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brain injury trauma

Tomas Vedin, Sebastian Svensson, Marcus Edelhamre, Mathias Karlsson, Mikael Bergenheim, Per-Anders Larsson
PURPOSE: Head trauma is common in the emergency department. Identifying the few patients with serious injuries is time consuming and leads to many computerized tomographies (CTs). Reducing the number of CTs would reduce cost and radiation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of adults with head trauma over a 1-year period to identify clinical features predicting intracranial hemorrhage. METHODS: Medical record data have been collected retrospectively in adult patients with traumatic brain injury...
March 17, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Alessander Danna-Dos-Santos, Sambit Mohapatra, Maria Santos, Adriana M Degani
Understanding the long-term effects of concussive events remains a challenge for the development of modern medical practices and the prevention of recurrent traumas. In this study, we utilized indices of oculomotor performance and the ability to react to simple environmental stimuli to assess the long-term motor effects of traumatic brain injury in its mildest form (mTBI). We performed analysis of eye movement accuracy, investigated the presence of abnormal eye movements, and quantified time to react to simple environmental stimuli on long-term mTBI survivors...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jing Li Huang, Theo A Woehrle, Pat Conway, Catherine A McCarty, Madeline M Eyer, Steven D Eyer
PURPOSE: In 2007, Essentia Health St. Mary's Medical Center (SMMC), a Level II trauma center in northeastern Minnesota, implemented a protocol for patients who presented with blunt head trauma and were receiving warfarin for anticoagulation. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors of early delayed, warfarin-associated intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: Adult patients with signs and symptoms of head injury on warfarin who were admitted by protocol to SMMC between March 2007 and June 2015 were included...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Juan Zhang, Lorelei Donovan Tucker, DongYan, Yujiao Lu, Luodan Yang, Chongyun Wu, Yong Li, Quanguang Zhang
Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) encephalopathy is a leading cause of dire mortality and morbidity in neonates. Unfortunately, no effective therapies have been developed as of yet. Oxidative stress plays a critical role in pathogenesis and progression of neonatal HI. Previously, as a Nrf2 activator, tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) has been demonstrated to exert neuroprotection on brain trauma and ischemic stroke models, as well as oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity in neurons. It is, however, still unknown whether TBHQ administration can protect against oxidative stress in neonatal HI brain injury...
March 9, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Jesse T Fischer, H Julia Hannay, Candice A Alfano, Paul R Swank, Linda Ewing-Cobbs
OBJECTIVE: This prospective longitudinal study investigated sleep disturbance (SD) and internalizing problems after traumatic injury, including traumatic brain injury (TBI) or extracranial/bodily injury (EI) in children and adolescents, relative to typically developing (TD) children. We also examined longitudinal relations between SD and internalizing problems postinjury. METHOD: Participants (N = 87) ages 8-15 included youth with TBI, EI, and TD children. Injury groups were recruited from a Level 1 trauma center after sustaining vehicle-related injuries...
February 2018: Neuropsychology
Marie Hexeberg Tollefsen, Anne Vik, Toril Skandsen, Oddrun Sandrød, Susan Frances Deane, Vidar Rao, Kent Gøran Moen
OBJECT: We aimed to examine the effect of preinjury antithrombotic medication on clinical and radiological neuroworsening in TBI and study the effect on outcome. METHODS: 184 consecutive patients ≥50 years old with moderate and severe TBI admitted to a level 1 trauma center were included. Neuroworsening was assessed clinically by using Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score and radiologically by using Rotterdam CT score on repeated time points. Functional outcome was assessed with the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE) at 6 months postinjury...
March 7, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Chong Sherry Cheever, Celestina Barbosa-Leiker
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and describe the importance of alcohol screening for all patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and examine the relationship between gender, age, Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), emergent decompressive craniectomy, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) from the emergency department (ED), and the length of stay with alcohol screening. METHOD: This is a retrospective analysis of de-identified data from the 2012 TBI registry of a level 1 trauma center in the Pacific Northwest...
April 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
Malcolm Harris, Tara Brantley, Douglas Hammond, Sabah Kalamchi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the demographic profile of Native American patients with concomitant facial fractures and closed head injuries (CHIs) and to explore the validation of the craniofacial crumple zone. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective, observational, case-control study of 2131 maxillofacial fractures from 2010 to 2014, of which 173 (8%) had concomitant CHIs. RESULTS: Of the study patients, 133 (77%) were males (mean age 40...
January 31, 2018: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Sung Ho Jang, Younghyeon Kwon
RATIONALE: A 45-year-old right-handed female patient suffered head trauma after being hit by a truck that ran into a house. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient lost consciousness for 1 hour and experienced posttraumatic amnesia for 1 month after the accident. DIAGNOSES: She underwent conservative management for a subdural hematoma in the left frontotemporal lobes and intracerebral hematoma in the left frontal lobe. INTERVENTIONS: The patient's Glasgow Coma Scale score was 11...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Douglas B Cooper, Glenn Curtiss, Patrick Armistead-Jehle, Heather G Belanger, David F Tate, Matthew Reid, Amy O Bowles, Carmen S Velez, Jan E Kennedy, Rodney D Vanderploeg
OBJECTIVE: To examine differences in objective neurocognitive performance and subjective cognitive symptoms in individuals with a history of a single concussion, multiple concussions, orthopedic injuries, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHOD: Participants included 116 military service members who sustained a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) during combat deployment. Subjects were subdivided into groups based on concussion frequency: a single concussion (n = 42), 2 concussions (n = 21), and 3 or more concussions (n = 53)...
March 2018: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
Michaela Cellina, Marta Panzeri, Chiara Floridi, Carlo Maria Andrea Martinenghi, Giulio Clesceri, Giancarlo Oliva
AIM: To assess the amount of computed tomography (CT) scans for minor head injury (MHI) performed in young patients in our emergency department (ED), not indicated by National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) and Canadian Computed Tomography Head Rules (CCHR), and to analyze factors contributing to unnecessary examinations. Secondary objectives were to calculate the effective dose, to establish the number of positive CT and to analyze which of the risk factors are correlated with positivity at CT; finally, to calculate sensitivity and specificity of NICE and CCHR in our population...
March 7, 2018: La Radiologia Medica
Gabriel Ziegler, Patrick Grabher, Alan Thompson, Daniel Altmann, Markus Hupp, John Ashburner, Karl Friston, Nikolaus Weiskopf, Armin Curt, Patrick Freund
OBJECTIVE: To quantify atrophy, demyelination, and iron accumulation over 2 years following acute spinal cord injury and to identify MRI predictors of clinical outcomes and determine their suitability as surrogate markers of therapeutic intervention. METHODS: We assessed 156 quantitative MRI datasets from 15 patients with spinal cord injury and 18 controls at baseline and 2, 6, 12, and 24 months after injury. Clinical recovery (including neuropathic pain) was assessed at each time point...
March 7, 2018: Neurology
Nader Shahrokhi, Mohammad Khaksari, Gholamreza AsadiKaram, Zahra Soltani, Nava Shahrokhi
Objectives: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most common causes of death and disability in modern societies. The role of steroids and melatonin is recognized as a neuroprotective factor in traumatic injuries. This study examined the role of melatonin receptors in the neuroprotective effects of estrogen. Materials and Methods: Seventy female ovariectomized Wistar rats were divided into five groups and two subgroups. All animals underwent brain trauma. The groups were as follow: 1) trauma, 2) melatonin receptor antagonist vehicle + estrogen, 3) MT1 melatonin receptor antagonist + estrogen, 4) MT2 melatonin receptor antagonist+ estrogen, 5) MT3 melatonin receptor antagonist+ estrogen...
March 2018: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Vijay Krishnamoorthy, Monica S Vavilala, Nophanan Chaikittisilpa, Frederick P Rivara, Nancy R Temkin, Abhijit V Lele, Edward F Gibbons, Ali Rowhani-Rahbar
OBJECTIVES: To examine the impact of early myocardial workload on in-hospital mortality following isolated severe traumatic brain injury. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Data from the National Trauma Databank, a multicenter trauma registry operated by the American College of Surgeons, from 2007 to 2014. PATIENTS: Adult patients with isolated severe traumatic brain injury (defined as admission Glasgow Coma Scale < 8 and head Abbreviated Injury Score ≥ 4)...
March 3, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Markus Huber-Lang, John D Lambris, Peter A Ward
Trauma can affect any individual at any location and at any time over a lifespan. The disruption of macrobarriers and microbarriers induces instant activation of innate immunity. The subsequent complex response, designed to limit further damage and induce healing, also represents a major driver of complications and fatal outcome after injury. This Review aims to provide basic concepts about the posttraumatic response and is focused on the interactive events of innate immunity at frequent sites of injury: the endothelium at large, and sites within the lungs, inside and outside the brain and at the gut barrier...
March 5, 2018: Nature Immunology
Navpreet K Dhillon, Joshua Tseng, Galinos Barmparas, Megan Y Harada, Ara Ko, Eric J T Smith, Gretchen M Thomsen, Eric J Ley
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, especially in the elderly, who have the highest rates of TBI-related hospitalizations and deaths among all age groups. Sepsis is one of many risk factors that is associated with higher mortality and longer length of hospital stay in this population partially due to the immunosuppressive effects of TBI. The significance of early indicators of infection, such as a positive blood, sputum, or urine culture, is not well described...
April 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
Paul S Page, Zhikui Wei, Nathaniel P Brooks
OBJECTIVE Motorcycle helmets have been shown to decrease the incidence and severity of traumatic brain injury due to motorcycle crashes. Despite this proven efficacy, some previous reports and speculation suggest that helmet use is associated with a higher likelihood of cervical spine injury (CSI). In this study, the authors examine 1061 cases of motorcycle crash victims who were treated during a 5-year period at a Level 1 trauma center to investigate the association of helmet use with the incidence and severity of CSI...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Ricarda Seemann, Frank Graef, Anja Garbe, Johannes Keller, Fan Huang, Georg Duda, Kate Schmidt-Bleek, Klaus-Dieter Schaser, Serafeim Tsitsilonis
INTRODUCTION: The combination of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and long-bone fracture leads to increased formation of callus and mineral density in wild-type (WT) mice. However, this effect was not detected radiologically in leptin-deficient mice. Due to the complex interactions between hormonal and bone metabolism and the important role of leptin in this setting, our aim was to investigate morphologic properties and the tissue composition in the fracture callus comparing WT and leptin-deficient mice...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions
Anwarul Haque, Zehra Dhanani, Amin Ali, Basit Salam, Qalab Abbas, Gohar Javed, Humaira Jurair
BACKGROUND: The Rotterdam Score (RS) on CT head is a new evolving clinical tool as a predictor of mortality in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). The objective of this study is to assess the outcome of children with TBI admitted in paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of a tertiary-care, university hospital by using RS. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study conducted on children (age: 1mo -16yr) with TBI admitted in PICU of Aga Khan University Hospital from 2013 to 2016...
January 2018: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
Hyung-Joo Lee, Youn-Jung Kim, Dong-Woo Seo, Chang Hwan Sohn, Seung Mok Ryoo, Shin Ahn, Yoon-Seon Lee, Won Young Kim, Kyoung Soo Lim
OBJECTIVE: The detection of intracranial injury in patients with facial injury rather than traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a challenge for emergency physicians. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of intracranial injury in patients with orbital wall fracture (OWF), who were classified with a chief complaint of facial injury rather than TBI. METHODS: This retrospective case-control study enrolled adult OWF patients (age ≥18 years) who presented at the hospital between January 2004 and March 2016...
February 24, 2018: Injury
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