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brain injury trauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727580/increase-in-intracranial-pressure-by-application-of-a-rigid-cervical-collar-a-pilot-study-in-healthy-volunteers
#1
Iscander M Maissan, Rein Ketelaars, Boris Vlottes, Sanne E Hoeks, Dennis den Hartog, Robert J Stolker
OBJECTIVES: Rigid cervical collars are known to increase intracranial pressure (ICP) in severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Cerebral blood flow might decrease according to the Kellie Monroe doctrine. For this reason, the use of the collar in patients with severe TBI has been abandoned from several trauma protocols in the Netherlands. There is no evidence on the effect of a rigid collar on ICP in patients with mild or moderate TBI or indeed patients with no TBI. As a first step we tested the effect in healthy volunteers with normal ICPs and intact autoregulation of the brain...
July 19, 2017: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726543/differences-in-brain-architecture-in-remote-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Aishwarya Rajesh, Gillian E Cooke, Jim M Monti, Andrew Jahn, Ana M Daugherty, Arthur Kramer
Mild TBI (mTBI) is brain trauma from an external impact with a loss of consciousness less than 30 minutes. MTBI results in several biopsychosocial impairments with pronounced cognitive deficits, thought to resolve within three months of injury. Previous research suggests that these impairments are due to a temporary inability to appropriately allocate neural resources in response to cognitive demands. Our study questioned this assumption and instead hypothesized that mTBI was associated with long-term neural disruptions and compromised brain structure integrity...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725211/critical-evaluation-of-the-lund-concept-for-treatment-of-severe-traumatic-head-injury-25%C3%A2-years-after-its-introduction
#3
REVIEW
Per-Olof Grände
When introduced in 1992, the Lund concept (LC) was the first complete guideline for treatment of severe traumatic brain injury (s-TBI). It was a theoretical approach, based mainly on general physiological principles-i.e., of brain volume control and optimization of brain perfusion and oxygenation of the penumbra zone. The concept gave relatively strict outlines for cerebral perfusion pressure, fluid therapy, ventilation, sedation, nutrition, the use of vasopressors, and osmotherapy. The LC strives for treatment of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind symptoms rather than just treating the symptoms...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720407/mechanical-properties-of-the-human-spinal-cord-under-the-compressive-loading
#4
Alireza Karimi, Ahmad Shojaei, Pedram Tehrani
The spinal cord as the most complex and critical part of the human body is responsible for the transmission of both motor and sensory impulses between the body and the brain. Due to its pivotal role any types of physical injury in that disrupts its function following by shortfalls, including the minor motor and sensory malfunctions as well as complicate quadriplegia and lifelong ventilator dependency. In order to shed light on the injuries to the spinal cord, the application of the computational models to simulate the trauma impact loading to that are deemed required...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719459/coagulation-management-in-patients-undergoing-neurosurgical-procedures
#5
Chiara Robba, Rita Bertuetti, Frank Rasulo, Alessando Bertuccio, Basil Matta
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Management of coagulation in neurosurgical procedures is challenging. In this contest, it is imperative to avoid further intracranial bleeding. Perioperative bleeding can be associated with a number of factors, including anticoagulant drugs and coagulation status but is also linked to the characteristic and the site of the intracranial disorder. The aim of this review will be to focus primarily on the new evidence regarding the management of coagulation in patients undergoing craniotomy for neurosurgical procedures...
July 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712906/a-comparison-of-pharmacologic-therapeutic-agents-used-for-the-reduction-of-intracranial-pressure-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
REVIEW
Ahmed M Alnemari, Brianna M Krafcik, Tarek R Mansour, Daniel Gaudin
OBJECTIVE: In neurotrauma care, a better understanding of treatments following traumatic brain injury (TBI) has led to a significant decrease in morbidity and mortality in this population. TBI represents a significant medical problem, and complications following TBI are associated with the initial injury and post-event intracranial processes such as elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) and brain edema. Consequently, appropriate therapeutic interventions are required to reduce brain tissue damage and improve cerebral perfusion...
July 13, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712330/the-role-of-abnormalities-in-the-corpus-callosum-in-social-cognition-deficits-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Skye McDonald, Jacqueline A Rushby, Katie I Dalton, Samantha K Allen, Nicklas Parks
The corpus callosum (CC) is vulnerable to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Social cognition requires integration of non-verbal and verbal information in order to understand social behaviour and may be compromised if the CC is damaged. 17 adults with severe, chronic TBI and 17 control participants underwent structural MRI and Diffusion Tensor Imaging. A region of interest analysis examined fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) across regions of the CC. Performance on The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT): part 1 (emotion recognition) and parts 2 and 3 (social inference), was examined in relation to FA and MD...
July 17, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711170/early-selenium-treatment-for-traumatic-brain-injury-does-it-improve-survival-and-functional-outcome
#8
Hosseinali Khalili, Rebecka Ahl, Yang Cao, Shahram Paydar, Gabriel Sjölin, Amin Niakan, Gholamreza Dabiri, Shahin Mohseni
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and debility following trauma. The initial brain tissue insult is worsened by secondary reactive responses including oxidative stress reactions, inflammatory changes and subsequent permanent neurologic deficits. Effective agents to improve functional outcome and survival following TBI are scarce. Selenium is an antioxidant which has shown to reduce oxidative stress. This study examines the effect of intravenous selenium (Selenase(®)) treatment in patients with severe TBI on functional outcome and survival in a prospective study design...
July 8, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710466/dramatic-increases-in-blood-glutamate-concentrations-are-closely-related-to-traumatic-brain-injury-induced-acute-lung-injury
#9
Wei Bai, Wan-Li Zhu, Ya-Lei Ning, Ping Li, Yan Zhao, Nan Yang, Xing Chen, Yu-Lin Jiang, Wen-Qun Yang, Dong-Po Jiang, Li-Yong Chen, Yuan-Guo Zhou
Traumatic brain injury-induced acute lung injury (TBI-ALI) is a serious complication after brain injury for which predictive factors are lacking. In this study, we found significantly elevated blood glutamate concentrations in patients with TBI or multiple peripheral trauma (MPT), and patients with more severe injuries showed higher blood glutamate concentrations and longer durations of elevated levels. Although the increase in amplitude was similar between the two groups, the duration was longer in the patients with TBI...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706766/a-case-based-review-of-the-management-of-penetrating-brain-trauma
#10
Jason Milton, Alex Rugino, Kailash Narayan, Chris Karas, Victor Awuor
Principles of penetrating head trauma management were established by Harvey Cushing in relation to the management of penetrating brain injuries of World War One. Cushing radically debrided the scalp and skull and aggressively irrigated wound tracks to remove foreign bodies. He would then obtain water-tight closure. Cushing significantly decreased infection rates which reportedly limited the major cause of mortality due to penetrating head injuries. Many advances have been made by contributions from World War Two, Korean War, Vietnam War, and Iran/Iraq conflicts...
June 12, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702713/the-role-of-the-oligodendrocyte-lineage-in-acute-brain-trauma
#11
Anja Scheller, Xianshu Bai, Frank Kirchhoff
An acute brain injury is commonly characterized by an extended cellular damage. The post-injury process of scar formation is largely determined by responses of various local glial cells and blood-derived immune cells. The role of astrocytes and microglia have been frequently reviewed in the traumatic sequelae. Here, we summarize the diverse contributions of oligodendrocytes (OLs) and their precursor cells (OPCs) in acute injuries. OLs at the lesion site are highly sensitive to a damaging insult, provoked by Ca(2+) overload after hyperexcitation originating from increased levels of transmitters...
July 12, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702053/etiology-of-hypopituitarism-in-adult-patients-the-experience-of-a-single-center-database-in-the-serbian-population
#12
M Doknić, S Pekić, D Miljić, I Soldatović, V Popović, M Stojanović, M Petakov
There are only a few published studies related to the population-based etiology of hypopituitarism. New risks for developing hypopituitarism have been recognized in the last 10 years. Aim. To present data regarding the etiology of hypopituitarism collected in a tertiary center over the last decade. This is a cross-sectional database study. Patients and Methods. We included 512 patients (pts) with hypopituitarism, with a mean age of 45.9 ± 1.7 yrs (range: 18-82; male: 57.9%). Results. Nonfunctional pituitary adenomas were presented in 205 pts (40...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700540/clinical-and-radiological-presentations-and-management-of-blunt-splenic-trauma-a-single-tertiary-hospital-experience
#13
Gaby Jabbour, Ammar Al-Hassani, Ayman El-Menyar, Husham Abdelrahman, Ruben Peralta, Mohammed Ellabib, Hisham Al-Jogol, Mohammed Asim, Hassan Al-Thani
BACKGROUND Splenic injury is the leading cause of major bleeding after blunt abdominal trauma. We examined the clinical and radiological presentations, management, and outcome of blunt splenic injuries (BSI) in our institution. MATERIAL AND METHODS A retrospective study of BSI patients between 2011 and 2014 was conducted. We analyzed and compared management and outcome of different splenic injury grades in trauma patients. RESULTS A total of 191 BSI patients were identified with a mean (SD) age of 26.9 years (13...
July 12, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699088/sepsis-prediction-in-critically-ill-patients-by-platelet-activation-markers-on-icu-admission-a-prospective-pilot-study
#14
Nathalie Layios, Céline Delierneux, Alexandre Hego, Justine Huart, Christian Gosset, Christelle Lecut, Nathalie Maes, Pierre Geurts, Arnaud Joly, Patrizio Lancellotti, Adelin Albert, Pierre Damas, André Gothot, Cécile Oury
BACKGROUND: Platelets have been involved in both immune surveillance and host defense against severe infection. To date, whether platelet phenotype or other hemostasis components could be associated with predisposition to sepsis in critical illness remains unknown. The aim of this work was to identify platelet markers that could predict sepsis occurrence in critically ill injured patients. METHODS: This single-center, prospective, observational, 7-month study was based on a cohort of 99 non-infected adult patients admitted to ICUs for elective cardiac surgery, trauma, acute brain injury, and post-operative prolonged ventilation and followed up during ICU stay...
December 2017: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698750/the-relationship-between-risk-factors-of-head-trauma-with-ct-scan-findings-in-children-with-minor-head-trauma-admitted-to-hospital
#15
Babak Masoumi, Farhad Heydari, Hamidreza Hatamabadi, Reza Azizkhani, Zahra Yoosefian, Majid Zamani
BACKGROUND: In emergency medicine for determining the intracranial injury (ICI) in children with head trauma, usually brain CT scan is performed. Since brain CT scan, especially in children, has some disadvantages, it is better to find a procedure which could help to choose only the children with real head trauma injury for brain CT scan. AIMS: The aim of this study is to find such procedure. This study was descriptive, analytic and non-interventional. METHODS: We reviewed the archived files of children with head trauma injuries referred to the emergency department of Imam Hossein Hospital within two years...
June 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696288/inhibition-of-the-integrated-stress-response-reverses-cognitive-deficits-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Austin Chou, Karen Krukowski, Timothy Jopson, Ping Jun Zhu, Mauro Costa-Mattioli, Peter Walter, Susanna Rosi
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of long-term neurological disability, yet the mechanisms underlying the chronic cognitive deficits associated with TBI remain unknown. Consequently, there are no effective treatments for patients suffering from the long-lasting symptoms of TBI. Here, we show that TBI persistently activates the integrated stress response (ISR), a universal intracellular signaling pathway that responds to a variety of cellular conditions and regulates protein translation via phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α...
July 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693815/comorbid-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-increases-pain-symptoms-in-patients-suffering-from-an-isolated-limb-fracture
#17
Marianne Jodoin, Dominique M Rouleau, Nadia Gosselin, Benoit Benoit, Stéphane Leduc, Yves Laflamme, Camille Larson-Dupuis, Louis De Beaumont
OBJECTIVES: This study seeks to evaluate the effects of a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) on pain in patients with an isolated limb fracture (ILF) when compared to a matched cohort group with no mTBI (control group). PATIENTS AND METHODS: All subjects included in this observational study suffered from an ILF. Groups were matched according to the type of injury, sex, age, and time since the accident. Main outcome measurements were: Standardized semi-structured interviews at follow-up of a Level I Trauma Center, and a questionnaire on fracture-related pain symptoms...
July 1, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692623/a-retrospective-cohort-study-of-traumatic-brain-injury-and-usage-of-protective-headgear-during-equestrian-activities
#18
Donna S Lemoine, Bradley J Tate, Jennifer A Lacombe, Theresa C Hood
Some of the more popular sporting activities for those living in rural areas include equestrian activities such as rodeo events and horseback riding. The lack of helmet use poses a concern for those who participate in these activities due to the risk of sustaining a traumatic brain injury (TBI) and ultimately having a negative effect on their future. A retrospective cohort study was conducted at a trauma center comparing the data on animal-riding patients and their use or lack of use of headgear and incidence of TBI...
July 2017: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692515/criteria-for-performing-cranial-computed-tomography-for-chinese-patients-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-canadian-computed-tomography-head-rule-or-new-orleans-criteria
#19
Xiao-Feng Yang, Yuan-Yuan Meng, Liang Wen, Hao Wang
Computed tomography (CT) provides the primary diagnostic evidence for traumatic brain injury (TBI), but few positive traumatic findings are discovered in patients with mild TBI. In China, there are no existing criteria for selecting patients with mild TBI to undergo CT, and almost all of these patients undergo cranial CT in the emergency department. This retrospective study was performed to evaluate the necessity of cranial CT among patients with mild TBI, as well as the feasibility of 2 popular criteria (Canadian CT head rule [CCHR] and New Orleans Criteria [NOC]) in China...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689194/risk-factors-and-outcomes-associated-with-post-traumatic-headache-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Yilmaz Tansel, Gerwin Roks, Myrthe de Koning, Myrthe Scheenen, Harm van der Horn, Gerben Plas, Gerard Hageman, Guus Schoonman, Jacoba Spikman, Joukje van der Naalt
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and potential risk factors of acute and chronic post-traumatic headache (PTH) in patients with mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) in a prospective longitudinal observational multicentre study. Acute PTH (aPTH) is defined by new or worsening of pre-existing headache occurring within 7 days after trauma, whereas chronic PTH (cPTH) is defined as persisting aPTH >3 months after trauma. An additional goal was to study the impact of aPTH and cPTH in terms of return to work (RTW), anxiety and depression...
July 8, 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
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