaches and examine their impact on deficits in chronic low back pain...
April 20, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425497/single-dose-memantine-improves-cortical-oscillatory-response-dynamics-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#9
Gregory A Light, Wen Zhang, Yash B Joshi, Savita Bhakta, Jo A Talledo, Neal R Swerdlow
Aberrant gamma band (30-80 Hz) oscillations may underlie cognitive deficits in schizophrenia (SZ). Gamma oscillations and their regulation by NMDA receptors can be studied via their evoked power (γEP) and phase locking (γPL) in response to auditory steady state stimulation; these Auditory Steady State Responses (ASSRs) may be biomarkers for target engagement and early therapeutic effects. We previously reported that memantine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, enhanced 2 biomarkers of early auditory information processing: prepulse inhibition (PPI) and mismatch negativity (MMN) in SZ patients and healthy subjects (HS)...
April 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424645/cerebellar-tdcs-does-not-enhance-performance-in-an-implicit-categorization-learning-task
#10
Marie C Verhage, Eric O Avila, Maarten A Frens, Opher Donchin, Jos N van der Geest
Background: Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a form of non-invasive electrical stimulation that changes neuronal excitability in a polarity and site-specific manner. In cognitive tasks related to prefrontal and cerebellar learning, cortical tDCS arguably facilitates learning, but the few studies investigating cerebellar tDCS, however, are inconsistent. Objective: We investigate the effect of cerebellar tDCS on performance of an implicit categorization learning task. Methods: Forty participants performed a computerized version of an implicit categorization learning task where squares had to be sorted into two categories, according to an unknown but fixed rule that integrated both the size and luminance of the square...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424294/gaba-and-primary-motor-cortex-inhibition-in-young-and-older-adults-a-multimodal-reliability-study
#11
Ronan A Mooney, John Cirillo, Winston D Byblow
The effects of healthy ageing on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) within primary motor cortex (M1) remain poorly understood. Studies have reported contrasting results, potentially due to limitations with the common assessment technique. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of healthy ageing on M1 GABA concentration and neurotransmission using a multimodal approach. Fifteen young and 16 older adults participated in this study. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to measure M1 GABA concentration...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422990/sensory-cortical-response-to-uncertainty-and-low-salience-during-recognition-of-affective-cues-in-musical-intervals
#12
Fernando Bravo, Ian Cross, Emmanuel Andreas Stamatakis, Martin Rohrmeier
Previous neuroimaging studies have shown an increased sensory cortical response (i.e., heightened weight on sensory evidence) under higher levels of predictive uncertainty. The signal enhancement theory proposes that attention improves the quality of the stimulus representation, and therefore reduces uncertainty by increasing the gain of the sensory signal. The present study employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural correlates for ambiguous valence inferences signaled by auditory information within an emotion recognition paradigm...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421032/spasticity-motor-recovery-and-neural-plasticity-after-stroke
#13
REVIEW
Sheng Li
Spasticity and weakness (spastic paresis) are the primary motor impairments after stroke and impose significant challenges for treatment and patient care. Spasticity emerges and disappears in the course of complete motor recovery. Spasticity and motor recovery are both related to neural plasticity after stroke. However, the relation between the two remains poorly understood among clinicians and researchers. Recovery of strength and motor function is mainly attributed to cortical plastic reorganization in the early recovery phase, while reticulospinal (RS) hyperexcitability as a result of maladaptive plasticity, is the most plausible mechanism for poststroke spasticity...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420581/response-variability-of-different-anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-intensities-across-multiple-sessions
#14
Claudia Ammann, Martin A Lindquist, Pablo A Celnik
BACKGROUND: It is well known that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is capable of modulating corticomotor excitability. However, a source of growing concern has been the observed inter- and intra-individual variability of tDCS-responses. Recent studies have assessed whether individuals respond in a predictable manner across repeated sessions of anodal tDCS (atDCS). The findings of these investigations have been inconsistent, and their methods have some limitations (i.e. lack of sham condition or testing only one tDCS intensity)...
April 10, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420382/effect-of-tdcs-stimulation-of-motor-cortex-and-cerebellum-on-eeg-classification-of-motor-imagery-and-sensorimotor-band-power
#15
Irma N Angulo-Sherman, Marisol Rodríguez-Ugarte, Nadia Sciacca, Eduardo Iáñez, José M Azorín
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a technique for brain modulation that has potential to be used in motor neurorehabilitation. Considering that the cerebellum and motor cortex exert influence on the motor network, their stimulation could enhance motor functions, such as motor imagery, and be utilized for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) during motor neurorehabilitation. METHODS: A new tDCS montage that influences cerebellum and either right-hand or feet motor area is proposed and validated with a simulation of electric field...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419879/challenging-the-myth-of-right-non-dominant-hemisphere-lessons-from-cortico-subcortical-stimulation-mapping-in-awake-surgery-and-surgical-implications
#16
REVIEW
Tatiana Vilasboas, Guillaume Herbet, Hugues Duffau
For a long time, the right hemisphere (RH) was considered as "non-dominant", especially in right-handers. In neurosurgical practice, this dogma resulted in the selection of awake procedure with language mapping only for lesions of the left "dominant" hemisphere. Conversely, surgery under general anesthesia (possibly with motor mapping) was usually proposed for right lesions. However, when objective neuropsychological assessments were performed, they frequently revealed cognitive and behavioral deficits following brain surgery, even in the RH...
April 15, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416595/nonsinusoidal-beta-oscillations-reflect-cortical-pathophysiology-in-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Scott R Cole, Roemer van der Meij, Erik J Peterson, Coralie de Hemptinne, Philip A Starr, Bradley Voytek
Oscillations in neural activity play a critical role in neural computation and communication. There is intriguing new evidence that the nonsinusoidal features of the oscillatory waveforms may inform underlying physiological and pathophysiological characteristics. Time-domain waveform analysis approaches stand in contrast to traditional Fourier-based methods, which alter or destroy subtle waveform features. Recently it has been shown that the waveform features of oscillatory beta (13-30 Hz) events-a prominent motor cortical oscillation-may reflect near-synchronous excitatory synaptic inputs onto cortical pyramidal neurons...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416459/the-error-of-broca-from-the-traditional-localizationist-concept-to-a-connectomal-anatomy-of-human-brain
#18
REVIEW
Hugues Duffau
Neurology, especially aphasiology, was mainly built on behavioral-structural correlations ("lesion method"). In this setting, Broca's area has been considered as the "speech area"; moreover, this observation led to localizationism. However, advances in brain mapping techniques, as functional neuroimaging and direct electrical stimulation in patients undergoing awake surgery for gliomas, has resulted in a paradigmatic shift regarding models of neural architecture. In fact, the brain is organized in distributed complex networks underpinning sensorimotor, visuospatial, language, cognitive and emotional functions...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413698/simultaneous-bilateral-cochlear-implants-developmental-advances-do-not-yet-achieve-normal-cortical-processing
#19
Vijayalakshmi Easwar, Hiroshi Yamazaki, Michael Deighton, Blake Papsin, Karen Gordon
BACKGROUND: Simultaneous bilateral cochlear implantation promotes symmetric development of bilateral auditory pathways but binaural hearing remains abnormal. To evaluate whether bilateral cortical processing remains impaired in such children, cortical activity to unilateral and bilateral stimuli was assessed in a unique cohort of 16 children who received bilateral cochlear implants (CIs) simultaneously at 1.97 ± 0.86 years of age and had ~4 years of CI experience, providing the first opportunity to assess electrically driven cortical development in the absence of reorganized asymmetries from sequential implantation...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412953/quantification-of-task-dependent-cortical-activation-evoked-by-robotic-continuous-wrist-joint-manipulation-in-chronic-hemiparetic-stroke
#20
Martijn P Vlaar, Teodoro Solis-Escalante, Julius P A Dewald, Erwin E H van Wegen, Alfred C Schouten, Gert Kwakkel, Frans C T van der Helm
BACKGROUND: Cortical damage after stroke can drastically impair sensory and motor function of the upper limb, affecting the execution of activities of daily living and quality of life. Motor impairment after stroke has been thoroughly studied, however sensory impairment and its relation to movement control has received less attention. Integrity of the somatosensory system is essential for feedback control of human movement, and compromised integrity due to stroke has been linked to sensory impairment...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
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