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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803021/effect-of-dietary-supplementation-with-heat-treated-canola-meal-on-ruminal-nutrient-metabolism-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#1
S J Krizsan, H Gidlund, F Fatehi, P Huhtanen
An experiment was conducted to quantify the effects of incremental levels of heat-moisture-treated canola meal (TCM) fed to dairy cows on the relationship between ruminal nutrient digestion and milk production. Experimental diets were fed to 4 multiparous rumen-cannulated Nordic Red cows, averaging (mean ± standard deviation) 681 ± 54.8 kg of body weight, 111 ± 16 d in milk, and 29.1 ± 9.1 kg of milk/d at the start of the study, in a Latin square design with four 21-d periods. The 4 experimental dietary treatments consisted of a basal diet of grass silage and crimped barley, and 3 diets in which the crimped barley was replaced with TCM, giving 3 incremental levels of protein supplementation...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776783/major-structural-genomic-alterations-can-be-associated-with-hybrid-speciation-in-aegilops-markgrafii-triticeae
#2
Tatiana V Danilova, Alina R Akhunova, Eduard D Akhunov, Bernd Friebe, Bikram S Gill
During evolutionary history, many grasses from the tribe Triticeae underwent interspecific hybridization resulting in allopolyploidy, whereas homoploid hybrid speciation was found only in rye. Homoeologous chromosomes within the Triticeae preserved cross-species macrocolinearity, except for a few species with rearranged genomes. Aegilops markgrafii, a diploid wild relative of wheat (2x=2n=14), has a highly asymmetrical karyotype that is indicative of chromosome rearrangements. Molecular cytogenetics and next-generation sequencing were used to explore the genome organization...
August 4, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766148/biology-and-management-of-avena-fatua-and-avena-ludoviciana-two-noxious-weed-species-of-agro-ecosystems
#3
Ali Ahsan Bajwa, Muhammad Javaid Akhter, Nadeem Iqbal, Arslan Masood Peerzada, Zarka Hanif, Sudheesh Manalil, Saima Hashim, Hafiz Haider Ali, Lynda Kebaso, David Frimpong, Halima Namubiru, Bhagirath Singh Chauhan
Avena fatua and Avena ludoviciana are closely related grass weed species infesting a large number of crops around the world. These species are widely distributed in diverse agro-ecosystems from temperate to sub-tropical regions due to their unique seed traits, successful germination ecology, high competitive ability, and allelopathic potential. A. fatua is more widespread, adaptable, and problematic than A. ludoviciana. Both these species infest major winter and spring crops, including wheat, oat, barley, canola, maize, alfalfa, and sunflower, causing up to 70% yield losses depending on crop species and weed density...
August 2, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744298/poaceae-vs-abiotic-stress-focus-on-drought-and-salt-stress-recent-insights-and-perspectives
#4
REVIEW
Simone Landi, Jean-Francois Hausman, Gea Guerriero, Sergio Esposito
Poaceae represent the most important group of crops susceptible to abiotic stress. This large family of monocotyledonous plants, commonly known as grasses, counts several important cultivated species, namely wheat (Triticum aestivum), rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays), and barley (Hordeum vulgare). These crops, notably, show different behaviors under abiotic stress conditions: wheat and rice are considered sensitive, showing serious yield reduction upon water scarcity and soil salinity, while barley presents a natural drought and salt tolerance...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688850/crop-associated-virus-reduces-the-rooting-depth-of-non-crop-perennial-native-grass-more-than-non-crop-associated-virus-with-known-viral-suppressor-of-rna-silencing-vsr
#5
Carolyn M Malmstrom, Patrick Bigelow, Piotr Trebicki, Anna K Busch, Colleen Friel, Ellen Cole, Heba Abdel-Azim, Colin Phillippo, Helen M Alexander
As agricultural acreage expanded and came to dominate landscapes across the world, viruses gained opportunities to move between crop and wild native plants. In the Midwestern USA, virus exchange currently occurs between widespread annual Poaceae crops and remnant native perennial prairie grasses now under consideration as bioenergy feedstocks. In this region, the common aphid species Rhopalosiphum padi L. (the bird cherry-oat aphid) transmits several virus species in the family Luteoviridae, including Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV-PAV, genus Luteovirus) and Cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV-RPV and -RPS, genus Polerovirus)...
July 5, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688845/assessing-the-phytoremediation-potential-of-crop-and-grass-plants-for-atrazine-spiked-soils
#6
Virtudes Sánchez, Francisco Javier López-Bellido, Pablo Cañizares, Luis Rodríguez
Pollution of soil and groundwater by atrazine has become an increasing environmental concern in the last decade. A phytoremediation test using plastic pots was conducted in order to assess the ability of several crops and grasses to remove atrazine from a soil of low permeability spiked with this herbicide. Four plant species were assessed for their ability to degrade or accumulate atrazine from soils: two grasses, i.e., ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), and two crops, i.e., barley (Hordeum vulgare) and maize (Zea mays)...
October 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664721/evaluation-of-anticancer-activity-of-water-and-juice-extracts-of-young-hordeum-vulgare-in-human-cancer-cell-lines-ht-29-and-a549
#7
Arkadiusz Czerwonka, Katarzyna Kawka, Klaudia Cykier, Marta Kinga Lemieszek, Wojciech Rzeski
<b>Introduction and objective.</b> Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is known as a rich source of different bioactive compounds. At present, considerable attention of researchers is focused on young barley grass. It can be a good source of dietary minerals, vitamins, carbohydrates, amino acids, phenolic compounds and proteins. It is possible that the composition of chemical ingredients beneficial for health may induce an anticancer potential of young barley in human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) and human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cell lines...
June 12, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647905/time-dependent-leaf-proteome-alterations-of-brachypodium-distachyon-in-response-to-drought-stress
#8
Ozge Tatli, Bahar Sogutmaz Ozdemir, Gizem Dinler Doganay
For the first time, a comprehensive proteome analysis was conducted on Brachypodium leaves under drought stress. Gradual changes in response to drought stress were monitored. Drought is one of the major stress factors that dramatically affect the agricultural productivity worldwide. Improving the yield under drought is an urgent challenge in agriculture. Brachypodium distachyon is a model species for monocot plants such as wheat, barley and several potential biofuel grasses. In the current study, a comprehensive proteome analysis was conducted on Brachypodium leaves under different levels of drought application...
August 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622761/dated-tribe-wide-whole-chloroplast-genome-phylogeny-indicates-recurrent-hybridizations-within-triticeae
#9
Nadine Bernhardt, Jonathan Brassac, Benjamin Kilian, Frank R Blattner
BACKGROUND: Triticeae, the tribe of wheat grasses, harbours the cereals barley, rye and wheat and their wild relatives. Although economically important, relationships within the tribe are still not understood. We analysed the phylogeny of chloroplast lineages among nearly all monogenomic Triticeae taxa and polyploid wheat species aiming at a deeper understanding of the tribe's evolution. We used on- and off-target reads of a target-enrichment experiment followed by Illumina sequencing...
June 16, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584641/barley-grass-extract-causes-apoptosis-of-cancer-cells-by-increasing-intracellular-reactive-oxygen-species-production
#10
Sang Mi Woo, Sang-Chul Kwon, Seong Gyu Ko, Sung-Gook Cho
Cancer remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide, therefore food products are being investigated for potential prevention or treatment strategies. The ingredient, barley grass extract (Hordeum vulgare L.; Bex) is used to prevent or ameliorate various types of disease. In cancer, Bex has been revealed to inhibit tumor growth. However, its effect on cancer cells is yet to be clearly defined. In the present study, the effect of Bex on cancer cell growth was investigated. Bex inhibited the viabilities of breast and prostate cancer cells according to the results of MTT assays...
June 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554338/the-development-of-an-intraruminal-nylon-bag-technique-using-non-fistulated-animals-to-assess-the-rumen-degradability-of-dietary-plant-materials
#11
J H Pagella, R W Mayes, F J Pérez-Barbería, E R Ørskov
Although the conventional in situ ruminal degradability method is a relevant tool to describe the nutritional value of ruminant feeds, its need for rumen-fistulated animals may impose a restriction on its use when considering animal welfare issues and cost. The aim of the present work was to develop a ruminal degradability technique which avoids using surgically prepared animals. The concept was to orally dose a series of porous bags containing the test feeds at different times before slaughter, when the bags would be removed from the rumen for degradation measurement...
May 30, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535924/molecular-features-of-grass-allergens-and-development-of-biotechnological-approaches-for-allergy-prevention
#12
REVIEW
Deborah L Devis, Janet M Davies, Dabing Zhang
Allergic diseases are characterized by elevated allergen-specific IgE and excessive inflammatory cell responses. Among the reported plant allergens, grass pollen and grain allergens, derived from agriculturally important members of the Poaceae family such as rice, wheat and barley, are the most dominant and difficult to prevent. Although many allergen homologs have been predicted from species such as wheat and timothy grass, fundamental aspects such as the evolution and function of plant pollen allergens remain largely unclear...
May 20, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535838/are-sainfoin-or-protein-supplements-alternatives-to-control-small-strongyle-infection-in-horses
#13
C Collas, G Sallé, B Dumont, J Cabaret, J Cortet, W Martin-Rosset, L Wimel, G Fleurance
The spread of anthelmintic resistance in equine strongyle nematodes has become a major problem, advocating for the development of alternative control for strongyles. Our study consisted of both in vivo and in vitro experiments. We investigate for the first time the efficacy of a short-term consumption of tannin-rich sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) or extra proteins in naturally infected horses. We used 30 horses allocated into three groups of 10 individuals that received for 18 days either (i) a tannin-rich diet with 70% DM sainfoin pellets (Sd), (ii) a protein-rich diet with 52% DM Italian rye-grass pellets and 18% DM grinded linseed expeller (Pd), or (iii) a control diet with 45% DM barley and 25% DM cereal-based pellets (Cd)...
May 24, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527805/effects-of-replacement-of-late-harvested-grass-silage-and-barley-with-early-harvested-silage-on-milk-production-and-methane-emissions
#14
E H Cabezas-Garcia, S J Krizsan, K J Shingfield, P Huhtanen
This study evaluated the effects of gradual replacement of a mixture of late-cut grass silage (LS) and barley with early-cut grass silage (ES) on milk production, CH4 emissions, and N utilization in Swedish Red cows. Two grass silages were prepared from the same primary growth of timothy grass sward but harvested 2 wk apart [11.0 and 9.7 MJ of metabolizable energy/kg of dry matter (DM)]. Four diets, fed as a total mixed ration, were formulated to meet the metabolizable energy and protein requirements of 35 kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM) by gradually replacing a mixture of LS and barley with ES (0, 33, 67, and 100% of the forage component of the diet), whereas the proportion of barley decreased from 47...
July 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452349/wheat-ms2-encodes-for-an-orphan-protein-that-confers-male-sterility-in-grass-species
#15
Fei Ni, Juan Qi, Qunqun Hao, Bo Lyu, Ming-Cheng Luo, Yan Wang, Fengjuan Chen, Shuyun Wang, Chaozhong Zhang, Lynn Epstein, Xiangyu Zhao, Honggang Wang, Xiansheng Zhang, Cuixia Chen, Lanzhen Sun, Daolin Fu
Male sterility is a valuable trait for plant breeding and hybrid seed production. The dominant male-sterile gene Ms2 in common wheat has facilitated the release of hundreds of breeding lines and cultivars in China. Here, we describe the map-based cloning of the Ms2 gene and show that Ms2 confers male sterility in wheat, barley and Brachypodium. MS2 appears as an orphan gene within the Triticinae and expression of Ms2 in anthers is associated with insertion of a retroelement into the promoter. The cloning of Ms2 has substantial potential to assemble practical pipelines for recurrent selection and hybrid seed production in wheat...
April 28, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448065/construction-of-a-map-based-reference-genome-sequence-for-barley-hordeum-vulgare-l
#16
Sebastian Beier, Axel Himmelbach, Christian Colmsee, Xiao-Qi Zhang, Roberto A Barrero, Qisen Zhang, Lin Li, Micha Bayer, Daniel Bolser, Stefan Taudien, Marco Groth, Marius Felder, Alex Hastie, Hana Šimková, Helena Staňková, Jan Vrána, Saki Chan, María Muñoz-Amatriaín, Rachid Ounit, Steve Wanamaker, Thomas Schmutzer, Lala Aliyeva-Schnorr, Stefano Grasso, Jaakko Tanskanen, Dharanya Sampath, Darren Heavens, Sujie Cao, Brett Chapman, Fei Dai, Yong Han, Hua Li, Xuan Li, Chongyun Lin, John K McCooke, Cong Tan, Songbo Wang, Shuya Yin, Gaofeng Zhou, Jesse A Poland, Matthew I Bellgard, Andreas Houben, Jaroslav Doležel, Sarah Ayling, Stefano Lonardi, Peter Langridge, Gary J Muehlbauer, Paul Kersey, Matthew D Clark, Mario Caccamo, Alan H Schulman, Matthias Platzer, Timothy J Close, Mats Hansson, Guoping Zhang, Ilka Braumann, Chengdao Li, Robbie Waugh, Uwe Scholz, Nils Stein, Martin Mascher
Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a cereal grass mainly used as animal fodder and raw material for the malting industry. The map-based reference genome sequence of barley cv. 'Morex' was constructed by the International Barley Genome Sequencing Consortium (IBSC) using hierarchical shotgun sequencing. Here, we report the experimental and computational procedures to (i) sequence and assemble more than 80,000 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones along the minimum tiling path of a genome-wide physical map, (ii) find and validate overlaps between adjacent BACs, (iii) construct 4,265 non-redundant sequence scaffolds representing clusters of overlapping BACs, and (iv) order and orient these BAC clusters along the seven barley chromosomes using positional information provided by dense genetic maps, an optical map and chromosome conformation capture sequencing (Hi-C)...
April 27, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447635/a-chromosome-conformation-capture-ordered-sequence-of-the-barley-genome
#17
Martin Mascher, Heidrun Gundlach, Axel Himmelbach, Sebastian Beier, Sven O Twardziok, Thomas Wicker, Volodymyr Radchuk, Christoph Dockter, Pete E Hedley, Joanne Russell, Micha Bayer, Luke Ramsay, Hui Liu, Georg Haberer, Xiao-Qi Zhang, Qisen Zhang, Roberto A Barrero, Lin Li, Stefan Taudien, Marco Groth, Marius Felder, Alex Hastie, Hana Šimková, Helena Staňková, Jan Vrána, Saki Chan, María Muñoz-Amatriaín, Rachid Ounit, Steve Wanamaker, Daniel Bolser, Christian Colmsee, Thomas Schmutzer, Lala Aliyeva-Schnorr, Stefano Grasso, Jaakko Tanskanen, Anna Chailyan, Dharanya Sampath, Darren Heavens, Leah Clissold, Sujie Cao, Brett Chapman, Fei Dai, Yong Han, Hua Li, Xuan Li, Chongyun Lin, John K McCooke, Cong Tan, Penghao Wang, Songbo Wang, Shuya Yin, Gaofeng Zhou, Jesse A Poland, Matthew I Bellgard, Ljudmilla Borisjuk, Andreas Houben, Jaroslav Doležel, Sarah Ayling, Stefano Lonardi, Paul Kersey, Peter Langridge, Gary J Muehlbauer, Matthew D Clark, Mario Caccamo, Alan H Schulman, Klaus F X Mayer, Matthias Platzer, Timothy J Close, Uwe Scholz, Mats Hansson, Guoping Zhang, Ilka Braumann, Manuel Spannagl, Chengdao Li, Robbie Waugh, Nils Stein
Cereal grasses of the Triticeae tribe have been the major food source in temperate regions since the dawn of agriculture. Their large genomes are characterized by a high content of repetitive elements and large pericentromeric regions that are virtually devoid of meiotic recombination. Here we present a high-quality reference genome assembly for barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). We use chromosome conformation capture mapping to derive the linear order of sequences across the pericentromeric space and to investigate the spatial organization of chromatin in the nucleus at megabase resolution...
April 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437453/three-dominant-awnless-genes-in-common-wheat-fine-mapping-interaction-and-contribution-to-diversity-in-awn-shape-and-length
#18
Motohiro Yoshioka, Julio C M Iehisa, Ryoko Ohno, Tatsuro Kimura, Hiroyuki Enoki, Satoru Nishimura, Shuhei Nasuda, Shigeo Takumi
The awn is a long needle-like structure formed at the tip of the lemma in the florets of some grass species. It plays a role in seed dispersal and protection against animals, and can contribute to the photosynthetic activity of spikes. Three main dominant inhibitors of awn development (Hd, B1 and B2) are known in hexaploid wheat, but the causal genes have not been cloned yet and a genetic association with awn length diversity has been found only for the B1 allele. To analyze the prevalence of these three awning inhibitors, we attempted to predict the genotypes of 189 hexaploid wheat varieties collected worldwide using markers tightly linked to these loci...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431134/floral-transitions-in-wheat-and-barley-interactions-between-photoperiod-abiotic-stresses-and-nutrient-status
#19
Leonard Gol, Filipa Tomé, Maria von Korff
The timing of plant reproduction has a large impact on yield in crop plants. Reproductive development in temperate cereals comprises two major developmental transitions. During spikelet initiation, the identity of the shoot meristem switches from the vegetative to the reproductive stage and spikelet primordia are formed on the apex. Subsequently, floral morphogenesis is initiated, a process strongly affected by environmental variation. Recent studies in cereal grasses have suggested that this later phase of inflorescence development controls floret survival and abortion, and is therefore crucial for yield...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419861/agroecological-and-environmental-factors-influence-barley-yellow-dwarf-viruses-in-grasslands-in-the-us-pacific-northwest
#20
Laura L Ingwell, Christelle Lacroix, Paul R Rhoades, Alexander V Karasev, Nilsa A Bosque-Pérez
Plant pathogens can play a role in the competitive interactions between plant species and have been understudied in native prairies, which are declining globally, and in Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands in the United States. Barley/Cereal yellow dwarf virus (B/CYDV) are among the most economically important disease-causing agents of small grain cereal crops, such as wheat, and are known to infect over 150 Poaceae species, including many of the grass species present in prairies and CRP lands. Field surveys of Poaceae species were conducted in endangered Palouse Prairie and CRP habitats of southeastern Washington and adjacent northern Idaho, USA from 2010-2012 to examine for the presence of B/CYDV among plant hosts and aphid vectors...
April 15, 2017: Virus Research
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