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Kinetic chain

Dorien Borms, Ann Cools
This study aimed to provide an age, gender and sport-based normative database for three functional shoulder tests: Y Balance Test - Upper Quarter (YBT-UQ), Closed Kinetic Chain Upper Extremity Stability Test (CKCUEST), and Seated Medicine Ball Throw (SMBT). A second aim was to discuss gender, age and sports differences. Finally, correlation between tests was evaluated. Overhead athletes (106 male, 100 female) between 18 and 50 years old and from three different sports (volleyball, tennis, handball) performed all functional tests...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Lauren Mullen, Kim Boerrigter, Nicholas Ferriero, Jeff Rosalsky, Abigail van Buren Barrett, Patrick J Murray, Andrew D Steen
Proteins constitute a particularly bioavailable subset of organic carbon and nitrogen in aquatic environments but must be hydrolyzed by extracellular enzymes prior to being metabolized by microorganisms. Activities of extracellular peptidases (protein-degrading enzymes) have frequently been assayed in freshwater systems, but such studies have been limited to substrates for a single enzyme [leucyl aminopeptidase (Leu-AP)] out of more than 300 biochemically recognized peptidases. Here, we report kinetic measurements of extracellular hydrolysis of five substrates in 28 freshwater bodies in the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area in the Pocono Mountains (PA, United States) and near Knoxville (TN, United States), between 2013 and 2016...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Riccardo Amorati, Luca Valgimigli
Measurement of antioxidant properties in plant-derived compounds require appropriate methods that address the mechanism of antioxidant activity and focus on the kinetics of the reactions involving the antioxidants. Methods based on inhibited autoxidations are the most suited for chain-breaking antioxidants and for termination-enhancing antioxidants, while different specific studies are needed for preventive antioxidants. A selection of chemical testing methods is critically reviewed highlighting their advantages and limitations, and discussing their usefulness to investigate both pure molecules and raw extracts...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Mohsen Behbahani, Boren Lin, Tamara L Phares, Youngwoo Seo
The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of water distribution system conditions (pH, total organic carbon, residual chlorine, and phosphate) on haloacetic acids (HAAs) biodegradation. A series of batch microcosm tests were conducted to determine biodegradation kinetics and collected biomass was used for real time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses to monitor how these drinking water distribution system conditions affect the relative expression of bacterial dehalogenase genes...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Lisa N Chesner, Colin Campbell
The purpose of this method is to provide a flexible, rapid, and quantitative technique to examine the kinetics of DNA-protein crosslink (DPC) repair in mammalian cell lines. Rather than globally assaying removal of xenobiotic-induced or spontaneous chromosomal DPC removal, this assay examines the repair of a homogeneous, chemically defined lesion specifically introduced at one site within a plasmid DNA substrate. Importantly, this approach avoids the use of radioactive materials and is not dependent on expensive or highly-specialized technology...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Justin Weinberg, Shaojie Zhang, Gillian Crews, Giorgio Carta, Todd Przybycien
Chemical modification of Protein A (ProA) chromatography ligands with polyethylene glycol (PEGylation) has been proposed as a strategy to increase the process selectivity and resin robustness by providing the ligand with a steric repulsion barrier against non-specific binding. This article comprises a comprehensive study of IgG adsorption and transport in Repligen CaptivA PriMAB resin with PEGylated ProA ligands that are modified using 5.2 and 21.5 kDa PEG chains. We studied the impact of the molecular weight of the PEG as well as the extent of PEGylation for the 5...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Sergio Polakof, Didier Rémond, Jérémie David, Dominique Dardevet, Isabelle Savary-Auzeloux
OBJECTIVES: High-fat high-sucrose diet (HFHS) overfeeding is one of the main factors responsible for the increased prevalence of metabolic disorders. Elevated levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) have been associated with metabolic dysfunctions, including insulin resistance (IR). The aim of this study was to elucidate whether elevated BCAA levels are the cause or the consequence of IR and to determine the mechanisms and tissues involved in such a phenotype. METHODS: We performed a 2-mo follow-up on minipigs overfed an HFHS diet and focused on kinetics fasting and postprandial (PP) BCAA levels and BCAA catabolism in key tissues...
November 27, 2017: Nutrition
Ognjen Perišić
Physical interactions between proteins are often difficult to decipher. The aim of this paper is to present an algorithm that is designed to recognize binding patches and supporting structural scaffolds of interacting heterodimer proteins using the Gaussian Network Model (GNM). The recognition is based on the (self) adjustable identification of kinetically hot residues and their connection to possible binding scaffolds. The kinetically hot residues are residues with the lowest entropy, i.e., the highest contribution to the weighted sum of the fastest modes per chain extracted via GNM...
March 16, 2018: Pharmaceuticals
A V Finkelstein
The ability of proteins to spontaneously form their spatial structures is a long-standing puzzle in molecular biology. Experimentally measured rates of spontaneous folding of single-domain globular proteins range from microseconds to hours: the difference - 10-11 orders of magnitude - is the same as between the lifespan of a mosquito and the age of the Universe. This review (based on the literature and some personal recollections) describes a winding road to understanding spontaneous folding of protein structure...
January 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Lu Hu, Wuchao Zhao, Jianghua He, Yuetao Zhang
This work reveals the silyl ketene acetal (SKA)/B(C₆F₅)₃ Lewis pair-catalyzed room-temperature group transfer polymerization (GTP) of polar acrylic monomers, including methyl linear methacrylate (MMA), and the biorenewable cyclic monomers γ-methyl-α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone (MMBL) and α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone (MBL) as well. The in situ NMR monitored reaction of SKA with B(C₆F₅)₃ indicated the formation of Frustrated Lewis Pairs (FLPs), although it is sluggish for MMA polymerization, such a FLP system exhibits highly activity and living GTP of MMBL and MBL...
March 15, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Enda F Whyte, Chris Richter, Siobhan O'Connor, Kieran A Moran
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries frequently occur during side cutting maneuvers when fatigued or reacting to the sporting environment. Trunk and hip biomechanics are proposed to influence ACL loading during these activities. However, the effects of fatigue and unanticipation on the biomechanics of the kinetic chain may be limited by traditional discrete point analysis. We recruited twenty-eight male, varsity, Gaelic footballers (21.7±2.2 years; 178.7±14.6m; 81.8±11.4kg) to perform anticipated and unanticipated side cutting maneuvers pre- and post- a high intensity, intermittent exercise protocol (HIIP)...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Yancong Feng, Rui Tan, Yan Zhao, Rongtan Gao, Luyi Yang, Jinlong Yang, Hao Li, Guofu Zhou, Haibiao Chen, Feng Pan
A novel hybrid single Li-ion conductor (SLIC) for a Li-ion solid electrolyte was prepared by mixing aluminate complexes-polyethylene glycol (LiAl-PEG) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) for solid-state Li-ion batteries. The LiAl-PEG/PEO blend possesses high thermal stability and electrochemical stability with an oxidation decomposition voltage up to 4.8 V. Notably, this hybrid SLIC exhibits not only excellent Li-ion migration kinetics, but also good ionic conductivity as high as 4.0 × 10-5 and 2.6 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 30 and 100 °C, respectively, which is much higher than previously reported SLICs...
March 15, 2018: Nanoscale
Wei Du, Bilin Zhang, Pengqi Guo, Guoning Chen, Chun Chang, Qiang Fu
Dexamethasone-imprinted polymers were fabricated by reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles under mild polymerization conditions, which exhibited a narrow polydispersity and high selectivity for dexamethasone extraction. The dexamethasone-imprinted polymers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectrometry and vibrating sample magnetometry...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Geoffrey Masuyer, Sicai Zhang, Sulyman Barkho, Yi Shen, Linda Henriksson, Sara Košenina, Min Dong, Pål Stenmark
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are among the most potent toxins known and are also used to treat an increasing number of medical disorders. There are seven well-established serotypes (BoNT/A-G), which all act as zinc-dependent endopeptidases targeting specific members of the SNARE proteins required for synaptic vesicle exocytosis in neurons. A new toxin serotype, BoNT/X, was recently identified. It cleaves not only the canonical targets, vesicle associated membrane proteins (VAMP) 1/2/3 at a unique site, but also has the unique ability to cleave VAMP4/5 and Ykt6...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Takashi Baba, J Larry Campbell, J C Yves Le Blanc, Paul R S Baker, Kazutaka Ikeda
We report a method for comprehensive structural characterization of lipids in animal tissues using a combination of differential Ion mobility spectrometry (DMS) with electron-impact excitation of ions from organics (EIEIO) mass spectrometry. Singly charged lipid ions in protonated or sodiated forms were dissociated by an electron beam having a kinetic energy of 10 eV in a branched radio-frequency ion trap. We established a comprehensive set of diagnostics to characterize structures of glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and acylglycerols, including glycosylated, plasmalogen, and ester forms...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Bernadette M Glasheen, Seemanti Ramanath, Monica Patel, Debra Sheppard, Joy T Puthawala, Lauren A Riley, Douglas M Swank
Muscles have evolved to power a wide variety of movements. A protein component critical to varying power generation is the myosin isoform present in the muscle. However, how functional variation in muscle arises from myosin structure is not well understood. We studied the influence of the converter, a myosin structural region at the junction of the lever arm and catalytic domain, using Drosophila because its single myosin heavy chain gene expresses five alternative converter versions (11a-e). We created five transgenic fly lines, each forced to express one of the converter versions in their indirect flight muscle (IFM) fibers...
March 13, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Gourhari Chakraborty, Ravi Babu Valapa, G Pugazhenthi, Vimal Katiyar
In order to overcome the challenges that underlies in dispersion of exfoliated graphene (GR) into poly lactic acid (PLA) matrix by extrusion, a versatile approach is used in this work, where uniform coating of GR over PLA is carried out prior to extrusion of PLA. Effect of melt processing on different graphene loaded composites (PLA-M-0.05GR, PLA-M-0.2GR) is studied. Investigation on the morphology, thermal stability, crystallization property, surface wettability, mechanical property, and dynamic mechanical property of composites are performed...
March 10, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Soobin Kim, Henry D Castillo, Milim Lee, Riley D Mortensen, Steven L Tait, Dongwhan Lee
Small molecule self-assembly at surfaces offers an efficient route to highly-ordered organic films that can be programmed for a variety of chemical and electronic applications. The success of these materials depends on the ability to program intermolecular interactions to guide precise structural ordering. Toward this objective, we have designed and synthesized a series of bis(triazolo)benzene-based π-conjugated molecules. Our synthesis exploits a last-stage C-C cross-coupling reaction to close up zigzag-shaped linear precursors to cyclized products, so that direct side-by-side comparisons can be made for their structure-dependent self-assembly behavior at surfaces and response to external stimuli...
March 13, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Hyemi Bae, Jeongyoon Choi, Young-Won Kim, Donghee Lee, Jung-Ha Kim, Jae-Hong Ko, Hyoweon Bang, Taeho Kim, Inja Lim
This study investigated the expression of voltage-gated K⁺ (KV ) channels in human cardiac fibroblasts (HCFs), and the effect of nitric oxide (NO) on the KV currents, and the underlying phosphorylation mechanisms. In reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, two types of KV channels were detected in HCFs: delayed rectifier K⁺ channel and transient outward K⁺ channel. In whole-cell patch-clamp technique, delayed rectifier K⁺ current (IK ) exhibited fast activation and slow inactivation, while transient outward K⁺ current (Ito ) showed fast activation and inactivation kinetics...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ane Urtiaga, Alvaro Soriano, Jordi Carrillo-Abad
The concerns about the undesired impacts on human health and the environment of long chain perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) have driven industrial initiatives to replace PFASs by shorter chain fluorinated homologues. 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (6:2 FTSA) is applied as alternative to PFOS in metal plating and fluoropolymer manufacture. This study reports the electrochemical treatment of aqueous 6:2 FTSA solutions on microcrystalline BDD anodes. Bench scale batch experiments were performed, focused on assessing the effect of the electrolyte and the applied current density (5-600 A m-2 ) on the removal of 6:2 FTSA, the reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) and the fluoride release...
March 7, 2018: Chemosphere
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