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Pediculosis treatment

Hamza Leulmi, Georges Diatta, Cheikh Sokhna, Jean-Marc Rolain, Didier Raoult
Reports of treatment failure and the emergence of resistance to topical head lice treatments have become increasingly common, driving the need for continued development of new therapeutic options for pediculosis. Ivermectin has been proposed as a potential alternative for the treatment of pediculosis but has not been sufficiently evaluated. In this study, the effectiveness of oral ivermectin versus shampoo in the treatment of pediculosis in Senegal was compared. The study was conducted in two neighbouring villages of Sine-Saloum, Senegal: Dielmo (ivermectin trial group; 201 female participants) and Ndiop (shampoo trial group; 239 female participants)...
December 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Muddathir H Hamad, Ahmed Awad Adeel, Ali Abdu N Alhaboob, Ahmed M Ashri, Mustafa A Salih
This is a case report of acute organophosphate poisoning in a child treated with topical application of Diazinon-60 (WHO Class II toxicity) for head lice (pediculosis capitis). The patient presented with neurological symptoms and signs. After emergency respiratory and circulatory resuscitation the patient underwent dermal decontamination and was treated with atropine, high flow oxygen and pralidoxime. Scanning electron micrographs of scalp hair specimens revealed both viable and empty head lice nits (lice eggs that attach to the hair shaft)...
2016: Sudanese Journal of Paediatrics
Regina Fölster-Holst
Itch in children is a very common symptom and is mainly related to a skin disease rather than an underlying systemic disorder. The most common dermatoses include atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, insect bites, scabies, and pediculosis capitis. There are specific diagnostic patterns which require the evaluation of a careful history and dermatological examination. For dermatological treatment, we have to consider that children, especially infants, show differences in physiology and pathophysiology, and also in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics compared with adults...
2016: Current Problems in Dermatology
Abdoul Karim Sangaré, Ogobara K Doumbo, Didier Raoult
Of the three lice (head, body, and pubic louse) that infest humans, the body louse is the species involved in epidemics of louse-borne typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever, but all the three cause pediculosis. Their infestations occur today in many countries despite great efforts to maintain high standards of public health. In this review, literature searches were performed through PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and EBSCOhost, with key search words of "Pediculus humanus", "lice infestation", "pediculosis", and "treatment"; and controlled clinical trials were viewed with great interest...
2016: BioMed Research International
B Soler, C Castellares, S Viver, L Díaz, R Gómez, E Ruíz
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a new pediculicide in the eradication of Pediculus humanus capitis infestation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A randomised clinical trial was designed, in which children aged between 5 and 15 years diagnosed with pediculosis were selected. Treatment was administered on days 1 and 7 after selection, and they were evaluated in 4 visits (day 2, 7, 9, and 14). The product under evaluation with saponified olive oil was Inex Pediculicide Soap(®), which was compared with Paranix(®), with a similar mechanism of action...
May 30, 2016: Semergen
Alexandro Bonifaz, Ixchel Ramírez-Ricarte, Alejandra Rodríguez-Leviz, Marco A Hernández, Carlos Mena, Adriana Valencia
INTRODUCTION: Trichomycosis is a superficial infection caused by Corynebacterium flavescens, which regularly affects axillary, and to a a lesser extent, pubic, scrotal and intergluteal, and exceptionally, head hairs or trichomycosis capitis (TC). This condition is characterised by the formation of bacterial nodules. Clinically, it can be confused with white piedra or pediculosis. The diagnosis is made by microscopic and dermoscopic observation and confirmed by culture. OBJECTIVE: To present a case of TC in an infant and illustrate the microscopic, dermoscopic, and ultrastructural characteristics...
May 5, 2016: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Cody J Connor, John C Selby, Karolyn A Wanat
Pediculosis humanus capitus infestations are common and classically present with intense pruritus of the scalp. Although many treatment options are available, lice are becoming more resistant to conventional therapies and severe clinical presentations are bound to become more prevalent. We present a case of treatment-resistant pediculosis capitus resulting in diffuse autoeczematization of the torso and extremities and severe crusting and scaling of the scalp, which we called "crusted lice." This eruption differs from the well-described id reaction known as "pediculid" and represents a more dramatic manifestation of rampant infestation...
March 16, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
Irfan Dadabhoy, Jessica F Butts
The 2 epidermal parasitic skin infections most commonly encountered by primary care physicians in developed countries are scabies and pediculosis. Pediculosis can be further subdivided into pediculosis capitis, corporis, and pubis. This article presents a summary of information and a review of the literature on clinical findings, diagnosis, and treatment of these commonly encountered parasitic skin infestations.
December 2015: Primary Care
Prashant Verma, Chaitanya Namdeo
An endeavour to delineate the salient details of the treatment of head lice infestation has been made in the present article. Treatment modalities including over the counter permethrin and pyrethrin, and prescription medicines, including malathion, lindane, benzyl alcohol, spinosad are discussed. Salient features of alternative medicine and physical treatment modalities are outlined. The problem of resistance to treatment has also been taken cognizance of.
May 2015: Indian Journal of Dermatology
Özlem Özkan, Onur Hamzaoğlu, Melike Yavuz
This study aimed to examine scientific articles performed in Turkey on the prevalence and management of PK (diagnosis, contagion, prevention, treatment) from a critical perspective. The population of the systematic review consisted of total 63 published and unpublished theses or dissertations and peer-reviewed articles published in Turkish or English in national or foreign scientific journals from studies performed in Turkey between 1982 and 2012 years. It reached 578,938 people in 63 studies. Seventy-eight percent of the studies were related to the prevalence of PK and/or associated factors...
June 2015: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
G Bifulco, V Veneziano, R Cimmino, L Esposito, L Auletta, E Varricchio, A Balestrieri, S Claps, G Campanile, G Neglia
The aims of this study were to assess the efficacy of alphacypermethrin (ACYP) on pediculosis due to Haematopinus tuberculatus and to evaluate the influence of the treatment on productive and reproductive performance in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) reared in an intensive system. The trial was performed on 56 pluriparous buffaloes at 86.8 ± 8.1 d in milk. The animals underwent individual louse count and were divided into 2 homogenous groups according to louse count, age, number of lactations, days in milk, live BW, BCS, pregnancy status, and milk yield...
April 2015: Journal of Animal Science
Deborah J Pontius
The treatment of Pediculosis capitis, or head lice, is fraught with misinformation, myths, and mismanagement. Common myths include the need to exclude children from school, the need to remove all visible nits ("no-nit" policies), the need for massive environmental cleaning, that head lice live for long periods of time, and that schools are a common location for lice transmission. Head lice are a common childhood nuisance, causing embarrassment and emotional trauma in both children and families. This article explores and challenges the commonly held beliefs about the identification, management, and treatment of Pediculosis by presenting current recommended evidence-based practice...
September 2014: Pediatric Nursing
João Ricardo Rutkauskis, Debora Jacomini, Livia Godinho Temponi, Maria Helena Sarragiotto, Edson Antonio Alves da Silva, Tereza Cristina Marinho Jorge, Tereza Cristina Marino Jorge
Pediculosis is an infestation of the scalp caused by Pediculus humanus capitis, known as lice, which affects thousands of people throughout the world. Disease control is achieved by topical insecticides, whose indiscriminate use has led to the emergence of resistant populations of lice. Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) is an Asian tree that is found in Brazil, where it is popularly known as cinnamon or santa-bárbara. This study aimed to evaluate a pediculicidal treatment, made from a hydroethanolic extract of M...
June 2015: Parasitology Research
Giao Do-Pham, Gentiane Monsel, Olivier Chosidow
Pediculosis (capitis, corporis, and pubis) share well-known features: worldwide prevalence (involving millions of people annually); parasites inducing skin lesions directly, and indirectly as a result of itching and hypersensitivity to parasites; and treatment based on good entomological knowledge of the parasite and practical considerations (ie, most available treatments do not act on eggs and should be repeated, depending on the life cycle of the parasites). Infestations are spread most commonly by close contacts...
September 2014: Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
Veronica Hau, Nadia Muhi-Iddin
An 11-year-old child presented with poor school attendance, and signs and symptoms of severe anaemia. He was heavily covered in lice. He was investigated for other causes of anaemia. Following treatment for head lice and also iron supplementation, he was back in full-time education. This case highlights the link between head lice (pediculosis capitis) infestation and iron-deficiency anaemia.
December 19, 2014: BMJ Case Reports
Hermann Feldmeier
Pediculosis capitis is the most common ectoparasitic disease in children in industrialized countries and extremely common in resource-poor communities of the developing world. The extensive use of pediculicides with a neurotoxic mode of action has led to the development and spread of resistant head lice populations all over the world. This triggered the development of compounds with other modes of action. The current literature on treatment approaches of head lice infestation was searched, and published randomized controlled trials were critically analyzed...
October 2014: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
Pietro Nenoff, Werner Handrick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 21, 2014: MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
(no author information available yet)
Infestation of the scalp by head lice, or pediculosis, is a common, unpleasant but harmless parasitosis. For patients with pediculosis, which topical treatment eradicates the parasites effectively while causing the least harm? We reviewed the available evidence using the standard Prescrire methodology. Lice can be eradicated by shaving the head or combing the hair several times a day for several weeks with a fine-toothed lice comb, although combing is only completely effective in about 50% of cases. Pyrethroids (permethrin, phenothrin and bioallethrin), often combined with piperonyl butoxide, are insecticides that are neurotoxic to lice...
July 2014: Prescrire International
Hesham M Ahmad, Eman S Abdel-Azim, Rasha T Abdel-Aziz
Many medications are available for treatment of pediculosis capitis including ivermectin. Our aim is to compare the efficacy and safety of topical versus oral ivermectin in treatment of pediculosis capitis. Sixty-two patients with proved head lice infestation were included and divided into group I (31 patients; received single topical application of 1% ivermectin) and group II (31 patients; received single dose of oral ivermectin). Treatment was repeated after 1 week for nonresponders. At 1 week after treatment, the eradication rates and improvement of pruritus were significantly higher among patients who received topical than oral ivermectin...
September 2014: Dermatologic Therapy
Rick Speare, Humpress Harrington, Deon Canyon, Peter D Massey
BACKGROUND: Lack of guidelines on control of pediculosis in the Solomon Islands led to a search for relevant evidence on head lice in the Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). The aim of this search was to systematically evaluate evidence in the peer reviewed literature on pediculosis due to head lice (Pediculus humanus var capitis) in the 22 PICTs from the perspective of its value in informing national guidelines and control strategies. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL and Scopus were searched using the terms (pediculosis OR head lice) AND each of the 22 PICTs individually...
2014: BMC Dermatology
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