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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775667/identification-of-novel-hla-a11-restricted-t-cell-epitopes-in-the-ebola-virus-nucleoprotein
#1
Dan Li, Pei Li, Nianping Song, Yuting Jiang, Yang Zeng, Guangyu Zhao, Yunzhi Fa, Huahu Ye, Yuchun Lone, Yusen Zhou, Shihui Sun, Lin Zeng
The Ebola virus (EBOV) is a very contagious virus that is highly fatal in humans and animals. The largest epidemic was in West Africa in 2014, in which over 11,000 people died. However, to date, there are no licensed vaccines against it. Studies show that CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses, especially cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses, play key roles in protecting individuals from EBOV infection. Since HLA-restricted epitope vaccines are likely to be effective and safe immunization strategies for infectious diseases, the present study screened for CTL epitopes in the EBOV-nucleoprotein that are restricted by HLA-A11 (a common allele in Chinese people)...
May 15, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770047/emerging-infectious-diseases-prediction-and-detection
#2
N H Ogden, P AbdelMalik, Jrc Pulliam
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs), including West Nile virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Lyme disease, have had a direct effect within Canada, while many more EIDs such as Zika, chikungunya and Ebola are a threat to Canadians while travelling. Over 75% of EIDs affecting humans are, or were originally, zoonoses (infectious diseases transmitted from animals to humans). There are two main ways by which infectious diseases can emerge: by changes in their geographical ranges and by adaptive emergence, a genetic change in a microorganism that results in it becoming capable of invading a new niche, often by jumping to a new host species such as humans...
October 5, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764410/changes-in-risk-perceptions-during-the-2014-ebola-virus-disease-epidemic-results-of-two-consecutive-surveys-among-the-general-population-in-lower-saxony-germany
#3
Julie Obenauer, Nicole Rübsamen, Ekaterine Garsevanidze, André Karch, Rafael T Mikolajczyk
BACKGROUND: The Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak 2014 received extensive news media coverage, which faded out before the outbreak ended. News media coverage impacts risk perception; it is, however, unclear if the components of risk perception (affective and cognitive responses) change differently over time. METHODS: In an online panel, we asked participants (n = 1376) about EVD risk perceptions at the epidemic's peak (November 2014) and after news media coverage faded out (August 2015)...
May 15, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764104/the-response-to-and-impact-of-the-ebola-epidemic-towards-an-agenda-for-interdisciplinary-research
#4
Michael Calnan, Erica W Gadsby, Mandy Kader Kondé, Abdourahime Diallo, Jeremy S Rossman
BACKGROUND: The 2013-2016 Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in West Africa was the largest in history and resulted in a huge public health burden and significant social and economic impact in those countries most affected. Its size, duration and geographical spread presents important opportunities for research than might help national and global health and social care systems to better prepare for and respond to future outbreaks. This paper examines research needs and research priorities from the perspective of those who directly experienced the EVD epidemic in Guinea...
September 3, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757706/the-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-based-ebola-virus-vaccine-from-concept-to-clinical-trials
#5
Ellen Suder, Wakako Furuyama, Heinz Feldmann, Andrea Marzi, Emmie de Wit
The devastating Ebola virus (EBOV) epidemic in West Africa in 2013-2016 accelerated the progress of several vaccines and antivirals through clinical trials, including the replication-competent vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccine expressing the EBOV glycoprotein (VSV-EBOV). Extensive preclinical testing in animal models demonstrated the prophylactic and post-exposure efficacy of this vaccine, identified the mechanism of protection, and suggested it was safe for human use. Based on these data, VSV-EBOV was extensively tested in phase 1-3 clinical trials in North America, Europe and Africa...
May 14, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748487/structural-transition-and-antibody-binding-of-ebov-gp-and-zikv-e-proteins-from-pre-fusion-to-fusion-initiation-state
#6
Anna Lappala, Wataru Nishima, Jacob Miner, Paul Fenimore, Will Fischer, Peter Hraber, Ming Zhang, Benjamin McMahon, Chang-Shung Tung
Membrane fusion proteins are responsible for viral entry into host cells—a crucial first step in viral infection. These proteins undergo large conformational changes from pre-fusion to fusion-initiation structures, and, despite differences in viral genomes and disease etiology, many fusion proteins are arranged as trimers. Structural information for both pre-fusion and fusion-initiation states is critical for understanding virus neutralization by the host immune system. In the case of Ebola virus glycoprotein (EBOV GP) and Zika virus envelope protein (ZIKV E), pre-fusion state structures have been identified experimentally, but only partial structures of fusion-initiation states have been described...
May 10, 2018: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742435/recently-identified-mutations-in-the-ebola-virus-makona-genome-do-not-alter-pathogenicity-in-animal-models
#7
Andrea Marzi, Spencer Chadinah, Elaine Haddock, Friederike Feldmann, Nicolette Arndt, Cynthia Martellaro, Dana P Scott, Patrick W Hanley, Tolbert G Nyenswah, Samba Sow, Moses Massaquoi, Heinz Feldmann
Ebola virus (EBOV), isolate Makona, the causative agent of the West African EBOV epidemic, has been the subject of numerous investigations to determine the genetic diversity and its potential implication for virus biology, pathogenicity, and transmissibility. Despite various mutations that have emerged over time through multiple human-to-human transmission chains, their biological relevance remains questionable. Recently, mutations in the glycoprotein GP and polymerase L, which emerged and stabilized early during the outbreak, have been associated with improved viral fitness in cell culture...
May 8, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742004/cross-sectional-study-on-acceptability-of-the-media-channels-about-ebola-virus-disease-in-guangzhou-china
#8
Weisi Liu, Zhoubin Zhang, Jiamin Chen, Xiaojin You
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the information seeking about Ebola virus disease (EVD) and media channels, then to provide theory evidence for working out the health education transmission strategy in similar public health emergency events. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used a cross-sectional survey model, data were collected through questionnaire over telephone calls, and R × c chi-square test was used to identify factors associated with knowledge and media channels for choosing to get the information about EVD prevention and control...
May 9, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717011/statins-suppress-ebola-virus-infectivity-by-interfering-with-glycoprotein-processing
#9
Punya Shrivastava-Ranjan, Mike Flint, Éric Bergeron, Anita K McElroy, Payel Chatterjee, César G Albariño, Stuart T Nichol, Christina F Spiropoulou
Ebola virus (EBOV) infection is a major public health concern due to high fatality rates and limited effective treatments. Statins, widely used cholesterol-lowering drugs, have pleiotropic mechanisms of action and were suggested as potential adjunct therapy for Ebola virus disease (EVD) during the 2013-2016 outbreak in West Africa. Here, we evaluated the antiviral effects of statin (lovastatin) on EBOV infection in vitro Statin treatment decreased infectious EBOV production in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages and in the hepatic cell line Huh7...
May 1, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707974/mass-spectrometric-analysis-of-glycosylated-viral-proteins
#10
David J Harvey
Viral diseases contribute much to human and animal suffering and enormous efforts are directed at developing appropriate vaccines for protection. Glycoproteins constitute much of the viral surfaces and are obvious targets for such vaccine development. This review describes mass spectrometric methods used for the structural determination of these compounds. Areas covered: The review describes the structures of the N- and O-linked glycans found on glycoproteins and mass spectrometric methods for their ionization and fragmentation...
April 30, 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707637/guns-germs-and-trees-determine-density-and-distribution-of-gorillas-and-chimpanzees-in-western-equatorial-africa
#11
Samantha Strindberg, Fiona Maisels, Elizabeth A Williamson, Stephen Blake, Emma J Stokes, Rostand Aba'a, Gaspard Abitsi, Anthony Agbor, Ruffin D Ambahe, Parfait C Bakabana, Martha Bechem, Antoine Berlemont, Bruno Bokoto de Semboli, Patrick R Boundja, Nicolas Bout, Thomas Breuer, Genevieve Campbell, Pauwel De Wachter, Marc Ella Akou, Fidel Esono Mba, Anna T C Feistner, Bernard Fosso, Roger Fotso, David Greer, Clement Inkamba-Nkulu, Calixte F Iyenguet, Kathryn J Jeffery, Max Kokangoye, Hjalmar S Kühl, Stephanie Latour, Bola Madzoke, Calixte Makoumbou, Guy-Aimé F Malanda, Richard Malonga, Victor Mbolo, David B Morgan, Prosper Motsaba, Gabin Moukala, Brice S Mowawa, Mizuki Murai, Christian Ndzai, Tomoaki Nishihara, Zacharie Nzooh, Lilian Pintea, Amy Pokempner, Hugo J Rainey, Tim Rayden, Heidi Ruffler, Crickette M Sanz, Angelique Todd, Hilde Vanleeuwe, Ashley Vosper, Ymke Warren, David S Wilkie
We present a range-wide assessment of sympatric western lowland gorillas Gorilla gorilla gorilla and central chimpanzees Pan troglodytes troglodytes using the largest survey data set ever assembled for these taxa: 59 sites in five countries surveyed between 2003 and 2013, totaling 61,000 person-days of fieldwork. We used spatial modeling to investigate major drivers of great ape distribution and population trends. We predicted density across each taxon's geographic range, allowing us to estimate overall abundance: 361,900 gorillas and 128,700 chimpanzees in Western Equatorial Africa-substantially higher than previous estimates...
April 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699538/impact-of-infection-prevention-and-control-training-on-health-facilities-during-the-ebola-virus-disease-outbreak-in-guinea
#12
Mory Keïta, Ansoumane Yassima Camara, Falaye Traoré, Mohamed ElMady Camara, André Kpanamou, Sékou Camara, Aminata Tolno, Bienvenu Houndjo, Fatimatou Diallo, Fatoumata Conté, Lorenzo Subissi
BACKGROUND: In 2014-2016, West Africa faced the most deadly Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in history. A key strategy to overcome this outbreak was continual staff training in Infection Prevention and Control (IPC), with a focus on Ebola. This research aimed to evaluate the impact of IPC training and the quality of IPC performance in health care facilities of one municipality of Conakry, Guinea. METHODS: This study was conducted in February 2016. All health facilities within Ratoma municipality, Conakry, Guinea, were evaluated based on IPC performance standards developed by the Guinean Ministry of Health...
April 24, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698521/positive-experiences-of-volunteers-working-in-deployable-laboratories-in-west-africa-during-the-ebola-outbreak
#13
Evelien Belfroid, Madelief Mollers, Pieter W Smit, Marlies Hulscher, Marion Koopmans, Chantal Reusken, Aura Timen
The largest outbreak of Ebola virus disease ever started in West Africa in December 2013; it created a pressing need to expand the workforce dealing with it. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the experiences of volunteers from the European Union who worked in deployable laboratories in West Africa during the outbreak. This study is part of the EMERGE project. We assessed the experiences of 251 volunteers with a 19-item online questionnaire. The questions asked about positive aspects of volunteering such as learning new skills, establishing a new path in life, and changing life values...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691416/virus-encoded-mirnas-in-ebola-virus-disease
#14
Janice Duy, Anna N Honko, Louis A Altamura, Sandra L Bixler, Suzanne Wollen-Roberts, Nadia Wauquier, Aileen O'Hearn, Eric M Mucker, Joshua C Johnson, Joshua D Shamblin, Justine Zelko, Miriam A Botto, James Bangura, Moinya Coomber, M Louise Pitt, Jean-Paul Gonzalez, Randal J Schoepp, Arthur J Goff, Timothy D Minogue
Ebola virus (EBOV) is a negative-strand RNA virus that replicates in the cytoplasm and causes an often-fatal hemorrhagic fever. EBOV, like other viruses, can reportedly encode its own microRNAs (miRNAs) to subvert host immune defenses. miRNAs are short noncoding RNAs that can regulate gene expression by hybridizing to multiple mRNAs, and viral miRNAs can enhance viral replication and infectivity by regulating host or viral genes. To date, only one EBOV miRNA has been examined in human infection. Here, we assayed mouse, rhesus macaque, cynomolgus macaque, and human samples infected with three EBOV variants for twelve computationally predicted viral miRNAs using RT-qPCR...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666200/knowing-when-not-to-stop-rejecting-futility-in-ebola-virus-disease-treatment
#15
EDITORIAL
Michael Jacobs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659889/anti-ebola-virus-antibody-levels-in-convalescent-plasma-and-viral-load-after-plasma-infusion-in-patients-with-ebola-virus-disease
#16
Jerry F Brown, John M Dye, Sam Tozay, Gertrude Jeh-Mulbah, David A Wohl, William A Fischer, Coleen K Cunningham, Kathleen Rowe, Peter Zacharias, James van Hasselt, David A Norwood, Nathan M Thielman, Samantha E Zak, David L Hoover
Background: Ebola virus (EBOV) neutralizing antibody in plasma may reduce viral load following administration of plasma to patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD), but measurement of these antibodies is complex. Methods: Anti-EBOV antibody was measured by two neutralization and two enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) in convalescent plasma (ECP) from 100 EVD survivor donors in Liberia. Viral load was assessed repetitively in patients with EVD participating in a clinical trial of enhanced standard of care plus ECP...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656441/a-review-on-current-status-of-antiviral-sirna
#17
REVIEW
Abid Qureshi, Vaqar Gani Tantray, Altaf Rehman Kirmani, Abdul Ghani Ahangar
Viral diseases like influenza, AIDS, hepatitis, and Ebola cause severe epidemics worldwide. Along with their resistant strains, new pathogenic viruses continue to be discovered so creating an ongoing need for new antiviral treatments. RNA interference is a cellular gene-silencing phenomenon in which sequence-specific degradation of target mRNA is achieved by means of complementary short interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules. Short interfering RNA technology affords a potential tractable strategy to combat viral pathogenesis because siRNAs are specific, easy to design, and can be directed against multiple strains of a virus by targeting their conserved gene regions...
April 15, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649187/surveillance-to-track-progress-toward-polio-eradication-worldwide-2016-2017
#18
Tracie J Gardner, Ousmane M Diop, Jaume Jorba, Smita Chavan, Jamal Ahmed, Abhijeet Anand
Global efforts to eradicate polio began in 1988, and four of the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions currently have achieved poliofree certification. Within the remaining two regions with endemic poliomyelitis (African and Eastern Mediterranean), Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan have never interrupted transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV). The primary means of detecting poliovirus transmission is surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) among children aged <15 years, combined with collection and testing of stool specimens for detection of WPV and vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs)* in WHO-accredited laboratories within the Global Polio Laboratory Network (GPLN) (1,2)...
April 13, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629189/trust-fear-stigma-and-disruptions-community-perceptions-and-experiences-during-periods-of-low-but-ongoing-transmission-of-ebola-virus-disease-in-sierra-leone-2015
#19
Azizeh Nuriddin, Mohamed F Jalloh, Erika Meyer, Rebecca Bunnell, Franklin A Bio, Mohammad B Jalloh, Paul Sengeh, Kathy M Hageman, Dianna D Carroll, Lansana Conteh, Oliver Morgan
Social mobilisation and risk communication were essential to the 2014-2015 West African Ebola response. By March 2015, >8500 Ebola cases and 3370 Ebola deaths were confirmed in Sierra Leone. Response efforts were focused on 'getting to zero and staying at zero'. A critical component of this plan was to deepen and sustain community engagement. Several national quantitative studies conducted during this time revealed Ebola knowledge, personal prevention practices and traditional burial procedures improved as the outbreak waned, but healthcare system challenges were also noted...
2018: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628293/social-media-and-outbreaks-of-emerging-infectious-diseases-a-systematic-review-of-literature
#20
REVIEW
Lu Tang, Bijie Bie, Sung-Eun Park, Degui Zhi
BACKGROUND: The public often turn to social media for information during emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) outbreaks. This study identified the major approaches and assessed the rigors in published research articles on EIDs and social media. METHODS: We searched 5 databases for published journal articles on EIDs and social media. We then evaluated these articles in terms of EIDs studied, social media examined, theoretical frameworks, methodologic approaches, and research findings...
April 5, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
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