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Savina Dipresa, Luca De Toni, Carlo Foresta, Andrea Garolla
A number of test have been proposed to assess male fertility potential, ranging from routine testing by light microscopic method for evaluating semen samples, to screening test for DNA integrity aimed to look at sperm chromatin abnormalities. Spermatozoa are an extremely differentiated cell, they have critical functions for embryo development and heredity, in addiction to delivering a haploid paternal genome to the oocyte. Towards this goal certain requirements must always be met. The ability of spermatozoa to perform its reproductive function taking place in the spermatogenesis, a highly specialized process depending on multiple factors with effect on male fertility...
April 18, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
Joao A Paulo, Steven P Gygi
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), the primary cell surface targets of nicotine, have implications in various neurological disorders. Here we investigate the proteome-wide effects of nicotine on human haploid cell lines (wildtype HAP1 and α7KO-HAP1) to address differences in nicotine-induced protein abundance profiles between these cell lines. We performed an SPS-MS3-based TMT10-plex experiment arranged in a 2-3-2-3 design with two replicates for the untreated samples and three for the treated samples for each cell line...
April 16, 2018: Proteomics
Klaus Jaffe
Computer experiments that mirror the evolutionary dynamics of sexual and asexual organisms as they occur in nature were used to test features proposed to explain the evolution of sexual recombination. Results show that this evolution is better described as a network of interactions between possible sexual forms, including diploidy, thelytoky, facultative sex, assortation, bisexuality, and division of labor between the sexes, rather than a simple transition from parthenogenesis to sexual recombination. Diploidy was shown to be fundamental for the evolution of sex; bisexual reproduction emerged only among anisogamic diploids with a synergistic division of reproductive labor; and facultative sex was more likely to evolve among haploids practicing assortative mating...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Physics
Kefei Yang, Ibrahim M Adham, Andreas Meinhardt, Sigrid Hoyer-Fender
Tight connection between sperm head and tail is crucial for the transport of the male genome and fertilization. The linkage complex, the sperm head-to-tail coupling apparatus (HTCA), originates from the centrosome and anchors to the nuclear membrane. In contrast to its ultra-structural organization, which is already well known for decades, its protein composition largely still awaits future deciphering. SUN-domain proteins are essential components of a complex that links the cytoskeleton to the peripheral nucleoskeleton, which is the nuclear lamina...
April 16, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Yueqiang Leng, Mingxia Zhao, Rui Wang, Brian J Steffenson, Robert S Brueggeman, Shaobin Zhong
We identified, fine mapped, and physically anchored a dominant spot blotch susceptibility gene Scs6 to a 125 kb genomic region containing the Mla locus on barley chromosome 1H. Spot blotch caused by Cochliobolus sativus is an important disease of barley, but the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance and susceptibility to the disease are not well understood. In this study, we identified and mapped a gene conferring susceptibility to spot blotch caused by the pathotype 2 isolate (ND90Pr) of C. sativus in barley cultivar Bowman...
April 16, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Atilgan Yilmaz, Mordecai Peretz, Aviram Aharony, Ido Sagi, Nissim Benvenisty
The maintenance of pluripotency requires coordinated expression of a set of essential genes. Using our recently established haploid human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), we generated a genome-wide loss-of-function library targeting 18,166 protein-coding genes to define the essential genes in hPSCs. With this we could allude to an intrinsic bias of essentiality across cellular compartments, uncover two opposing roles for tumour suppressor genes and link autosomal-recessive disorders with growth-retardation phenotypes to early embryogenesis...
April 16, 2018: Nature Cell Biology
Effrosyni Fatira, Miloš Havelka, Catherine Labbé, Alexandra Depincé, Viktoriia Iegorova, Martin Pšenička, Taiju Saito
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a very promising cloning technique for reconstruction of endangered animals. The aim of the present research is to implement the interspecific SCNT (iSCNT) technique to sturgeon; one fish family bearing some of the most critically endangered species. We transplanted single cells enzymatically isolated from a dissociated fin-fragment of the Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) into non-enucleated eggs of the sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus), two species bearing different ploidy (4n and 2n, respectively)...
April 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jianqiang Bao, Sophie Rousseaux, Jianjun Shen, Kevin Lin, Yue Lu, Mark T Bedford
CARM1 is a protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) that has been firmly implicated in transcriptional regulation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which CARM1 orchestrates transcriptional regulation are not fully understood, especially in a tissue-specific context. We found that Carm1 is highly expressed in the mouse testis and localizes to the nucleus in spermatids, suggesting an important role for Carm1 in spermiogenesis. Using a germline-specific conditional Carm1 knockout mouse model, we found that it is essential for the late stages of haploid germ cell development...
April 5, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Sébastien Bélanger, Stéphanie Paquet-Marceau, Juan Enrique Díaz Lago, François Belzile
In barley, semi-dwarf varieties are attractive for their superior harvest index and lodging resistance, but many semi-dwarf barley genotypes suffer from poor spike emergence. We performed a genetic characterization of a semi-dwarf line (ND23049) that combines short stature, strong stiff culms and adequate spike emergence. We developed a doubled haploid (DH) population derived by crossing ND23049 and the cultivar CLE253. A subset of 88 DH lines and parents were characterized for plant height in 2013 and 2014 and genotyped...
April 15, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Andrew Melfi, Divakar Viswanath
The Kingman coalescent is a commonly used model in genetics, which is often justified with reference to the Wright-Fisher (WF) model. Current proofs of convergence of WF and other models to the Kingman coalescent assume a constant sample size. However, sample sizes have become quite large in human genetics. Therefore, we develop a convergence theory that allows the sample size to increase with population size. If the haploid population size is N and the sample size is N1∕3-ϵ , ϵ>0, we prove that Wright-Fisher genealogies involve at most a single binary merger in each generation with probability converging to 1 in the limit of large N...
April 12, 2018: Theoretical Population Biology
Gunjan Mehta, Guhan Kaliyaperumal Anbalagan, Akhilendra Pratap Bharati, Purna Gadre, Santanu Kumar Ghosh
Meiosis is a specialized cell division process by which haploid gametes are produced from a diploid mother cell. Reductional chromosome segregation during meiosis I (MI) is achieved by two unique and conserved events: centromeric cohesin protection (CCP) and sister kinetochore mono-orientation (SKM). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a meiosis-specific protein Spo13 plays a role in both these centromere-specific events. Despite genome-wide association of Spo13, we failed to detect its function in global processes such as cohesin loading, cohesion establishment and homologs pairing...
April 11, 2018: Current Genetics
Yusen Shen, Yang Xiang, Ensheng Xu, Xianhong Ge, Zaiyun Li
Plant height (PH), branch initiation height (BIH), and stem diameter (SD) are three stem-related traits that play crucial roles in plant architecture and lodging resistance. Herein, we show one doubled haploid (DH) population obtained from a cross between Y689 (one Capsella bursa - pastoris derived Brassica napus intertribal introgression) and Westar ( B . napus cultivar) that these traits were significantly positively correlated with one another and with flowering time (FT). Based on a high-density SNP map, a total of 102 additive quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified across six environments...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Takeo Kishimoto
In metazoans that undergo sexual reproduction, genomic inheritance is ensured by two distinct types of cell cycle, mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis maintains the genomic ploidy in somatic cells reproducing within a generation, whereas meiosis reduces by half the ploidy in germ cells to prepare for successive generations. The meiotic cell cycle is believed to be a derived form of the mitotic cell cycle; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying both of these processes remain elusive. My laboratory has long studied the meiotic cell cycle in starfish oocytes, particularly the control of meiotic M-phase by maturation- or M phase-promoting factor (MPF) and the kinase cyclin B-associated Cdk1 (cyclin B-Cdk1)...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
Rachel F Begheyn, Steven A Yates, Timothy Sykes, Bruno Studer
Immature pollen can be induced to switch developmental pathways from gametogenesis to embryogenesis and subsequently regenerate into homozygous, diploid plants. Such androgenic production of doubled haploids is particularly useful for species where inbreeding is hampered by effective self-incompatibility systems. Therefore, increasing the generally low androgenic capacity of perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.) germplasm would enable the efficient production of homozygous plant material, so that a more effective exploitation of heterosis through hybrid breeding schemes can be realized...
April 6, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Cullen Roth, Sheng Sun, R Blake Billmyre, Joseph Heitman, Paul M Magwene
Multiple species within the basidiomycete genus, Cryptococcus , cause cryptococcal disease. These species are estimated to affect nearly a quarter of a million people leading to approximately 180,000 mortalities, annually. Sexual reproduction, which can occur between haploid yeasts of the same or opposite mating type, is a potentially important contributor to pathogenesis as recombination can generate novel genotypes and transgressive phenotypes. However, our quantitative understanding of recombination in this clinically important yeast is limited...
April 6, 2018: Genetics
M Tyrka, S Oleszczuk, J Rabiza-Swider, H Wos, M Wedzony, J Zimny, A Ponitka, A Ślusarkiewicz-Jarzina, R J Metzger, P S Baenziger, A J Lukaszewski
To create a framework for genetic dissection of hexaploid triticale, six populations of doubled haploid (DH) lines were developed from pairwise hybrids of high-yielding winter triticale cultivars. The six populations comprise between 97 and 231 genotyped DH lines each, totaling 957 DH lines. A consensus genetic map spans 4593.9 cM is composed of 1576 unique DArT markers. The maps reveal several structural rearrangements in triticale genomes. In preliminary tests of the populations and maps, markers specific to wheat segments of the engineered rye chromosome 1R (RM1B) were identified...
2018: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Quanzhou Feng, Z Lewis Liu, Scott A Weber, Shizhong Li
Haploid laboratory strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are commonly used for genetic engineering to enable their xylose utilization but little is known about the industrial yeast which is often recognized as diploid and as well as haploid and tetraploid. Here we report three unique signature pathway expression patterns and gene interactions in the centre metabolic pathways that signify xylose utilization of genetically engineered industrial yeast S. cerevisiae NRRL Y-50463, a diploid yeast. Quantitative expression analysis revealed outstanding high levels of constitutive expression of YXI, a synthesized yeast codon-optimized xylose isomerase gene integrated into chromosome XV of strain Y-50463...
2018: PloS One
Meng Ji, Shuang Tang, Wenhua Pei, Mingming Ning, Yuehui Ma, Xiangchen Li, Weijun Guan
In vitro production of functional spermatids has special significance in the research of spermatogenesis and the treatment of male infertility. Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the precursors of oocyte and sperm, which generate the totipotent cells. Studies have shown that PGCs have the potential ability to develop meiotic spermatids in vitro. Here we have shown that retinoic acid (RA) leads to PGC differentiation, and SCF can improve the efficiency of induction. We indicate an efficient approach to produce haploid spermatids from chicken PGCs in the presence of RA and stem cell factor (SCF)...
March 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Raúl A Ortiz-Merino, Javier A Varela, Aisling Y Coughlan, Hisashi Hoshida, Wendel B da Silveira, Caroline Wilde, Niels G A Kuijpers, Jan-Maarten Geertman, Kenneth H Wolfe, John P Morrissey
Kluyveromyces marxianus is traditionally associated with fermented dairy products, but can also be isolated from diverse non-dairy environments. Because of thermotolerance, rapid growth and other traits, many different strains are being developed for food and industrial applications but there is, as yet, little understanding of the genetic diversity or population genetics of this species. K. marxianus shows a high level of phenotypic variation but the only phenotype that has been clearly linked to a genetic polymorphism is lactose utilisation, which is controlled by variation in the LAC12 gene...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
R M Wallen, Michael H Perlin
Sexual reproduction likely evolved as protection from environmental stresses, specifically, to repair DNA damage, often via homologous recombination. In higher eukaryotes, meiosis and the production of gametes with allelic combinations different from parental type provides the side effect of increased genetic variation. In fungi it appears that while the maintenance of meiosis is paramount for success, outcrossing is not a driving force. In the subkingdom Dikarya , fungal members are characterized by existence of a dikaryon for extended stages within the life cycle...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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