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barley grass

Vittorio Filippo Nicolis, Eduard Venter
Plants respond in a similar manner to aphid feeding as to pathogen attack. Diuraphis noxia is a specialist aphid, feeding only on selected grasses that include wheat, barley, and oats. The wheat-Diuraphis noxia interaction is characterized by very similar responses as seen in wheat-pathogen interactions with none of the underlying resistance pathways and genes characterized yet. From wheat harboring the Dn1 resistance gene, we have identified a nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) gene containing two integrated domains (IDs)...
March 13, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Ravinder K Goyal, Dan Tulpan, Nora Chomistek, Dianevys González-Peña Fundora, Connor West, Brian E Ellis, Michele Frick, André Laroche, Nora A Foroud
BACKGROUND: The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family is involved in signal transduction networks that underpin many different biological processes in plants, ranging from development to biotic and abiotic stress responses. To date this class of enzymes has received little attention in Triticeae species, which include important cereal crops (wheat, barley, rye and triticale) that represent over 20% of the total protein food-source worldwide. RESULTS: The work presented here focuses on two subfamilies of Triticeae MAPKs, the MAP kinases (MPKs), and the MAPK kinases (MKKs) whose members phosphorylate the MPKs...
March 5, 2018: BMC Genomics
Peter Michael Dracatos, Rouja Haghdoust, Davinder Singh, Robert Fraser Park
Individual plants encounter a vast number of microbes including bacteria, viruses, fungi and oomycetes through their growth cycle, yet few of these pathogens are able to infect them. Plant species have diverged over millions of years, co-evolving with few specific pathogens. The host boundaries of most pathogen species can be clearly defined. In general, the greater the genetic divergence from the preferred host, the less likely that pathogen would be able to infect that plant species. Co-evolution and divergence also occur within pathogen species, leading to highly specialized subspecies with narrow host ranges...
February 21, 2018: New Phytologist
Fan Zhu
Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are a class of oligomeric flavonoids found in a variety of plant foods. Intake of PAs in human diet has been associated with a reduced occurrence of various chronic disorders. Cereal and pseudocereal grains are staple food items. Grain genotypes containing PAs can be developed as functional foods to efficiently improve human health. This review summarises the occurrence of PAs in diverse grains, including rice, wheat, barley, sorghum, millets, buckwheat, and some forage grasses. Great diversity in PA structure and composition has been recorded...
January 30, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Yinjia Li, Sheng Zuo, Zhiliang Zhang, Zhanjie Li, Jinlei Han, Zhaoqing Chu, Robert Hasterok, Kai Wang
Brachypodium distachyon is a well-established model monocot plant and its small and compact genome has been used as an accurate reference for the much larger and often polyploid genomes of cereals such as wheat, oats and barley. Centromeres are indispensable functional units of chromosomes and they play a core role in genome polyploidization events during evolution. Since the Brachypodium genus contains about 20 species that differ significantly in terms of their basic chromosome numbers, genome size, ploidy levels and life strategies, studying their centromeres may provide important insight into the structure and evolution of the genome in this interesting and important genus...
January 30, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Sang-Jin Kim, Starla Zemelis-Durfee, Jacob Krüger Jensen, Curtis G Wilkerson, Kenneth Keegstra, Federica Brandizzi
Mixed linkage (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan (MLG) is a glucose polymer with beneficial effects on human health and higher potential in the agricultural industry. MLG is present predominantly in the cell wall of grasses and is synthesized by cellulose synthase-like proteins of the F or H families, with CSLF6 being the best-characterized MLG synthase. Although the function of this enzyme in MLG production has been established, the site of MLG synthesis in the cell is debated. It has been proposed that MLG is synthesized at the plasma membrane, as occurs for cellulose and callose; in contrast, it has also been proposed that MLG is synthesized in the Golgi, as it occurs for other matrix polysaccharides of the cell wall...
January 27, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Giulia Rossi, Stefano Schiavon, Giovanna Lomolino, Claudio Cipolat-Gotet, Alberto Simonetto, Giovanni Bittante, Franco Tagliapietra
Garlic and garlic components have recently been proposed as ruminal activity modulators to reduce the enteric methane emissions of ruminants, but little is known of their influence on milk coagulation properties, nutrient recovery, cheese yield, and sensorial and rheological characteristics of milk and cheese. The present study assessed the effects of garlic and diallyl sulfide supplements on dry matter intake (DMI), productive performance, milk coagulation properties, cheese yield, milk and cheese sensory profiles, and rheological characteristics...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
A N Brown, G Ferreira, C L Teets, W E Thomason, C D Teutsch
In dairy farming systems, growing winter crops for forage is frequently limited to annual grasses grown in monoculture. The objectives of this study were to determine how cropping grasses alone or in mixtures with legumes affects the yield, nutritional composition, and in vitro digestibility of fresh and ensiled winter crops and the yield, nutritional composition, and in vitro digestibility of the subsequent summer crops. Experimental plots were planted with 15 different winter crops at 3 locations in Virginia...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
E H Cabezas-Garcia, S J Krizsan, K J Shingfield, P Huhtanen
The objective of this experiment was to quantify the effects of graded replacement of late-harvested grass silage and barley with early-harvested silage on nutrient digestion and rumen fermentation. Four experimental diets were fed to 4 multiparous rumen-cannulated Nordic Red cows in 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Dietary treatments consisted of late-cut grass silage (LS) and rolled barley, which was gradually replaced with early-cut grass silage [ES; 0, 33, 67, and 100% of the forage component (ES + LS) of the diet]...
February 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Lotus A Lofgren, Nicholas R LeBlanc, Amanda K Certano, Jonny Nachtigall, Kathryn M LaBine, Jakob Riddle, Karen Broz, Yanhong Dong, Bianca Bethan, Christopher W Kafer, H Corby Kistler
Mycotoxin-producing Fusarium graminearum and related species cause Fusarium head blight on cultivated grasses, such as wheat and barley. However, these Fusarium species may have had a longer evolutionary history with North American grasses than with cultivated crops and may interact with the ancestral hosts in ways which are biochemically distinct. We assayed 25 species of asymptomatic native grasses for the presence of Fusarium species and confirmed infected grasses as hosts using re-inoculation tests. We examined seed from native grasses for the presence of mycotoxin-producing Fusarium species and evaluated the ability of these fungi to produce mycotoxins in both native grass and wheat hosts using biochemical analysis...
November 21, 2017: New Phytologist
Kemal Kazan, Donald Gardiner
Diseases caused by Fusarium pathogens inflict major yield and quality losses on many economically important plant species worldwide, including cereals. Fusarium crown rot (FCR) caused by Fusarium pseudograminearum is a cereal disease that occurs in many arid and semi-arid cropping regions of the world. In recent years, this disease has become more prevalent, in part due to the adoption of moisture-preserving cultural practices such as minimum tillage and stubble retention. In this pathogen profile, we present a brief overview of recent research efforts that not only have advanced our understanding of the interactions between F...
November 4, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Fabrizio Menardo, Coraline R Praz, Thomas Wicker, Beat Keller
BACKGROUND: Grass powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis, Ascomycota) is a major pathogen of cereal crops and has become a model organism for obligate biotrophic fungal pathogens of plants. The sequenced genomes of two formae speciales (ff.spp.), B.g. hordei and B.g. tritici (pathogens of barley and wheat), were found to be enriched in candidate effector genes (CEGs). Similar to other filamentous pathogens, CEGs in B. graminis are under positive selection. Additionally, effectors are more likely to have presence-absence polymorphisms than other genes among different strains...
October 31, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
I Rugoho, G R Edwards
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of wintering pregnant, nonlactating dairy cows outdoors on either kale or grass, fed in 1 [11 kg of dry matter (DM) of kale or grass + 3 kg of DM of baled barley straw offered in the morning] or 2 allocations (5.5 kg of DM of kale or grass grazed + 1.5 kg of DM barley straw offered morning and afternoon) per day. The body condition score (BCS) gain over the 47-d winter feeding period was higher for grass-fed (0.5 BCS units) than kale-fed cows (0.3 BCS units), but was unaffected by feeding frequency...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
V S Murphy, D E Lowe, F O Lively, A W Gordon
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of using different floor types to accommodate growing and finishing beef cattle on their performance, cleanliness, carcass characteristics and meat quality. In total, 80 dairy origin young bulls (mean initial live weight 224 kg (SD=28.4 kg)) were divided into 20 blocks with four animals each according to live weight. The total duration of the experimental period was 204 days. The first 101 days was defined as the growing period, with the remainder of the study defined as the finishing period...
October 2, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Xiaohuang Cao, Min Zhang, Arun S Mujumdar, Qifeng Zhong, Zhushang Wang
Barley grass is a plant resource for rehabilitation therapy. Its processing requires retaining nutrition well for rehabilitation cure of consumers. To meet the aim as well as low energy consumption and microbiological safety of products, ultrasonic treatments (UT) were applied to bathing materials at different power levels (10, 30, 45, 60W/L) for 10mins. After treatments, the bathed barley grass (100g) was freeze-dried under vacuum -0.09MPa with fixed power of 2W/g. Parameters of color, microbial colony, energy consumption, glass transition temperature, moisture content, water activity, taste substances, contents of flavonoid and chlorophyll were determined after drying...
January 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Haider Rahman, Marina Kim, Galen Leung, Jesse A Green, Seymour Katz
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes conditions such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is becoming more prevalent with the elderly being the fastest growing group. Parallel to this, there is an increasing interest in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Nearly half of patients with IBD have used CAM at one time. The elderly patients, however, are burdened by comorbid conditions, polypharmacy, and altered functional status. With increasing use of complementary and alternative medicine in our elderly patients with IBD, it is vital for the provider to provide counsel on drug-herb potential interactions...
December 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
C Qian, C Cui, X Wang, C Zhou, P Hu, M Li, R Li, J Xiao, X Wang, P Chen, L Xing, A Cao
A key member of the Pm21 resistance gene locus, Stpk-V, derived from Haynaldia villosa, was shown to confer broad-spectrum resistance to wheat powdery mildew. The present study was planned to investigate the resistance mechanism mediated by Stpk-V. Transcriptome analysis was performed in Stpk-V transgenic plants and recipient Yangmai158 upon Bgt infection, and detailed histochemical observations were conducted. Chromosome location of Stpk-V orthologous genes in Triticeae species was conducted for evolutionary study and over-expression of Stpk-V both in barley and Arabidopsis was performed for functional study...
November 2017: Plant Biology
Xiaohuang Cao, Min Zhang, Arun S Mujumdar, Qifeng Zhong, Zhushang Wang
BACKGROUND: Young barley grass leaves are well-known for containing the antioxidant substances flavonoid and chlorophyll. However, low product quality and energy efficiency exist with respect to the dehydration of barley grass leaves. To improve energy supply and the quality of barley grass, microwave heating instead of contact heat was applied for the freeze drying of barley grass at a pilot scale at 1, 1.5 and 2 W g(-1) , respectively; After drying, energy supply and quality parameters of color, moisture content, chlorophyll, flavonoids, odors of dried barley grass were determined to evaluate the feasibility of the study...
August 22, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
C Gaillard, M T Sørensen, M Vestergaard, M R Weisbjerg, A Basar, M K Larsen, H Martinussen, U Kidmose, J Sehested
The growth of the bioethanol industry is leading to an increase in the production of coproducts such as dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Both corn-based DDGS and grain-based DDGS (gDDGS; defined as originating from grain sources such as barley, wheat, triticale, or a mix, excluding corn) appear to be relevant sources of feed and protein for dairy cows. To date, most of the studies investigating DDGS have been performed with corn-based DDGS. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of the proportion of gDDGS in the diet on feed intake, milk production, and milk quality...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
S J Krizsan, H Gidlund, F Fatehi, P Huhtanen
An experiment was conducted to quantify the effects of incremental levels of heat-moisture-treated canola meal (TCM) fed to dairy cows on the relationship between ruminal nutrient digestion and milk production. Experimental diets were fed to 4 multiparous rumen-cannulated Nordic Red cows, averaging (mean ± standard deviation) 681 ± 54.8 kg of body weight, 111 ± 16 d in milk, and 29.1 ± 9.1 kg of milk/d at the start of the study, in a Latin square design with four 21-d periods. The 4 experimental dietary treatments consisted of a basal diet of grass silage and crimped barley, and 3 diets in which the crimped barley was replaced with TCM, giving 3 incremental levels of protein supplementation...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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