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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440550/political-drivers-of-epidemic-response-foreign-healthcare-workers-and-the-2014-ebola-outbreak
#1
Daniel Nohrstedt, Erik Baekkeskov
This study demonstrates that countries responded quite differently to calls for healthcare workers (HCWs) during the Ebola epidemic in West Africa in 2014. Using a new dataset on the scale and timing of national pledges and the deployment of HCWs to states experiencing outbreaks of the virus disease (principally, Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone), it shows that few foreign nations deployed HCWs early, some made pledges but then fulfilled them slowly, and most sent no HCWs at all. To aid understanding of such national responses, the paper reviews five theoretical perspectives that offer potentially competing or complementary explanations of foreign government medical assistance for international public health emergencies...
April 25, 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440096/strategies-in-ebola-virus-disease-evd-diagnostics-at-the-point-of-care
#2
Chad T Coarsey, Nwadiuto Esiobu, Ramswamy Narayanan, Mirjana Pavlovic, Hadi Shafiee, Waseem Asghar
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a devastating, highly infectious illness with a high mortality rate. The disease is endemic to regions of Central and West Africa, where there is limited laboratory infrastructure and trained staff. The recent 2014 West African EVD outbreak has been unprecedented in case numbers and fatalities, and has proven that such regional outbreaks can become a potential threat to global public health, as it became the source for the subsequent transmission events in Spain and the USA. The urgent need for rapid and affordable means of detecting Ebola is crucial to control the spread of EVD and prevent devastating fatalities...
April 25, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439448/spatial-determinants-of-ebola-virus-disease-risk-for-the-west-african-epidemic
#3
Kate Zinszer, Kathryn Morrison, Aman Verma, John S Brownstein
INTRODUCTION: Although many studies have investigated the probability of Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks while other studies have simulated the size and speed of EVD outbreaks, few have investigated the environmental and population-level predictors of Ebola transmission once an outbreak is underway. Identifying strong predictors of transmission could help guide and target limited public health resources during an EVD outbreak. We examined several environmental and population-level demographic predictors of EVD risk from the West African epidemic...
March 31, 2017: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437843/a-bayesian-belief-network-model-assessing-the-risk-to-wastewater-workers-of-contracting-ebola-virus-disease-during-an-outbreak
#4
Joseph W Zabinski, Kelsey J Pieper, Jacqueline MacDonald Gibson
During an outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD), hospitals' connections to municipal wastewater systems may provide a path for patient waste bearing infectious viral particles to pass from the hospital into the wastewater treatment system, potentially posing risks to sewer and wastewater workers. To quantify these risks, we developed a Bayesian belief network model incorporating data on virus behavior and survival along with structural characteristics of hospitals and wastewater treatment systems. We applied the model to assess risks under several different scenarios of workers' exposure to wastewater for a wastewater system typical of a mid-sized U...
April 24, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437766/cyanobacterial-lectins-characteristics-and-their-role-as-antiviral-agents
#5
REVIEW
Ram Sarup Singh, Amandeep Kaur Walia, Jasvirinder Singh Khattar, Davinder Pal Singh, John F Kennedy
Lectins are ubiquitous proteins/glycoproteins of non-immune origin that bind reversibly to carbohydrates in non-covalent and highly specific manner. These lectin-glycan interactions could be exploited for establishment of novel therapeutics, targeting the adherence stage of viruses and thus helpful in eliminating wide spread viral infections. Here the review focuses on the haemagglutination activity, carbohydrate specificity and characteristics of cyanobacterial lectins. Cyanobacterial lectins exhibiting high specificity towards mannose or complex glycans have potential role as anti-viral agents...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434944/dose-dependent-t-cell-dynamics-and-cytokine-cascade-following-rvsv-zebov-immunization
#6
Christine Dahlke, Rahel Kasonta, Sebastian Lunemann, Verena Krähling, Madeleine E Zinser, Nadine Biedenkopf, Sarah K Fehling, My L Ly, Anne Rechtien, Hans C Stubbe, Flaminia Olearo, Saskia Borregaard, Alen Jambrecina, Felix Stahl, Thomas Strecker, Markus Eickmann, Marc Lütgehetmann, Michael Spohn, Stefan Schmiedel, Ansgar W Lohse, Stephan Becker, Marylyn M Addo
BACKGROUND: The recent West African Ebola epidemic led to accelerated efforts to test Ebola vaccine candidates. As part of the World Health Organisation-led VSV Ebola Consortium (VEBCON), we performed a phase I clinical trial investigating rVSV-ZEBOV (a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-vectored Ebola vaccine), which has recently demonstrated protection from Ebola virus disease (EVD) in phase III clinical trials and is currently in advanced stages of licensing. So far, correlates of immune protection are incompletely understood and the role of cell-mediated immune responses has not been comprehensively investigated to date...
April 5, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431862/application-of-the-cdc-ebolaresponse-modeling-tool-to-disease-predictions
#7
Robert H Gaffey, Cécile Viboud
Model-based predictions were critical in eliciting a vigorous international public health response to the 2014 Ebola Virus Disease outbreak in West Africa. Here, we describe the performances of an extension of the CDC-initiated EbolaResponse Modeling tool to the Ebola Forecasting Challenge, which offered a controlled environment for epidemiological predictions. In the EbolaResponse tool, transmission risks and proportions of population affected by interventions were fitted to data via least square fitting. Prediction performances were evaluated for 5 prediction time points of 4 synthetic outbreaks...
March 10, 2017: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430779/a-coevolution-analysis-for-identifying-protein-protein-interactions-by-fourier-transform
#8
Changchuan Yin, Stephen S-T Yau
Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) play key roles in life processes, such as signal transduction, transcription regulations, and immune response, etc. Identification of PPIs enables better understanding of the functional networks within a cell. Common experimental methods for identifying PPIs are time consuming and expensive. However, recent developments in computational approaches for inferring PPIs from protein sequences based on coevolution theory avoid these problems. In the coevolution theory model, interacted proteins may show coevolutionary mutations and have similar phylogenetic trees...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424108/a-systematic-review-of-early-modelling-studies-of-ebola-virus-disease-in-west-africa-corrigendum
#9
Z S Y Wong, C M Bui, A A Chughtai, C R Macintyre
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420487/personal-protective-equipment-solution-for-uk-military-medical-personnel-working-in-an-ebola-virus-disease-treatment-unit-in-sierra-leone
#10
P Reidy, T Fletcher, C Shieber, J Shallcross, H Towler, M Ping, L Kenworthy, N Silman, E Aarons
The combination of personal protective equipment (PPE) together with donning and doffing protocols was designed to protect British and Canadian military medical personnel in the Kerry Town Ebola Treatment Unit (ETU) in Sierra Leone. The PPE solution was selected to protect medical staff from infectious risks, notably Ebola virus, and chemical (hypochlorite) exposure. PPE maximized dexterity, enabled personnel to work in hot temperatures for periods of up to 2h, protected mucosal membranes when doffing outer layers, and minimized potential contamination of the doffing area with infectious material by reducing the requirement to spray PPE with hypochlorite...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412830/expression-and-immunogenicity-of-vp40-protein-of-zebov
#11
Yinbiao Wang, Xiao Liu, Ling Tao, Pengwei Xu, Xia Gao, Huijun Li, Zhongzhi Yang, Weidong Wu
BACKGROUND: EBOV outbreaks continue to threaten the world due to the absence of effective vaccines and therapeutics. Easy-to-use and rapid diagnostic tests for EBOV are highly desired for prevention and control of the EVD epidemic. METHODS: Escherichia coli expression system was used to express VP40 protein of Zaire Ebola virus (ZEBOV) as water-soluble protein upon optimization of temperature, time, and IPTG concentration. VP40 protein was purified through Ni-NTA affinity chromatography and applied to immunize rabbits for immunogenicity analysis...
April 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410486/how-to-treat-ebola-virus-infections-a-lesson-from-the-field
#12
REVIEW
Sophie Duraffour, Denis Malvy, Daouda Sissoko
The reported case fatality ratios (CFR) of Ebola virus disease (EVD) have been as high as 90% in previous outbreaks. While the cumulative CFR among patients medically evacuated and treated in Western countries was inferior to 20%, it peaked to approximately 75% between September and December 2014 in West Africa, thereafter decreasing to less than 40% (May 2015) without current evidence of major virus mutations capable to alter virus pathogenicity over the course of the epidemic. Therefore, the observed diminution of CFR is likely to reflect improvement of EVD patient care...
April 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404864/longitudinal-peripheral-blood-transcriptional-analysis-of-a-patient-with-severe-ebola-virus-disease
#13
John C Kash, Kathie-Anne Walters, Jason Kindrachuk, David Baxter, Kelsey Scherler, Krisztina B Janosko, Rick D Adams, Andrew S Herbert, Rebekah M James, Spencer W Stonier, Matthew J Memoli, John M Dye, Richard T Davey, Daniel S Chertow, Jeffery K Taubenberger
The 2013-2015 outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone was unprecedented in the number of documented cases, but there have been few published reports on immune responses in clinical cases and their relationships with the course of illness and severity of Ebola virus disease. Symptoms of Ebola virus disease can include severe headache, myalgia, asthenia, fever, fatigue, diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and hemorrhage. Although experimental treatments are in development, there are no current U...
April 12, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403852/health-workers-perceptions-and-attitude-about-ghana-s-preparedness-towards-preventing-containing-and-managing-ebola-virus-disease
#14
Philip Baba Adongo, Philip Teg-Nefaah Tabong, Emmanuel Asampong, Joana Ansong, Magda Robalo, Richard M Adanu
BACKGROUND: Ebola virus is highly infectious and the disease can be very fatal. The World Health Organization has declared the 2014-2015 Ebola Virus Disease outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. In response to this, preparations were made in various health facilities and entry points across Ghana. This study explored health workers perceptions, and attitude about Ghana's preparedness towards preventing and containing Ebola Virus Disease. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study in five (5) of the ten (10) regions in Ghana...
April 12, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403229/correction-interferon-%C3%AE-1a-for-the-treatment-of-ebola-virus-disease-a-historically-controlled-single-arm-proof-of-concept-trial
#15
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0169255.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399710/emerging-sexually-transmitted-viral-infections-1-review-of-ebola-virus-disease
#16
Rachel J Caswell, Kaveh Manavi
This is the first in a series of articles reviewing four viral infections, Ebola virus, Zika virus, human T-cell lymphotropic virus, type 1 and hepatitis C virus, with an emphasis on recent advances in our understanding of their sexual transmission. With current day speed and ease of travel it is important for staff in sexual healthcare services to know and understand these infections when patients present to them and also to be able to advise those travelling to endemic regions. Following the recent resurgence in West Africa, this first article looks at Ebola virus disease (EVD)...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398679/ebola-virus-disease-and-pregnancy-a-review-of-the-current-knowledge-of-ebola-virus-pathogenesis-maternal-and-neonatal-outcomes
#17
REVIEW
Lisa M Bebell, Titilope Oduyebo, Laura E Riley
The 2014 to 2016 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa devastated local health systems and caused thousands of deaths. Historical reports from Zaire ebolavirus outbreaks suggested pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of severe illness and death, with mortality rates from 74 to 100%. In total, 111 cases of pregnant patients with EVD are reported in the literature, with an aggregate maternal mortality of 86%. Pregnancy-specific data published from the recent outbreak include four small descriptive cohort studies and five case reports...
March 15, 2017: Birth Defects Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396474/evaluating-the-frequency-of-asymptomatic-ebola-virus-infection
#18
Placide Mbala, Marc Baguelin, Ipos Ngay, Alicia Rosello, Prime Mulembakani, Nikolaos Demiris, W John Edmunds, Jean-Jacques Muyembe
The potential for asymptomatic infection from Ebola viruses has long been questioned. Knowing the proportion of infections that are asymptomatic substantially changes the predictions made by mathematical models and alters the corresponding decisions based upon these models. To assess the degree of asymptomatic infection occurring during an Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak, we carried out a serological survey in the Djera district of the Equateur province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo affected by an Ebola outbreak in 2014...
May 26, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396471/contact-tracing-performance-during-the-ebola-virus-disease-outbreak-in-kenema-district-sierra-leone
#19
Mikiko Senga, Alpha Koi, Lina Moses, Nadia Wauquier, Philippe Barboza, Maria Dolores Fernandez-Garcia, Etsub Engedashet, Fredson Kuti-George, Aychiluhim Damtew Mitiku, Mohamed Vandi, David Kargbo, Pierre Formenty, Stephane Hugonnet, Eric Bertherat, Christopher Lane
Contact tracing in an Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is the process of identifying individuals who may have been exposed to infected persons with the virus, followed by monitoring for 21 days (the maximum incubation period) from the date of the most recent exposure. The goal is to achieve early detection and isolation of any new cases in order to prevent further transmission. We performed a retrospective data analysis of 261 probable and confirmed EVD cases in the national EVD database and 2525 contacts in the Contact Line Lists in Kenema district, Sierra Leone between 27 April and 4 September 2014 to assess the performance of contact tracing during the initial stage of the outbreak...
May 26, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396470/case-study-design-and-implementation-of-training-for-scientists-deploying-to-ebola-diagnostic-field-laboratories-in-sierra-leone-october-2014-to-february-2016
#20
REVIEW
Christopher H Logue, Suzanna M Lewis, Amber Lansley, Sara Fraser, Clare Shieber, Sonal Shah, Amanda Semper, Daniel Bailey, Jason Busuttil, Liz Evans, Miles W Carroll, Nigel J Silman, Tim Brooks, Jane A Shallcross
As part of the UK response to the 2013-2016 Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in West Africa, Public Health England (PHE) were tasked with establishing three field Ebola virus (EBOV) diagnostic laboratories in Sierra Leone by the UK Department for International Development (DFID). These provided diagnostic support to the Ebola Treatment Centre (ETC) facilities located in Kerry Town, Makeni and Port Loko. The Novel and Dangerous Pathogens (NADP) Training group at PHE, Porton Down, designed and implemented a pre-deployment Ebola diagnostic laboratory training programme for UK volunteer scientists being deployed to the PHE EVD laboratories...
May 26, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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