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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431134/floral-transitions-in-wheat-and-barley-interactions-between-photoperiod-abiotic-stresses-and-nutrient-status
#1
Leonard Gol, Filipa Tomé, Maria von Korff
The timing of plant reproduction has a large impact on yield in crop plants. Reproductive development in temperate cereals comprises two major developmental transitions. During spikelet initiation, the identity of the shoot meristem switches from the vegetative to the reproductive stage and spikelet primordia are formed on the apex. Subsequently, floral morphogenesis is initiated, a process strongly affected by environmental variation. Recent studies in cereal grasses have suggested that this later phase of inflorescence development controls floret survival and abortion, and is therefore crucial for yield...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419861/agroecological-and-environmental-factors-influence-barley-yellow-dwarf-viruses-in-grasslands-in-the-us-pacific-northwest
#2
Laura L Ingwell, Christelle Lacroix, Paul R Rhoades, Alexander V Karasev, Nilsa A Bosque-Pérez
Plant pathogens can play a role in the competitive interactions between plant species and have been understudied in native prairies, which are declining globally, and in Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands in the United States. Barley/Cereal yellow dwarf virus (B/CYDV) are among the most economically important disease-causing agents of small grain cereal crops, such as wheat, and are known to infect over 150 Poaceae species, including many of the grass species present in prairies and CRP lands. Field surveys of Poaceae species were conducted in endangered Palouse Prairie and CRP habitats of southeastern Washington and adjacent northern Idaho, USA from 2010-2012 to examine for the presence of B/CYDV among plant hosts and aphid vectors...
April 15, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409525/rare-pyrenophora-teres-hybridization-events-revealed-by-development-of-sequence-specific-pcr-markers
#3
Barsha Poudel, Simon R Ellwood, Alison C Testa, Mark McLean, Mark W Sutherland, Anke Martin
Pyrenophora teres f. teres and P. teres f. maculata cause net form and spot form, respectively, of net blotch on barley (Hordeum vulgare). The two forms reproduce sexually, producing hybrids with genetic and pathogenic variability. Phenotypic identification of hybrids is challenging because lesions induced by hybrids on host plants resemble lesions induced by either P. teres f. teres or P. teres f. maculata. In this study, 12 sequence-specific polymerase chain reaction markers were developed based on expressed regions spread across the genome...
April 14, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365118/effect-of-increasing-the-proportion-of-dietary-concentrate-on-gastrointestinal-tract-measurements-and-brush-border-enzyme-activity-in-holstein-steers
#4
P Górka, B L Schurmann, M E Walpole, A Błońska, S Li, J C Plaizier, Z M Kowalski, G B Penner
The aim of this study was to determine the time course for adaptation of the reticulo-rumen, omasum, abomasum, and small intestine in response to an abrupt increase in the proportion of grain in the diet. Adaptive responses include tissue and digesta mass, small intestinal length, and brush border enzyme activity in the duodenum, proximal jejunum, and ileum. Twenty-five Holstein steers (213 ± 23 kg; 5 to 7 mo of age) were blocked by body weight, and within block were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatments: the control diet (CTRL; 92% chopped grass hay and 8% mineral and vitamin supplement on a dry matter basis) or a moderate grain diet (MGD; 50% chopped grass hay, 42% rolled barley grain, and 8% mineral and vitamin supplement) that was fed for 3 (MGD3), 7 (MGD7), 14 (MGD14), or 21 d (MGD21)...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258370/characterization-and-genetic-mapping-of-the-%C3%AE-diketone-deficient-eceriferum-b-barley-mutant
#5
Qin Zhou, Chao Li, Kohei Mishina, Jiecai Zhao, Jiwei Zhang, Ruijun Duan, Xiaoying Ma, Aidong Wang, Qianxiang Meng, Takao Komatsuda, Guoxiong Chen
The barley eceriferum-b.2 (cer-b.2) mutant produces glossy leaf sheaths and is deficient in the cuticular wax component 14,16-hentriacontanedione. The mutated gene maps to a 1.3-cM interval on chromosome 3HL flanked by the genes MLOC_10972 and MLOC_69561. The cuticular wax coating of leaves and stems in many grass species is responsible for the plants' glaucous appearance. A major component of the wax is a group of β-diketone compounds. The barley eceriferum-b.2 (cer-b.2) mutant produces glossy leaf sheaths and is deficient for the compound 14,16-hentriacontanedione...
March 3, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231117/compositional-analysis-of-whole-grains-processed-grains-grain-co-products-and-other-carbohydrate-sources-with-applicability-to-pet-animal-nutrition
#6
Alison N Beloshapka, Preston R Buff, George C Fahey, Kelly S Swanson
Our objective was to measure the proximate, starch, amino acid, and mineral compositions of grains, grain co-products, and other carbohydrate sources with potential use in pet foods. Thirty-two samples from barley (barley flake, cut barley, ground pearled barley, malted barley, whole pearled barley, pearled barley flakes, and steamed rolled barley); oats (groats, ground oatmeal, ground steamed groats, instant oats, oat bran, oat fiber, oat flour, quick oats, regular rolled oats, steamed rolled oat groats, and steel cut groats); rice (brown rice, polished rice, defatted rice bran, and rice flour); and miscellaneous carbohydrate sources (canary grass seed, hulled millet, whole millet, quinoa, organic spelt hull pellets, potato flake, sorghum, whole wheat, and whole yellow corn) were analyzed...
March 25, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167022/differences-in-nutritional-quality-between-wild-and-domesticated-forms-of-barley-and-emmer-wheat
#7
REVIEW
Kim Henrik Hebelstrup
Grasses such as wheat and barley constitute some of the main crops currently cultivated worldwide. Cultivation of wild cereals such as Hordeum spontaneum (wild barley) and Triticum diccocoides (wild emmer) started in southwest Asia. Despite the many studies on the origins of agriculture and plant domestication, surprisingly few studies have discussed the importance of the nutritional quality of barley and emmer wheat in their evolution. A comparison of domesticated forms of these cereals with their wild progenitors suggests an evolution towards bigger grains with higher glycemic loads in the form of higher relative starch content with lower relative protein, fiber and mineral contents...
March 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145403/regulation-of-ft-splicing-by-an-endogenous-cue-in-temperate-grasses
#8
Zhengrui Qin, Jiajie Wu, Shuaifeng Geng, Nan Feng, Fengjuan Chen, Xingchen Kong, Gaoyuan Song, Kai Chen, Aili Li, Long Mao, Liang Wu
Appropriate flowering timing is crucial for plant reproductive success. The florigen, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), interacts with 14-3-3 proteins and the bZIP transcription factor FD, functioning at core nodes in multiple flowering pathways. There are two FT homologues, FT1 and FT2, in Brachypodium distachyon. Here we show that FT2 undergoes age-dependent alternative splicing (AS), resulting in two splice variants (FT2α and FT2β). The FT2β-encoded protein cannot interact with FD or 14-3-3s but is able to form heterodimers with FT2α and FT1, thereby interfering with the florigen-mediated assembly of the flowering initiation complex...
February 1, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137844/multiple-horizontal-transfers-of-nuclear-ribosomal-genes-between-phylogenetically-distinct-grass-lineages
#9
Václav Mahelka, Karol Krak, David Kopecký, Judith Fehrer, Jan Šafář, Jan Bartoš, Roman Hobza, Nicolas Blavet, Frank R Blattner
The movement of nuclear DNA from one vascular plant species to another in the absence of fertilization is thought to be rare. Here, nonnative rRNA gene [ribosomal DNA (rDNA)] copies were identified in a set of 16 diploid barley (Hordeum) species; their origin was traceable via their internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence to five distinct Panicoideae genera, a lineage that split from the Pooideae about 60 Mya. Phylogenetic, cytogenetic, and genomic analyses implied that the nonnative sequences were acquired between 1 and 5 Mya after a series of multiple events, with the result that some current Hordeum sp...
February 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115753/chlorophyll-and-total-phenolic-contents-antioxidant-activities-and-consumer-acceptance-test-of-processed-grass-drinks
#10
Wiwat Wangcharoen, Suthaya Phimphilai
The processed drinks produced from grass of three varieties of rice (Jasmine, Sukhothai 1 and Sukhothai 2) and one each from wheat and barley grasses were analyzed for chlorophyll and total phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities [ABTS radical cation decolorisation assay and ferric reducing/antioxidative power (FRAP) assay]. The consumer acceptance of all the drinks was also evaluated. One serving size (200 mL) of these contained 82-958 μg of chlorophyll, 5.60-26.14 mg Gallic acid equivalent for total phenolic content and their antioxidant activities, ABTS and FRAP values were 17...
December 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029157/how-hormones-regulate-floral-architecture-in-barley
#11
Scott A Boden
A defining characteristic of grasses, including major cereal crops, is the way in which flowers are arranged on an inflorescence. A new study finds that regulation of hormone levels during development is crucial for determining the arrangement of flowers on a barley inflorescence, opening new doors for increasing grain yield.
December 28, 2016: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966755/identification-of-quantitative-trait-loci-for-mineral-elements-in-grains-and-grass-powder-of-barley
#12
Y W Zeng, J Du, X M Yang, X Y Pu, L X Wang, J Z Yang, L J Du, T Yang, S M Yang, Z H Sun
Mineral elements in barley (Hordeum vulgare) play an important physiological role in global human health. In this study, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for concentration of nine mineral elements in barley grain and grass powder were detected in a population of 193 recombinant inbred lines of the barley cross Ziguangmangluoerling x Schooner and the parents. We observed large genetic variation contributing to element concentrations in both grains and grass powder. The mean K, Ca, and Fe concentrations in grass powder were 6...
December 2, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935041/avrpm2-encodes-an-rnase-like-avirulence-effector-which-is-conserved-in-the-two-different-specialized-forms-of-wheat-and-rye-powdery-mildew-fungus
#13
Coraline R Praz, Salim Bourras, Fansong Zeng, Javier Sánchez-Martín, Fabrizio Menardo, Minfeng Xue, Lijun Yang, Stefan Roffler, Rainer Böni, Gerard Herren, Kaitlin E McNally, Roi Ben-David, Francis Parlange, Simone Oberhaensli, Simon Flückiger, Luisa K Schäfer, Thomas Wicker, Dazhao Yu, Beat Keller
There is a large diversity of genetically defined resistance genes in bread wheat against the powdery mildew pathogen Blumeria graminis (B. g.) f. sp. tritici. Many confer race-specific resistance to this pathogen, but until now only the mildew avirulence gene AvrPm3(a2/f2) that is recognized by Pm3a/f was known molecularly. We performed map-based cloning and genome-wide association studies to isolate a candidate for the mildew avirulence gene AvrPm2. We then used transient expression assays in Nicotiana benthamiana to demonstrate specific and strong recognition of AvrPm2 by Pm2...
February 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898828/population-structure-in-the-model-grass-is-highly-correlated-with-flowering-differences-across-broad-geographic-areas
#14
Ludmila Tyler, Scott J Lee, Nelson D Young, Gregory A DeIulio, Elena Benavente, Michael Reagon, Jessica Sysopha, Riccardo M Baldini, Angelo Troìa, Samuel P Hazen, Ana L Caicedo
The small, annual grass (L.) Beauv., a close relative of wheat ( L.) and barley ( L.), is a powerful model system for cereals and bioenergy grasses. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of natural variation can elucidate the genetic basis of complex traits but have been so far limited in by the lack of large numbers of well-characterized and sufficiently diverse accessions. Here, we report on genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) of 84 , seven , and three accessions with diverse geographic origins including Albania, Armenia, Georgia, Italy, Spain, and Turkey...
July 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888547/towards-a-whole-genome-sequence-for-rye-secale-cereale-l
#15
Eva Bauer, Thomas Schmutzer, Ivan Barilar, Martin Mascher, Heidrun Gundlach, Mihaela M Martis, Sven O Twardziok, Bernd Hackauf, Andres Gordillo, Peer Wilde, Malthe Schmidt, Viktor Korzun, Klaus F X Mayer, Karl Schmid, Chris-Carolin Schön, Uwe Scholz
We report on a whole-genome draft sequence of rye (Secale cereale L.). Rye is a diploid Triticeae species closely related to wheat and barley, and an important crop for food and feed in Central and Eastern Europe. Through whole-genome shotgun sequencing of the 7.9-Gbp genome of the winter rye inbred line Lo7 we obtained a de novo assembly represented by 1.29 million scaffolds covering a total length of 2.8 Gbp. Our reference sequence represents nearly the entire low-copy portion of the rye genome. This genome assembly was used to predict 27 784 rye gene models based on homology to sequenced grass genomes...
March 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875982/comparative-genomics-to-explore-phylogenetic-relationship-cryptic-sexual-potential-and-host-specificity-of-rhynchosporium-species-on-grasses
#16
Daniel Penselin, Martin Münsterkötter, Susanne Kirsten, Marius Felder, Stefan Taudien, Matthias Platzer, Kevin Ashelford, Konrad H Paskiewicz, Richard J Harrison, David J Hughes, Thomas Wolf, Ekaterina Shelest, Jenny Graap, Jan Hoffmann, Claudia Wenzel, Nadine Wöltje, Kevin M King, Bruce D L Fitt, Ulrich Güldener, Anna Avrova, Wolfgang Knogge
BACKGROUND: The Rhynchosporium species complex consists of hemibiotrophic fungal pathogens specialized to different sweet grass species including the cereal crops barley and rye. A sexual stage has not been described, but several lines of evidence suggest the occurrence of sexual reproduction. Therefore, a comparative genomics approach was carried out to disclose the evolutionary relationship of the species and to identify genes demonstrating the potential for a sexual cycle. Furthermore, due to the evolutionary very young age of the five species currently known, this genus appears to be well-suited to address the question at the molecular level of how pathogenic fungi adapt to their hosts...
November 22, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862368/effects-of-heat-treatment-on-protein-feeds-evaluated-in%C3%A2-vitro-by-the-method-of-estimating-utilisable-crude-protein-at-the-duodenum
#17
M Vaga, M Hetta, P Huhtanen
The effect of heat treatment on the protein value of field beans, lupins and peas was studied using an in vitro method. Protein feeds were subjected to heat treatment for 30, 60 and 90 min in forced air oven at 120, 140 and 160 °C and in autoclave at 105, 120 and 135 °C. The heat-treated protein feeds were incubated in buffered rumen fluid together with grass silage and barley in complete isonitrogenous diets. The gas production (GP) was recorded continuously, and ammonia-N (NH3 -N) concentrations were determined during the in vitro incubation at 8, 24 and 48 h and used to determine the utilisable crude protein (uCP) at the duodenum at 16 h of incubation (uCP16 )...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815966/microrna-mediated-regulation-of-flower-development-in-grasses
#18
REVIEW
Aleksandra Smoczynska, Zofia Szweykowska-Kulinska
Flower structure in grasses is very unique. There are no petals or sepals like in eudicots but instead flowers develop bract-like structures - palea and lemma. Reproductive organs are enclosed by round lodicule that not only protects reproductive organs but also plays an important role during flower opening. The first genetic model for floral organ development was proposed 25 years ago and it was based on the research on model eudicots. Since then, studies have been carried out to answer the question whether this model could be applicable in the case of monocots...
2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776481/mitochondrial-genome-sequences-from-wild-and-cultivated-barley-hordeum-vulgare
#19
Hiroshi Hisano, Mai Tsujimura, Hideya Yoshida, Toru Terachi, Kazuhiro Sato
BACKGROUND: Sequencing analysis of mitochondrial genomes is important for understanding the evolution and genome structures of various plant species. Barley is a self-pollinated diploid plant with seven chromosomes comprising a large haploid genome of 5.1 Gbp. Wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) and cultivated barley (H. vulgare ssp. vulgare) have cross compatibility and closely related genomes, although a significant number of nucleotide polymorphisms have been reported between their genomes...
October 24, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775498/virulence-and-molecular-characterization-of-experimental-isolates-of-the-stripe-rust-pathogen-puccinia-striiformis-indicate-somatic-recombination
#20
Yu Lei, Meinan Wang, Anmin Wan, Chongjing Xia, Deven R See, Min Zhang, Xianming Chen
Puccinia striiformis causes stripe rust on wheat, barley, and grasses. Natural population studies have indicated that somatic recombination plays a possible role in P. striiformis variation. To determine whether somatic recombination can occur, susceptible wheat or barley plants were inoculated with mixed urediniospores of paired isolates of P. striiformis. Progeny isolates were selected by passing through a series of inoculations of wheat or barley genotypes. Potential recombinant isolates were compared with the parental isolates on the set of 18 wheat or 12 barley genotypes that are used to differentiate races of P...
March 2017: Phytopathology
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