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Philippe Lefrançois, Beth Rockmill, Pingxing Xie, G Shirleen Roeder, Michael Snyder
During meiosis, chromosomes undergo a homology search in order to locate their homolog to form stable pairs and exchange genetic material. Early in prophase, chromosomes associate in mostly non-homologous pairs, tethered only at their centromeres. This phenomenon, conserved through higher eukaryotes, is termed centromere coupling in budding yeast. Both initiation of recombination and the presence of homologs are dispensable for centromere coupling (occurring in spo11 mutants and haploids induced to undergo meiosis) but the presence of the synaptonemal complex (SC) protein Zip1 is required...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Mojgan Aminnejad, Massimo Cogliati, Shuyao Duan, Michael Arabatzis, Kathrin Tintelnot, Elizabeth Castañeda, Marcia Lazéra, Aristea Velegraki, David Ellis, Tania C Sorrell, Wieland Meyer
Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii are pathogenic basidiomycetous yeasts and the commonest cause of fungal infection of the central nervous system. Cryptococci are typically haploid but several inter-species, inter-varietal and intra-varietal hybrids have been reported. It has a bipolar mating system with sexual reproduction occurring normally between two individuals with opposite mating types, α and a. This study set out to characterize hybrid isolates within the C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex: seven unisexual mating intra-varietal VNI/VNII (αAAα) and six novel inter-varietal VNII/VNIV (aADα)...
2016: PloS One
Ido Sagi, Dieter Egli, Nissim Benvenisty
Haploid human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) integrate haploidy and pluripotency, providing a novel system for functional genomics and developmental research in humans. We have recently derived haploid human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) by parthenogenesis and demonstrated their wide differentiation potential and applicability for genetic screening. Because haploid cells can spontaneously become diploid, their enrichment at an early passage is key for successful derivation. In this protocol, we describe two methodologies, namely metaphase spread analysis and cell sorting, for the identification of haploid human cells within parthenogenetic ESC lines...
November 2016: Nature Protocols
Laure Coulombel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Toshinori Omi, Shota Nakazawa, Chihiro Udagawa, Naomi Tada, Kazuhiko Ochiai, Yong Hwa Chong, Yuiko Kato, Hiroko Mitsui, Azusa Gin, Hitomi Oda, Daigo Azakami, Kyoichi Tamura, Toshinori Sako, Takeshi Inagaki, Atsushi Sakamoto, Toshihiko Tsutsui, Makoto Bonkobara, Shuichi Tsuchida, Shigenori Ikemoto
Cat's AB blood group system (blood types A, B, and AB) is of major importance in feline transfusion medicine. Type A and type B antigens are Neu5Gc and Neu5Ac, respectively, and the enzyme CMAH participating in the synthesis of Neu5Gc from Neu5Ac is associated with this cat blood group system. Rare type AB erythrocytes express both Neu5Gc and Neu5Ac. Cat serum contains naturally occurring antibodies against antigens occurring in the other blood types. To understand the molecular genetic basis of this blood group system, we investigated the distribution of AB blood group antigens, CMAH gene structure, mutation, diplotypes, and haplotypes of the cat CMAH genes...
2016: PloS One
Nisar Ahmed, Yi Liu, Hong Chen, Ping Yang, Yasir Waqas, Tengfei Liu, Jameel Ahmed Gandahi, Yufei Huang, Lingling Wang, Xuejing Song, Imran Rashid Rajput, Taozhi Wang, Qiusheng Chen
Spermatogenesis is a complex process producing haploid spermatozoa, and the formation of lipid droplets (LDs) within Sertoli cells is critical to maintaining normal spermatogenesis. However, the utilization of LDs within Sertoli cells is still largely unknown. In the present study, proliferation of spermatogonial cells had begun in May, whereas the meiotic cells occurred predominately in July and majority of spermiogenic cells were observed in the seminiferous tubules in October. However, TEM and Oil Red O staining demonstrated that a larger number of LDs had accumulated within the Sertoli cells in May compared to that in October...
October 16, 2016: Aging
Chen-Shan Chin, Paul Peluso, Fritz J Sedlazeck, Maria Nattestad, Gregory T Concepcion, Alicia Clum, Christopher Dunn, Ronan O'Malley, Rosa Figueroa-Balderas, Abraham Morales-Cruz, Grant R Cramer, Massimo Delledonne, Chongyuan Luo, Joseph R Ecker, Dario Cantu, David R Rank, Michael C Schatz
While genome assembly projects have been successful in many haploid and inbred species, the assembly of noninbred or rearranged heterozygous genomes remains a major challenge. To address this challenge, we introduce the open-source FALCON and FALCON-Unzip algorithms ( to assemble long-read sequencing data into highly accurate, contiguous, and correctly phased diploid genomes. We generate new reference sequences for heterozygous samples including an F1 hybrid of Arabidopsis thaliana, the widely cultivated Vitis vinifera cv...
October 17, 2016: Nature Methods
L C Emebiri, M-K Tan, M El-Bouhssini, O Wildman, A Jighly, W Tadesse, F C Ogbonnaya
This research provides the first report of a major locus controlling wheat resistance to Sunn pest. It developed and validated SNP markers that will be useful for marker-assisted selection. Sunn pest (Eurygaster integriceps Puton) is the most destructive insect pest of bread wheat and durum wheat in West and Central Asia and East Europe. Breeding for resistance at the vegetative stage of growth is vital in reducing the damage caused by overwintered adult populations that feed on shoot and leaves of seedlings, and in reducing the next generation of pest populations (nymphs and adults), which can cause damage to grain quality by feeding on spikes...
October 15, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Christiane Gebhardt
This article evaluates the main contributions of tomato, tobacco, petunia, potato, pepper and eggplant to classical and molecular plant genetics and genomics since the beginning of the twentieth century. Species from the Solanaceae family form integral parts of human civilizations as food sources and drugs since thousands of years, and, more recently, as ornamentals. Some Solanaceous species were subjects of classical and molecular genetic research over the last 100 years. The tomato was one of the principal models in twentieth century classical genetics and a pacemaker of genome analysis in plants including molecular linkage maps, positional cloning of disease resistance genes and quantitative trait loci (QTL)...
October 15, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Namrata Dhaka, Kadambini Rout, Satish K Yadava, Yaspal Singh Sodhi, Vibha Gupta, Deepak Pental, Akshay K Pradhan
Seed weight QTL identified in different populations were synthesized into consensus QTL which were shown to harbor candidate genes by in silico mapping. Allelic variation inferred would be useful in breeding B. juncea lines with high seed weight. Seed weight is an important yield influencing trait in oilseed Brassicas and is a multigenic trait. Among the oilseed Brassicas, Brassica juncea harbors the maximum phenotypic variation wherein thousand seed weight varies from around 2.0 g to more than 7.0 g. In this study, we have undertaken quantitative trait locus/quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of seed weight in B...
October 15, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
M Constanza Mannino, Máximo Rivarola, Alejandra C Scannapieco, Sergio González, Marisa Farber, Jorge L Cladera, Silvia B Lanzavecchia
BACKGROUND: Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a solitary parasitoid of Tephritidae (Diptera) fruit flies of economic importance currently being mass-reared in bio-factories and successfully used worldwide. A peculiar biological aspect of Hymenoptera is its haplo-diploid life cycle, where females (diploid) develop from fertilized eggs and males (haploid) from unfertilized eggs. Diploid males were described in many species and recently evidenced in D. longicaudata by mean of inbreeding studies...
October 12, 2016: BMC Genomics
James F Smith, John L Clark, Marisol Amaya-Márquez, Oscar H Marín-Gómez
Speciation by hybridization has long been recognized among plants and includes both homoploid and allopolyploid speciation. The numbers of presumed hybrid species averages close to 11% and tends to be concentrated in a subset of angiosperm families. Recent advances in molecular methods have verified species of hybrid origin that had been presumed on the basis of morphology and have identified species that were not initially considered hybrids. Identifying species of hybrid origin is often a challenge and typically based on intermediate morphology, or discrepancies between molecular datasets...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
E Taschen, F Rousset, M Sauve, L Benoit, M-P Dubois, F Richard, M-A Selosse
The life cycles and dispersal of edible fungi are still poorly known, thus limiting our understanding of their evolution and domestication. The prized Tuber melanosporum produces fruitbodies (fleshy organs where meiospores mature) gathered in natural, spontaneously inoculated forests or harvested in plantations of nursery-inoculated trees. Yet, how fruitbodies are formed remains unclear, thus limiting yields, and how current domestication attempts affect population genetic structure is overlooked. Fruitbodies result from mating between two haploid individuals: the maternal parent forms the flesh and the meiospores, while the paternal parent only contributes to the meiospores...
September 26, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Michaela Jakubkova, Vladimira Dzugasova, Dominika Truban, Lenka Abelovska, Ingrid Bhatia-Kissova, Martin Valachovic, Vlasta Klobucnikova, Lucia Zeiselova, Peter Griac, Jozef Nosek, Lubomir Tomaska
Ionophores such as valinomycin and nigericin are potent tools for studying the impact of ion perturbance on cellular functions. To obtain a broader picture about molecular components involved in mediating the effects of these drugs on yeast cells under respiratory growth conditions, we performed a screening of the haploid deletion mutant library covering the Saccharomyces cerevisiae nonessential genes. We identified nearly 130 genes whose absence leads either to resistance or to hypersensitivity to valinomycin and/or nigericin...
2016: PloS One
Cuiqing Zhong, Jinsong Li
Haploid embryonic stem cells can be derived from androgenetic embryos produced by injection of sperm into enucleated oocytes or by removal of the female pronucleus from zygotes. These cells, termed AG-haESCs, can be used in place of sperm to produce the so-called semi-cloned (SC) mice. Importantly, AG-haESCs carrying H19-DMR and IG-DMR knockouts (DKO-AG-haESCs) can efficiently and stably support the generation of SC mice via intracytoplasmic AG-haESCs injection (ICAHCI), which provides a new route to obtain genetically modified mice...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Colin W Hiebert, Matthew N Rouse, Jayaveeramuthu Nirmala, Tom Fetch
Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis Pers.:Pers. f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn.(Pgt), is a destructive disease of wheat that can be controlled by deploying effective stem rust resistance (Sr) genes. Highly virulent races of Pgt in Africa have been detected and characterized. These include race TRTTF and the Ug99 group of races such as TTKSK. Several Canadian and United States spring wheat cultivars, including the widely grown Canadian cultivar 'Harvest', are resistant to TRTTF. However, the genetic basis of resistance to TRTTF in Canadian and United States spring wheat cultivars is unknown...
October 5, 2016: Phytopathology
J R Sawyer, E Tian, J D Shaughnessy, J Epstein, C M Swanson, C Stangeby, C L Hale, L Parr, M Lynn, G Sammartino, J L Lukacs, C Stein, C Bailey, M Zangari, F E Davies, F Van Rhee, B Barlogie, G J Morgan
Hyperhaploid clones (24-34 chromosomes) were identified in 33 patients with multiple myeloma (MM), identifying a novel numerical cytogenetic subgroup. Strikingly, all hyperhaploid karyotypes were found to harbor monosomy 17p, the single most important risk stratification lesion in MM. A catastrophic loss of nearly a haploid set of chromosomes results in disomies of chromosomes 3,5,7,9,11,15,18,19, and 21, the same basic set of odd-numbered chromosomes found in trisomy in hyperdiploid myeloma. All other autosomes are found in monosomy, resulting in additional clinically relevant monosomies of 1p, 6q, 13q, and 16q...
October 3, 2016: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Scott M Paulissen, Linda S Huang
During times of nutritional stress, Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergoes gametogenesis, known as sporulation. Diploid yeast cells that are starved for nitrogen and carbon will initiate the sporulation process. The process of sporulation includes meiosis followed by spore formation, where the haploid nuclei are packaged into environmentally resistant spores. We have developed methods for the efficient sporulation of budding yeast in 96 multiwell plates, to increase the throughput of screening yeast cells for sporulation phenotypes...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Shuang Jiao, Zhihao Wu, Xungang Tan, Yulei Sui, Lijuan Wang, Feng You
Although chromosome set manipulation techniques including polyploidy induction and gynogentic induction in flatfish are becoming increasingly mature, there exists a poor understanding of their effects on embryonic development. PAX3 plays crucial roles during embryonic myogenesis and neurogenesis. In olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), there are two duplicated pax3 genes (pax3a, pax3b), and both of them are expressed in the brain and muscle regions with some subtle regional differences. We utilized pax3a and pax3b as indicators to preliminarily investigate whether chromosome set manipulation affects embryonic neurogenesis and myogenesis using whole-mount in situ hybridization...
September 27, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Hena Khalique, Jorge López Marco, Filip Lim
BACKGROUND: Although Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) has outstanding properties for gene delivery vectors and its genome is available in bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) for mutagenesis studies, one impediment is the presence of about 15.4 kilobases of DNA sequences which are duplicated in the HSV-1 genome, complicating vector construction and stability. METHODS: As a useful platform for building HSV-1 vectors, we have constructed a fully haploid HSV-1 genome BAC by deletion of one of these repeats, confirming that viral propagation in culture is not impaired...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Gene Medicine
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