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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238022/mapping-of-common-bunt-resistance-gene-bt9-in-wheat
#1
Philipp Matthias Steffan, Anna Maria Torp, Anders Borgen, Gunter Backes, Søren K Rasmussen
The Bt9 resistance locus was mapped and shown to be distinct from the Bt10 locus. New markers linked to Bt9 have been identified and may be used to breed for resistance towards the seed-borne disease. Increasing organic wheat production in Denmark, and in other wheat-producing areas, in conjunction with legal requirements for organic seed production, may potentially lead to a rise in common bunt occurrence. As systemic pesticides are not used in organic farming, organic wheat production systems may benefit from genetic resistances...
February 25, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238020/haploid-embryo-production-in-rice-and-maize-induced-by-psasgr-bbml-transgenes
#2
Joann A Conner, Maricel Podio, Peggy Ozias-Akins
The PsASGR - BBML transgene, derived from a wild apomictic grass species, can induce parthenogenesis, embryo formation without fertilization, in rice and maize, leading to the formation of haploid plants. The ability to engineer apomictic crop plants using genes identified from naturally occurring apomicts will depend on the ability of those genes to function in crop plants. The PsASGR-BBML transgene, derived from the apomictic species Pennisetum squamulatum, promotes parthenogenesis in sexual pearl millet, a member of the same genus, leading to the formation of haploid embryos...
February 25, 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236503/y-and-w-chromosome-assemblies-approaches-and-discoveries
#3
REVIEW
Marta Tomaszkiewicz, Paul Medvedev, Kateryna D Makova
Hundreds of vertebrate genomes have been sequenced and assembled to date. However, most sequencing projects have ignored the sex chromosomes unique to the heterogametic sex - Y and W - that are known as sex-limited chromosomes (SLCs). Indeed, haploid and repetitive Y chromosomes in species with male heterogamety (XY), and W chromosomes in species with female heterogamety (ZW), are difficult to sequence and assemble. Nevertheless, obtaining their sequences is important for understanding the intricacies of vertebrate genome function and evolution...
February 21, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235956/genomic-complexity-and-targeted-genes-in-anaplastic-thyroid-cancer-cell-lines
#4
Eleanor Louise Woodward, Andrea Biloglav, Naveen Ravi, Minjun Yang, Lars Ekblad, Johan Wennerberg, Kajsa Paulsson
Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a highly malignant disease with very short median survival times. Few studies have addressed the underlying somatic mutations, and the genomic landscape of ATC thus remains largely unknown. In the present study, we have ascertained copy number aberrations, gene fusions, gene expression patterns, and mutations in early-passage cells from ten newly established ATC cell lines using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array analysis, RNA-sequencing and whole exome sequencing...
February 24, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235601/a-part-of-patients-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-has-haploidy-of-hpc-1-syntaxin1a-gene-that-possibly-causes-behavioral-disturbance-as-in-experimentally-gene-ablated-mice
#5
Takefumi Kofuji, Yuko Hayashi, Tomonori Fujiwara, Masumi Sanada, Masao Tamaru, Kimio Akagawa
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is highly heritable and encompasses a various set of neuropsychiatric disorders with a wide-ranging presentation. HPC-1/syntaxin1A (STX1A) encodes a neuronal plasma membrane protein that regulates the secretion of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. STX1A gene ablated mice (null and heterozygote mutant) exhibit abnormal behavioral profiles similar to human autistic symptoms, accompanied by reduction of monoamine secretion. To determine whether copy number variation of STX1A gene and the change of its expression correlate with ASD as in STX1A gene ablated mice, we performed copy number assay and real-time quantitative RT-PCR using blood or saliva samples from ASD patients...
February 21, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228439/loss-of-pollen-specific-phospholipase-not-like-dad-triggers-gynogenesis-in-maize
#6
Laurine M Gilles, Abdelsabour Khaled, Jean-Baptiste Laffaire, Sandrine Chaignon, Ghislaine Gendrot, Jérôme Laplaige, Hélène Bergès, Genséric Beydon, Vincent Bayle, Pierre Barret, Jordi Comadran, Jean-Pierre Martinant, Peter M Rogowsky, Thomas Widiez
Gynogenesis is an asexual mode of reproduction common to animals and plants, in which stimuli from the sperm cell trigger the development of the unfertilized egg cell into a haploid embryo. Fine mapping restricted a major maize QTL (quantitative trait locus) responsible for the aptitude of inducer lines to trigger gynogenesis to a zone containing a single gene NOT LIKE DAD (NLD) coding for a patatin-like phospholipase A. In all surveyed inducer lines, NLD carries a 4-bp insertion leading to a predicted truncated protein...
February 22, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221368/no-evidence-for-the-presence-of-genetic-variants-predisposing-to-psychotic-disorders-on-the-non-deleted-22q11-2-allele-of-vcfs-patients
#7
M Guipponi, F Santoni, M Schneider, C Gehrig, X B Bustillo, W R Kates, B Morrow, M Armando, S Vicari, F Sloan-Béna, M Gagnebin, V Shashi, S R Hooper, S Eliez, S E Antonarakis
The velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) is caused by hemizygous deletions on chromosome 22q11.2. The VCFS phenotype is complex and characterized by frequent occurrence of neuropsychiatric symptoms with up to 25-30% of cases suffering from psychotic disorders compared with only ~1% in the general population (odds ratio≈20-25). This makes the 22q11.2 deletion one of the most prominent risk factors for schizophrenia. However, its penetrance for neuropsychiatric phenotypes is incomplete suggesting that additional risk factors are required for disease development...
February 21, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220980/the-fire-ant-social-chromosome-supergene-variant-sb-shows-low-diversity-but-high-divergence-from-sb
#8
Rodrigo Pracana, Anurag Priyam, Ilya Levantis, Richard A Nichols, Yannick Wurm
Variation in social behavior is common yet little is known about the genetic architectures underpinning its evolution. A rare exception is in the fire ant Solenopsis invicta: Alternative variants of a supergene region determine whether a colony will have exactly one or up to dozens of queens. The two variants of this region are carried by a pair of "social chromosomes", SB and Sb, which resemble a pair of sex chromosomes. Recombination is suppressed between the two chromosomes in the supergene region. While the X-like SB can recombine with itself in SB/SB queens, recombination is effectively absent in the Y-like Sb because Sb/Sb queens die before reproducing...
February 21, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220611/non-coding-rnas-emerging-regulatory-factors-in-the-derivation-and-differentiation-of-mammalian-parthenogenetic-embryonic-stem-cells
#9
REVIEW
Jihong Cui, Xin Xie
Parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells (PESCs) are ESCs derived from early parthenogenetic embryos. Haploid PESCs, containing haploid DNA, originate from a single sperm or occyte, while, diploid PESCs originate from two fused occytes. Most PESC lines used so far are diploid. PESCs exhibit representative pluripotent stem cell features, such as the capacity for self-renewal and the pariticular molecular signatures. Whereas, PESCs display distinctive properties, such as differential regulation of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) and divergent monitor of genes involved in multiple biological processes...
February 21, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220139/genome-wide-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-discovery-and-the-construction-of-a-high-density-genetic-map-for-melon-cucumis-melo-l-using-genotyping-by-sequencing
#10
Che-Wei Chang, Yu-Hua Wang, Chih-Wei Tung
Although genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) enables the efficient and low-cost generation of large numbers of markers, the utility of resultant genotypes are limited, because they are enormously error-prone and contain high proportions of missing data. In this study, we generated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for 109 recombinant inbred lines of melon (Cucumis melo L.) using the GBS approach and ordered them according to their physical position on the draft double haploid line DHL92 genome. Next, by investigating associations between these SNPs, we discovered that some segments on the physical map conflict with linkage relationships...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219779/correlations-of-egf-g1380a-bfgf-c754g-and-vegf-t460c-polymorphisms-with-malignant-melanoma-susceptibility-and-prognosis-a-case-control-study
#11
Xin-Hua Wang, Zi-Wen Long
This case-control study aims to investigate the correlations of EGF G1380A, bFGF C754G and VEGF T460C polymorphisms with the susceptibility and prognosis of malignant melanoma. A total of 153 patients with multiple primary melanomas were collected as the case group and another 170 healthy individuals were selected as the control group. ELISA and PCR-RFLP were performed to test the serum level of VEGF and to analyze the genotype as well as allele frequencies of VEGF T460C, EGF G1380A, and bFGF C754G, respectively...
February 17, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216106/metabolic-engineering-of-a-haploid-strain-derived-from-a-triploid-industrial-yeast-for-producing-cellulosic-ethanol
#12
Soo Rin Kim, Jeffrey M Skerker, In Iok Kong, Heejin Kim, Matthew J Maurer, Guo-Chang Zhang, Dairong Peng, Na Wei, Adam P Arkin, Yong-Su Jin
Many desired phenotypes for producing cellulosic biofuels are often observed in industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. However, many industrial yeast strains are polyploid and have low spore viability, making it difficult to use these strains for metabolic engineering applications. We selected the polyploid industrial strain S. cerevisiae ATCC 4124 exhibiting rapid glucose fermentation capability, high ethanol productivity, strong heat and inhibitor tolerance in order to construct an optimal yeast strain for producing cellulosic ethanol...
February 16, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204911/selection-of-transformation-efficient-barley-genotypes-based-on-tfa-transformation-amenability-haplotype-and-higher-resolution-mapping-of-the-tfa-loci
#13
Hiroshi Hisano, Brigid Meints, Matthew J Moscou, Luis Cistue, Begoña Echávarri, Kazuhiro Sato, Patrick M Hayes
The genetic substitution of transformation amenability alleles from 'Golden Promise' can facilitate the development of transformation-efficient lines from recalcitrant barley cultivars. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) cv. 'Golden Promise' is one of the most useful and well-studied cultivars for genetic manipulation. In a previous report, we identified several transformation amenability (TFA) loci responsible for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using the F2 generation of immature embryos, derived from 'Haruna Nijo' × 'Golden Promise,' as explants...
February 15, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202061/in-vitro-generation-of-sertoli-like-and-haploid-spermatid-like-cells-from-human-umbilical-cord-perivascular-cells
#14
Ekaterina Shlush, Leila Maghen, Sonja Swanson, Shlomit Kenigsberg, Sergey Moskovtsev, Tanya Barretto, Andrée Gauthier-Fisher, Clifford L Librach
BACKGROUND: First trimester (FTM) and term human umbilical cord-derived perivascular cells (HUCPVCs), which are rich sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), can give rise to Sertoli cell (SC)-like as well as haploid germ cell (GC)-like cells in vitro using culture conditions that recapitulate the testicular niche. Gamete-like cells have been produced ex vivo using pluripotent stem cells as well as MSCs. However, the production of functional gametes from human stem cells has yet to be achieved...
February 15, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197913/wrestling-with-chromosomes-the-roles-of-sumo-during-meiosis
#15
Amanda C Nottke, Hyun-Min Kim, Monica P Colaiácovo
Meiosis is a specialized form of cell division required for the formation of haploid gametes and therefore is essential for successful sexual reproduction. Various steps are exquisitely coordinated to ensure accurate chromosome segregation during meiosis, thereby promoting the formation of haploid gametes from diploid cells. Recent studies are demonstrating that an important form of regulation during meiosis is exerted by the post-translational protein modification known as sumoylation. Here, we review and discuss the various critical steps of meiosis in which SUMO-mediated regulation has been implicated thus far...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195309/ploidy-tug-of-war-evolutionary-and-genetic-environments-influence-the-rate-of-ploidy-drive-in-a-human-fungal-pathogen
#16
Aleeza C Gerstein, Heekyung Lim, Judith Berman, Meleah A Hickman
Variation in baseline ploidy is seen throughout the tree of life, yet the factors that determine why one ploidy level is maintained over another remain poorly understood. Experimental evolution studies using asexual fungal microbes with manipulated ploidy levels intriguingly reveals a propensity to return to the historical baseline ploidy, a phenomenon that we term 'ploidy drive'. We evolved haploid, diploid, and polyploid strains of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans under three different nutrient limitation environments to test whether these conditions, hypothesized to select for low ploidy levels, could counteract ploidy drive...
February 14, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194473/tapping-the-genetic-diversity-of-landraces-in-allogamous-crops-with-doubled-haploid-lines-a-case-study-from-european-flint-maize
#17
Juliane Böhm, Wolfgang Schipprack, H Friedrich Utz, Albrecht E Melchinger
Using landraces for broadening the genetic base of elite maize germplasm is hampered by heterogeneity and high genetic load. Production of DH line libraries can help to overcome these problems. Landraces of maize (Zea mays L.) represent a huge reservoir of genetic diversity largely untapped by breeders. Genetic heterogeneity and a high genetic load hamper their use in hybrid breeding. Production of doubled haploid line libraries (DHL) by the in vivo haploid induction method promises to overcome these problems...
February 13, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193845/the-predicted-rna-binding-proteins-pes4-and-mip6-regulate-mrna-levels-translation-and-localization-during-sporulation-in-budding-yeast
#18
Liang Jin, Kai Zhang, Rolf Sternglanz, Aaron M Neiman
In response to starvation, diploid cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergo meiosis and form haploid spores, a process collectively referred to as sporulation. The differentiation into spores requires extensive changes in gene expression. The transcriptional activator Ndt80 is a central regulator of this process, which controls many genes essential for sporulation. Ndt80 induces ∼300 genes coordinately during meiotic prophase, but different mRNAs within the NDT80-regulon are translated at different times during sporulation...
February 13, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193734/mitochondrial-depolarization-in-yeast-zygotes-inhibits-clonal-expansion-of-selfish-mtdna
#19
Iuliia E Karavaeva, Sergey A Golyshev, Ekaterina A Smirnova, Svyatoslav S Sokolov, Fedor F Severin, Dmitry A Knorre
Non-identical copies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) compete with each other within a cell and the result depends on their replication rates. Using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells as a model, we studied the effects of mitochondrial inhibitors on the competition between wild type mtDNA and mutant selfish mtDNA in heteroplasmic zygotes. We found that decreasing mitochondrial transmembrane potential by adding uncouplers or valinomycin changes the competition outcomes in favor of the wild type mtDNA. This effect was significantly lower in the cells with disrupted mitochondria fission or repressed autophagy-related genes ATG8, ATG32 or ATG33 implying that heteroplasmic zygotes activate mitochondrial degradation in response to the depolarization...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192726/novel-strategy-to-improve-vanillin-tolerance-and-ethanol-fermentation-performances-of-saccharomycere-cerevisiae-strains
#20
Dao-Qiong Zheng, Xin-Na Jin, Ke Zhang, Ya-Hong Fang, Xue-Chang Wu
The aim of this work was to develop a novel strategy for improving the vanillin tolerance and ethanol fermentation performances of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. Isogeneic diploid, triploid, and tetraploid S. cerevisiae strains were generated by genome duplication of haploid strain CEN.PK2-1C. Ploidy increments improved vanillin tolerance and diminished proliferation capability. Antimitotic drug methyl benzimidazol-2-ylcarbamate (MBC) was used to introduce chromosomal aberrations into the tetraploid S. cerevisiae strain...
May 2017: Bioresource Technology
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