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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077878/pla2g16-represents-a-switch-between-entry-and-clearance-of-picornaviridae
#1
Jacqueline Staring, Eleonore von Castelmur, Vincent A Blomen, Lisa G van den Hengel, Markus Brockmann, Jim Baggen, Hendrik Jan Thibaut, Joppe Nieuwenhuis, Hans Janssen, Frank J M van Kuppeveld, Anastassis Perrakis, Jan E Carette, Thijn R Brummelkamp
Picornaviruses are a leading cause of human and veterinary infections that result in various diseases, including polio and the common cold. As archetypical non-enveloped viruses, their biology has been extensively studied. Although a range of different cell-surface receptors are bound by different picornaviruses, it is unclear whether common host factors are needed for them to reach the cytoplasm. Using genome-wide haploid genetic screens, here we identify the lipid-modifying enzyme PLA2G16 (refs 8, 9, 10, 11) as a picornavirus host factor that is required for a previously unknown event in the viral life cycle...
January 11, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074843/sexy-males-and-sexless-females-the-origin-of-triploid-apomicts
#2
P Muralidhar, D Haig
Apomixis and polyploidy are closely associated in angiosperms, but the evolutionary reason for this association is unknown. Taraxacum officinale, the common dandelion, exists both as diploid sexuals and triploid apomicts. Here, in the context of T. officinale, we provide a model of the evolution of triploid apomicts from diploid sexuals. We posit an apomictic allele that arrests female meiosis in diploids, so that the plant produces diploid egg cells that can develop without fertilization, but haploid pollen...
January 11, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073009/how-meiosis-creates-the-single-copy-genome
#3
Mary Herbert, Attila Toth
Genome haploidization involves two meiotic divisions following a single round of DNA replication. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Argüello-Miranda et al. (2017) show that production and packaging of the single-copy genome into gametes during the second meiotic division is coordinated by a conserved casein kinase 1.
January 9, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071031/study-of-variation-of-tocochromanol-and-phytosterol-contents-in-black-and-yellow-seeds-of-brassica-napus-l-doubled-haploid-populations
#4
Teresa Cegielska-Taras, Małgorzata Nogala-Kałucka, Laurencja Szala, Aleksander Siger
BACKGROUND: In the study, an analysis of tocopherols, plastochomanol-8 and phytosterols was conducted using DH lines obtained from F1 hybrids of reciprocal crosses between yellow- and black-seeded lines. METHODS: The biological material for the study consisted of two DH populations of winter oilseed rape obtained from F1 hybrids of reciprocal crosses between two DH lines: yellow- and black-seeded. Seed color was determined using a ColorFlex spectrophotometer. Fat content was determined via pulsed NMR...
July 2016: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063128/improved-production-of-doubled-haploids-of-winter-and-spring-triticale-hybrids-via-combination-of-colchicine-treatments-on-anthers-and-regenerated-plants
#5
Aurelia Ślusarkiewicz-Jarzina, Hanna Pudelska, Jolanta Woźna, Tomasz Pniewski
Double haploids (DH), obtained during androgenesis in vitro or by genome diploidisation in regenerated haploids, are one type of basic materials used in triticale breeding programmes. The aim of this study was to improve DH production by a combination of colchicine treatment methods on a sample of five winter and five spring triticale hybrids. Colchicine was applied in vitro either in the C17 medium to induce embryo-like structures (ELS) or in the 190-2 medium for green plant (GP) development. Regenerants which remained haploid were immersed in a colchicine solution either when placed on the medium prior to transferring to soil or when growing in pots, followed by the application or absence of cooling...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060351/ploidy-manipulation-of-zebrafish-embryos-with-heat-shock-2-treatment
#6
Destiny L Baars, Kendra A Takle, Jonathon Heier, Francisco Pelegri
Manipulation of ploidy allows for useful transformations, such as diploids to tetraploids, or haploids to diploids. In the zebrafish Danio rerio, specifically the generation of homozygous gynogenetic diploids is useful in genetic analysis because it allows the direct production of homozygotes from a single heterozygous mother. This article describes a modified protocol for ploidy duplication based on a heat pulse during the first cell cycle, Heat Shock 2 (HS2). Through inhibition of centriole duplication, this method results in a precise cell division stall during the second cell cycle...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059716/a-sumo-ubiquitin-relay-recruits-proteasomes-to-chromosome-axes-to-regulate-meiotic-recombination
#7
H B D Prasada Rao, Huanyu Qiao, Shubhang K Bhatt, Logan R J Bailey, Hung D Tran, Sarah L Bourne, Wendy Qiu, Anusha Deshpande, Ajay N Sharma, Connor J Beebout, Roberto J Pezza, Neil Hunter
Meiosis produces haploid gametes through a succession of chromosomal events including pairing, synapsis and recombination. Mechanisms that orchestrate these events remain poorly understood. We found that the SUMO-modification and ubiquitin-proteasome systems regulate the major events of meiotic prophase in mouse. Interdependent localization of SUMO, ubiquitin and proteasomes along chromosome axes was mediated largely by RNF212 and HEI10, two E3 ligases that are also essential for crossover recombination. RNF212-dependent SUMO conjugation effected a checkpoint-like process that stalls recombination by rendering the turnover of a subset of recombination factors dependent on HEI10-mediated ubiquitylation...
January 5, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057603/the-protein-expression-landscape-of-mitosis-and-meiosis-in-diploid-budding-yeast
#8
Emmanuelle Becker, Emmanuelle Com, Régis Lavigne, Marie-Hélène Guilleux, Bertrand Evrard, Charles Pineau, Michael Primig
: Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an established model organism for the molecular analysis of fundamental biological processes. The genomes of numerous strains have been sequenced, and the transcriptome and proteome of major phases during the haploid and diploid yeast life cycle have been determined. However, much less is known about dynamic changes of the proteome when cells switch from mitotic growth to meiotic development. We report a quantitative protein profiling analysis of yeast cell division and differentiation based on mass spectrometry...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049416/qtls-for-stomatal-and-photosynthetic-traits-related-to-salinity-tolerance-in-barley
#9
Xiaohui Liu, Yun Fan, Michelle Mak, Mohammad Babla, Paul Holford, Feifei Wang, Guang Chen, Grace Scott, Gang Wang, Sergey Shabala, Meixue Zhou, Zhong-Hua Chen
BACKGROUND: Stomata regulate photosynthesis and transpiration, and these processes are critical for plant responses to abiotic stresses such as salinity. A barley double haploid population with 108 lines derived from a cross between CM72 (salt-tolerant) and Gairdner (salt-sensitive) was used to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with stomatal and photosynthetic traits related to salinity tolerance. RESULTS: A total of 11 significant QTLs (LOD > 3...
January 3, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028016/multiple-and-asymmetrical-origin-of-polyploid-dog-rose-hybrids-rosa-l-sect-caninae-dc-ser-involving-unreduced-gametes
#10
V Herklotz, C M Ritz
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Polyploidy and hybridization are important factors for generating diversity in plants. The species-rich dog roses (Rosa sect. Caninae) originated by allopolyploidy and are characterized by unbalanced meiosis producing polyploid egg cells (usually 4x) and haploid sperm cells (1x). In extant natural stands species hybridize spontaneously, but the extent of natural hybridization is unknown. The aim of the study was to document the frequency of reciprocal hybridization between the subsections Rubigineae and Caninae with special reference to the contribution of unreduced egg cells (5x) producing 6x offspring after fertilization with reduced (1x) sperm cells...
December 27, 2016: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018368/microspore-induced-doubled-haploids-production-from-ethyl-methanesulfonate-ems-soaked-flower-buds-is-an-efficient-strategy-for-mutagenesis-in-chinese-cabbage
#11
Yin Lu, Shuangyan Dai, Aixia Gu, Mengyang Liu, Yanhua Wang, Shuangxia Luo, Yujing Zhao, Shan Wang, Shuxin Xuan, Xueping Chen, Xiaofeng Li, Guusje Bonnema, Jianjun Zhao, Shuxing Shen
Chinese cabbage buds were soaked with Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) to induce mutagenesis. The influence of different EMS concentrations and treatment durations on microspore development, embryo production rate and seedling rate were evaluated in five Chinese cabbage genotypes. Mutations in four color-related genes were identified using high resolution melting (HRM) curves of their PCR products. The greatest embryo production and seedling rates were observed when buds were treated with 0.03 to 0.1% EMS for 5 to 10 min, while EMS concentrations greater than 0...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007973/direct-determination-of-the-mutation-rate-in-the-bumblebee-reveals-evidence-for-weak-recombination-associated-mutation-and-an-approximate-rate-constancy-in-insects
#12
Haoxuan Liu, Yanxiao Jia, Xiaoguang Sun, Dacheng Tian, Laurence D Hurst, Sihai Yang
Accurate knowledge of the mutation rate provides a base line for inferring expected rates of evolution, for testing evolutionary hypotheses and for estimation of key parameters. Advances in sequencing technology now permit direct estimates of the mutation rate from sequencing of close relatives. Within insects there have been three prior such estimates, two in nonsocial insects (Drosophila: 2.8 × 10(-9) per bp per haploid genome per generation; Heliconius: 2.9 × 10(-9)) and one in a social species, the honeybee (3...
October 20, 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003339/lrguk1-is-part-of-a-multiprotein-complex-required-for-manchette-function-and-male-fertility
#13
Hidenobu Okuda, Kathleen DeBoer, Anne E O'Connor, D Jo Merriner, Duangporn Jamsai, Moira K O'Bryan
Infertility occurs in 1 in 20 young men and is idiopathic in origin in most. We have reported that the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) and guanylate kinase-like domain containing, isoform (LRGUK)-1 is essential for sperm head shaping, via the manchette, and the initiation of sperm tail growth from the centriole/basal body, and thus, male fertility. Within this study we have used a yeast 2-hybrid screen of an adult testis library to identify LRGUK1-binding partners, which were then validated with a range of techniques...
December 21, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998939/a-pipeline-for-local-assembly-of-minisatellite-alleles-from-single-molecule-sequencing-data
#14
Denye Ogeh, Richard Badge
MOTIVATION: The advent of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) has led to the generation of enormous volumes of short read sequence data, cheaply and in reasonable time scales. Nevertheless, the quality of genome assemblies generated using NGS technologies has been greatly affected, compared to those generated using Sanger DNA sequencing. This is largely due to the inability of short read sequence data to scaffold repetitive structures, creating gaps, inversions and rearrangements and resulting in assemblies that are, at best, draft forms...
December 20, 2016: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996937/comparative-genetic-screens-in-human-cells-reveal-new-regulatory-mechanisms-in-wnt-signaling
#15
Andres M Lebensohn, Ramin Dubey, Leif R Neitzel, Ofelia Tacchelly-Benites, Eungi Yang, Caleb D Marceau, Eric M Davis, Bhaven B Patel, Zahra Bahrami-Nejad, Kyle J Travaglini, Yashi Ahmed, Ethan Lee, Jan E Carette, Rajat Rohatgi
The comprehensive understanding of cellular signaling pathways remains a challenge due to multiple layers of regulation that may become evident only when the pathway is probed at different levels or critical nodes are eliminated. To discover regulatory mechanisms in canonical WNT signaling, we conducted a systematic forward genetic analysis through reporter-based screens in haploid human cells. Comparison of screens for negative, sensitizing and positive regulators of WNT signaling, mediators of R-spondin-dependent signaling and suppressors of constitutive signaling induced by loss of the tumor suppressor APC or casein kinase 1α uncovered new regulatory features at many levels of the pathway...
December 20, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994131/development-and-genetics-in-the-evolution-of-land-plant-body-plans
#16
REVIEW
C Jill Harrison
The colonization of land by plants shaped the terrestrial biosphere, the geosphere and global climates. The nature of morphological and molecular innovation driving land plant evolution has been an enigma for over 200 years. Recent phylogenetic and palaeobotanical advances jointly demonstrate that land plants evolved from freshwater algae and pinpoint key morphological innovations in plant evolution. In the haploid gametophyte phase of the plant life cycle, these include the innovation of mulitcellular forms with apical growth and multiple growth axes...
February 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987038/efficient-genome-editing-of-differentiated-renal-epithelial-cells
#17
Alexis Hofherr, Tilman Busch, Nora Huber, Andreas Nold, Albert Bohn, Amandine Viau, Frank Bienaimé, E Wolfgang Kuehn, Sebastian J Arnold, Michael Köttgen
Recent advances in genome editing technologies have enabled the rapid and precise manipulation of genomes, including the targeted introduction, alteration, and removal of genomic sequences. However, respective methods have been described mainly in non-differentiated or haploid cell types. Genome editing of well-differentiated renal epithelial cells has been hampered by a range of technological issues, including optimal design, efficient expression of multiple genome editing constructs, attainable mutation rates, and best screening strategies...
December 16, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974520/recombination-in-the-eggs-and-sperm-in-a-simultaneously-hermaphroditic-vertebrate
#18
L Theodosiou, W O McMillan, O Puebla
When there is no recombination (achiasmy) in one sex, it is in the heterogametic one. This observation is so consistent that it constitutes one of the few patterns in biology that may be regarded as a 'rule' and Haldane (Haldane 1922 J. Genet. 12, 101-109. (doi:10.1007/BF02983075)) proposed that it might be driven by selection against recombination in the sex chromosomes. Yet differences in recombination rates between the sexes (heterochiasmy) have also been reported in hermaphroditic species that lack sex chromosomes...
December 14, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966756/karyotype-asymmetry-in-cynodon-rich-poaceae-accessions
#19
R B Chiavegatto, C M P Paula, F Souza Sobrinho, F R G Benites, V H Techio
Cynodon is a genus of plants with forage potential that has attracted the interest of breeders. These species have high morphological variability in a large number of varieties and cytotypes, hampering identification. This study aimed to determine the karyotype asymmetry index among accessions of Cynodon to discriminate between them. Karyotype symmetry was based on three estimates, which were compared. The basic number for the genus is x = 9. The results of the chromosome count and DNA quantification, respectively, were as follows: two diploid accessions (2n = 2x = 18 and 1...
December 2, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966738/fine-mapping-and-candidate-gene-analysis-of-brtri1-a-gene-controlling-trichome-development-in-chinese-cabbage-brassica-rapa-l-ssp-pekinensis
#20
X L Ye, F Y Hu, J Ren, S N Huang, W J Liu, H Feng, Z Y Liu
Trichomes are derived from the epidermis and constitute an ideal system for studying cell division in plants. Here, a Chinese cabbage doubled haploid (DH) line (FT) without trichomes was crossed with another DH line (PurDH-1) with trichomes to develop an F2 population for fine mapping of trichome control genes. Genetic analysis showed that the trichome phenotype was controlled by a single dominant gene, Brtri1. Using 1226 glabrous individuals in the F2 segregation population, Brtri1 was localized to a 16.84 kb region between markers Pur6-31 and Pur6-39 on chromosome A06...
December 2, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
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