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R J Kern, C M Zarek, A K Lindholm-Perry, L A Kuehn, W M Snelling, H C Freetly, H C Cunningham, A M Meyer
Ruminal genes differentially expressed in crossbred beef steers from USMARC with variation in gain and feed intake were identified in a previous study. Several of the genes identified with expression patterns differing between animals with high gain-low feed intake and low gain-high feed intake were evaluated in a separate, unrelated population of Angus × Hereford beef steers from the University of Wyoming that was classified to differ in residual feed intake (RFI). Of the 17 genes tested, two were differentially expressed by RFI class in the Angus × Hereford animals...
September 9, 2016: Animal Genetics
Aaron W James, Paul Hindle, Iain R Murray, Christopher C West, Tulyapruek Tawonsawatruk, Jia Shen, Greg Asatrian, Xinli Zhang, Vi Nguyen, A Hamish Simpson, Kang Ting, Chia Soo
Pericytes and other perivascular stem cells are of growing interest in orthopedics and tissue engineering. Long regarded as simple regulators of angiogenesis and blood pressure, pericytes are now recognized to have MSC (mesenchymal stem cell) characteristics, including multipotentiality, self-renewal, immunoregulatory functions, and diverse roles in tissue repair. Pericytes are typified by characteristic cell surface marker expression (including αSMA, CD146, PDGFRβ, NG2, RGS5, among others). Although alone no marker is absolutely specific for pericytes, collectively these markers appear to selectively identify an MSC-like pericyte...
August 7, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Anne J Grotenhuis, Aleksandra M Dudek, Gerald W Verhaegh, Katja K Aben, J Alfred Witjes, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Sita H Vermeulen
BACKGROUND: Many studies investigated the prognostic or predictive relevance of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in biologically plausible genes in urinary bladder cancer (UBC) patients. Most published SNP associations have never been replicated in independent patient series. OBJECTIVE: To independently replicate all previously reported associations between germline SNPs and disease prognosis or treatment response in UBC. METHODS: A Pubmed search was performed to identify studies published by July 1, 2014 reporting on germline SNP associations with UBC prognosis or treatment response...
2016: Bladder Cancer
Benjamin L King, Viravuth P Yin
BACKGROUND: Although regenerative capacity is evident throughout the animal kingdom, it is not equally distributed throughout evolution. For instance, complex limb/appendage regeneration is muted in mammals but enhanced in amphibians and teleosts. The defining characteristic of limb/appendage regenerative systems is the formation of a dedifferentiated tissue, termed blastema, which serves as the progenitor reservoir for regenerating tissues. In order to identify a genetic signature that accompanies blastema formation, we employ next-generation sequencing to identify shared, differentially regulated mRNAs and noncoding RNAs in three different, highly regenerative animal systems: zebrafish caudal fins, bichir pectoral fins and axolotl forelimbs...
2016: PloS One
Miguel Romero, Rosario Jiménez, Marta Toral, Elvira León-Gómez, Manuel Gómez-Gúzman, Manuel Sánchez, María José Zarzuelo, Isabel Rodríguez-Gómez, Geraldine Rath, Juan Tamargo, Francisco Pérez-Vizcaíno, Chantal Dessy, Juan Duarte
Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ (PPARβ) lowers blood pressure in genetic and mineralocorticoid-induced hypertension. Regulator of G-protein-coupled receptor signaling 5 (RGS5) protein, which interferes in angiotensin II (AngII) signaling, is a target gene to PPARβ The aim of the present study was to examine whether PPARβ activation in resistance arteries and brain tissues prevents the elevated blood pressure in AngII-induced hypertension and evaluate the role of RGS5 in this effect...
July 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Caroline E Gargett, Shanti Gurung
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Biology of Reproduction
Jia Shen, Swati Shrestha, P Nagesh Rao, Greg Asatrian, Michelle A Scott, Vi Nguyen, Paulina Giacomelli, Chia Soo, Kang Ting, Fritz C Eilber, Bruno Peault, Sarah M Dry, Aaron W James
Pericytes are modified smooth muscle cells that closely enwrap small blood vessels, regulating and supporting the microvasculature through direct endothelial contact. Pericytes demonstrate a distinct immunohistochemical profile, including expression of smooth muscle actin, CD146, platelet-derived growth factor receptor β, and regulator of G-protein signaling 5. Previously, pericyte-related antigens have been observed to be present among a group of soft tissue tumors with a perivascular growth pattern, including glomus tumor, myopericytoma, and angioleiomyoma...
August 2016: Human Pathology
Zhiqiang Wang, He Huang, Wangwei He, Bin Kong, He Hu, Yang Fan, Jiafen Liao, Lei Wang, Yang Mei, Wanli Liu, Xiaoju Xiong, Jianye Peng, Yali Xiao, Dan Huang, Dajun Quan, Qi Li, Liang Xiong, Peng Zhong, Guangji Wang
Ischemic heart disease is one of the most common diseases in modern society. Ischemic myocardium can be salvaged by vascular recanalization therapy, but its benefit is attenuated by injury that can occur during reperfusion. And apoptotic cell death plays an important part in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Regulator of G-protein signaling 5 (RGS5), highly expressed in different cell types of the human adult heart, is a guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein to inhibit many signaling pathways such as c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) and p38 which promote cardiac IR-induced apoptosis...
April 29, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Nicolás González-Vacarezza, Isabel Alonso, Gustavo Arroyo, Jorge Martínez, Fernando De Andrés, Adrián LLerena, Francisco Estévez-Carrizo
Bevacizumab was the first molecular-targeted antiangiogenic therapy approved for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Until now, there are no predictive biomarkers available to decide the prescription of bevacizumab in patients with colorectal cancer. The purposes of this review were to provide a critical appraisal of the evidence and to identify possible predictive genetic biomarkers. A literature search was performed to identify studies that determine different levels of treatment response between patients stratified according to defined biomarkers...
June 1, 2016: Drug Metabolism and Personalized Therapy
Mu Qin, Xu Liu, Tao Liu, Teng Wang, Congxin Huang
BACKGROUND: The regulator of G-protein signaling 5 (Rgs5), which functions as the regulator of G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) including muscarinic receptors, has a potential effect on atrial muscarinic receptor-activated IKA ch current. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the present study, hearts of Rgs5 knockout (KO) mice had decreased low-frequency/high-frequency ratio in spectral measures of heart rate variability. Loss of Rgs5 provoked dramatically exaggerated bradycardia and significantly (P<0...
March 9, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
Sarah A Marshall, Chen Huei Leo, Sevvandi N Senadheera, Jane E Girling, Marianne Tare, Laura J Parry
Pregnancy is associated with reduced peripheral vascular resistance, underpinned by changes in endothelial and smooth muscle function. Failure of the maternal vasculature to adapt correctly leads to serious pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia. The peptide hormone relaxin regulates the maternal renal vasculature during pregnancy; however, little is known about its effects in other vascular beds. This study tested the hypothesis that functional adaptation of the mesenteric and uterine arteries during pregnancy will be compromised in relaxin-deficient (Rln(-/-)) mice...
May 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Jan-Marcus Daniel, André Prock, Jochen Dutzmann, Kristina Sonnenschein, Thomas Thum, Johann Bauersachs, Daniel G Sedding
OBJECTIVE: Regulator of G-protein signaling 5 (RGS5) is abundantly expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and inhibits G-protein signaling by enhancing the guanosine triphosphate-hydrolyzing activity of Gα-subunits. In the present study, we investigated the effects of RGS5 on vascular SMC function in vitro and neointima formation after wire-induced injury in mice and determined the underlying mechanisms. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We found a robust expression of RGS5 in native arteries of C57BL/6 mice and a highly significant downregulation within neointimal lesions 10 and 21 days after vascular injury as assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry...
February 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Karina G Thomsen, Maria B Lyng, Daniel Elias, Henriette Vever, Ann S Knoop, Anne E Lykkesfeldt, Anne-Vibeke Lænkholm, Henrik J Ditzel
Aromatase inhibitors (AI), either alone or together with chemotherapy, have become the standard adjuvant treatment for postmenopausal, estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer. Although AIs improve overall survival, resistance is still a major clinical problem, thus additional biomarkers predictive of outcome of ER+ breast cancer patients treated with AIs are needed. Global gene expression analysis was performed on ER+ primary breast cancers from patients treated with adjuvant AI monotherapy; half experienced recurrence (median follow-up 6...
December 2015: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Jia Shen, Swati Shrestha, Yu-Hsin Yen, Michelle A Scott, Chia Soo, Kang Ting, Bruno Peault, Sarah M Dry, Aaron W James
Perivascular soft tissue tumors are relatively uncommon neoplasms of unclear lineage of differentiation, although most are presumed to originate from or differentiate to pericytes or a modified perivascular cell. Among these, glomus tumor, myopericytoma, and angioleiomyoma share a spectrum of histologic findings and a perivascular growth pattern. In contrast, solitary fibrous tumor was once hypothesized to have pericytic differentiation--although little bona fide evidence of pericytic differentiation exists...
January 2016: Human Pathology
Ruth Ganss
The cardiovascular system including the heart and intricate network of arteries, veins, and capillaries is essential for normal organ homeostasis and tightly controlled by G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling cascades. Imbalances of these signaling systems can manifest in cardiovascular disease. There has been a recent surge in studies on modulators of GPCR activity, so-called regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) molecules, due to their potential as pharmacological targets. Among RGS proteins, RGS5 is prominently expressed in arterial vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMC) suggesting an important role in vascular function...
2015: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Patrick Osei-Owusu, Kendall J Blumer
Regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins of the B/R4 family are widely expressed in the cardiovascular system where their role in fine-tuning G protein signaling is critical to maintaining homeostasis. Among members of this family, RGS2 and RGS5 have been shown to play key roles in cardiac and smooth muscle function by tightly regulating signaling pathways that are activated through Gq/11 and Gi/o classes of heterotrimeric G proteins. This chapter reviews accumulating evidence supporting a key role for RGS2 in vascular function and the implication of changes in RGS2 function and/or expression in the pathogenesis of blood pressure disorders, particularly hypertension...
2015: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2015: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
Vasyl Holobotovskyy, Yee Seng Chong, Jennifer Burchell, Bo He, Michael Phillips, Leo Leader, Timothy V Murphy, Shaun L Sandow, Douglas J McKitrick, Adrian K Charles, Marianne Tare, Leonard F Arnolda, Ruth Ganss
Preeclampsia is a systemic vascular disorder of pregnancy and is associated with increased sensitivity to angiotensin II (AngII) and hypertension. The cause of preeclampsia remains unknown. We identified the role of regulator of G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein) signaling 5 (RGS5) in blood pressure regulation during pregnancy and preeclampsia. RGS5 expression in human myometrial vessels is markedly suppressed in gestational hypertension and/or preeclampsia. In pregnant RGS5-deficient mice, reduced vascular RGS5 expression causes gestational hypertension by enhancing vascular sensitivity to AngII...
June 3, 2015: Science Translational Medicine
Wan-Ching Yen, Marcus M Fischer, Fumiko Axelrod, Christopher Bond, Jennifer Cain, Belinda Cancilla, William R Henner, Rene Meisner, Aaron Sato, Jalpa Shah, Tracy Tang, Breanna Wallace, Min Wang, Chun Zhang, Ann M Kapoun, John Lewicki, Austin Gurney, Timothy Hoey
PURPOSE: The Notch pathway plays an important role in both stem cell biology and cancer. Dysregulation of Notch signaling has been reported in several human tumor types. In this report, we describe the development of an antibody, OMP-59R5 (tarextumab), which blocks both Notch2 and Notch3 signaling. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We utilized patient-derived xenograft tumors to evaluate antitumor effect of OMP-59R5. Immunohistochemistry, RNA microarray, real-time PCR, and in vivo serial transplantation assays were employed to investigate the mechanisms of action and pharmacodynamic readouts...
May 1, 2015: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Andreas Svensson, Ilknur Özen, Guillem Genové, Gesine Paul, Johan Bengzon
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common brain tumor in adults. It presents an extremely challenging clinical problem, and treatment very frequently fails due to the infiltrative growth, facilitated by extensive angiogenesis and neovascularization. Pericytes constitute an important part of the GBM microvasculature. The contribution of endogenous brain pericytes to the tumor vasculature in GBM is, however, unclear. In this study, we determine the site of activation and the extent of contribution of endogenous brain pericytes to the GBM vasculature...
2015: PloS One
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