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cortical stimulation

Neil E O'Connell, Louise Marston, Sally Spencer, Lorraine H DeSouza, Benedict M Wand
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane Review published in 2010, Issue 9, and last updated in 2014, Issue 4. Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques aim to induce an electrical stimulation of the brain in an attempt to reduce chronic pain by directly altering brain activity. They include repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) and reduced impedance non-invasive cortical electrostimulation (RINCE)...
March 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Anthony J Kee, Jayshan Chagan, Jeng Yie Chan, Nicole S Bryce, Christine A Lucas, Jun Zeng, Jeff Hook, Herbert Treutlein, D Ross Laybutt, Justine R Stehn, Peter W Gunning, Edna C Hardeman
The development of novel small molecule inhibitors of the cancer-associated tropomyosin 3.1 (Tpm3.1) provides the ability to examine the metabolic function of specific actin filament populations. We have determined the ability of these anti-Tpm (ATM) compounds to regulate glucose metabolism in mice. Acute treatment (1 h) of wild-type (WT) mice with the compounds (TR100 and ATM1001) led to a decrease in glucose clearance due mainly to suppression of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from the pancreatic islets...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Richard Lindqvist, Chaitanya Kurhade, Jonathan D Gilthorpe, Anna K Överby
BACKGROUND: Flaviviruses are a group of diverse and emerging arboviruses and an immense global health problem. A number of flaviviruses are neurotropic, causing severe encephalitis and even death. Type I interferons (IFNs) are the first line of defense of the innate immune system against flavivirus infection. IFNs elicit the concerted action of numerous interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) to restrict both virus infection and replication. Viperin (virus-inhibitory protein, endoplasmic reticulum-associated, IFN-inducible) is an ISG with broad-spectrum antiviral activity against multiple flaviviruses in vitro...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
A V Dolzhich, S E Avetisov
PURPOSE: to assess the neurophysiological effect and clinical effectiveness of transcranial direct current stimulation in combination with drug therapy in amblyopic children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 32 healthy children in the age of 5-12 years and 97 patients of the same age with refractive strabismic amblyopia. All study subjects underwent standard examination including ophthalmological (visometry, refractometry in normal conditions and in cycloplegia, biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy, type of vision), neurophysiological methods (determination of retinal electric sensitivity threshold, electric lability of optic nerve, amplitude and latency period of visual evoked potentials, electroencephalogram wave amplitudes, localization of peak electrical activity area of the cerebral cortex), assessment of neuropsychic development and estimation of mental development coefficient with age tests...
2018: Vestnik Oftalmologii
Joery P Molenaar, Nicol C Voermans, Lysanne A de Jong, Dick F Stegeman, Jonne Doorduin, Baziel G van Engelen
Impaired muscle relaxation is a feature of many neuromuscular disorders. However, there are few tests available to quantify muscle relaxation. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex can induce muscle relaxation by abruptly inhibiting corticospinal drive. The aim of our study is to investigate if repeatability and reliability of TMS-induced relaxation is greater than voluntary relaxation. Furthermore, effects of sex, cooling and fatigue on muscle relaxation properties were studied. Muscle relaxation of deep finger flexors was assessed in twenty-five healthy subjects (14 M and 11 F, aged 39...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Alireza Shahbabaie, Mitra Ebrahimpoor, Ali Hariri, Michael A Nitsche, Javad Hatami, Emad Fatemizadeh, Mohammad Ali Oghabian, Hamed Ekhtiari
Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation tool suited to alter cortical excitability and activity via the application of weak direct electrical currents. An increasing number of studies in the addiction literature suggests that tDCS modulates subjective self-reported craving through stimulation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The major goal of this study was to explore effects of bilateral DLPFC stimulation on resting state networks (RSNs) in association with drug craving modulation...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Jiayue Cai, Soojin Lee, Fang Ba, Saurabh Garg, Laura J Kim, Aiping Liu, Diana Kim, Z Jane Wang, Martin J McKeown
Falls and balance difficulties remain a major source of morbidity in Parkinson's Disease (PD) and are stubbornly resistant to therapeutic interventions. The mechanisms of gait impairment in PD are incompletely understood but may involve changes in the Pedunculopontine Nucleus (PPN) and its associated connections. We utilized fMRI to explore the modulation of PPN connectivity by Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation (GVS) in healthy controls ( n = 12) and PD subjects even without overt evidence of Freezing of Gait (FOG) while on medication ( n = 23)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Krzysztof Kucharz, Martin Lauritzen
Cortical spreading depolarization waves, the cause underlying migraine aura, are also the markers and mechanism of pathology in the acutely injured human brain. Propagation of spreading depolarization wave uniquely depends on the interaction between presynaptic and postsynaptic glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). In the normally perfused brain, even a single wave causes a massive depolarization of neurons and glia, which results in transient loss of neuronal function and depression of the ongoing electrocorticographic activity...
March 12, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Ewa Siucinska, Wojciech Brutkowski, Tytus Bernas
We found previously that fear conditioning by combined stimulation of a row B facial vibrissae (conditioned stimulus, CS) with a tail shock (unconditioned stimulus, UCS) leads to expansion of the cortical representation of the "trained" row, labeled with 2-deoxyglucose (2DG), in the layer IIIb/IV of the adult mouse the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) 24 h later. We have observed that learning - dependent these plastic changes are manifested by increased expression of somatostatin, cholecystokinin (SST+, CCK+) but not parvalbumin (PV+) immunopositive interneurons...
March 14, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Tianxiao Jiang, Su Liu, Giuseppe Pellizzer, Aydin Aydoseli, Sacit Karamursel, Pulat A Sabanci, Altay Sencer, Candan Gurses, Nuri F Ince
Functional mapping of eloquent cortex before the resection of a tumor is a critical procedure for optimizing survival and quality of life. In order to locate the hand area of the motor cortex in two patients with low-grade gliomas (LGG), we recorded electrocorticogram (ECoG) from a 113 channel hybrid high-density grid (64 large contacts with diameter of 2.7 mm and 49 small contacts with diameter of 1 mm) while they executed hand clenching movements. We investigated the spatio-spectral characteristics of the neural oscillatory activity and observed that, in both patients, the hand movements were consistently associated with a wide spread power decrease in the low frequency band (LFB: 8-32 Hz) and a more localized power increase in the high frequency band (HFB: 60-280 Hz) within the sensorimotor region...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Anastasia Greenberg, Javad Karimi Abadchi, Clayton T Dickson, Majid H Mohajerani
The signature rhythm of slow-wave forebrain activity is the large amplitude, slow oscillation (SO: ∼1 Hz) made up of alternating synchronous periods of activity and silence at the single cell and network levels. On each wave, the SO originates at a unique location and propagates across the neocortex. Attempts to manipulate SO activity using electrical fields have been shown to entrain cortical networks and enhance memory performance. However, neural activity during this manipulation has remained elusive due to methodological issues in typical electrical recordings...
March 10, 2018: NeuroImage
Jana Klaus, Dennis J L G Schutter
In addition to the role of left frontotemporal areas in language processing, there is increasing evidence that language comprehension and production require cognitive control and working memory resources involving the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the left DLPFC in both language comprehension and production. In a double-blind, sham-controlled crossover experiment, thirty-two participants received cathodal or sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the left DLPFC while performing a language comprehension and a language production task...
March 10, 2018: Neuroscience
Robert Steger, Lauren Blachorsky, Qizong Yang, Joshua C Brumberg
The properties of specific cortical cell types enable greater understanding of how cortical microcircuits process and transmit sensory, motor, and cognitive information. Previous reports have characterized the intrinsic properties of the inverted pyramidal cell (IPC) where the most prominent dendrite is orientated towards the cortical white matter. Using whole cell patch clamp recordings from rat and mouse somatosensory cortex in conjunction with electric microstimulation of the white matter we characterized the synaptic inputs onto IPCs and the more common upright pyramidal cell (UPC) in the infragranular layers...
March 13, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
X H Ren, X C Yang, W Huang, K Y Yang, L Liu, H Qiao, L J Guo, Y Cui, S Lin
Objective: This study aimed to analyze the application of cortical and subcortical stimulation threshold in identifying the motor pathway and guiding the resection of gliomas in the functional area, and to illustrate the minimal safe threshold by ROC method. Methods: Fifty-seven patients with gliomas in the functional areas were enrolled in the study at Beijing Tiantan Hospital from 2015 to 2017. Anesthesia was maintained intravenously with propofol 10% and remifentanil. Throughout the resection process, cortical or subcortical stimulation threshold was determined along tumor border using monopolar or bipolar electrodes...
March 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Belinda J Poole, Marius Mather, Evan J Livesey, Irina M Harris, Justin A Harris
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex produces motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in contralateral muscles. The amplitude of these MEPs can be used to measure the excitability of the corticospinal tract during motor planning. In two experiments, we investigated learning-related changes in corticospinal excitability as subjects prepared to respond in a choice reaction-time task. Subjects responded with their left or right hand to a left or right arrow, and on some trials the arrow was immediately preceded by a warning cue that signaled which response would be required...
February 21, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Agnete B Madsen, Jonas R Knudsen, Carlos Henriquez-Olguin, Yeliz Angin, Kristien J Zaal, Lykke Sylow, Peter Schjerling, Evelyn Ralston, Thomas E Jensen
Studies in skeletal muscle cell cultures suggest that the cortical actin cytoskeleton is a major requirement for insulin-stimulated glucose transport, implicating the β-actin isoform which, in many cell types, is the main actin isoform. However, it is not clear that β-actin plays such a role in mature skeletal muscle. Neither dependency of glucose transport on β-actin nor actin reorganization upon glucose transport have been tested in mature muscle. To investigate the role of β-actin in fully differentiated muscle, we have performed a detailed characterization of wildtype and muscle-specific β-actin knockout (KO) mice...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Martin Pienkowski
Hearing loss changes the auditory brain, sometimes maladaptively. When deprived of cochlear input, central auditory neurons become more active spontaneously and begin to respond more strongly and synchronously to better preserved sound frequencies. This spontaneous and sound-evoked central hyperactivity has been postulated to trigger tinnitus and hyperacusis, respectively. Localized hyperactivity has also been observed after long-term exposure to noise levels that do not damage the cochlea. Adult animals exposed to bands of nondamaging noise exhibited suppressed spontaneous and sound-evoked activity in the area of primary auditory cortex (A1) stimulated by the exposure band but had increased spontaneous and evoked activity in neighboring A1 areas...
January 2018: Trends in Hearing
Jianwei Cao, Hanli Liu, George Alexandrakis
Cortical circuit reorganization induced by anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the Broca's area of the dominant language hemisphere in 13 healthy adults was quantified by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Transient cortical reorganization patterns in steady-state functional connectivity (seed-based and graph theory analysis) and temporal functional connectivity (sliding window correlation analysis) were recorded before, during, and after applying high current tDCS (1 mA, 8 min)...
April 2018: Neurophotonics
Logan T Dowdle, Truman R Brown, Mark S George, Colleen A Hanlon
BACKGROUND: In the 20 years since our group established the feasibility of performing interleaved TMS/fMRI, no studies have reported direct comparisons of active prefrontal stimulation with a matched sham. Thus, for all studies there is concern about what is truly the TMS effect on cortical neurons. OBJECTIVE: After developing a sham control for use within the MRI scanner, we used fMRI to test the hypothesis of greater regional BOLD responses for active versus control stimulation...
February 24, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Gábor Csifcsák, Nya Mehnwolo Boayue, Oula Puonti, Axel Thielscher, Matthias Mittner
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) above the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (lDLPFC) has been widely used to improve symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the effects of different stimulation protocols in the entire frontal lobe have not been investigated in a large sample including patient data. METHODS: We used 38 head models created from structural magnetic resonance imaging data of 19 healthy adults and 19 MDD patients and applied computational modeling to simulate the spatial distribution of tDCS-induced electric fields (EFs) in 20 frontal regions...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
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