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Cancer inflamation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035905/a-rare-case-of-umbilical-metastasis-after-delayed-transverse-rectus-abdominis-myocutaneous-flap-reconstruction-for-invasive-breast-cancer
#1
Nicky Claire Seymour, Rathi Rathinaezhil
A 46-year-old female presented with an inflamed and painful umbilicus. Past medical history included breast cancer, followed by metastatic sternal cancer two years after the initial breast cancer diagnosis.The painful umbilicus was confirmed metastasis from a primary breast cancer she had treated eleven years previously.Metastases to the umbilicus are rare, and are usually gastrointestinal in origin. To our knowledge this is the first report of a metastasis from any primary cancer to the umbilicus after transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap (TRAM)...
December 29, 2016: Breast Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025477/duodenal-loop-obstruction-as-an-unusual-cause-of-acute-pancreatitis-a-case-series
#2
Hyeonmin Lee, Yonghyeok Choi, Hyewon Jeong, Jae Kyu Lim, Taeyoung Jung, Joung Ho Han, Seon Mee Park
Duodenal loop obstruction is an unusual cause of acute pancreatitis. Increased intraluminal pressure hinders pancreatic flow, causing dilatation of the pancreatic duct and inducing acute pancreatitis. We experienced three cases of acute pancreatitis that resulted from duodenal loop obstruction after (1) an esophagectomy with gastric pull-up procedure for esophageal cancer, (2) a gastrectomy with Billroth I reconstruction for gastric cancer, and (3) a gastrojejunostomy for abdominal trauma. An abdominal CT scan revealed a distended duodenal loop, dilated pancreatic duct, and inflamed pancreas with fluid collection...
December 25, 2016: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009871/cocoplum-chrysobalanus-icaco-l-anthocyanins-exert-anti-inflammatory-activity-in-human-colon-cancer-and-non-malignant-colon-cells
#3
Vinicius P Venancio, Paula A Cipriano, Hyemee Kim, Lusânia M G Antunes, Stephen T Talcott, Susanne U Mertens-Talcott
Cocoplum (Chrysobalanus icaco L.) (CP) is an anthocyanin-rich fruit found in tropical areas around the globe. CP polyphenols are associated with beneficial effects on health, including reduction of inflammation and oxidative stress. Due to its functional properties, the consumption of this fruit may be beneficial in the promotion of human health and reduce the risk for chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to assess the anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of anthocyanins extracted from CP (1...
December 23, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981969/innate-immune-signaling-and-regulation-in-cancer-immunotherapy
#4
REVIEW
Leticia Corrales, Vyara Matson, Blake Flood, Stefani Spranger, Thomas F Gajewski
A pre-existing T cell-inflamed tumor microenvironment has prognostic utility and also can be predictive for response to contemporary cancer immunotherapies. The generation of a spontaneous T cell response against tumor-associated antigens depends on innate immune activation, which drives type I interferon (IFN) production. Recent work has revealed a major role for the STING pathway of cytosolic DNA sensing in this process. This cascade of events contributes to the activation of Batf3-lineage dendritic cells (DCs), which appear to be central to anti-tumor immunity...
January 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959340/e-selectin-targeting-pegylated-thioaptamer-prevents-breast-cancer-metastases
#5
Yoshihiro Morita, Mohamed Kamal, Shin-Ae Kang, Roy Zhang, Ganesh Lr Lokesh, Varatharasa Thiviyanathan, Nafis Hasan, Sukyung Woo, Daniel Zhao, Macall Leslie, Stephen Suh, Wajeeha Razaq, Hallgeir Rui, David G Gorenstein, David E Volk, Takemi Tanaka
E-selectin is an adhesion molecule expressed on the luminal surface of inflamed blood vessels that mediates hematogenous metastasis by assisting shear-resistant adhesion of circulating tumor cells to the vessel surface under dynamic blood flow. Previously, we developed an E-selectin antagonistic thioaptamer (ESTA) for the prevention of hematogenous metastasis through the blockade of CD44(high) breast cancer cells (BCa) adhesion to E-selectin-expressing premetastatic endothelial niche. The current study focuses on developing a PEGylated E-selectin targeting thioaptamer with improved pharmaceutical properties...
December 13, 2016: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930411/comprehensive-dna-methylation-profiling-of-inflammatory-mucosa-in-ulcerative-colitis
#6
Tomomitsu Tahara, Ichiro Hirata, Naoko Nakano, Mitsuo Nagasaka, Yoshihito Nakagawa, Tomoyuki Shibata, Naoki Ohmiya
INTRODUCTION: Aberrant DNA methylation frequently occurs in the inflammatory mucosa in ulcerative colitis (UC) and is involved in UC-related tumorigenesis. We performed comprehensive DNA methylation profiling of the promoter regions of the inflamed rectal mucosae of patients with UC. DESIGN: The methylation status of the promoter CpG islands (CGIs) of 45 cancer/inflammation or age-related candidate genes and the LINE1 repetitive element were examined in the colonic mucosae of 84 cancer-free patients with UC by bisulfite pyrosequencing...
January 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903155/obesity-and-cancer-mechanisms-tumor-microenvironment-and-inflammation
#7
Neil M Iyengar, Ayca Gucalp, Andrew J Dannenberg, Clifford A Hudis
Purpose There is growing evidence that inflammation is a central and reversible mechanism through which obesity promotes cancer risk and progression. Methods We review recent findings regarding obesity-associated alterations in the microenvironment and the local and systemic mechanisms through which these changes support tumor growth. Results Locally, hyperadiposity is associated with altered adipose tissue function, adipocyte death, and chronic low-grade inflammation. Most individuals who are obese harbor inflamed adipose tissue, which resembles chronically injured tissue, with immune cell infiltration and remodeling...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897991/the-double-role-of-p53-in-cancer-and-autoimmunity-and-its-potential-as-therapeutic-target
#8
REVIEW
Alessandra Fierabracci, Marsha Pellegrino
p53 is a sequence-specific short-lived transcription factor expressed at low concentrations in various tissues while it is upregulated in damaged, tumoral or inflamed tissue. In normally proliferating cells, p53 protein levels and function are tightly controlled by main regulators, i.e., MDM2 (mouse double minute 2) and MDM4 proteins. p53 plays an important role due to its ability to mediate tumor suppression. In addition to its importance as a tumor suppressor, p53 coordinates diverse cellular responses to stress and damage and plays an emerging role in various physiological processes, including fertility, cell metabolism, mitochondrial respiration, autophagy, cell adhesion, stem cell maintenance and development...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884517/endoscopic-morphologic-features-of-ulcerative-colitis-associated-dysplasia-classified-according-to%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-scenic%C3%A2-consensus-statement
#9
Shinya Sugimoto, Makoto Naganuma, Yasushi Iwao, Katsuyoshi Matsuoka, Masayuki Shimoda, Shuji Mikami, Shinta Mizuno, Yoshihiro Nakazato, Kosaku Nanki, Nagamu Inoue, Haruhiko Ogata, Takanori Kanai
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recent advances in endoscopic equipment and diagnostic techniques have made possible the detection of early dysplasia in the inflamed mucosa of ulcerative colitis (UC). The SCENIC consensus statement recommends the use of unified terminology for the morphology of dysplasia. In this study, we investigated the endoscopic features of high-grade dysplasia (HGD) in a clinical setting. METHODS: We retrospectively identified 62 patients with UC who were diagnosed with colitis-associated cancer or HGD between 1997 and 2015...
November 21, 2016: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877245/imaging-nanotherapeutics-in-inflamed-vasculature-by-intravital-microscopy
#10
REVIEW
Zhenjia Wang
Intravital microscopy (IVM) is the application of light microscopy to real time study biology of live animal tissues in intact and physiological conditions with the high spatial and temporal resolution. Advances in imaging systems, genetic animal models and imaging probes, IVM has offered quantitative and dynamic insight into cell biology, immunology, neurobiology and cancer. In this review, we will focus on the targeting of nanotherapeutics to inflamed vasculature. We will introduce the basic concept and principle of IVM and demonstrate that IVM is a powerful tool used to quantitatively determine the molecular mechanisms of interactions between nanotherapeutics and neutrophils or endothelium in living mice...
2016: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869795/cd68-macrosialin-not-just-a-histochemical-marker
#11
Dimitry A Chistiakov, Murry C Killingsworth, Veronika A Myasoedova, Alexander N Orekhov, Yuri V Bobryshev
CD68 is a heavily glycosylated glycoprotein that is highly expressed in macrophages and other mononuclear phagocytes. Traditionally, CD68 is exploited as a valuable cytochemical marker to immunostain monocyte/macrophages in the histochemical analysis of inflamed tissues, tumor tissues, and other immunohistopathological applications. CD68 alone or in combination with other cell markers of tumor-associated macrophages showed a good predictive value as a prognostic marker of survival in cancer patients. Lowression of CD68 was found in the lymphoid cells, non-hematopoietic cells (fibroblasts, endothelial cells, etc), and tumor cells...
November 21, 2016: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837027/association-of-pd-1-pd-l-axis-expression-with-cytolytic-activity-mutational-load-and-prognosis-in-melanoma-and-other-solid-tumors
#12
Ludmila Danilova, Hao Wang, Joel Sunshine, Genevieve J Kaunitz, Tricia R Cottrell, Haiying Xu, Jessica Esandrio, Robert A Anders, Leslie Cope, Drew M Pardoll, Charles G Drake, Janis M Taube
Programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) checkpoint blockade has led to remarkable and durable objective responses in a number of different tumor types. A better understanding of factors associated with the PD-1/PD-L axis expression is desirable, as it informs their potential role as prognostic and predictive biomarkers and may suggest rational treatment combinations. In the current study, we analyzed PD-L1, PD-L2, PD-1, and cytolytic activity (CYT) expression, as well as mutational density from melanoma and eight other solid tumor types using The Cancer Genome Atlas database...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837020/density-of-immunogenic-antigens-does-not-explain-the-presence-or-absence-of-the-t-cell-inflamed-tumor-microenvironment-in-melanoma
#13
Stefani Spranger, Jason J Luke, Riyue Bao, Yuanyuan Zha, Kyle M Hernandez, Yan Li, Alexander P Gajewski, Jorge Andrade, Thomas F Gajewski
Melanoma metastases can be categorized by gene expression for the presence of a T-cell-inflamed tumor microenvironment, which correlates with clinical efficacy of immunotherapies. T cells frequently recognize mutational antigens corresponding to nonsynonymous somatic mutations (NSSMs), and in some cases shared differentiation or cancer-testis antigens. Therapies are being pursued to trigger immune infiltration into non-T-cell-inflamed tumors in the hope of rendering them immunotherapy responsive. However, whether those tumors express antigens capable of T-cell recognition has not been explored...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836246/emerging-role-of-immunotherapy-in-urothelial-carcinoma-immunobiology-biomarkers
#14
REVIEW
Randy F Sweis, Matthew D Galsky
Urothelial bladder cancer is one of the first cancers recognized to be immunogenic since 40 years ago when the use of bacillus Calmette-Guerin was shown to prevent recurrence. Since that time, our knowledge of immune biology of cancer has expanded tremendously, and patients with bladder cancer finally have new active immunotherapeutic drugs on the horizon. Anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) therapy has shown impressively durable responses in urothelial bladder cancer (UBC), but the reported response rates warrant improvement...
December 2016: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827303/an-hdac6-inhibitor-confers-protection-and-selectively-inhibits-b-cell-infiltration-in-dss-induced-colitis-in-mice
#15
Anh Do, Robert C Reid, Rink-Jan Lohman, Matthew J Sweet, David P Fairlie, Abishek Iyer
Small molecule histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors with anti-inflammatory activity may be candidates for targeting intestinal inflammatory pathways in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study investigated whether treatment with a potent HDAC6 inhibitor, BML-281, could protect against colonic inflammation and prevent inflammatory cell infiltration into the colon to drive disease pathology in a mouse model of acute dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis. Control and acute DSS-colitis mice were treated with BML-281 (1 mg/kg per day s...
January 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826372/vascular-inflammation-a-novel-access-route-for-nanomedicine
#16
Roberto Molinaro, Christian Boada, Guillermo Medrano Del Rosal, Kelly A Hartman, Claudia Corbo, Elizabeth D Andrews, Naama E Toledano-Furman, John P Cooke, Ennio Tasciotti
Despite an improved understanding of its pathophysiology and a wide range of new treatments, cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a serious public health issue and the number one cause of mortality in the United States. Conditions that promote chronic systemic inflammation, such as obesity, cancer, and autoimmune and infectious diseases, are now known to play an important role in promoting CVD by inducing the expression of endothelial adhesion molecules and chemokines; these in turn promote leukocyte adherence and infiltration, which initiates and spurs the progression of CVD...
September 2016: Methodist DeBakey Cardiovascular Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821498/established-t-cell-inflamed-tumors-rejected-after-adaptive-resistance-was-reversed-by-combination-sting-activation-and-pd-1-pathway-blockade
#17
Ellen Moore, Paul E Clavijo, Ruth Davis, Harrison Cash, Carter Van Waes, Young Kim, Clint Allen
Patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma harbor T cell-inflamed and non-T cell-inflamed tumors. Despite this, only 20% of patients respond to checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy. Lack of induction of innate immunity through pattern-recognition receptors, such as the stimulator of interferon (IFN) genes (STING) receptor, may represent a significant barrier to the development of effective antitumor immunity. Here, we demonstrate robust control of a T cell-inflamed (MOC1), but not non-T cell-inflamed (MOC2), model of head and neck cancer by activation of the STING pathway with the synthetic cyclic dinucleotide RP,RP dithio-c-di-GMP...
December 2016: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789270/topical-5-fluorouracil-is-a-novel-targeted-therapy-for-the-keratocystic-odontogenic-tumor
#18
Nicholas J Ledderhof, Marco F Caminiti, Grace Bradley, David K Lam
PURPOSE: The antimetabolite drug, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), is used in the treatment of various cancers, including basal cell carcinomas (BCCs). The authors hypothesized that keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KOTs) would respond to 5-FU treatment because of their similarities to BCCs in molecular etiopathogenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An ambispective cohort study of the treatment efficacy of topical 5-FU on KOTs was conducted. Independent variables included the topical application of 5% 5-FU or modified Carnoy solution (MC) after enucleation and peripheral ostectomy at the University of Toronto from 2006 through 2014...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752256/understanding-immune-cells-in-tertiary-lymphoid-organ-development-it-is-all-starting-to-come-together
#19
REVIEW
Gareth W Jones, David G Hill, Simon A Jones
Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) are frequently observed in tissues affected by non-resolving inflammation as a result of infection, autoimmunity, cancer, and allograft rejection. These highly ordered structures resemble the cellular composition of lymphoid follicles typically associated with the spleen and lymph node compartments. Although TLOs within tissues show varying degrees of organization, they frequently display evidence of segregated T and B cell zones, follicular dendritic cell networks, a supporting stromal reticulum, and high endothelial venules...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717961/malignant-inflammation-in-cutaneous-t-cell-lymphoma-a-hostile-takeover
#20
REVIEW
Thorbjørn Krejsgaard, Lise M Lindahl, Nigel P Mongan, Mariusz A Wasik, Ivan V Litvinov, Lars Iversen, Erik Langhoff, Anders Woetmann, Niels Odum
Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) are characterized by the presence of chronically inflamed skin lesions containing malignant T cells. Early disease presents as limited skin patches or plaques and exhibits an indolent behavior. For many patients, the disease never progresses beyond this stage, but in approximately one third of patients, the disease becomes progressive, and the skin lesions start to expand and evolve. Eventually, overt tumors develop and the malignant T cells may disseminate to the blood, lymph nodes, bone marrow, and visceral organs, often with a fatal outcome...
October 7, 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
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