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barley grass

Lamprinos Frantzeskakis, Barbara Kracher, Stefan Kusch, Makoto Yoshikawa-Maekawa, Saskia Bauer, Carsten Pedersen, Pietro D Spanu, Takaki Maekawa, Paul Schulze-Lefert, Ralph Panstruga
BACKGROUND: Powdery mildews are biotrophic pathogenic fungi infecting a number of economically important plants. The grass powdery mildew, Blumeria graminis, has become a model organism to study host specialization of obligate biotrophic fungal pathogens. We resolved the large-scale genomic architecture of B. graminis forma specialis hordei (Bgh) to explore the potential influence of its genome organization on the co-evolutionary process with its host plant, barley (Hordeum vulgare). RESULTS: The near-chromosome level assemblies of the Bgh reference isolate DH14 and one of the most diversified isolates, RACE1, enabled a comparative analysis of these haploid genomes, which are highly enriched with transposable elements (TEs)...
May 22, 2018: BMC Genomics
D Pang, T Yan, E Trevisi, S J Krizsan
This study compared the effects of a grain-based conventional concentrate (GC) and a concentrate based on agro-industrial by-products (BC), fed with grass silage harvested at early (ES) or late (LS) maturity stage, on dairy performance, CH4 and CO2 emissions, and metabolic status of dairy cows. Twenty lactating Nordic Red cows averaging 81 d in milk and 31.9 kg of milk/d pre-trial were assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Dietary treatments were in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. The silages were harvested 2 wk apart from the same primary growth grass ley...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Amanda Rose Shores, Brittany Hethcock, Melinda Laituri
Surface spills of water produced from hydraulic fracturing can expose soil and groundwater to organics such as BTEX and naphthalene (BTEX&N) as well as high concentrations of salt. As an alternative to soil excavation, we evaluated the effectiveness of BTEX&N soil remediation using 2 grasses present in Colorado. Perennial ryegrass and foxtail barley were grown separately in pots in the greenhouse and exposed to salt or a synthesized produced-water slurry containing relevant levels of salt and BTEX&N...
July 3, 2018: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Katariina Manni, Marketta Rinne, Arto Huuskonen, Pekka Huhtanen
The objective was to examine the effects of concentrate level (barley grain 39 and 74 g dry matter/kg0.60 live weight) and allocation regime (steady, increased, decreased) on meat quality of growing dairy bulls fed grass silage ad libitum. Chemical, instrumental and sensory analyses were used for measuring quality of longissimus lumborum (LL). Greater concentrate level increased fat content (P = 0.035) and tenderness of sensory analysis (P = 0.009) of LL but did not affect pH, colour, drip loss, sarcomere length, shear force, juiciness or flavour...
April 30, 2018: Meat Science
Johanna Karlsson, Rolf Spörndly, Mikaela Lindberg, Kjell Holtenius
Global demand is increasing for food, and use of large amounts of potentially human-edible feedstuffs for dairy cows is an important concern. The present study examined whether feeding a by-product-based concentrate combined with high-quality grass silage to high-producing dairy cows affected feed intake and milk production compared with a conventional diet, as well as the effect on efficiency of human food production. In a changeover experiment with four 21-d periods, 24 dairy cows in mid-lactation were offered 9...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Anna Janská, Pavel Svoboda, Vojtěch Spiwok, Ladislav Kučera, Jaroslava Ovesná
BACKGROUND: The wild relatives of crop species represent a potentially valuable source of novel genetic variation, particularly in the context of improving the crop's level of tolerance to abiotic stress. The mechanistic basis of these tolerances remains largely unexplored. Here, the focus was to characterize the transcriptomic response of the nodes (meristematic tissue) of couch grass (a relative of barley) to dehydration stress, and to compare it to that of the barley crown formed by both a drought tolerant and a drought sensitive barley cultivar...
May 2, 2018: BMC Genomics
Mostafa Soufizadeh, Rasoul Pirmohammadi, Yunes Alijoo, Hamed Khalilvandi Behroozyar
Indigestible neutral detergent fibers (iNDF) accurately predict forage digestibility when measured in situ . The objective of this study was to determine the effects of rumen incubation times on the estimated concentrations of iNDF for four forages (alfalfa hay, corn silage, wheat straw and orchard grass), four concentrates (barley grain, soybean meal, beet pulp and wheat bran) and two total mixed ration samples in dairy cows. The iNDF contents of the samples were evaluated in 10 feeds using three ruminally cannulated Holstein cows in a completely randomized design...
2018: Veterinary Research Forum
Cindy Callens, Matthew R Tucker, Dabing Zhang, Zoe A Wilson
Many monocot plants have high social and economic value. These include grasses such as rice (Oryza sativa), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and barley (Hordeum vulgare), which produce soft commodities for many food and beverage industries, and ornamental flowers such ase lily (Lilium longiflorum) and orchid (Oncidium Gower Ramsey), which represent an important component of international flower markets. There is constant pressure to improve the development and diversity of these species, with a significant emphasis on flower development, and this is particularly relevant considering the impact of changing environments on reproduction and thus yield...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Nadine Schäfer, Tobias Maierhofer, Johannes Herrmann, Morten Egevang Jørgensen, Christof Lind, Katharina von Meyer, Silke Lautner, Jörg Fromm, Marius Felder, Alistair M Hetherington, Peter Ache, Dietmar Geiger, Rainer Hedrich
The latest major group of plants to evolve were the grasses. These became important in the mid-Paleogene about 40 million years ago. During evolution, leaf CO2 uptake and transpirational water loss were optimized by the acquisition of grass-specific stomatal complexes. In contrast to the kidney-shaped guard cells (GCs) typical of the dicots such as Arabidopsis, in the grasses and agronomically important cereals, the GCs are dumbbell shaped and are associated with morphologically distinct subsidiary cells (SCs)...
April 20, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Deogracious P Massawe, Lucy R Stewart, Jovia Kamatenesi, Theodore Asiimwe, Margaret G Redinbaugh
Since 2011-2012, Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) has emerged in East Africa, causing massive yield loss and propelling research to identify viruses and virus populations present in maize. As expected, next generation sequencing (NGS) has revealed diverse and abundant viruses from the family Potyviridae, primarily sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), and maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) (Tombusviridae), which are known to cause MLN by synergistic co-infection. In addition to these expected viruses, we identified a virus in the genus Polerovirus (family Luteoviridae) in 104/172 samples selected for MLN or other potential virus symptoms from Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, and Tanzania...
April 23, 2018: Virus Genes
Juliana Benevenuto, Natalia S Teixeira-Silva, Eiko E Kuramae, Daniel Croll, Claudia B Monteiro-Vitorello
Host specialization is a key evolutionary process for the diversification and emergence of new pathogens. However, the molecular determinants of host range are poorly understood. Smut fungi are biotrophic pathogens that have distinct and narrow host ranges based on largely unknown genetic determinants. Hence, we aimed to expand comparative genomics analyses of smut fungi by including more species infecting different hosts and to define orphans and positively selected genes to gain further insights into the genetics basis of host specialization...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
David Wood, Jillian M Lenné
A novel explanation of the origin of cereal agriculture is proposed, based on the ecology and adaptive morphology of wild cereals ancestral to our founder cereals (einkorn, emmer and barley). Wild cereals are unusually large-seeded. A natural evolutionary-ecological syndrome relates l arge seed, a wns and m onodominance (LAM). Awns bury attached seeds in the soil, protecting seed from fire; buried seed needs to be large to emerge on germination; large seeds, growing without competition from small-seeded plants, will produce monodominant vegetation...
March 28, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Vittorio Filippo Nicolis, Eduard Venter
Plants respond in a similar manner to aphid feeding as to pathogen attack. Diuraphis noxia is a specialist aphid, feeding only on selected grasses that include wheat, barley, and oats. The wheat-Diuraphis noxia interaction is characterized by very similar responses as seen in wheat-pathogen interactions with none of the underlying resistance pathways and genes characterized yet. From wheat harboring the Dn1 resistance gene, we have identified a nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) gene containing two integrated domains (IDs)...
March 13, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Ravinder K Goyal, Dan Tulpan, Nora Chomistek, Dianevys González-Peña Fundora, Connor West, Brian E Ellis, Michele Frick, André Laroche, Nora A Foroud
BACKGROUND: The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family is involved in signal transduction networks that underpin many different biological processes in plants, ranging from development to biotic and abiotic stress responses. To date this class of enzymes has received little attention in Triticeae species, which include important cereal crops (wheat, barley, rye and triticale) that represent over 20% of the total protein food-source worldwide. RESULTS: The work presented here focuses on two subfamilies of Triticeae MAPKs, the MAP kinases (MPKs), and the MAPK kinases (MKKs) whose members phosphorylate the MPKs...
March 5, 2018: BMC Genomics
Peter Michael Dracatos, Rouja Haghdoust, Davinder Singh, Robert Fraser Park
Individual plants encounter a vast number of microbes including bacteria, viruses, fungi and oomycetes through their growth cycle, yet few of these pathogens are able to infect them. Plant species have diverged over millions of years, co-evolving with few specific pathogens. The host boundaries of most pathogen species can be clearly defined. In general, the greater the genetic divergence from the preferred host, the less likely that pathogen would be able to infect that plant species. Co-evolution and divergence also occur within pathogen species, leading to highly specialized subspecies with narrow host ranges...
April 2018: New Phytologist
Fan Zhu
Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are a class of oligomeric flavonoids found in a variety of plant foods. Intake of PAs in human diet has been associated with a reduced occurrence of various chronic disorders. Cereal and pseudocereal grains are staple food items. Grain genotypes containing PAs can be developed as functional foods to efficiently improve human health. This review summarises the occurrence of PAs in diverse grains, including rice, wheat, barley, sorghum, millets, buckwheat, and some forage grasses. Great diversity in PA structure and composition has been recorded...
January 30, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Yinjia Li, Sheng Zuo, Zhiliang Zhang, Zhanjie Li, Jinlei Han, Zhaoqing Chu, Robert Hasterok, Kai Wang
Brachypodium distachyon is a well-established model monocot plant, and its small and compact genome has been used as an accurate reference for the much larger and often polyploid genomes of cereals such as Avena sativa (oats), Hordeum vulgare (barley) and Triticum aestivum (wheat). Centromeres are indispensable functional units of chromosomes and they play a core role in genome polyploidization events during evolution. As the Brachypodium genus contains about 20 species that differ significantly in terms of their basic chromosome numbers, genome size, ploidy levels and life strategies, studying their centromeres may provide important insight into the structure and evolution of the genome in this interesting and important genus...
March 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Sang-Jin Kim, Starla Zemelis-Durfee, Jacob Krüger Jensen, Curtis G Wilkerson, Kenneth Keegstra, Federica Brandizzi
Mixed-linkage (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan (MLG) is a glucose polymer with beneficial effects on human health and high potential for the agricultural industry. MLG is present predominantly in the cell wall of grasses and is synthesized by cellulose synthase-like F or H families of proteins, with CSLF6 being the best-characterized MLG synthase. Although the function of this enzyme in MLG production has been established, the site of MLG synthesis in the cell is debated. It has been proposed that MLG is synthesized at the plasma membrane, as occurs for cellulose and callose; in contrast, it has also been proposed that MLG is synthesized in the Golgi apparatus, as occurs for other matrix polysaccharides of the cell wall...
March 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Giulia Rossi, Stefano Schiavon, Giovanna Lomolino, Claudio Cipolat-Gotet, Alberto Simonetto, Giovanni Bittante, Franco Tagliapietra
Garlic and garlic components have recently been proposed as ruminal activity modulators to reduce the enteric methane emissions of ruminants, but little is known of their influence on milk coagulation properties, nutrient recovery, cheese yield, and sensorial and rheological characteristics of milk and cheese. The present study assessed the effects of garlic and diallyl sulfide supplements on dry matter intake (DMI), productive performance, milk coagulation properties, cheese yield, milk and cheese sensory profiles, and rheological characteristics...
March 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
A N Brown, G Ferreira, C L Teets, W E Thomason, C D Teutsch
In dairy farming systems, growing winter crops for forage is frequently limited to annual grasses grown in monoculture. The objectives of this study were to determine how cropping grasses alone or in mixtures with legumes affects the yield, nutritional composition, and in vitro digestibility of fresh and ensiled winter crops and the yield, nutritional composition, and in vitro digestibility of the subsequent summer crops. Experimental plots were planted with 15 different winter crops at 3 locations in Virginia...
March 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
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