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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640858/early-growth-stages-salinity-stress-tolerance-in-cm72-x-gairdner-doubled-haploid-barley-population
#1
Tefera Tolera Angessa, Xiao-Qi Zhang, Gaofeng Zhou, Sue Broughton, Wenying Zhang, Chengdao Li
A doubled haploid (DH) population of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) generated from salinity tolerant genotype CM72 and salinity sensitive variety Gairdner was studied for salinity stress tolerance at germination, seedling emergence and first leaf full expansion growth stages. Germination study was conducted with deionized water, 150 mM and 300 mM NaCl treatments. Seedling stage salinity tolerance was conducted with three treatments: control, 150 mM NaCl added at seedling emergence and first leaf full expansion growth stages...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639312/quantification-of-transmission-risk-in-a-male-patient-with-a-flnb-mosaic-mutation-causing-larsen-syndrome-implications-for-genetic-counselling-in-post-zygotic-mosaicism-cases
#2
Marie Bernkopf, David Hunt, Nils Koelling, Tim Morgan, Amanda L Collins, Joanna Fairhurst, Stephen P Robertson, Andrew G L Douglas, Anne Goriely
We report the case of a male patient with Larsen syndrome found to be mosaic for a novel point mutation in FLNB in whom it was possible to provide evidence-based personalised counselling on transmission risk to future offspring. Using dideoxy-sequencing, a low-level FLNB c.698A>G, encoding p.(Tyr233Cys) mutation was detected in buccal mucosa and fibroblast DNA. Mutation quantification was performed by deep Next-Generation sequencing (NGS) of DNA extracted from three somatic tissues (blood, fibroblasts, saliva) and a sperm sample...
June 21, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633406/in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-gene-targeting-fidelity-depends-on-a-transformation-method-and-proportion-of-the-overall-length-of-the-transforming-and-targeted-dna
#3
Anamarija Štafa, Marina Svetec Miklenic, Antonio Zandona, Bojan Žunar, Neža Cadež, Hrvoje Petkovic, Ivan Krešimir Svetec
Gene replacement is one of the most essential approaches in construction of the genetically modified yeast strains. However, the fidelity of gene targeting and the effort needed for construction of a particular strain can vary significantly. We investigated the influence of two important factors-the choice of the transformation method and the design of the transforming DNA fragment, which can vary in overall length (including flanking regions and selectable marker) compared to the length of the targeted region in the genome...
June 15, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633015/haploidy-in-humans-an-evolutionary-and-developmental-perspective
#4
REVIEW
Ido Sagi, Nissim Benvenisty
Although haploidy has not been observed in vertebrates, its natural occurrence in various eukaryotic species that had diverged from diploid ancestors suggests that there is an innate capacity for an organism to regain haploidy and that haploidy may confer evolutionary benefits. Haploid embryonic stem cells have been experimentally generated from mouse, rat, monkey, and humans. Haploidy results in major differences in cell size and gene expression levels while also affecting parental imprinting, X chromosome inactivation, and mitochondrial metabolism genes...
June 19, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632344/a-life-cycle-approach-to-species-barriers
#5
Kerstin Johannesson
What maintains reproductive barriers between closely related species is, of course, of fundamental interest to a closer understanding of the mechanisms that generate new biodiversity. One important dichotomy is to separate barriers evolved from divergent selection over environmental gradients (extrinsic barriers) from barriers caused by incompatibilities between different genetic arrangements that may have evolved in isolation (intrinsic barriers). This dichotomy also reflects an important applied consequence...
July 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625351/challenges-of-non-flocculating-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-haploid-strain-against-inhibitory-chemical-complex-for-ethanol-production
#6
Prihardi Kahar, Eny Ida Riyanti, Hiromi Otsuka, Hana Matsumoto, Chie Kihira, Chiaki Ogino, Akihiko Kondo
This study provides insight observation based on the gene expression and the metabolomic analysis of the natural robust yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae NBRC849 during the fermentation in the medium containing inhibitory chemical complexes (ICC) at different concentrations. The tolerance mechanisms involved in the strain might have existed through the upregulation of genes involved in NAD(H)/NADP(H) cofactors generations (ALD6, ZWF1, GND1), membrane robustness for efflux pump (YOR1, PDR5, TPO3) and cation/polyamine transport (TPO3)...
June 15, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624908/development-and-validation-of-kasp-markers-for-the-greenbug-resistance-gene-gb7-and-the-hessian-fly-resistance-gene-h32-in-wheat
#7
Chor-Tee Tan, Hangjin Yu, Yan Yang, Xiangyang Xu, Mingshun Chen, Jackie C Rudd, Qingwu Xue, Amir M H Ibrahim, Lisa Garza, Shichen Wang, Mark E Sorrells, Shuyu Liu
Greenbug and Hessian fly are important pests that decrease wheat production worldwide. We developed and validated breeder-friendly KASP markers for marker-assisted breeding to increase selection efficiency. Greenbug (Schizaphis graminum Rondani) and Hessian fly [Mayetiola destructor (Say)] are two major destructive insect pests of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) throughout wheat production regions in the USA and worldwide. Greenbug and Hessian fly infestation can significantly reduce grain yield and quality. Breeding for resistance to these two pests using marker-assisted selection (MAS) is the most economical strategy to minimize losses...
June 17, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621664/post-meiotic-dna-double-strand-breaks-occur-in-tetrahymena-and-require-topoisomerase-ii-and-spo11
#8
Takahiko Akematsu, Yasuhiro Fukuda, Jyoti Garg, Jeffrey S Fillingham, Ronald E Pearlman, Josef Loidl
Based on observations of markers for DNA lesions, such as phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX) and open DNA ends, it has been suggested that post-meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (PM-DSBs) enable chromatin remodeling during animal spermiogenesis. However, the existence of PM-DSBs is unconfirmed, and the mechanism responsible for their formation is unclear. Here, we report the first direct observation of programmed PM-DSBs via the electrophoretic separation of DSB-generated DNA fragments in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila...
June 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615530/in-vivo-autophagy-and-biogenesis-of-autophagosomes-within-male-haploid-cells-during-spermiogenesis
#9
Ping Yang, Nisar Ahmed, Lingling Wang, Hong Chen, Yasir Waqas, Tengfei Liu, Abdul Haseeb, Nasrullah Bangulzai, Yufei Huang, Qiusheng Chen
Autophagy is a unique catabolic pathway that is linked to several physiological processes. However, its role in the process of spermiogenesis is largely unknown. The aim of the current study was to determine the in vivo role of autophagy and the origin of autophagosome membrane biogenesis within male haploid cells. Our immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that LC3 and ATG7 localization were increased dramatically in round to elongated spermatids (haploid cells) towards the lumen of seminiferous tubules, however, poorly expressed in the early stages of germ cells near the basal membrane...
May 26, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615282/maternal-haploid-a-metalloprotease-enriched-at-the-largest-satellite-repeat-and-essential-for-genome-integrity-in-drosophila-embryos
#10
Xiaona Tang, Jingguo Cao, Liang Zhang, Yingzi Huang, Qianyi Zhang, Yikang S Rong
The incorporation of the paternal genome into the zygote during fertilization requires chromatin remodeling. The maternal haploid (mh) mutation in Drosophila affects this process and leads to the formation of haploid embryos without the paternal genome. mh encodes the Drosophila homolog of SPRTN, a conserved protease essential for resolving DNA-protein cross-linked products. Here we characterize the role of MH in genome maintenance. It is not understood how MH protects the paternal genome during fertilization particularly in lights of our finding that MH is present in both parental pro-nuclei during zygote formation...
June 14, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615029/micrornas-control-mrna-fate-by-compartmentalization-based-on-3-utr-length-in-male-germ-cells
#11
Ying Zhang, Chong Tang, Tian Yu, Ruirui Zhang, Huili Zheng, Wei Yan
BACKGROUND: Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression can be achieved through the control of mRNA stability, cytoplasmic compartmentalization, 3' UTR length and translational efficacy. Spermiogenesis, a process through which haploid male germ cells differentiate into spermatozoa, represents an ideal model for studying post-transcriptional regulation in vivo because it involves a large number of transcripts that are physically sequestered in ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs) and thus subjected to delayed translation...
June 15, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612727/-topovil%C3%A2-a-molecular-scissor-essential-for-reproduction
#12
Thomas Robert, Bernard de Massy, Mathilde Grelon
During sexual reproduction haploid gametes are generated out of diploid mother cells. This ploidy reduction is accomplished during meiosis and, in most species, relies on the occurrence of homologous recombination that is triggered by the induction of a large number of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). The mechanism by which such DSBs are generated without provoking massive DNA breakdown in gamete mother cells is still poorly understood. However, the recent characterisation, in plants and in mammals, of a new component of the meiotic DSB forming machinery, defining a meiotic-specific TOPOVIB-Like protein family, has established a clear connection between the meiotic DSB activity and topoisomerases, enzymes that modify the DNA topology by introducing transient DSBs...
May 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611311/genome-wide-5-hydroxymethylcytosine-patterns-in-human-spermatogenesis-are-associated-with-semen-quality
#13
Olga A Efimova, Anna A Pendina, Andrei V Tikhonov, Sergey E Parfenyev, Irina D Mekina, Evgeniia M Komarova, Mariia A Mazilina, Eugene V Daev, Olga G Chiryaeva, Ilona A Galembo, Mikhail I Krapivin, Oleg S Glotov, Irina S Stepanova, Svetlana A Shlykova, Igor Yu. Kogan, Alexander M Gzgzyan, Tatyana V Kuznetzova, Vladislav S Baranov
We performed immunofluorescent analysis of DNA hydroxymethylation and methylation in human testicular spermatogenic cells from azoospermic patients and ejaculated spermatozoa from sperm donors and patients from infertile couples. In contrast to methylation which was present throughout spermatogenesis, hydroxymethylation was either high or almost undetectable in both spermatogenic cells and ejaculated spermatozoa. On testicular cytogenetic preparations, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine was undetectable in mitotic and meiotic chromosomes, and was present exclusively in interphase spermatogonia Ad and in a minor spermatid population...
June 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607439/qtl-mapping-reveals-genetic-determinants-of-fungal-disease-resistance-in-the-wild-lentil-species-lens-ervoides
#14
Vijai Bhadauria, Larissa Ramsay, Kirstin E Bett, Sabine Banniza
Lens ervoides, a wild relative of lentil is an important source of allelic diversity for enhancing the genetic resistance of the cultivated species against economically important fungal diseases, such as anthracnose and Stemphylium blight caused by Colletotrichum lentis and Stemphylium botryosum, respectively. To unravel the genetic control underlying resistance to these fungal diseases, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population (n = 94, F9) originating from a cross between two L. ervoides accessions, L01-827A and IG 72815, was genotyped on the Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605597/bacterial-gtfb-augments-candida-albicans-accumulation-in-cross-kingdom-biofilms
#15
K Ellepola, Y Liu, T Cao, H Koo, C J Seneviratne
Streptococcus mutans is a biofilm-forming oral pathogen commonly associated with dental caries. Clinical studies have shown that S. mutans is often detected with Candida albicans in early childhood caries. Although the C. albicans presence has been shown to enhance bacterial accumulation in biofilms, the influence of S. mutans on fungal biology in this mixed-species relationship remains largely uncharacterized. Therefore, we aimed to investigate how the presence of S. mutans influences C. albicans biofilm development and coexistence...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600780/meiotic-divisions-no-place-for-gender-equality
#16
Warif El Yakoubi, Katja Wassmann
In multicellular organisms the fusion of two gametes with a haploid set of chromosomes leads to the formation of the zygote, the first cell of the embryo. Accurate execution of the meiotic cell division to generate a female and a male gamete is required for the generation of healthy offspring harboring the correct number of chromosomes. Unfortunately, meiosis is error prone. This has severe consequences for fertility and under certain circumstances, health of the offspring. In humans, female meiosis is extremely error prone...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600311/laboratory-evolution-of-a-biotin-requiring-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-strain-for-full-biotin-prototrophy-and-identification-of-causal-mutations
#17
Jasmine M Bracher, Erik de Hulster, Charlotte C Koster, Marcel van den Broek, Jean-Marc G Daran, Antonius J A van Maris, Jack T Pronk
Biotin prototrophy is a rare, incompletely understood and industrially relevant characteristic of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. The genome of the haploid laboratory strain CEN.PK113-7D contains a full complement of biotin biosynthesis genes, but its growth in biotin-free synthetic media is extremely slow (specific growth rate μ ≈ 0.01 h(-1)). Four independent evolution experiments in repeated batch cultures and accelerostats yielded strains whose growth rates (μ up to 0.36 h(-1)) in biotin-free and biotin-supplemented medium were similar...
June 9, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599181/adsorption-of-cell-penetrating-peptide-tat2-and-polycation-luviquat-fc-370-to-triticale-microspore-exine
#18
Jordan T Pepper, Priti Maheshwari, François Eudes
Microspores are the pre-gametophyte stage of pollen, and have proven to be a successful tissue culture material for the production of doubled haploid plants. Microspore culture has also been used as a platform for the production of transgenic plants. The use of cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) as transfection agents in microspores has been previously demonstrated, but at low efficiencies. Here, the pH dependent adsorption of the cationic CPP Tat2 to the sporopollenin surface of the microspore (the exine) has been explored using electrophoretic light scattering (ELS)...
June 3, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597825/fungal-sex-the-basidiomycota
#19
Marco A Coelho, Guus Bakkeren, Sheng Sun, Michael E Hood, Tatiana Giraud
Fungi of the Basidiomycota, representing major pathogen lineages and mushroom-forming species, exhibit diverse means to achieve sexual reproduction, with particularly varied mechanisms to determine compatibilities of haploid mating partners. For species that require mating between distinct genotypes, discrimination is usually based on both the reciprocal exchange of diffusible mating pheromones, rather than sexes, and the interactions of homeodomain protein signals after cell fusion. Both compatibility factors must be heterozygous in the product of mating, and genetic linkage relationships of the mating pheromone/receptor and homeodomain genes largely determine the complex patterns of mating-type variation...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595916/combination-of-restriction-endonuclease-digestion-with-the-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-ct-method-in-real-time-pcr-to-monitor-etoxazole-resistance-allele-frequency-in-the-two-spotted-spider-mite
#20
Masahiro Osakabe, Tsuyoshi Imamura, Ryohei Nakano, Satoshi Kamikawa, Misono Tadatsu, Yoshinori Kunimoto, Makoto Doi
Monitoring resistance allele frequency at the early stage of resistance development is important for the successful acaricide resistance management. Etoxazole is a mite growth inhibitor to which resistance is conferred by an amino acid substitution in the chitin synthase 1 (CHS1; I1017F) in T. urticae. If the susceptible allele can be specifically digested by restriction endonuclease, the ΔΔCt method using real-time PCR for genomic DNA (RED-ΔΔCt method) may be available for monitoring the resistance allele frequency...
June 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
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