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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036617/arrayed-mutant-haploid-embryonic-stem-cell-libraries-facilitate-phenotype-driven-genetic-screens
#1
Guang Liu, Xue Wang, Yufang Liu, Meili Zhang, Tao Cai, Zhirong Shen, Yuyan Jia, Yue Huang
Forward genetic screens using mammalian embryonic stem (ES) cells have identified genes required for numerous cellular processes. However, loss-of-function screens are more difficult to conduct in diploid cells because, in most cases, both alleles of a gene must be mutated to exhibit a phenotype. Recently, mammalian haploid ES cell lines were successfully established and applied to several recessive genetic screens. However, all these screens were performed in mixed pools of mutant cells and were mainly based on positive selection...
September 28, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031622/haspin-a-promising-target-for-the-design-of-inhibitors-as-potent-anticancer-drugs
#2
REVIEW
Nathalie Gisèle Amoussou, André Bigot, Christos Roussakis, Jean-Michel H Robert
Protein kinases constitute a large group of enzymes in eukaryotes and have an important role in many cellular processes. Several of these proteins are active kinases, such as haploid germ cell-specific nuclear protein kinase (Haspin), an atypical eukaryotic protein kinase that lacks sequence similarity with other eukaryotic protein kinases. Haspin is a serine/threonine kinase that associates with chromosome and phosphorylates threonine 3 of histone 3 during mitosis. Haspin overexpression or deletion results in defective mitosis...
October 12, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029549/progress-and-future-prospect-of-in-vitro-spermatogenesis
#3
REVIEW
Fahar Ibtisham, Jiang Wu, Mei Xiao, Lilong An, Zachary Banker, Aamir Nawab, Yi Zhao, Guanghui Li
Infertility has become a major health issue in the world. It affects the social life of couples and of all infertility cases; approximately 40-50% is due to "male factor" infertility. Male infertility could be due to genetic factors, environment or due to gonadotoxic treatment. Developments in reproductive biotechnology have made it possible to rescue fertility and uphold biological fatherhood. In vitro production of haploid male germ cell is a powerful tool, not only for the treatment of infertility including oligozoospermic or azoospermic patient, but also for the fertility preservation in pre-pubertal boys whose gonadal function is threatened by gonadotoxic therapies...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027707/a-trichosporonales-genome-tree-based-on-27-haploid-and-three-evolutionarily-conserved-natural-hybrid-genomes
#4
Masako Takashima, Sira Sriswasdi, Ri-Ichiroh Manabe, Moriya Ohkuma, Takashi Sugita, Wataru Iwasaki
To construct a backbone tree consisting of basidiomycetous yeasts, draft genome sequences from 25 species of Trichosporonales (Tremellomycetes, Basidiomycota) were generated. In addition to the hybrid genomes of Trichosporon coremiiforme and T. ovoides that we described previously, we identified an interspecies hybrid genome in Cutaneotrichosporon mucoides (formerly T. mucoides). This hybrid genome had a gene retention rate of approximately 55%, and its closest haploid relative was C. dermatis. After constructing the C...
October 13, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024641/diverse-viruses-require-the-calcium-transporter-spca1-for-maturation-and-spread
#5
H-Heinrich Hoffmann, William M Schneider, Vincent A Blomen, Margaret A Scull, Alain Hovnanian, Thijn R Brummelkamp, Charles M Rice
Respiratory and arthropod-borne viral infections are a global threat due to the lack of effective antivirals and vaccines. A potential strategy is to target host proteins required for viruses but non-essential for the host. To identify such proteins, we performed a genome-wide knockout screen in human haploid cells and identified the calcium pump SPCA1. SPCA1 is required by viruses from the Paramyxoviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families, including measles, dengue, West Nile, Zika, and chikungunya viruses...
October 11, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021693/a-refined-panax-ginseng-karyotype-based-on-an-ultra-high-copy-167-bp-tandem-repeat-and-ribosomal-dnas
#6
Nomar Espinosa Waminal, Hong-Il Choi, Nam-Hoon Kim, Woojong Jang, Junki Lee, Jee Young Park, Hyun Hee Kim, Tae-Jin Yang
BACKGROUND: Panax ginseng Meyer (Asian ginseng) has a large nuclear genome size of > 3.5 Gbp in haploid genome equivalent of 24 chromosomes. Tandem repeats (TRs) occupy significant portions of the genome in many plants and are often found in specific genomic loci, making them a valuable molecular cytogenetic tool in discriminating chromosomes. In an effort to understand the P. ginseng genome structure, we characterized an ultrahigh copy 167-bp TR (Pg167TR) and explored its chromosomal distribution as well as its utility for chromosome identification...
October 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021238/asy2-mer2-an-evolutionarily-conserved-mediator-of-meiotic-recombination-pairing-and-global-chromosome-compaction
#7
Sophie Tessé, Henri-Marc Bourbon, Robert Debuchy, Karine Budin, Emeline Dubois, Zhang Liangran, Romain Antoine, Tristan Piolot, Nancy Kleckner, Denise Zickler, Eric Espagne
Meiosis is the cellular program by which a diploid cell gives rise to haploid gametes for sexual reproduction. Meiotic progression depends on tight physical and functional coupling of recombination steps at the DNA level with specific organizational features of meiotic-prophase chromosomes. The present study reveals that every step of this coupling is mediated by a single molecule: Asy2/Mer2. We show that Mer2, identified so far only in budding and fission yeasts, is in fact evolutionarily conserved from fungi (Mer2/Rec15/Asy2/Bad42) to plants (PRD3/PAIR1) and mammals (IHO1)...
October 11, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018459/sequencing-of-single-pollen-nuclei-reveals-meiotic-recombination-events-at-megabase-resolution-and-circumvents-segregation-distortion-caused-by-postmeiotic-processes
#8
Steven Dreissig, Jörg Fuchs, Axel Himmelbach, Martin Mascher, Andreas Houben
Meiotic recombination is a fundamental mechanism to generate novel allelic combinations which can be harnessed by breeders to achieve crop improvement. The recombination landscape of many crop species, including the major crop barley, is characterized by a dearth of recombination in 65% of the genome. In addition, segregation distortion caused by selection on genetically linked loci is a frequent and undesirable phenomenon in double haploid populations which hampers genetic mapping and breeding. Here, we present an approach to directly investigate recombination at the DNA sequence level by combining flow-sorting of haploid pollen nuclei of barley with single-cell genome sequencing...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017935/physiological-implications-of-dheas-induced-non-classical-steroid-hormone-signaling
#9
Dimitrios Papadopoulos, Mazen Shihan, Georgios Scheiner-Bobis
In the spermatogenic cell line GC-2, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), activates the Src/Ras/c-Raf/Erk1/2/CREB(ATF-1) signaling cascade. Since DHEAS is present in the gonads, and since spermatogenesis and maturation of spermatogonia to haploid spermatozoa requires activation of Erk1/2, the triggering of these signaling events by DHEAS might have physiological relevance. In the Sertoli cell line TM4, DHEAS-induces activation of Erk1/2, CREB, and ATF-1, stimulates expression of claudin-3 and claudin-5 and augments transepithelial resistance, indicating the formation of tight junctions between adjacent Sertoli cells...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992351/modification-of-meiotic-recombination-by-natural-variation-in-plants
#10
Emma J Lawrence, Catherine H Griffin, Ian R Henderson
Meiosis is a specialized cell division that produces haploid gametes required for sexual reproduction. During the first meiotic division, homologous chromosomes pair and undergo reciprocal crossing over, which recombines linked sequence variation. Meiotic recombination frequency varies extensively both within and between species. In this review, we will examine the molecular basis of meiotic recombination rate variation, with an emphasis on plant genomes. We first consider cis modification caused by polymorphisms at the site of recombination, or elsewhere on the same chromosome...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986374/chromosomal-aneuploidy-improves-brewing-characteristics-of-sake-yeast
#11
Masafumi Kadowaki, Yuki Fujimaru, Seiga Taguchi, Jannatul Ferdouse, Kazutaka Sawada, Yuta Kimura, Yohei Terasawa, Gennaro Agrimi, Toyoaki Anai, Hideki Noguchi, Atsushi Toyoda, Asao Fujiyama, Takeshi Akao, Hiroshi Kitagaki
The effect of chromosomal aneuploidy on the brewing characteristics in brewery yeasts has not been studied. Here, we report that chromosomal aneuploidy in sake brewery yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) leads to the development of favorable brewing characteristics. We found that pyruvate-underproducing sake yeast, which produces less off-flavor diacetyl, is aneuploid and trisomic for chromosomes XI and XIV. To confirm that this phenotype is due to aneuploidy, we obtained 45 haploids with various chromosomal additions and investigated their brewing profiles...
October 6, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985561/insights-into-land-plant-evolution-garnered-from-the-marchantia-polymorpha-genome
#12
John L Bowman, Takayuki Kohchi, Katsuyuki T Yamato, Jerry Jenkins, Shengqiang Shu, Kimitsune Ishizaki, Shohei Yamaoka, Ryuichi Nishihama, Yasukazu Nakamura, Frédéric Berger, Catherine Adam, Shiori Sugamata Aki, Felix Althoff, Takashi Araki, Mario A Arteaga-Vazquez, Sureshkumar Balasubrmanian, Kerrie Barry, Diane Bauer, Christian R Boehm, Liam Briginshaw, Juan Caballero-Perez, Bruno Catarino, Feng Chen, Shota Chiyoda, Mansi Chovatia, Kevin M Davies, Mihails Delmans, Taku Demura, Tom Dierschke, Liam Dolan, Ana E Dorantes-Acosta, D Magnus Eklund, Stevie N Florent, Eduardo Flores-Sandoval, Asao Fujiyama, Hideya Fukuzawa, Bence Galik, Daniel Grimanelli, Jane Grimwood, Ueli Grossniklaus, Takahiro Hamada, Jim Haseloff, Alexander J Hetherington, Asuka Higo, Yuki Hirakawa, Hope N Hundley, Yoko Ikeda, Keisuke Inoue, Shin-Ichiro Inoue, Sakiko Ishida, Qidong Jia, Mitsuru Kakita, Takehiko Kanazawa, Yosuke Kawai, Tomokazu Kawashima, Megan Kennedy, Keita Kinose, Toshinori Kinoshita, Yuji Kohara, Eri Koide, Kenji Komatsu, Sarah Kopischke, Minoru Kubo, Junko Kyozuka, Ulf Lagercrantz, Shih-Shun Lin, Erika Lindquist, Anna M Lipzen, Chia-Wei Lu, Efraín De Luna, Robert A Martienssen, Naoki Minamino, Masaharu Mizutani, Miya Mizutani, Nobuyoshi Mochizuki, Isabel Monte, Rebecca Mosher, Hideki Nagasaki, Hirofumi Nakagami, Satoshi Naramoto, Kazuhiko Nishitani, Misato Ohtani, Takashi Okamoto, Masaki Okumura, Jeremy Phillips, Bernardo Pollak, Anke Reinders, Moritz Rövekamp, Ryosuke Sano, Shinichiro Sawa, Marc W Schmid, Makoto Shirakawa, Roberto Solano, Alexander Spunde, Noriyuki Suetsugu, Sumio Sugano, Akifumi Sugiyama, Rui Sun, Yutaka Suzuki, Mizuki Takenaka, Daisuke Takezawa, Hirokazu Tomogane, Masayuki Tsuzuki, Takashi Ueda, Masaaki Umeda, John M Ward, Yuichiro Watanabe, Kazufumi Yazaki, Ryusuke Yokoyama, Yoshihiro Yoshitake, Izumi Yotsui, Sabine Zachgo, Jeremy Schmutz
The evolution of land flora transformed the terrestrial environment. Land plants evolved from an ancestral charophycean alga from which they inherited developmental, biochemical, and cell biological attributes. Additional biochemical and physiological adaptations to land, and a life cycle with an alternation between multicellular haploid and diploid generations that facilitated efficient dispersal of desiccation tolerant spores, evolved in the ancestral land plant. We analyzed the genome of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, a member of a basal land plant lineage...
October 5, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985114/the-evolution-of-sex-through-the-baldwin-effect
#13
Larry Bull
This article suggests that the fundamental haploid-diploid cycle of eukaryotic sex exploits a rudimentary form of the Baldwin effect. With this explanation for the basic cycle, the other associated phenomena can be explained as evolution tuning the amount and frequency of learning experienced by an organism. Using the well-known NK model of fitness landscapes, it is shown that varying landscape ruggedness varies the benefit of the haploid-diploid cycle, whether based upon endomitosis or syngamy. The utility of pre-meiotic doubling and recombination during the cycle are also shown to vary with landscape ruggedness...
October 6, 2017: Artificial Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980232/fertilization-2-polyspermic-fertilization
#14
Shusei Mizushima
During fertilization in animals, a haploid egg nucleus fuses with a haploid sperm nucleus to restore the diploid genome. In most animals including mammals, echinoderms, and teleostei, the penetration of only one sperm into an egg is ensured at fertilization because the entry of two or more sperm is prevented by polyspermy block systems in these eggs. On the other hand, several animals such as birds, reptiles, and most urodele amphibians exhibit physiological polyspermy, in which the entry of several sperm into one egg is permitted...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978675/long-chain-polyprenols-promote-spore-wall-formation-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#15
Reuben Hoffman, Kariona Grabińska, Ziqiang Guan, William C Sessa, Aaron M Neiman
Dolichols are isoprenoid lipids of varying length, which act as sugar carriers in glycosylation reactions in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, there are two cis-prenyltransferases that synthesize polyprenol, an essential precursor to dolichol. These enzymes are heterodimers composed of Nus1 and either Rer2 or Srt1. Rer2-Nus1 and Srt1-Nus1 can both generate dolichol in vegetative cells, but srt1∆ cells grow normally while rer2∆ grows very slowly, indicating that Rer2-Nus1 is the primary enzyme used in mitotically dividing cells...
October 4, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975387/the-m-6-a-methyltransferase-ime4-and-mitochondrial-functions-in-yeast
#16
REVIEW
Pradeep Kumar Yadav, Ram Rajasekharan
In eukaryotes, the precise transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulations of gene expression are crucial for the developmental processes. More than 100 types of post-transcriptional RNA modifications have been identified in eukaryotes. The deposition of N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) into mRNA is among the most common post-transcriptional RNA modifications known in eukaryotes. It has been reported that m(6)A RNA modification can regulate gene expression. The role of yeast m(6)A methyltransferase (Ime4) in meiosis and sporulation in diploid cells is very well proven, but its physiological role in haploid cells has remained unknown until recently...
October 3, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973853/limits-of-variation-specific-infectivity-and-genome-packaging-of-massively-recoded-poliovirus-genomes
#17
Yutong Song, Oleksandr Gorbatsevych, Ying Liu, JoAnn Mugavero, Sam H Shen, Charles B Ward, Emmanuel Asare, Ping Jiang, Aniko V Paul, Steffen Mueller, Eckard Wimmer
Computer design and chemical synthesis generated viable variants of poliovirus type 1 (PV1), whose ORF (6,189 nucleotides) carried up to 1,297 "Max" mutations (excess of overrepresented synonymous codon pairs) or up to 2,104 "SD" mutations (randomly scrambled synonymous codons). "Min" variants (excess of underrepresented synonymous codon pairs) are nonviable except for P2(Min), a variant temperature-sensitive at 33 and 39.5 °C. Compared with WT PV1, P2(Min) displayed a vastly reduced specific infectivity (si) (WT, 1 PFU/118 particles vs...
September 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969017/use-of-a-genome-wide-haploid-genetic-screen-to-identify-treatment-predicting-factors-a-proof-of-principle-study-in-pancreatic-cancer
#18
Yuk Ting Ma, Sarah M Leonard, Naheema Gordon, Jennifer Anderton, Claire James, David Huen, Ciaran B Woodman, Daniel H Palmer
The ability to develop a comprehensive panel of treatment predicting factors would significantly improve our ability to stratify patients for cytotoxic or targeted therapies, and prevent patients receiving ineffective treatments. We have investigated if a recently developed genome-wide haploid genetic screen can be used to reveal the critical mediators of response to anticancer therapy. Pancreatic cancer is known to be highly resistant to systemic therapy. Recently epigenetic changes have been shown to be a key determinant in the maintenance of subpopulations of cancer cells with high-level resistance to cytotoxic therapy...
September 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962991/the-life-history-of-the-toxic-marine-dinoflagellate-protoceratium-reticulatum-gonyaulacales-in-culture
#19
Pablo Salgado, Rosa I Figueroa, Isabel Ramilo, Isabel Bravo
Asexual and sexual life cycle events were studied in cultures of the toxic marine dinoflagellate Protoceratium reticulatum. Asexual division by desmoschisis was characterized morphologically and changes in DNA content were analyzed by flow cytometry. The results indicated that haploid cells with a C DNA content occurred only during the light period whereas a shift from a C to a 2C DNA content (indicative of S phase) took place only during darkness. The sexual life cycle was documented by examining the mating type as well as the morphology of the sexual stages and nuclei...
September 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962667/a-versatile-genetic-tool-haploid-cells
#20
REVIEW
Yanni Li, Ling Shuai
Haploid cells are excellent tools to study gene function as they contain a single copy of the genome and are thus unable to mask the effect of mutations. Recently, haploid embryonic stem cells, which are capable of self-renewal and potentially differentiating into other cell types despite having only one set of chromosomes, have been established in several species. These unique haploid cells allow us to seek recessive gene functions in mammals, and have had a profound influence on the field of genetic screening and drug target identification...
September 29, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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