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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346953/lennox-gastaut-syndrome-a-state-of-the-art-review
#1
Mario Mastrangelo
Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is a severe age-dependent epileptic encephalopathy usually with onset between 1 and 8 years of age. Functional neuroimaging studies recently introduced the concept of Lennox-Gastaut as "secondary network epilepsy" resulting from dysfunctions of a complex system involving both cortical and subcortical structures (default-mode network, corticoreticular connections, and thalamus). These dysfunctions are produced by different disorders including hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathies, meningoencephalitis, cortical malformations, neurocutaneous disorders, or tumors...
March 27, 2017: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344549/functional-brain-activation-in-response-to-a-clinical-vestibular-test-correlates-with-balance
#2
Fatemeh Noohi, Catherine Kinnaird, Yiri DeDios, Igor S Kofman, Scott Wood, Jacob Bloomberg, Ajitkumar Mulavara, Rachael Seidler
The current study characterizes brain fMRI activation in response to two modes of vestibular stimulation: Skull tap and auditory tone burst. The auditory tone burst has been used in previous studies to elicit either a vestibulo-spinal reflex [saccular-mediated colic Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (cVEMP)], or an ocular muscle response [utricle-mediated ocular VEMP (oVEMP)]. Research suggests that the skull tap elicits both saccular and utricle-mediated VEMPs, while being faster and less irritating for subjects than the high decibel tones required to elicit VEMPs...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341672/activation-of-myeloid-tlr4-mediates-t-lymphocyte-polarization-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Molly Braun, Kumar Vaibhav, Nancy Saad, Sumbul Fatima, Darrell W Brann, John R Vender, Lei P Wang, Md Nasrul Hoda, Babak Baban, Krishnan M Dhandapani
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health issue, producing significant patient mortality and poor long-term outcomes. Increasing evidence suggests an important, yet poorly defined, role for the immune system in the development of secondary neurologic injury over the days and weeks following a TBI. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that peripheral macrophage infiltration initiates long-lasting adaptive immune responses after TBI. Using a murine controlled cortical impact model, we used adoptive transfer, transgenic, and bone marrow chimera approaches to show increased infiltration and proinflammatory (classically activated [M1]) polarization of macrophages for up to 3 wk post-TBI...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340575/nox2-deficiency-alters-macrophage-phenotype-through-an-il-10-stat3-dependent-mechanism-implications-for-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
James P Barrett, Rebecca J Henry, Sonia Villapol, Bogdan A Stoica, Alok Kumar, Mark P Burns, Alan I Faden, David J Loane
BACKGROUND: NADPH oxidase (NOX2) is an enzyme system that generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in microglia and macrophages. Excessive ROS production is linked with neuroinflammation and chronic neurodegeneration following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Redox signaling regulates macrophage/microglial phenotypic responses (pro-inflammatory versus anti-inflammatory), and NOX2 inhibition following moderate-to-severe TBI markedly reduces pro-inflammatory activation of macrophages/microglia resulting in concomitant increases in anti-inflammatory responses...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340134/primary-motor-cortex-organization-is-altered-in-persistent-patellofemoral-pain
#5
Maxine Te, Abrahão F Baptista, Lucy S Chipchase, Siobhan M Schabrun
Objective.:  Reorganization of the primary motor cortex (M1) may be a feature of persistent patellofemoral pain (PFP), but no studies have investigated M1 organization in this condition. Here we aimed to examine the organization of the M1 representation of the quadriceps muscles in people with PFP and healthy controls. Design.:  Using a cross-sectional design, the M1 representation of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis was mapped using transcranial magnetic stimulation in 11 individuals with PFP and 11 controls...
March 14, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337033/cortical-cells-reveal-app-as-a-new-player-in-the-regulation-of-gabaergic-neurotransmission
#6
Anna Doshina, Florian Gourgue, Michiho Onizuka, Remi Opsomer, Peng Wang, Kunie Ando, Bernadette Tasiaux, Ilse Dewachter, Pascal Kienlen-Campard, Jean-Pierre Brion, Philippe Gailly, Jean-Noël Octave, Nathalie Pierrot
The amyloid precursor protein (APP) modulates synaptic activity, resulting from the fine tuning of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. GABAergic inhibitory neurotransmission is affected by modifications in intracellular chloride concentrations regulated by Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) and neuronal K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter 2 (KCC2), allowing entrance and efflux of chloride, respectively. Modifications in NKCC1 and KCC2 expression during maturation of cortical cells induce a shift in GABAergic signaling...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334999/rewiring-the-primary-somatosensory-cortex-in-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-with-acupuncture
#7
Yumi Maeda, Hyungjun Kim, Norman Kettner, Jieun Kim, Stephen Cina, Cristina Malatesta, Jessica Gerber, Claire McManus, Rebecca Ong-Sutherland, Pia Mezzacappa, Alexandra Libby, Ishtiaq Mawla, Leslie R Morse, Ted J Kaptchuk, Joseph Audette, Vitaly Napadow
Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common entrapment neuropathy, affecting the median nerve at the wrist. Acupuncture is a minimally-invasive and conservative therapeutic option, and while rooted in a complex practice ritual, acupuncture overlaps significantly with many conventional peripherally-focused neuromodulatory therapies. However, the neurophysiological mechanisms by which acupuncture impacts accepted subjective/psychological and objective/physiological outcomes are not well understood. Eligible patients (n = 80, 65 female, age: 49...
March 2, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334963/three-and-four-dimensional-mapping-of-speech-and-language-in-patients-with-epilepsy
#8
Yasuo Nakai, Jeong-Won Jeong, Erik C Brown, Robert Rothermel, Katsuaki Kojima, Toshimune Kambara, Aashit Shah, Sandeep Mittal, Sandeep Sood, Eishi Asano
We have provided 3-D and 4D mapping of speech and language function based upon the results of direct cortical stimulation and event-related modulation of electrocorticography signals. Patients estimated to have right-hemispheric language dominance were excluded. Thus, 100 patients who underwent two-stage epilepsy surgery with chronic electrocorticography recording were studied. An older group consisted of 84 patients at least 10 years of age (7367 artefact-free non-epileptic electrodes), whereas a younger group included 16 children younger than age 10 (1438 electrodes)...
March 16, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334424/frequency-and-function-in-the-basal-ganglia-the-origins-of-beta-and-gamma-band-activity
#9
Alexander Blenkinsop, Sean Anderson, Kevin Gurney
Neural oscillations in the basal ganglia are well studied yet remain poorly understood. Behavioural correlates of spectral activity are well described, yet a quantitative hypothesis linking time domain dynamics and spectral properties to basal ganglia function has been lacking. We show, for the first time, that a unified description is possible by interpreting previously ignored structure in data describing GPi responses to cortical stimulation. These data were used to expose a pair of distinctive neuronal responses to the stimulation...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334353/suppression-of-v1-feedback-produces-a-shift-in-the-topographic-representation-of-receptive-fields-of-lgn-cells-by-unmasking-latent-retinal-drives
#10
Jordi Aguila, F Javier Cudeiro, Casto Rivadulla
In awake monkeys, we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to focally inactivate visual cortex while measuring the responsiveness of parvocellular lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) neurons. Effects were noted in 64/75 neurons, and could be divided into 2 main groups: (1) for 39 neurons, visual responsiveness decreased and visual latency increased without apparent shift in receptive field (RF) position and (2) a second group (n = 25, 33% of the recorded cells) whose excitability was not compromised, but whose RF position shifted an average of 4...
March 18, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334325/endocannabinoid-dependent-long-term-potentiation-of-synaptic-transmission-at-rat-barrel-cortex
#11
Laura Eva Maglio, José Antonio Noriega-Prieto, Maria Jesús Maraver, David Fernández de Sevilla
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in modulating plasticity in sensory cortices. Indeed, a BDNF-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) at distal basal excitatory synapses of Layer 5 pyramidal neurons (L5PNs) has been demonstrated in disinhibited rat barrel cortex slices. Although it is well established that this LTP requires the pairing of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) with Ca2+ spikes, its induction when synaptic inhibition is working remains unexplored. Here we show that low-frequency stimulation at basal dendrites of L5PNs is able to trigger a PSP followed by an action potential (AP) and a slow depolarization (termed PSP-Ca2+ response) in thalamocortical slices without blocking synaptic inhibition...
March 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334225/pom-thalamocortical-input-drives-layer-specific-microcircuits-in-somatosensory-cortex
#12
Nicholas J Audette, Joanna Urban-Ciecko, Megumi Matsushita, Alison L Barth
Higher-order thalamic nuclei, such as the posterior medial nucleus (POm) in the somatosensory system or the pulvinar in the visual system, densely innervate the cortex and can influence perception and plasticity. To systematically evaluate how higher-order thalamic nuclei can drive cortical circuits, we investigated cell-type selective responses to POm stimulation in mouse primary somatosensory (barrel) cortex, using genetically targeted whole-cell recordings in acute brain slices. We find that ChR2-evoked thalamic input selectively targets specific cell types in the neocortex, revealing layer-specific modules for the summation and processing of POm input...
March 10, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334214/tdcs-modulates-visual-gamma-oscillations-and-basal-alpha-activity-in-occipital-cortices-evidence-from-meg
#13
Tony W Wilson, Timothy J McDermott, Mackenzie S Mills, Nathan M Coolidge, Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham
Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) is now a widely used method for modulating the human brain, but the resulting physiological effects are not understood. Recent studies have combined magnetoencephalography (MEG) with simultaneous tDCS to evaluate online changes in occipital alpha and gamma oscillations, but no study to date has quantified the offline (i.e., after tDCS) alterations in these responses. Thirty-five healthy adults received active or sham anodal tDCS to the occipital cortices, and then completed a visual stimulation paradigm during MEG that is known to elicit robust gamma and alpha oscillations...
March 10, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334126/heartfelt-self-cardio-visual-integration-affects-self-face-recognition-and-interoceptive-cortical-processing
#14
Alejandra Sel, Ruben T Azevedo, Manos Tsakiris
The sense of body-ownership relies on the representation of both interoceptive and exteroceptive signals coming from one's body. However, it remains unknown how the integration of bodily signals coming from "outside" and "inside" the body is instantiated in the brain. Here, we used a modified version of the Enfacement Illusion to investigate whether the integration of visual and cardiac information can alter self-face recognition (Experiment 1) and neural responses to heartbeats (Experiment 2). We projected a pulsing shade, that was synchronous or asynchronous with the participant's heartbeat, onto a picture depicting the participant's face morphed with the face of an unfamiliar other...
October 5, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333265/improving-oocyte-quality-by-transfer-of-autologous-mitochondria-from-fully-grown-oocytes
#15
Stine Gry Kristensen, Susanne Elisabeth Pors, Claus Yding Andersen
Older women are often the most challenging group of patients in fertility clinics due to a decline in both number and overall quality of oocytes. The quality of oocytes has been linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. In this mini-review, we discuss this hypothesis and suggest alternative treatment options using autologous mitochondria to potentially augment pregnancy potential in ART. Autologous transfer of mitochondria from the patient's own germline cells has attracted much attention as a possible new treatment to revitalize deficient oocytes...
March 2, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331064/maternal-separation-diminishes-alpha-adrenergic-receptors-density-and-function-in-renal-vasculature-from-male-wistar-kyoto-rats
#16
Analia S Loria, Jeffrey L Osborn
Adult rats exposed to maternal separation (MatSep) are normotensive but display lower glomerular filtration rate and increased renal neuroadrenergic drive. The aim of this study was to determine the renal alpha-adrenergic receptor density and the renal vascular responsiveness to adrenergic stimulation in male rats exposed to MatSep. In addition, baroreflex sensitivity was assessed to determine a component of neural control of the vasculature. Using tissue collected from 4-month-old MatSep and control rats, alpha 1-adrenergic receptors (α1-ARs) were measured in renal cortex and isolated renal vasculature using receptor binding assay, and the α-AR subtype gene expression was determined by RT-PCR...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329257/lessons-learned-at-the-epicenter-of-brazil-s-congenital-zika-epidemic-evidence-from-87-confirmed-cases
#17
Jucille do Amaral Meneses, Ana Catarina Ishigami, Luisa Medeiros de Mello, Luciano Lira de Albuquerque, Carlos Alexandre Antunes de Brito, Marli Tenório Cordeiro, Lindomar José Pena
Congenital Zika virus infection has stimulated great international concern. A prospective case series of 87 infants with laboratory-confirmed congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) at the epicenter of the Brazilian Zika epidemic in Pernambuco state is presented. Mothers were interviewed for symptoms of possible Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy and fetal ultrasounds were obtained. Infant cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were tested for ZIKV specific antibodies and sera were screened for other congenital infections...
February 24, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327949/resection-of-navigated-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-positive-prerolandic-motor-areas-causes-permanent-impairment-of-motor-function
#18
Tobias Moser, Lucia Bulubas, Jamil Sabih, Neal Conway, Noémie Wildschutz, Nico Sollmann, Bernhard Meyer, Florian Ringel, Sandro M Krieg
BACKGROUND: Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) helps to determine the distribution of motor eloquent areas prior to brain surgery. Yet, the eloquence of primary motor areas frontal to the precentral gyrus identified via nTMS is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the resection of nTMS-positive prerolandic motor areas and its correlation with postsurgical impairment of motor function. METHODS: Forty-three patients with rolandic or prerolandic gliomas (WHO grade I-IV) underwent nTMS prior to surgery...
February 24, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327904/the-cost-of-brain-surgery-awake-vs-asleep-craniotomy-for-perirolandic-region-tumors
#19
Chikezie I Eseonu, Jordina Rincon-Torroella, Karim ReFaey, Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa
BACKGROUND: Cost effectiveness has become an important factor in the health care system, requiring surgeons to improve efficacy of procedures while reducing costs. An awake craniotomy (AC) with direct cortical stimulation (DCS) presents one method to resect eloquent region tumors; however, some authors assert that this procedure is an expensive alternative to surgery under general anesthesia (GA) with neuromonitoring. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost effectiveness and clinical outcomes between AC and GA patients...
March 15, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327900/awake-craniotomy-vs-craniotomy-under-general-anesthesia-for-perirolandic-gliomas-evaluating-perioperative-complications-and-extent-of-resection
#20
Chikezie I Eseonu, Jordina Rincon-Torroella, Karim ReFaey, Young M Lee, Jasvinder Nangiana, Tito Vivas-Buitrago, Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa
BACKGROUND: A craniotomy with direct cortical/subcortical stimulation either awake or under general anesthesia (GA) present 2 approaches for removing eloquent region tumors. With a reported higher prevalence of intraoperative seizures occurring during awake resections of perirolandic lesions, oftentimes, surgery under GA is chosen for these lesions. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a single-surgeon's experience with awake craniotomies (AC) vs surgery under GA for resecting perirolandic, eloquent, motor-region gliomas...
March 15, 2017: Neurosurgery
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