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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149432/ebola-in-the-netherlands-2014-2015-costs-of-preparedness-and-response
#1
Anita W M Suijkerbuijk, Corien M Swaan, Marie-Josee J Mangen, Johan J Polder, Aura Timen, Wilhelmina L M Ruijs
The recent epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) resulted in countries worldwide to prepare for the possibility of having an EVD patient. In this study, we estimate the costs of Ebola preparedness and response borne by the Dutch health system. An activity-based costing method was used, in which the cost of staff time spent in preparedness and response activities was calculated based on a time-recording system and interviews with key professionals at the healthcare organizations involved. In addition, the organizations provided cost information on patient days of hospitalization, laboratory tests, personal protective equipment (PPE), as well as the additional cleaning and disinfection required...
November 17, 2017: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148858/from-bench-to-almost-bedside-the-long-road-to-a-licensed-ebola-virus-vaccine
#2
Gary Wong, Emelissa J Mendoza, Francis A Plummer, George F Gao, Gary P Kobinger, Xiangguo Qiu
The Ebola virus (EBOV) disease epidemic during 2014-16 in West Africa has accelerated the clinical development of several vaccine candidates that have demonstrated efficacy in the gold standard nonhuman primate (NHP) model, namely cynomolgus macaques. Areas covered: This review discusses the pre-clinical research and if available, clinical evaluation of the currently available EBOV vaccine candidates, while emphasizing the translatability of pre-clinical data generated in the NHP model to clinical data in humans...
November 17, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148368/lack-of-secondary-transmission-of-ebola-virus-from-healthcare-worker-to-238-contacts-united-kingdom-december-2014
#3
Paul Crook, Alison Smith-Palmer, Helen Maguire, Noel McCarthy, Hilary Kirkbride, Bruce Court, Sanch Kanagarajah, Deborah Turbitt, Syed Ahmed, Paul Cosford, Isabel Oliver
In December 2014, Ebola virus disease (EVD) was diagnosed in a healthcare worker in the United Kingdom after the worker returned from an Ebola treatment center in Sierra Leone. The worker flew on 2 flights during the early stages of disease. Follow-up of 238 contacts showed no evidence of secondary transmission of Ebola virus.
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142131/single-dose-trivalent-vesiculovax-vaccine-protects-macaques-from-lethal-ebolavirus-and-marburgvirus-challenge
#4
Demetrius Matassov, Chad E Mire, Theresa Latham, Joan B Geisbert, Rong Xu, Ayuko Ota-Setlik, Krystle N Agans, Dean J Kobs, Morgan Q S Wendling, Amanda Burnaugh, Thomas L Rudge, Carol L Sabourin, Michael A Egan, David K Clarke, Thomas W Geisbert, John H Eldridge
Previous studies demonstrated that a single intramuscular (IM) dose of an attenuated vesicular stomatitis virus vector (Vesiculovax™, rVSV-N4CT1) expressing the glycoprotein (GP) from the Mayinga strain of Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) protected nonhuman primates (NHP) from lethal challenge with EBOV Kikwit and Makona strains. Here we studied the immunogenicity of an expanded range of attenuated rVSV vectors expressing filovirus GP in mice. Based on data from those studies an optimal attenuated tri-valent rVSV vector formulation was identified which included rVSV vectors expressing EBOV, Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV) or Angola strain of Marburg marburgvirus (MARV) GPs...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141743/prognostic-and-predictive-factors-of-ebola-virus-disease-outcome-in-elderly-people-during-the-2014-outbreak-in-guinea
#5
Mahamoud Sama Cherif, Shyam Prakash Dumre, Diénaba Kassé, Fatoumata Cherif, Facély Camara, Alpha Koné, Mandiou Diakité, Mohamed Cisse, Mamadou Pathé Diallo, Edouard Le Gall, Juntra Karbwang, Kenji Hirayama
Elderly people occupy a prominent position in African societies; however, their potential linkage to high case fatality rate (CFR) in Ebola virus disease (EVD) was often overlooked. We describe the predictive factors for EVD lethality in the elderly. A total of 2,004 adults and 309 elderly patients with confirmed EVD were included in the analysis. The median age (interquartile range) was 35 years (23-44) in adults and 65 years (60-70) in the elderly. The proportion of funeral participation was significantly higher in the elderly group than in the adult group...
October 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140769/addressing-maternal-health-during-cdc-s-ebola-response-in-the-united-states
#6
Sascha Ellington, Mirna Perez, Diane Morof, Marianne E Zotti, William Callaghan, Dana Meaney-Delman, Maleeka Glover, Quynh-Chau Ha, Denise J Jamieson
Previous outbreaks suggest that pregnant women with Ebola virus disease (EVD) are at increased risk for severe disease and death. Healthcare workers who treat pregnant women with EVD are at increased risk of body fluid exposure. Despite the absence of pregnant women with EVD in the United States, CDC activated the Maternal Health Team (MHT), a functional unit dedicated to emergency preparedness and response issues, on October 18, 2014. We describe major activities of the MHT. A high-priority MHT activity was to publish guiding principles early in the response...
November 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140442/variability-in-intra-household-transmission-of-ebola-virus-and-estimation-of-the-household-secondary-attack-rate
#7
Judith R Glynn, Hilary Bower, Sembia Johnson, Cecilia Turay, Daniel Sesay, Saidu H Mansaray, Osman Kamara, Alie Joshua Kamara, Mohammed S Bangura, Francesco Checchi
Transmission between family members accounts for most Ebola virus transmission, but little is known about determinants of intra-household spread. From detailed exposure histories, intra-household transmission chains were created for 94 households of Ebola survivors in Sierra Leone: 109 (co-)primary cases gave rise to 317 subsequent cases (0-100% of those exposed). Larger households were more likely to have subsequent cases, and the proportion of household members affected depended on individual and household-level factors...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138016/the-challenges-of-detecting-and-responding-to-a-lassa-fever-outbreak-in-an-ebola-affected-setting
#8
E L Hamblion, P Raftery, A Wendland, E Dweh, G S Williams, R N C George, L Soro, V Katawera, P Clement, A N Gasasira, E Musa, T K Nagbe
OBJECTIVES: Lassa fever(LF), a priority emerging pathogen likely to cause major epidemics, is endemic in much of West Africa and difficult to distinguish from other viral haemorrhagic fevers including Ebola virus disease(EVD). Definitive diagnosis requires laboratory confirmation not widely available in affected settings. We report the public health action to contain a LF outbreak and challenges encountered in an EVD-affected setting. METHODS: In February 2016 a rapid response team was deployed in Liberia in response to a cluster of LF cases...
November 11, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135337/dna-vaccines-elicit-durable-protective-immunity-against-individual-or-simultaneous-infections-with-lassa-and-ebola-viruses-in-guinea-pigs
#9
Kathleen A Cashman, Eric R Wilkinson, Suzanne E Wollen, Joshua D Shamblin, Justine M Zelko, Jeremy J Bearss, Xiankun Zeng, Kate E Broderick, Connie S Schmaljohn
We previously developed optimized DNA vaccines against both Lassa fever and Ebola hemorrhagic fever viruses and demonstrated that they were protective individually in guinea pig and nonhuman primate models. In this study, we vaccinated groups of strain 13 guinea pigs two times, four weeks apart with 50 µg of each DNA vaccine or a mock vaccine at discrete sites by intradermal electroporation. Five weeks following the second vaccinations, guinea pigs were exposed to lethal doses of Lassa virus, Ebola virus, or a combination of both viruses simultaneously...
November 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134435/plant-phenology-supports-the-multi-emergence-hypothesis-for-ebola-spillover-events
#10
Katharina C Wollenberg Valero, Raphael D Isokpehi, Noah E Douglas, Seenith Sivasundaram, Brianna Johnson, Kiara Wootson, Ayana McGill
Ebola virus disease outbreaks in animals (including humans and great apes) start with sporadic host switches from unknown reservoir species. The factors leading to such spillover events are little explored. Filoviridae viruses have a wide range of natural hosts and are unstable once outside hosts. Spillover events, which involve the physical transfer of viral particles across species, could therefore be directly promoted by conditions of host ecology and environment. In this report, we outline a proof of concept that temporal fluctuations of a set of ecological and environmental variables describing the dynamics of the host ecosystem are able to predict such events of Ebola virus spillover to humans and animals...
November 13, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133569/efficacy-of-tilorone-dihydrochloride-against-ebola-virus-infection
#11
Sean Ekins, Mary A Lingerfelt, Jason E Comer, Alexander N Freiberg, Jon C Mirsalis, Kathleen O'Loughlin, Anush Harutyunyan, Claire McFarlane, Carol E Green, Peter B Madrid
Tilorone dihydrochloride (tilorone) is a small-molecule, orally bioavailable drug that is used clinically as an antiviral outside of the US. A machine learning model trained on anti-Ebola virus (EBOV) screening data previously identified tilorone as a potent in vitro EBOV inhibitor, making it a candidate for the treatment of Ebola virus disease (EVD). In the present study, a series of in vitro ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, toxicity) assays demonstrated the drug has excellent solubility, high Caco-2 permeability, was not a P-glycoprotein substrate and had no inhibitory activity against five human CYP450 enzymes (3A4, 2D6, 2C19, 2C9 and 1A2)...
November 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128378/ebola-virus-disease-report-from-the-task-force-on-tropical-diseases-by-the-world-federation-of-societies-of-intensive-and-critical-care-medicine
#12
REVIEW
Guy A Richards, Tim Baker, Pravin Amin
Ebola virus is a filovirus that can cause fatal hemorrhagic fever (HF) and five distinct species exist that vary in terms of geographical distribution and virulence. Once the more virulent forms enter the human population, transmission occurs primarily through direct contact with infected body fluids and may result in significant outbreaks. The devastating has been the recent West African outbreak. Clinically, signs and symptoms are similar to those of the other VHFs [4]. The incubation period is 2-21days, followed by fever, headache, myalgia, diarrhoea, vomiting and dehydration; thereafter, there may be recovery or deterioration with collapse, neurological manifestations and bleeding, that can lead to a fatal outcome...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125394/knowledge-gained-and-retained-from-a-video-centered-community-based-intervention-for-ebola-prevention-congo
#13
Amira A Roess, Rosemarie Di Peppi, Eric A Kinzoni, Michaelle Molouania, Emily Kennedy, Saturnin R Ibata, Nkenda Badinga, Fredy S Mabola, Cynthia Moses
There are few effective communication interventions to respond to Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreaks, and their development is a continuing challenge. The largest outbreak of EVD was first recognized in 2014 and once again highlighted the need for health education communication campaigns. EVD emergence and transmission are associated with behaviors that increase exposure to infected individuals and infected wildlife. In 2008-2009, an educational video-centered intervention consisting of a film followed by a structured discussion was developed to improve EVD knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors (KABs) for prevention of EVD and care of infected people...
November 2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123522/transcriptome-analysis-of-circulating-immune-cell-subsets-highlight-the-role-of-monocytes-in-zaire-ebola-virus-makona-pathogenesis
#14
Andrea R Menicucci, Krista Versteeg, Courtney Woolsey, Chad E Mire, Joan B Geisbert, Robert W Cross, Krystle N Agans, Allen Jankeel, Thomas W Geisbert, Ilhem Messaoudi
Existing models of Ebola virus disease (EVD) suggest antigen-presenting cells are initial targets of Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV). In vitro studies have shown that ZEBOV infection of monocytes and macrophages results in the production of inflammatory mediators, which may cause lymphocyte apoptosis. However, these findings have not been corroborated by in vivo studies. In this study, we report the first longitudinal analysis of transcriptional changes in purified monocytes, T-cells, and B-cells isolated from cynomolgus macaques following infection with ZEBOV-Makona...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122384/strengthening-global-vaccine-access-for-adolescents-and-adults
#15
REVIEW
Angeline Nanni, Stefanie Meredith, Stephanie Gati, Karin Holm, Tom Harmon, Ann Ginsberg
Global immunization efforts to date have heavily focused on infants and children, with noted success on public health. Healthy adolescents and adults contribute to the economic growth and development of countries but efforts to ensure vaccine coverage for these groups receive inadequate global attention and resources. Emerging epidemics for a number of infectious diseases including Ebola, Zika, dengue, malaria and the continuing epidemics of tuberculosis and several sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, HPV and Hepatitis B, have high incidence and prevalence in adolescents and adults...
November 6, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121223/health-system-strengthening-prospects-and-threats-for-its-sustainability-on-the-global-health-policy-agenda
#16
Joseph F Naimoli, Sweta Saxena, Laurel E Hatt, Kristina M Yarrow, Trenton M White, Temitayo Ifafore-Calfee
In 2013, Hafner and Shiffman applied Kingdon's public policy process model to explain the emergence of global attention to health system strengthening (HSS). They questioned, however, HSS's sustainability on the global health policy agenda, citing various concerns. Guided by the Grindle and Thomas interactive model of policy implementation, we advance and elaborate a proposition: a confluence of developments will contribute to maintaining HSS's prominent place on the agenda until at least 2030. Those developments include (1) technical, managerial, financial, and political responses to unpredictable public health crises that imperil the routine functioning of health systems, such as the 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease (Ebola) epidemic in West Africa; (2) similar responses to non-crisis situations requiring fully engaged, robust health systems, such as the pursuit of the new Sustainable Development Goal for health (SDG3); and (3) increased availability of new knowledge about system change at macro, meso, and micro levels and its effects on people's health and well-being...
November 7, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117192/can-you-catch-ebola-from-a-stork-bite-inductive-reasoning-influences-generalization-of-perceived-zoonosis-risk
#17
Tyler Davis, Micah B Goldwater, Molly E Ireland, Nicholas Gaylord, Jason Van Allen
Emerging zoonoses are a prominent global health threat. Human beliefs are central to drivers of emerging zoonoses, yet little is known about how people make inferences about risk in such scenarios. We present an inductive account of zoonosis risk perception, suggesting that beliefs about the range of animals able to transmit diseases to each other influence how people generalize risks to other animals and health behaviors. Consistent with our account, in Study 1, we find that participants who endorse higher likelihoods of cross-species disease transmission have stronger intentions to report animal bites...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116351/continuous-flow-microfluidic-qrt-pcr-system-for-rna-virus-detection
#18
B Leticia Fernández-Carballo, Christine McBeth, Ian McGuiness, Maxim Kalashnikov, Christoph Baum, Salvador Borrós, Andre Sharon, Alexis F Sauer-Budge
One of the main challenges in the diagnosis of infectious diseases is the need for rapid and accurate detection of the causative pathogen in any setting. Rapid diagnosis is key to avoiding the spread of the disease, to allow proper clinical decisions to be made in terms of patient treatment, and to mitigate the rise of drug-resistant pathogens. In the last decade, significant interest has been devoted to the development of point-of-care reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) platforms for the detection of RNA-based viral pathogens...
November 7, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116224/comparison-of-transcriptomic-platforms-for-analysis-of-whole-blood-from-ebola-infected-cynomolgus-macaques
#19
Emily Speranza, Louis A Altamura, Kirsten Kulcsar, Sandra L Bixler, Cynthia A Rossi, Randal J Schoepp, Elyse Nagle, William Aguilar, Christina E Douglas, Korey L Delp, Timothy D Minogue, Gustavo Palacios, Arthur J Goff, John H Connor
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a serious illness with mortality rates of 20-90% in various outbreaks. EVD is characterized by robust virus replication and strong host inflammatory response. Analyzing host immune responses has increasingly involved multimodal approaches including transcriptomics to profile gene expression. We studied cynomolgus macaques exposed to Ebola virus Makona via different routes with the intent of comparing RNA-Seq to a NanoString nCounter codeset targeting 769 non-human primate (NHP) genes...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109373/development-of-a-lethal-intranasal-exposure-model-of-ebola-virus-in-the-cynomolgus-macaque
#20
Kendra J Alfson, Laura E Avena, Gabriella Worwa, Ricardo Carrion, Anthony Griffiths
Ebola virus (EBOV) is a filovirus that can cause Ebola virus disease (EVD). No approved vaccines or therapies exist for filovirus infections, despite an urgent need. The development and testing of effective countermeasures against EBOV requires use of animal models and a thorough understanding of how the model aligns with EVD in humans. The majority of published studies report outcomes of parenteral exposures for emulating needle stick transmission. However, based on data from EVD outbreaks, close contact exposures to infected bodily fluid seems to be one of the primary routes of EBOV transmission...
October 29, 2017: Viruses
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