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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340410/development-of-fusogenic-glass-surfaces-that-impart-spatiotemporal-control-over-macrophage-fusion-direct-visualization-of-multinucleated-giant-cell-formation
#1
James J Faust, Wayne Christenson, Kyle Doudrick, Robert Ros, Tatiana P Ugarova
Implantation of synthetic material, including vascular grafts, pacemakers, etc. results in the foreign body reaction and the formation of multinucleated giant cells (MGCs) at the exterior surface of the implant. Despite the long-standing premise that fusion of mononucleated macrophages results in the formation of MGCs, to date, no published study has shown fusion in context with living specimens. This is due to the fact that optical-quality glass, which is required for the majority of live imaging techniques, does not promote macrophage fusion...
March 2, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339682/the-effects-of-interleukin-2-on-immune-response-regulation
#2
Ryan S Waters, Justin S A Perry, SunPil Han, Bibiana Bielekova, Tomas Gedeon
The immune system has many adaptive and dynamic components that are regulated to ensure appropriate, precise and rapid response to a foreign pathogen. A delayed or inadequate immune response can lead to prolonged disease, while an excessive or under-regulated response can lead to autoimmunity. The cytokine, interleukin-2 (IL-2) and its receptor IL-2R play an important role in maintaining this balance.The IL-2 receptor transduces pSTAT5 signal through both the intermediate and high affinity receptors, which differ from each other by the presence of CD25 chain in IL-2 receptor...
February 20, 2017: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338744/understanding-the-molecular-mechanism-of-substrate-channeling-and-domain-communication-in-protozoal-bifunctional-ts-dhfr
#3
Karen S Anderson
Most species, such as humans, have monofunctional forms of thymidylate synthase (TS) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) that are key folate metabolism enzymes making critical folate components required for DNA synthesis. In contrast, several parasitic protozoa, including Leishmania majorg(Lm), Plasmodium falciparum (Pf), Toxoplasma gondii (Tg) and Cryptosporidium hominis(Ch), contain a unique bifunctional thymidylate synthase-dihydrofolate reductase (TS-DHFR) having the two sequential catalytic activities contained on a single polypeptide chain...
February 4, 2017: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336547/glycans-in-the-intestinal-peptide-transporter-pept1-contribute-to-function-and-protect-from-proteolysis
#4
Tamara Stelzl, Kerstin Elisabeth Geillinger-Kästle, Jürgen Stolz, Hannelore Daniel
Despite the fact that many membrane proteins carry extracellular glycans, little is known about whether the glycan chains also affect protein function. We recently demonstrated that the proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter 1 (PEPT1) in the intestine is glycosylated at six asparagine residues (N50, N406, N439, N510, N515, N532). Mutagenesis-induced disruption of the individual N-glycosylation site N50, which is highly conserved among mammals, was detected to significantly enhance the PEPT1 mediated inward transport of peptides...
March 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330350/communication-calculations-of-the-2-%C3%A3-1-o-reconstruction-kinetics-on-cu-110
#5
Xin Lian, Penghao Xiao, Renlong Liu, Graeme Henkelman
Density functional theory calculations are used to study the elementary processes of the formation of the (2 × 1)-O reconstruction on the Cu(110) surface. The (2 × 1)-O reconstruction requires additional Cu atoms to form Cu-O rows on top of the surface. Both terrace and step sites are considered as the source of Cu adatoms. On terraces, adsorbed oxygen induces the ejection of Cu atoms to form -O-Cu-O- units, leaving Cu vacancies behind. The barrier for subsequent unit growth, however, is prohibitively high...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330214/production-kinetics-of-polyhydroxyalkanoates-by-using-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-gamma-ray-mutant-strain-ebn-8-cultured-on-soybean-oil
#6
Sharjeel Abid, Zulfiqar Ali Raza, Tanveer Hussain
The purpose of present study was to optimize polyhydroxyalkanotes (PHAs) production in a gamma ray mutant strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown on soybean oil in minimal salts media under shake flask conditions. The production kinetics was studied by sampling on daily basis for 6 days to investigate the best conditions for PHAs production like biomass estimation, carbon source utilization and PHAs yield. The PHA accumulation was observed up to 50.27 % (w/w) of cell dry mass. The Pseudomonas species synthesized medium chain length PHA copolyester as per identified by LCMS and confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323298/pegylated-and-folic-acid-functionalized-carbon-nanotubes-as-ph-controlled-carriers-of-doxorubicin-molecular-dynamics-analysis-of-the-stability-and-drug-release-mechanism
#7
Pawel Wolski, Krzysztof Nieszporek, Tomasz Panczyk
This work deals with an analysis of the covalent functionalization of a carbon nanotube using polyethylene glycol chains terminated by folic acid fragments. The analysis is focused on theoretical predictions, using molecular dynamics simulations, of the properties of such constructs as pH controlled carriers of the anticancer drug doxorubicin. The analyzed systems are expected to hold the doxorubicin in the inner cavity of the carbon nanotube at neutral pH and unload the drug at slightly acidic pH. This property comes from incorporation into the nanotube of some dye molecules (p-phenylenediamine or neutral red) which undergo protonation at slightly acidic pH...
March 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321946/plant-oil-derived-epoxy-polymers-toward-sustainable-biobased-thermosets
#8
Zhongkai Wang, Liang Yuan, Mitra S Ganewatta, Meghan E Lamm, Md Anisur Rahman, Jifu Wang, Shengquan Liu, Chuanbing Tang
Epoxy polymers (EPs) derived from soybean oil with varied chemical structures are synthesized. These polymers are then cured with anhydrides to yield soybean-oil-derived epoxy thermosets. The curing kinetic, thermal, and mechanical properties are well characterized. Due to the high epoxide functionality per epoxy polymer chain, these thermosets exhibit tensile strength over an order of magnitude higher than a control formulation with epoxidized soybean oil. More importantly, thermosetting materials ranging from soft elastomers to tough thermosets can be obtained simply by using different EPs and/or by controlling feed ratios of EPs to anhydrides...
March 21, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317893/chemical-control-of-the-viscoelastic-properties-of-vinylogous-urethane-vitrimers
#9
Wim Denissen, Martijn Droesbeke, Renaud Nicolaÿ, Ludwik Leibler, Johan M Winne, Filip E Du Prez
Vinylogous urethane based vitrimers are polymer networks that have the intrinsic property to undergo network rearrangements, stress relaxation and viscoelastic flow, mediated by rapid addition/elimination reactions of free chain end amines. Here we show that the covalent exchange kinetics significantly can be influenced by combination with various simple additives. As anticipated, the exchange reactions on network level can be further accelerated using either Brønsted or Lewis acid additives. Remarkably, however, a strong inhibitory effect is observed when a base is added to the polymer matrix...
March 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314963/mir-124a-expression-contributes-to-the-monophasic-pattern-of-insulin-secretion-in-islets-from-pregnant-rats-submitted-to-a-low-protein-diet
#10
Kariny Cassia de Siqueira, Faena Moura de Lima, Fernanda Souza Lima, Marina Satie Taki, Clarissa Felfili da Cunha, Sílvia Regina de Lima Reis, Rafael Ludemann Camargo, Thiago Martins Batista, Emerielle Cristine Vanzela, Tarlliza Romanna Nardelli, Everardo Magalhães Carneiro, Silvana Bordin, Letícia Martins Ignácio-Souza, Márcia Queiroz Latorraca
PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of miR-124a in the regulation of genes involved in insulin exocytosis and its effects on the kinetics of insulin secretion in pancreatic islets from pregnant rats submitted to a low-protein diet. METHODS: Adult control non-pregnant (CNP) and control pregnant (CP) rats were fed a normal protein diet (17%), whereas low-protein non-pregnant (LPNP) and low-protein pregnant (LPP) rats were fed a low-protein diet (6%) from days 1 to 15 of pregnancy...
March 17, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304077/alternative-electron-transport-mediated-by-flavodiiron-proteins-is-operational-in-organisms-from-cyanobacteria-up-to-gymnosperms
#11
Petr Ilík, Andrej Pavlovič, Roman Kouřil, Alessandro Alboresi, Tomas Morosinotto, Yagut Allahverdiyeva, Eva-Mari Aro, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Toshiharu Shikanai
Photo-reduction of O2 to water mediated by flavodiiron proteins (FDPs) represents a safety valve for the photosynthetic electron transport chain in fluctuating light. So far, the FDP-mediated O2 photo-reduction has been evidenced only in cyanobacteria and the moss Physcomitrella; however, a recent phylogenetic analysis of transcriptomes of photosynthetic organisms has also revealed the presence of FDP genes in several nonflowering plant groups. What remains to be clarified is whether the FDP-dependent O2 photo-reduction is actually operational in these organisms...
March 17, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301816/mao-enzymes-inhibitory-activity-of-new-benzimidazole-derivatives-including-hydrazone-and-propargyl-side-chains
#12
Özgür Devrim Can, Derya Osmaniye, Ümide Demir Özkay, Begüm Nurpelin Sağlık, Serkan Levent, Sinem Ilgın, Merve Baysal, Yusuf Özkay, Zafer Asım Kaplancıklı
In the present work, 15 new N'-(arylidene)-4-(1-(prop-2-yn-1-yl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)benzohydrazide (4a-4o) were designed and synthesized. The structures of the synthesized compounds were elucidated using FT-IR, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, and HRMS spectral data. The inhibitory activity of the compounds 4a-4o against hMAO-A and hMAO-B enzymes was evaluated by using in vitro Amlex Red(®) reagent based fluorometric method. Due to lots of high-cost kits including this assay, we determined the ingredients of the kits from the data sheets of several suppliers, and adjusted a protocol by working with various concentrations and volumes of these ingredients...
March 8, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300777/functional-contributions-of-positive-charges-in-the-pore-lining-helix-3-of-the-bordetella-pertussis-cyaa-hemolysin-to-hemolytic-activity-and-ion-channel-opening
#13
Chattip Kurehong, Chalermpol Kanchanawarin, Busaba Powthongchin, Panchika Prangkio, Gerd Katzenmeier, Chanan Angsuthanasombat
The Bordetella pertussis CyaA-hemolysin (CyaA-Hly) domain was previously demonstrated to be an important determinant for hemolysis against target erythrocytes and ion-channel formation in planar lipid bilayers (PLBs). Here, net-charge variations in the pore-lining helix of thirteen related RTX cytolysins including CyaA-Hly were revealed by amino acid sequence alignments, reflecting their different degrees of hemolytic activity. To analyze possible functional effects of net-charge alterations on hemolytic activity and channel formation of CyaA-Hly, specific mutations were made at Gln(574) or Glu(581) in its pore-lining α3 of which both residues are highly conserved Lys in the three highly active RTX cytolysins (i...
March 16, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300265/catalytic-routes-to-fuels-from-c1-and-oxygenate-molecules
#14
Shuai Wang, Iker Agirrezabal-Telleria, Aditya Bhan, Dante Simonetti, Kazuhiro Takanabe, Enrique Iglesia
This account illustrates concepts in chemical kinetics underpinned by the formalism of transition state theory using catalytic processes that enable the synthesis of molecules suitable as fuels from C1 and oxygenate reactants. Such feedstocks provide an essential bridge towards a carbon-free energy future, but their volatility and low energy density require the formation of new C-C bonds and the removal of oxygen. These transformations are described here through recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms and site requirements in catalysis by surfaces, with emphasis on enabling concepts that tackle ubiquitous reactivity and selectivity challenges...
March 16, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298597/sat2-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-fmdv-structurally-modified-for-increased-thermostability
#15
Katherine A Scott, Abhay Kotecha, Julian Seago, Jingshan Ren, Elizabeth E Fry, David I Stuart, Bryan Charleston, Francois F Maree
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is notoriously unstable, particularly the O and SAT serotypes. Consequently, vaccines derived from heat-labile SAT viruses have been linked to the induction of poor duration immunity and hence require more frequent vaccinations to ensure protection. In-silico calculations predicted residue substitutions that would increase interactions at the inter-pentameric interface supporting increased stability. We assessed the stability of the 18 recombinant mutant viruses for their growth kinetics; antigenicity; plaque morphology; genetic stability; temperature, ionic and pH stability using the thermofluor and inactivation assays, in order to evaluate potential SAT2 vaccine candidates with improved stability...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291335/effect-of-chemical-and-physical-properties-on-the-in-vitro-degradation-of-3d-printed-high-resolution-poly-propylene-fumarate-scaffolds
#16
Jason M Walker, Emily Bodamer, Olivia Krebs, YuanYuan Luo, Alex P Kleinfehn, Matthew L Becker, David Dean
Two distinct molecular masses of poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) are combined with an additive manufacturing process to fabricate highly complex scaffolds possessing controlled chemical properties and porous architecture. Scaffolds were manufactured with two polymer molecular masses and two architecture styles. Degradation was assessed in an accelerated in vitro environment. The purpose of the degradation study is not to model or mimic in vivo degradation, but to efficiently compare the effect of modulating scaffold properties...
March 14, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288656/incorporation-of-a-hinge-domain-improves-the-expansion-of-chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cells
#17
Le Qin, Yunxin Lai, Ruocong Zhao, Xinru Wei, Jianyu Weng, Peilong Lai, Baiheng Li, Simiao Lin, Suna Wang, Qiting Wu, Qiubin Liang, Yangqiu Li, Xuchao Zhang, Yilong Wu, Pentao Liu, Yao Yao, Duanqing Pei, Xin Du, Peng Li
BACKGROUND: Multiple iterations of chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have been developed, mainly focusing on intracellular signaling modules. However, the effect of non-signaling extracellular modules on the expansion and therapeutic efficacy of CARs remains largely undefined. METHODS: We generated two versions of CAR vectors, with or without a hinge domain, targeting CD19, mesothelin, PSCA, MUC1, and HER2, respectively. Then, we systematically compared the effect of the hinge domains on the growth kinetics, cytokine production, and cytotoxicity of CAR T cells in vitro and in vivo...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287234/synthesis-of-a-dimeric-3%C3%AE-hydroxy-7%C3%AE-12%C3%AE-diamino-5%C3%AE-cholan-24-oate-conjugate-and-its-derivatives-and-the-effect-of-lipophilicity-on-their-anion-transport-efficacy
#18
Zhi Li, Yun Chen, De-Qi Yuan, Wen-Hua Chen
A dimeric 3α-hydroxy-7α,12α-diamino-5β-cholan-24-oate conjugate and its derivatives having alkyl chains of varying length from methyl to n-pentyl groups on the amido bonds were synthesized and fully characterized on the basis of NMR ((1)H and (13)C) and ESI MS (LR and HR) data. Their transmembrane anion transport activities were investigated in detail by means of a chloride ion selective electrode technique and the pyranine assay. The data indicate that this set of compounds is capable of promoting the transmembrane transport of anions, presumably via an anion exchange process and a mobile carrier mechanism...
March 13, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287217/in-situ-probing-of-the-crystallization-kinetics-of-rr-p3ht-on-single-layer-graphene-as-a-function-of-temperature
#19
Nicolas Boulanger, Victor Yu, Michael Hilke, Michael F Toney, David R Barbero
We studied the molecular packing and crystallization of a highly regio-regular semiconducting polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) on both single layer graphene and silicon as a function of temperature, during cooling from the melt. The onset of crystallization, crystallites' size, orientation, and kinetics of formation were measured in situ by synchrotron grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) during cooling and revealed a very different crystallization process on each surface. A favored crystalline orientation with out of plane π-π stacking formed at a temperature of 200 °C on graphene, whereas the first crystallites formed with an edge-on orientation at 185 °C on silicon...
March 13, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283459/characterization-of-novel-thermophilic-alpha-glucosidase-from-bifidobacterium-longum
#20
Na-Ri Kim, Da-Woon Jeong, Dam-Seul Ko, Jae-Hoon Shim
In this study, the gene encoding α-glucosidase from Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum JCM1217 (BLAG) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The amino acid sequence alignment demonstrated that BLAG belongs to glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 13. The optimal temperature for enzyme activity was 75°C; about 80% of the catalytic activity was lost at 50°C, which is very unusual for enzymes from the Bifidobacterium genus. In the presence of 5mM of Co(2+) and Ca(2+), enzyme activity was reduced to 47% and 48%, respectively...
March 7, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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