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ebola virus disease

Marion Gay, Pascal Carato, Mathilde Coevoet, Nicolas Renault, Paul-Emmanuel Larchanché, Amélie Barczyk, Saïd Yous, Luc Buée, Nicolas Sergeant, Patricia Melnyk
The chloroquinoline scaffold is characteristic of anti-malarial drugs such as chloroquine (CQ) or amodiaquine (AQ). These drugs are also described for their potential effectiveness against prion disease, HCV, EBV, Ebola virus, cancer, Parkinson or Alzheimer diseases. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolism is deregulated in Alzheimer's disease. Indeed, CQ modifies amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolism by precluding the release of amyloid-beta peptides (Aβ), which accumulate in the brain of Alzheimer patients to form the so-called amyloid plaques...
March 12, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
J Daniel Kelly, Eugene T Richardson, Michael Drasher, M Bailor Barrie, Sahr Karku, Mohamed Kamara, Katrina Hann, Kerry Dierberg, Allan Hubbard, Christina P Lindan, Paul E Farmer, George W Rutherford, Sheri D Weiser
Studies have shown that people suffering from food insecurity are at higher risk for infectious and noncommunicable diseases and have poorer health outcomes. No study, however, has examined the association between food insecurity and outcomes related to Ebola virus disease (EVD). We conducted a cross-sectional study in two Ebola-affected communities in Kono district, Sierra Leone, from November 2015 to September 2016. We enrolled persons who were determined to have been exposed to Ebola virus. We assessed the association of food insecurity, using an adapted version of the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, a nine-item scale well validated across Africa, with having been diagnosed with EVD and having died of EVD, using logistic regression models with cluster-adjusted standard errors...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Sagar B Kudchodkar, Hyeree Choi, Emma L Reuschel, Rianne Esquivel, Jackie Jin-Ah Kwon, Moonsup Jeong, Joel N Maslow, Charles C Reed, Scott White, J Joseph Kim, Gary P Kobinger, Pablo Tebas, David B Weiner, Kar Muthumani
Vaccines are considered one of the greatest advances in modern medicine. The global burden of numerous infectious diseases has been significantly reduced, and in some cases, effectively eradicated through the deployment of specific vaccines. However, efforts to develop effective vaccines against infectious pathogens such as influenza, HIV, dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), Ebola virus, and Zika virus (ZIKV) have proven challenging. Zika virus is a mosquito-vectored flavivirus responsible for periodic outbreaks of disease in Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands dating back over 50 years...
March 16, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Mikko Koivu-Jolma, Arto Annila
Mathematical epidemiology is a well-recognized discipline to model infectious diseases. It also provides guidance for public health officials to limit outbreaks. Nevertheless, epidemics take societies by surprise every now and then, for example, when the Ebola virus epidemic raged seemingly unrestrained in Western Africa. We provide insight to this capricious character of nature by describing the epidemic as a natural process, i.e., a phenomenon governed by thermodynamics. Our account, based on statistical mechanics of open systems, clarifies that it is impossible to predict accurately epidemic courses because everything depends on everything else...
March 10, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Charles E Sepers, Stephen B Fawcett, Ithar Hassaballa, Florence DiGennaro Reed, Jerry Schultz, Davison Munodawafa, Peter Malekele Phori, Ephraim Chiriseri
Implementation of the Ebola response was credited with reducing incidence of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa; however little is known about the amount and kind of Ebola response activities that were ultimately successful in addressing the 2014 outbreak. We collaboratively monitored Ebola response activities and associated effects in Margibi County, Liberia, a rural county in Liberia deeply affected by the outbreak. We used a participatory monitoring and evaluation system, including key informant interviews and document review, to systematically document activities, code them, characterize their contextual features, and discover and communicate patterns in Ebola response activities to essential stakeholders...
February 24, 2018: Health Promotion International
Saskia Den Boon, Constanza Vallenas, Mauricio Ferri, Susan L Norris
Background: Ebola virus disease (EVD) health facility transmission can result in infection and death of health workers. The World Health Organization (WHO) supports countries in preparing for and responding to public health emergencies, which often require developing new guidance in short timelines with scarce evidence. The objective of this study was to understand frontline physicians' and nurses' perspectives about personal protective equipment (PPE) use during the 2014-2016 EVD outbreak in West Africa and to incorporate these findings into the development process of a WHO rapid advice guideline...
2018: F1000Research
Eugene Wickett, André Peralta-Santos, Jason Beste, Mary Micikas, Foriest Toe, Julia Rogers, Lassana Jabateh, Bradley H Wagenaar
OBJECTIVES: In June 2015, Partners in Health (PIH) and the Liberian Ministry of Health began a community health worker (CHW) program containing food support, reimbursement of transport and social assistance to address gaps in tuberculosis (TB) treatment exacerbated by the 2014-2015 Ebola-virus disease (EVD) epidemic. The purpose of this article is to analyze the performance of routine clinical TB care and the effects of this CHW program. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study utilizing data from TB patient registers at a census of all health facilities treating TB in southeastern Liberia from January 2015 - April 2017...
March 9, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Adrián Lázaro-Frías, Sergio Gómez-Medina, Lucas Sánchez-Sampedro, Karl Ljungberg, Mart Ustav, Peter Liljeström, César Muñoz-Fontela, Mariano Esteban, Juan García-Arriaza
Zaire and Sudan ebolavirus species cause a severe disease in humans and non-human primates (NHPs) characterized by high mortality rate. There are no licensed therapies or vaccines against Ebola virus disease (EVD), and the recent 2013-2016 outbreak in West Africa highlighted the need of EVD-specific medical countermeasures. Here, we have generated and characterized head-to-head the immunogenicity and efficacy of five vaccine candidates against Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) and Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV) based on the highly attenuated poxvirus vector modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), expressing either the virus glycoprotein (GP) or GP together with the virus protein 40 (VP40) forming virus-like particles (VLPs)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Virology
Maurice L Sipos, Paul Y Kim, Stephen J Thomas, Amy B Adler
Introduction: In the fall of 2014, the United States and other nations responded to the worst outbreak of the Ebola virus disease in history. As part of this effort, U.S. service members deployed to West Africa to support a spectrum of activities that did not involve direct patient care. Although previous studies identified the psychological impact of responding to an outbreak, these studies were limited to retrospective data, small sample sizes, and medical personnel. The goals of the present study were to (a) document the mental health and well-being of troops deploying in response to an infectious disease outbreak; (b) identify their stressors, attitudes toward deployment, and health risk concerns; and (c) understand the role of combat experience in adjusting to these types of missions...
March 1, 2018: Military Medicine
Carlos Polanco, José Lino Samaniego Mendoza, Thomas Buhse, Vladimir N Uversky, Ingrid Paola Bañuelos Chao, Marcela Angola Bañuelos Cedano, Fernando Michel Tavera, Daniel Michel Tavera, Manuel Falconi, Abelardo Vela Ponce de León
The number of fatalities and economic losses caused by the Ebola virus infection across the planet culminated in the havoc that occurred between August and November 2014. However, little is known about the molecular protein profile of this devastating virus. This work represents a thorough bioinformatics analysis of the regularities of charge distribution (polar profiles) in two groups of proteins and their functional domains associated with Ebola virus disease: Ebola virus proteins and Human proteins interacting with Ebola virus...
March 6, 2018: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Alessandra Mendelski Pereira, Denise Leite Maia Monteiro, Heron Werner, Pedro Daltro, Tatiana Fazecas, Bianca Guedes, Gabriele Tonni, Alberto Borges Peixoto, Edward Araujo Júnior
The recent epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in Central and South America is one of the most serious global public health emergencies since the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. In Brazil, especially in the north, northeast, and southeast parts of the country, the ZIKV outbreak is a cause of concern for pregnant women because ZIKV intrauterine infection has been found to be associated with multiple brain malformations and microcephaly. In Brazil, the number of newborns with confirmed microcephaly per year recorded during the ZIKV outbreak, has been approximately 15 times greater than previously reported...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the Turkish German Gynecological Association
Yang Ji, Yuan Lu, Yishu Yan, Xinxin Liu, Nan Su, Chong Zhang, Shengli Bi, Xin-Hui Xing
The Ebola hemorrhagic fever caused by Ebola virus is an extremely dangerous disease, and effective therapeutic agents are still lacking. Platforms for the efficient production of vaccines are crucial to ensure quick response against an Ebola virus outbreak. Ebolavirus glycoprotein (EbolaGP) on the virion surface is responsible for membrane binding and virus entry, thus becoming the key target for vaccine development. However, heterologous expression of this protein still faces engineering challenges such as low production levels and insoluble aggregation...
March 3, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
Elisabeth K Nyakatura, Samantha E Zak, Anna Z Wec, Daniel Hofmann, Sergey Shulenin, Russell R Bakken, M Javad Aman, Kartik Chandran, John M Dye, Jonathan R Lai
Filoviruses (family Filoviridae ) include five ebolaviruses and Marburg virus. These pathogens cause a rapidly progressing and severe viral disease with high mortality rates (generally 30%-90%). Outbreaks of filovirus disease are sporadic and, until recently, were limited to less than 500 cases. However, the 2013-2016 epidemic in western Africa, caused by Ebola virus (EBOV), illustrated the potential of filovirus outbreaks to escalate to a much larger scale (over 28,000 suspected cases). Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the envelope glycoprotein represent a promising therapeutic platform for managing filovirus infections...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Aurora B Le, Sean A Buehler, Paul M Maniscalco, Pamela Lane, Lloyd E Rupp, Eric Ernest, Debra Von Seggern, Katherine West, Jocelyn J Herstein, Katelyn C Jelden, Elizabeth L Beam, Shawn G Gibbs, John J Lowe
BACKGROUND: The Ebola virus disease outbreak highlighted the lack of consistent guidelines and training for workers outside of hospital settings. Specifically, emergency medical services (EMS) workers, who are frequently the first professionals to evaluate patients, often do not have advanced notice of patient diagnosis, and have limited time in their national curricula devoted to highly infectious disease (HID) identification and containment. All of these can place them at increased risk...
March 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Cristiano Salata, Denis Munegato, Francesco Martelli, Cristina Parolin, Arianna Calistri, Aldo Baritussio, Giorgio Palù
Ebola Virus Disease is one of the most lethal transmissible infections characterized by a high fatality rate. Several research studies have aimed to identify effective antiviral agents. Amiodarone, a drug used for the treatment of arrhythmias, has been shown to inhibit filovirus infection in vitro by acting at the early step of the viral replication cycle. Here we demonstrate that amiodarone reduces virus binding to target cells and slows down the progression of the viral particles along the endocytic pathway...
March 2, 2018: New Microbiologica
James Logue, Kaylie Tuznik, Dean Follmann, Greg Grandits, Jonathan Marchand, Cavan Reilly, Yeya Dit Sadio Sarro, James Pettitt, Eric J Stavale, Mosoka Fallah, Gene G Olinger, Fatorma K Bolay, Lisa E Hensley
As part of the scientific community's development of medical countermeasures against Ebola virus disease, optimization of standardized assays for product evaluation is paramount. The recent outbreak heightened awareness to the scarcity of available assays and limited information on performance and reproducibility. To evaluate the immunogenicity of vaccines entering Phase I-III trials and to identify survivors, two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, the Filovirus Animal Non-Clinical Group assay and the Alpha Diagnostics International assay, were evaluated for detection of immunoglobulin G against Ebola virus glycoprotein...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Maximilian Gertler, Sven Loik, Christian Kleine, Alexa Matuschek, Norbert Gresser, Mario di Gennaro, Andreas Fabricius, Thomas Kratz, August Stich, Joost Butenop
BACKGROUND: In September 2014, the German government mandated the German Red Cross (GRC) and the German Armed Forces to support the international efforts to stop the epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West-Africa. The GRC requested specific training from the Medical Mission Institute Wuerzburg (MI). OBJECTIVES: We describe and discuss the development, strategy, results, and evaluation of the program to formulate conclusions and recommendations for similar emergencies...
February 26, 2018: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Lisa M Casanova, Kimberly Erukunuakpor, Colleen S Kraft, Joel M Mumma, Francis T Durso, Ashley N Ferguson, Christina L Gipson, Victoria L Walsh, Craig Zimring, Jennifer DuBose, Jesse T Jacob
Background: Personal protective equipment (PPE) protects healthcare workers (HCWs) caring for patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD), and PPE doffing is a critical point for preventing viral self-contamination. We assessed contamination of skin, gloves, and scrubs after doffing Ebola-level PPE contaminated with surrogate viruses: bacteriophages MS2 and Φ6. Methods: In a medical biocontainment unit, HCWs (n = 10) experienced in EVD care donned and doffed PPE following unit protocols that incorporate trained observer guidance and alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR)...
February 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Joel M Mumma, Francis T Durso, Ashley N Ferguson, Christina L Gipson, Lisa Casanova, Kimberly Erukunuakpor, Colleen S Kraft, Victoria L Walsh, Craig Zimring, Jennifer DuBose, Jesse T Jacob
Background: Doffing protocols for personal protective equipment (PPE) are critical for keeping healthcare workers (HCWs) safe during care of patients with Ebola virus disease. We assessed the relationship between errors and self-contamination during doffing. Methods: Eleven HCWs experienced with doffing Ebola-level PPE participated in simulations in which HCWs donned PPE marked with surrogate viruses (ɸ6 and MS2), completed a clinical task, and were assessed for contamination after doffing...
February 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Alois Jungbauer
New approaches for vaccination must be developed in order to meet the grand challenges for emerging infectious diseases. Exosomes now enter vaccine development and these are strategies are meeting these global challenges, as demonstrated by Anticoli et al, in this issue of Biotechnology Journal [1] Using exosome vaccines has been now been demonstrated in-vivo for several viruses such as Ebola Virus VP24, VP40 and NP, Influenza Virus NP, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever NP, West Nile Virus NS3, and Hepatitis C Virus NS3...
February 22, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
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