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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545113/rac1-is-dispensable-for-oocyte-maturation-and-female-fertility-in-vivo
#1
Jian-Xiu Hao, Tie-Gang Meng, Li-Hua Fan, Yuan-Qing Yao
Oocyte maturation, the important process to produce female haploid gamete, accompanies with polarity establishment and highly asymmetric cell division to emit minor polar body within little cytoplasm. Microfilaments play central roles in polarity establishment and asymmetric cell division. Several actin regulators like WASP protein family as well as small GTPases function in microfilament dynamics, involving the process. Rac1, one member of RhoGTPases, has been reported to regulate the polarity and asymmetric cell division in mouse oocytes in vitro...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543764/mir-31-regulates-spermatogonial-stem-cells-meiosis-via-targeting-stra8
#2
Yingjie Wang, Qisheng Zuo, Yulin Bi, Wenhui Zhang, Jin Jin, Liangliang Zhang, Ya-Ni Zhang, Bichun Li
Stra8 (stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8) is a specific gene that is expressed in mammalian germ cells during transition from mitosis to meiosis and plays a key role in the initiation of meiosis in mammals and birds. So, the evaluation of the Stra8 pathway in cSSCs may provide a deeper insight into mammalian spermatogenesis. miRNA was also an important regulating factor for meiosis of SSCs. However, there is currently no data indicating that miRNA regulate the meiosis of SSCs via Stra8. Here, we predicted the prospective miRNA targeting to Stra8 using the online Bioinformatics database-Targetscan, and performed an analysis of the dual-luciferase recombinant vector, pGL3-CMV-LUC-MCS-Stra8-3'UTR...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542571/quantitative-trait-loci-for-yield-and-grain-plumpness-relative-to-maturity-in-three-populations-of-barley-hordeum-vulgare-l-grown-in-a-low-rain-fall-environment
#3
Bulti Tesso Obsa, Jason Eglinton, Stewart Coventry, Timothy March, Maxime Guillaume, Thanh Phuoc Le, Matthew Hayden, Peter Langridge, Delphine Fleury
Identifying yield and grain plumpness QTL that are independent of developmental variation or phenology is of paramount importance for developing widely adapted and stable varieties through the application of marker assisted selection. The current study was designed to dissect the genetic basis of yield performance and grain plumpness in southern Australia using three doubled haploid (DH) populations developed from crosses between adapted parents that are similar in maturity and overall plant development. Three interconnected genetic populations, Commander x Fleet (CF), Commander x WI4304 (CW), and Fleet x WI4304 (FW) developed from crossing of Australian elite barley genotypes, were used to map QTL controlling yield and grain plumpness...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542459/identification-and-evaluation-of-resistance-to-powdery-mildew-and-yellow-rust-in-a-wheat-mapping-population
#4
Lijun Yang, Xuejiang Zhang, Xu Zhang, Jirui Wang, Mingcheng Luo, Mujun Yang, Hua Wang, Libo Xiang, Fansong Zeng, Dazhao Yu, Daolin Fu, Garry M Rosewarne
Deployment of cultivars with genetic resistance is an effective approach to control the diseases of powdery mildew (PM) and yellow rust (YR). Chinese wheat cultivar XK0106 exhibits high levels of resistance to both diseases, while cultivar E07901 has partial, adult plant resistance (APR). The aim of this study was to map resistance loci derived from the two cultivars and analyze their effects against PM and YR in a range of environments. A doubled haploid population (388 lines) was used to develop a framework map consisting of 117 SSR markers, while a much higher density map using the 90K Illumina iSelect SNP array was produced with a subset of 80 randomly selected lines...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542371/whole-genome-sequencing-of-spermatocytic-tumors-provides-insights-into-the-mutational-processes-operating-in-the-male-germline
#5
Eleni Giannoulatou, Geoffrey J Maher, Zhihao Ding, Ad J M Gillis, Lambert C J Dorssers, Alexander Hoischen, Ewa Rajpert-De Meyts, Gilean McVean, Andrew O M Wilkie, Leendert H J Looijenga, Anne Goriely
Adult male germline stem cells (spermatogonia) proliferate by mitosis and, after puberty, generate spermatocytes that undertake meiosis to produce haploid spermatozoa. Germ cells are under evolutionary constraint to curtail mutations and maintain genome integrity. Despite constant turnover, spermatogonia very rarely form tumors, so-called spermatocytic tumors (SpT). In line with the previous identification of FGFR3 and HRAS selfish mutations in a subset of cases, candidate gene screening of 29 SpTs identified an oncogenic NRAS mutation in two cases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536557/biocontrol-of-sugarcane-smut-disease-by-interference-of-fungal-sexual-mating-and-hyphal-growth-using-a-bacterial-isolate
#6
Shiyin Liu, Nuoqiao Lin, Yumei Chen, Zhibin Liang, Lisheng Liao, Mingfa Lv, Yufan Chen, Yingxin Tang, Fei He, Shaohua Chen, Jianuan Zhou, Lianhui Zhang
Sugarcane smut is a fungal disease caused by Sporisorium scitamineum, which can cause severe economic losses in sugarcane industry. The infection depends on the mating of bipolar sporida to form a dikaryon and develops into hyphae to penetrate the meristematic tissue of sugarcane. In this study, we set to isolate bacterial strains capable of blocking the fungal mating and evaluate their potential in control of sugarcane smut disease. A bacterial isolate ST4 from rhizosphere displayed potent inhibitory activity against the mating of S...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534096/genomic-prediction-ability-for-yield-related-traits-in-german-winter-barley-elite-material
#7
Patrick Thorwarth, Jutta Ahlemeyer, Anne-Marie Bochard, Kerstin Krumnacker, Hubert Blümel, Eberhard Laubach, Nadine Knöchel, László Cselényi, Frank Ordon, Karl J Schmid
Genomic prediction was evaluated in German winter barley breeding lines. In this material, prediction ability is strongly influenced by population structure and main determinant of prediction ability is the close genetic relatedness of the breeding material. To ensure breeding progress under changing environmental conditions the implementation and evaluation of new breeding methods is of crucial importance. Modern breeding approaches like genomic selection may significantly accelerate breeding progress. We assessed the potential of genomic prediction in a training population of 750 genotypes, consisting of multiple six-rowed winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L...
May 22, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533904/-this-is-where-it-all-started-the-pivotal-role-of-plc%C3%AE-within-the-sophisticated-process-of-mammalian-reproduction-a-systemic-review
#8
Itai Gat, Raoul Orvieto
Mammalian reproduction is one of the most complex and fascinating biological phenomenon, which aims to transfer maternal and paternal genetic material to the next generation. At the end of oogenesis and spermatogenesis, both haploid gametes contain a single set of chromosomes ready to form the zygote, the first cell of the newly developing individual. The mature oocyte and spermatozoa remain in a quiescent state, during which the oocyte is characterized by nuclear and cytoplasmic arrest, while the spermatozoa necessitates further maturation within the epididymis and female reproductive track prior to egg fertilization...
2017: Basic and Clinical Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529836/chloroplast-and-mitochondrial-microsatellites-for-millettia-pinnata-fabaceae-and-cross-amplification-in-related-species
#9
Yanling Wang, Hongxian Xie, Yi Yang, Yelin Huang, Jianwu Wang, Fengxiao Tan
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Chloroplast and mitochondrial microsatellites were identified to study the population genetics of Millettia pinnata (Fabaceae). METHODS AND RESULTS: Based on publicly available plastid genome sequence data of M. pinnata, 42 primer pairs were developed, of which 17 displayed polymorphisms across 89 individuals from four populations. For chloroplast loci, two to six alleles were recovered and the unbiased haploid diversity per locus ranged from 0...
May 2017: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527764/differential-stress-response-of-saccharomyces-hybrids-revealed-by-monitoring-hsp104-aggregation-and-disaggregation
#10
Claudia Kempf, Klaus Lengeler, Jürgen Wendland
Proteotoxic stress may occur upon exposure of yeast cells to different stress conditions. The induction of stress response mechanisms is important for cells to adapt to changes in the environment and ensure survival. For example, during exposure to elevated temperatures the expression of heat shock proteins such as Hsp104 is induced in yeast. Hsp104 extracts misfolded proteins from aggregates to promote their refolding. We used an Hsp104-GFP reporter to analyze the stress profiles of Saccharomyces species hybrids...
July 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526730/a-targeted-capture-linkage-map-anchors-the-genome-of-the-schistosomiasis-vector-snail-biomphalaria-glabrata
#11
Jacob A Tennessen, Stephanie R Bollmann, Michael S Blouin
The aquatic planorbid snail Biomphalaria glabrate is one of the most intensively-studied mollusks due to its role in the transmission of schistosomiasis. Its 916 Mb genome has recently been sequenced and annotated, but it remains poorly assembled. Here we used targeted capture markers to map over 10,000 B. glabrate scaffolds in a linkage cross of 94 F1 offspring, generating 24 linkage groups. We added additional scaffolds to these linkage groups based on linkage disequilibrium analysis of targeted capture and whole-genome sequences of 96 unrelated snails...
May 19, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526698/improving-response-in-genomic-selection-with-a-population-based-selection-strategy-optimal-population-value-selection
#12
Matthew Goiffon, Aaron Kusmec, Lizhi Wang, Guiping Hu, Patrick Schnable
Genomic selection (GS) identifies individuals for inclusion in breeding programs based on the sum of their estimated marker effects or genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs). Due to significant correlation between GEBVs and true breeding values, this has resulted in enhanced rates of genetic gain as compared to traditional methods of selection. Three extensions to GS, weighted genomic selection (WGS), optimal haploid value (OHV) selection, and genotype building (GB) selection have been proposed to improve long-term response and to facilitate the efficient development of doubled haploids...
May 19, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526652/retinoic-acid-induces-differentiation-of-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis-embryonic-stem-cells-into-germ-cells
#13
Syed Mohmad Shah, Suresh Kumar Singla, Prabhat Palta, Radhey Sham Manik, Manmohan Singh Chauhan
Development of precise and reproducible culture system for in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells into germ cells counts as a major leap forward for understanding not only the remarkable process of gametogenesis, otherwise obscured by limited availability of precursor primordial germ cells (PGCs), but in finally treating the catastrophic infertility. Taking into account the significant role of retinoic acid (RA) during in vivo gametogenesis, we designed the present study to investigate the effects of its stimulation on directing the differentiation of ES cells into germ cells...
May 16, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520879/phylogenetic-relationship-and-ftir-spectroscopy-derived-lipid-determinants-of-lifespan-parameters-in-the-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-yeast
#14
Mateusz Molon, Jacek Zebrowski
Yeast aging has been gaining much attention in gerontology research, yet the process itself is still not entirely clear. One of the constraints related to the use of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast in studies is the ambiguity of the results concerning aging determinants for different genetic backgrounds. In this paper, we compare reproductive potentials and lifespans of seven widely used haploid laboratory strains differing in daughter cells production capabilities and highlight the importance of choosing an appropriate genotype for the studies on aging...
May 17, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518149/rnf138-deficiency-promotes-apoptosis-of-spermatogonia-in-juvenile-male-mice
#15
Longchang Xu, Yalan Lu, Deqiang Han, Rongyan Yao, Han Wang, Shunshun Zhong, Yanyun Luo, Ruiqin Han, Kai Li, Jun Fu, Shudong Zong, Shiying Miao, Wei Song, Linfang Wang
Spermatogenesis, the process by which haploid sperm cells are produced from a diploid precursor cell, is essential for sexual reproduction. Here, we report that RING-finger protein 138 (Rnf138) is highly expressed in testes, especially in spermatogonia and spermatocytes. The role of Rnf138 in spermatogenesis was examined using a Rnf138-knockout mouse model. Rnf138 deficiency resulted in increased apoptosis in spermatogenic cells, loss of proliferative spermatogonia, delayed development of spermatozoa and impaired fertility...
May 18, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514720/new-application-for-haplotype-specific-extraction-separation-of-mitochondrial-dna-mixtures
#16
J Zander, J Rothe, J Dapprich, M Nagy
A particularly challenging aspect of forensic casework is the accurate interpretation of samples that contain DNA from more than one contributor, since DNA analysis of specific identification markers often results in ambiguous mixed profiles. Physically separating the various haploid components of a diploid or polyploid DNA sample or of a specimen containing DNA from multiple individuals can resolve this problem. We adapted and combined previously developed methods of haplotype-specific extraction (HSE) to separate and analyze mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in samples containing DNA from two individuals...
May 6, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514186/apc-c-cdc20-mediates-deprotection-of-centromeric-cohesin-at-meiosis-ii-in-yeast
#17
Katarzyna Jonak, Ievgeniia Zagoriy, Tugce Oz, Peter Graf, Julie Rojas, Valentina Mengoli, Wolfgang Zachariae
Cells undergoing meiosis produce haploid gametes through one round of DNA replication followed by two rounds of chromosome segregation. This requires that cohesin complexes, which establish sister chromatid cohesion during S phase, are removed in a stepwise manner. At meiosis I, the separase protease triggers the segregation of homologous chromosomes by cleaving cohesin's Rec8 subunit on chromosome arms. Cohesin persists at centromeres because the PP2A phosphatase, recruited by the shugoshin protein, dephosphorylates Rec8 and thereby protects it from cleavage...
May 17, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511094/isolation-and-genetic-analysis-of-pure-cells-from-forensic-biological-mixtures-the-precision-of-a-digital-approach
#18
F Fontana, C Rapone, G Bregola, R Aversa, A de Meo, G Signorini, M Sergio, A Ferrarini, R Lanzellotto, G Medoro, G Giorgini, N Manaresi, A Berti
Latest genotyping technologies allow to achieve a reliable genetic profile for the offender identification even from extremely minute biological evidence. The ultimate challenge occurs when genetic profiles need to be retrieved from a mixture, which is composed of biological material from two or more individuals. In this case, DNA profiling will often result in a complex genetic profile, which is then subject matter for statistical analysis. In principle, when more individuals contribute to a mixture with different biological fluids, their single genetic profiles can be obtained by separating the distinct cell types (e...
May 1, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510588/evolutionary-restoration-of-fertility-in-an-interspecies-hybrid-yeast-by-whole-genome-duplication-after-a-failed-mating-type-switch
#19
Raúl A Ortiz-Merino, Nurzhan Kuanyshev, Stephanie Braun-Galleani, Kevin P Byrne, Danilo Porro, Paola Branduardi, Kenneth H Wolfe
Many interspecies hybrids have been discovered in yeasts, but most of these hybrids are asexual and can replicate only mitotically. Whole-genome duplication has been proposed as a mechanism by which interspecies hybrids can regain fertility, restoring their ability to perform meiosis and sporulate. Here, we show that this process occurred naturally during the evolution of Zygosaccharomyces parabailii, an interspecies hybrid that was formed by mating between 2 parents that differed by 7% in genome sequence and by many interchromosomal rearrangements...
May 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504866/a-short-report-on-current-fertility-preservation-strategies-for-boys
#20
Wei Li Cindy Ho, Harold Bourne, Debra Gook, Gary Clarke, Matthew Kemertzis, Kate Stern, Franca Agresta, Yves Heloury, Hannah Clarke, Lisa Orme, Michael Sullivan, Yasmin Jayasinghe, Margaret R Zacharin
BACKGROUND: Advances in cancer treatment have led to improved long term survival after childhood cancer, but often at a price of impaired future fertility. Fertility Preservation (FP) in male children and early adolescents poses unique challenges as efficacy is unproven. OBJECTIVES: To describe characteristics of testicular tissue cryopreservation (TTCP) specimens taken from paediatric and adolescent patients, stratified by age, and prior chemotherapy, if any, and to demonstrate evidence for germ cells MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of gonadal biopsies and clinical records of patients consented into the Royal Children's Hospital FP program between 1987-2015...
May 15, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
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