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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079758/concussion-in-ice-hockey-current-gaps-and-future-directions-in-an-objective-diagnosis
#1
Aynsley M Smith, Michael J Stuart, William O Roberts, David W Dodick, Jonathan T Finnoff, Janelle K Jorgensen, David A Krause
OBJECTIVE: This review provides an update on sport-related concussion (SRC) in ice hockey and makes a case for changes in clinical concussion evaluation. Standard practice should require that concussions be objectively diagnosed and provide quantitative measures of the concussion injury that will serve as a platform for future evidence-based treatment. METHODS: The literature was surveyed to address several concussion-related topics: research in ice hockey-related head trauma, current subjective diagnosis, promising components of an objective diagnosis, and current and potential treatments...
January 10, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077713/reversible-disruption-of-neuronal-mitochondria-by-ischemic-and-traumatic-injury-revealed-by-quantitative-two-photon-imaging-in-the-neocortex-of-anesthetized-mice
#2
Mikhail Kislin, Jeremy Sword, Ioulia V Fomitcheva, Deborah Croom, Evgeny Pryazhnikov, Eero Lihavainen, Dmytro Toptunov, Heikki Rauvala, Andre S Ribeiro, Leonard Khiroug, Sergei A Kirov
: Mitochondria play a variety of functional roles in cortical neurons, from metabolic support and neuroprotection to the release of cytokines that trigger apoptosis. In dendrites, mitochondrial structure is closely linked to their function, and fragmentation (fission) of the normally elongated mitochondria indicates loss of their function under pathological conditions, such as stroke and brain trauma. Using in vivo two-photon microscopy in mouse brain, we quantified mitochondrial fragmentation in a full spectrum of cortical injuries, ranging from severe to mild...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076020/structure-of-the-medullary-veins-of-the-cerebral-hemisphere-and-related-disorders
#3
Toshiaki Taoka, Akio Fukusumi, Toshiteru Miyasaka, Hisashi Kawai, Toshiki Nakane, Kimihiko Kichikawa, Shinji Naganawa
Deep medullary veins drain into subependymal veins with four convergence zones and show parallel distribution patterns adjacent to the body or inferior horn and a radial pattern in the frontal horn or trigon of the lateral ventricle. As white matter imaging develops such as diffusion tensor imaging or susceptibility-weighted imaging, requirements for understanding of white matter structures are increasing, not only for understanding of neuronal tracts but also for that of other structures including the fine anatomy of white matter vessels...
January 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069157/mri-detection-of-cerebral-lesions-in-post-traumatic-anisocoria-specificity-and-prognostic-significance
#4
D Woischneck, B Schmitz, T Kapapa
AIM: To identify whether increased numbers of brainstem lesions are found in the presence of a post-traumatic pupillary function disturbance and classify them anatomically. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, a diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination was performed within 8 days after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in patients who had been unconscious for more than 24 hours post-TBI. The Glasgow Outcome Scale was evaluated 6 months after TBI. The data obtained from 140 consecutively enrolled patients between 2005 and 2011 were analysed...
January 7, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067012/venous-thromboembolism-in-pediatric-trauma-patients-ten-year-experience-and-long-term-follow-up-in-a-tertiary-care-center
#5
Christine M Leeper, Madhav Vissa, James D Cooper, Lynn M Malec, Barbara A Gaines
BACKGROUND: Pediatric trauma patients are at high risk for development of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Our objective is to describe incidence, risk factors, and timing of development of VTE, anticoagulation complications, and long-term VTE outcomes in a critically injured pediatric population. PROCEDURE: We did a retrospective review of pediatric (0-17 years) trauma admissions to intensive care unit from 2005 to 2014. Our center employs VTE screening and prevention protocols for high-risk patients based on hypercoagulable history, age, injuries, and medical interventions...
January 9, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064018/alterations-in-nitric-oxide-homeostasis-during-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
REVIEW
Andrey V Kozlov, Soheyl Bahrami, Heinz Redl, Csaba Szabo
Changes in nitric oxide (NO) levels have been often associated with various forms of trauma, including secondary damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Several studies demonstrate the upregulation of NO synthase (NOS) enzymes, and concomitant increases in brain NO levels, which contribute to the TBI-associated glutamate cytotoxicity, including the pathogenesis of mitochondrial dysfunction. TBI is also associated with elevated NO levels in remote organs, indicating that TBI can induce systemic changes in NO regulation, which can be either beneficial or detrimental...
January 4, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063881/early-stage-alterations-of-catecholamine-and-adrenocorticotropic-hormone-levels-in-posttraumatic-acute-diffuse-brain-swelling
#7
Weiqiang Chen, Jiangtao Sheng, Guoyi Peng, Jinhua Yang, Shousen Wang, Kangsheng Li
Posttraumatic acute diffuse brain swelling (PADBS) is characterized by serious brain bulk enlargement rapidly following trauma and is a major cause of elevated intracranial pressure and thus mortality. The pathogenesis of PADBS is not clearly understood, and the early stage alterations of catecholamine (CA) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels in PADBS also remain largely unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate CA and ACTH levels in the patients with PADBS in the early stage and discuss the possible roles CA and ACTH in the pathogenesis of PADBS...
January 4, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060201/epidemiology-of-comorbid-conditions-among-adults-50-years-and-older-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Raj G Kumar, Shannon B Juengst, Zhensheng Wang, Kristen Dams-OʼConnor, Sureyya S Dikmen, Therese M OʼNeil-Pirozzi, Marie N Dahdah, Flora M Hammond, Elizabeth R Felix, Patricia M Arenth, Amy K Wagner
OBJECTIVES: Aging individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) experience multiple comorbidities that can affect recovery from injury. The objective of this study was to describe the most commonly co-occurring comorbid conditions among adults 50 years and older with TBI. SETTING: Level I Trauma centers. PARTICIPANTS: Adults 50 years and older with moderate/severe TBI enrolled in the TBI-Model Systems (TBI-MS) from 2007 to 2014 (n = 2134)...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056123/the-interface-of-mechanics-and-nociception-in-joint-pathophysiology-insights-from-the-facet-temporomandibular-joints
#9
Megan M Sperry, Meagan E Ita, Sonia Kartha, Sijia Zhang, Ya-Hsin Yu, Beth Winkelstein
Chronic joint pain is a widespread problem that frequently occurs with aging and trauma. Pain occurs most often in synovial joints, the body's load bearing joints. The mechanical and molecular mechanisms contributing to synovial joint pain are reviewed using two examples, the cervical spinal facet joints and temporomandibular joint. Although much work has focused on the macroscale mechanics of joints in health and disease, the combined influence of tissue mechanics, molecular processes, and nociception in joint pain has only recently become a focus...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052919/traumatic-brain-injuries-in-older-adults-6-years-of-data-for-one-uk-trauma-centre-retrospective-analysis-of-prospectively-collected-data
#10
Carol Hawley, Magdy Sakr, Sarah Scapinello, Jesse Salvo, Paul Wrenn
OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to determine the incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in older adults and investigate the relationship between injury characteristics and outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data submitted to Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN) database for a major trauma centre in the West Midlands, UK, from 2008 to 2014. The Mayo Scale was used to categorise TBI. All patients were aged ≥65 years and were admitted with head or brain injuries meeting TARN inclusion criteria: injury resulting in immediate admission to hospital for 3 days, admitted to a high dependency area or death following trauma...
January 4, 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051981/single-neurosurgeon-operative-experience-at-craig-joint-theater-hospital-during-the-afghanistan-surge-november-2010-to-april-2011-part-i-neurotrauma-cases
#11
John Joseph Steele
BACKGROUND: The Afghanistan Surge saw NATO troops working with their Afghan partners to remove Taliban governance and replace it with a more democratic model. As part of this effort, medical support for both trauma and humanitarian cases was needed. OBJECTIVE: Identify and discuss disease trends to better prepare for future combat medical care. METHODS: Retrospective review of operative experience from a single neurosurgeon from November 2010 to April 2011...
January 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039943/the-pecarn-tbi-rules-do-not-apply-to-abusive-head-trauma
#12
Julia Nicole Magana, Nathan Kuppermann
The Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) traumatic brain injury (TBI) prediction rules were developed to identify children at very low risk for clinically-important TBIs (ciTBIs), for whom computed tomography (CT) scans can typically be obviated.(1) The PECARN prediction rules have been validated in several settings and countries.(2-5) The PECARN TBI rules, one developed for children younger than 2 years, and the other for those 2 years and older, rely on accurate patient history and physical examination findings gathered at the time of emergency department (ED) presentation...
December 31, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038986/differential-effects-of-minocycline-on-microglial-activation-and-neurodegeneration-following-closed-head-injury-in-the-neonate-rat
#13
L A Hanlon, R Raghupathi, J W Huh
The role of microglia in the pathophysiology of injury to the developing brain has been extensively studied. In children under the age of 4 who have sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI), markers of microglial/macrophage activation were increased in the cerebrospinal fluid and were associated with worse neurologic outcome. Minocycline is an antibiotic that decreases microglial/macrophage activation following hypoxic-ischemia in neonatal rodents and TBI in adult rodents thereby reducing neurodegeneration and behavioral deficits...
December 27, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033135/omega-3-fatty-acid-supplementation-and-warfarin-a-lethal-combination-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Brian W Gross, Maria Gillio, Cole D Rinehart, Caitlin A Lynch, Frederick B Rogers
Polyunsaturated fatty acids such as omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid and omega-6 docosahexaenoic acid, found in over-the-counter fish oil supplements, are often consumed for their beneficial, prophylactic, anti-inflammatory effects. Although the mechanisms of action are not fully known, a diet rich in polyunsaturated fats may reduce the risk of hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, hypertension, and inflammatory diseases. Masked by its many benefits, the risks of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation are often underappreciated, particularly its ability to inhibit platelet aggregation and promote bleeding in patients taking anticoagulant medications...
January 2017: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032120/inhibition-of-poly-adp-ribosylation-fails-to-increase-axonal-regeneration-or-improve-functional-recovery-after-adult-mammalian-cns-injury
#15
Xingxing Wang, Yuichi Sekine, Alexandra B Byrne, William B J Cafferty, Marc Hammarlund, Stephen M Strittmatter
After traumatic damage of the brain or spinal cord, many surviving neurons are disconnected, and recovery of function is limited by poor axon regeneration. Recent data have suggested that poly ADP-ribosylation plays a role in limiting axonal regrowth such that inhibition of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) may have therapeutic efficacy for neurological recovery after trauma. Here, we tested systemic administration of the PARP inhibitor, veliparib, and showed effective suppression of PARylation in the mouse CNS...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030638/effects-of-intracranial-pressure-monitoring-on-mortality-in-patients-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-a-meta-analysis
#16
Liang Shen, Zhuo Wang, Zhongzhou Su, Sheng Qiu, Jie Xu, Yue Zhou, Ai Yan, Rui Yin, Bin Lu, Xiaohu Nie, Shufa Zhao, Renfu Yan
BACKGROUND: The Brain Trauma Foundation (BTF) guidelines published in 2007 suggest some indications for intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring in severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, some studies had not shown clinical benefit in patients with severe TBI; several studies had even reported that ICP monitoring was associated with an increased mortality rate. The effect of ICP monitoring has remained controversial, regardless of the ICP monitoring guidelines. Here we performed a meta-analysis of published studies to assess the effects of ICP monitoring in patients with severe TBI...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028451/diagnostic-and-clinical-management-of-skull-fractures-in-children
#17
Christoph Arneitz, Maria Sinzig, Günter Fasching
OBJECTIVE: The indications of routine skull X-rays after mild head trauma are still in discussion, and the clinical management of a child with a skull fracture remains controversial. The aim of our retrospective study was to evaluate our diagnostic and clinical management of children with skull fractures following minor head trauma. METHODS: We worked up the medical history of all consecutive patients with a skull fracture treated in our hospital from January 2009 to October 2014 and investigated all skull X-rays in our hospital during this period...
2016: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018679/activation-of-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-1-enhances-hippocampus-neurogenesis-in-a-rat-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury-an-involvement-of-mek-erk-signaling-pathway
#18
Yuqin Ye, Zhenyu Zhao, Hongyu Xu, Xin Zhang, Xinhong Su, Yongxiang Yang, Xinguang Yu, Xiaosheng He
Among sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors (S1PRs) family, S1PR1 has been shown to be the most highly expressed subtype in neural stem cells (NSCs) and plays a crucial role in the migratory property of NSCs. Recent studies suggested that S1PR1 was expressed abundantly in the hippocampus, a specific neurogenic region in rodent brain for endogenous neurogenesis throughout life. However, the potential association between S1PR1 and neurogenesis in hippocampus following traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains unknown...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017711/evaluation-of-the-hypothesis-that-choking-alte-may-mimic-abusive-head-trauma
#19
Jennifer B Hansen, Terra Frazier, Mary Moffatt, Timothy Zinkus, James D Anderst
OBJECTIVE: Apparent life-threatening events (ALTEs), often accompanied by choking, have been hypothesized to cause subdural hemorrhages (SDH), retinal hemorrhages, and brain injury. If the choking/ALTE hypothesis were true, children who present with ALTE and SDH would have fewer extracranial injuries suspicious for abuse than those with SDH and no ALTE. We aimed to compare the prevalence of suspicious extracranial injuries in children who have ALTE-associated SDH to those with non-ALTE SDH...
December 22, 2016: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009748/mortality-in-canadian-trauma-systems-a-multicenter-cohort-study
#20
Lynne Moore, David Evans, Sayed M Hameed, Natalie L Yanchar, Henry T Stelfox, Richard Simons, John Kortbeek, Gilles Bourgeois, Julien Clément, François Lauzier, Avery Nathens, Alexis F Turgeon
OBJECTIVE: To measure the variation in trauma center mortality across Canadian trauma systems, assess the contribution of traumatic brain injury and thoracoabdominal injury to observed variations, and evaluate whether the presence of recommended trauma system components is associated with mortality. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Injuries represent one of the leading causes of mortality, disability, and health care costs worldwide. Trauma systems have improved injury outcomes, but the impact of trauma system configuration on mortality is unknown...
January 2017: Annals of Surgery
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