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s-adenosyl-methionine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877178/an-s-adenosyl-methionine-synthetase-sams-gene-from-andropogon-virginicus-l-confers-aluminum-stress-tolerance-and-facilitates-epigenetic-gene-regulation-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#1
Bunichi Ezaki, Aiko Higashi, Norie Nanba, Takumi Nishiuchi
Candidate clones which conferred Al tolerance to yeast transformants (TFs) were obtained from a cDNA library derived from a highly Al-tolerant poaceae, Andropogon virginicus L. One such clone, AL3A-4, encoded an S-adenosyl methionine synthetase (SAMS) gene. A full-length cDNA was obtained by 5'-RACE, designated AvSAMS1, and introduced into Arabidopsis thaliana to investigate its biological functions under Al stress. Two TF plant lines both showed higher tolerance than the Col-0 ecotype (non-TF) not only for Al stress, but also for Cu, Pb, Zn and diamide stresses, suggesting the AvSAMS1 was a multiple tolerance gene...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834868/steric-clash-in-the-set-domain-of-histone-methyltransferase-nsd1-as-a-cause-of-sotos-syndrome-and-its-genetic-heterogeneity-in-a-brazilian-cohort
#2
Kyungsoo Ha, Priya Anand, Jennifer A Lee, Julie R Jones, Chong Ae Kim, Debora Romeo Bertola, Jonathan D J Labonne, Lawrence C Layman, Wolfgang Wenzel, Hyung-Goo Kim
Most histone methyltransferases (HMTase) harbor a predicted Su(var)3-9, Enhancer-of-zeste, Trithorax (SET) domain, which transfers a methyl group to a lysine residue in their substrates. Mutations of the SET domains were reported to cause intellectual disability syndromes such as Sotos, Weaver, or Kabuki syndromes. Sotos syndrome is an overgrowth syndrome with intellectual disability caused by haploinsufficiency of the nuclear receptor binding SET domain protein 1 (NSD1) gene, an HMTase at 5q35.2-35.3. Here, we analyzed NSD1 in 34 Brazilian Sotos patients and identified three novel and eight known mutations...
November 9, 2016: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827847/programmed-effects-in-neurobehavior-and-antioxidative-physiology-in-zebrafish-embryonically-exposed-to-cadmium-observations-and-hypothesized-adverse-outcome-pathway-framework
#3
Sander Ruiter, Josefine Sippel, Manon C Bouwmeester, Tobias Lommelaars, Piet Beekhof, Hennie M Hodemaekers, Frank Bakker, Evert-Jan van den Brandhof, Jeroen L A Pennings, Leo T M van der Ven
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a major cause of premature mortality. Recent studies show that predispositions for NCDs may arise from early-life exposure to low concentrations of environmental contaminants. This developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) paradigm suggests that programming of an embryo can be disrupted, changing the homeostatic set point of biological functions. Epigenetic alterations are a possible underlying mechanism. Here, we investigated the DOHaD paradigm by exposing zebrafish to subtoxic concentrations of the ubiquitous contaminant cadmium during embryogenesis, followed by growth under normal conditions...
November 2, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826834/bacterial-dna-methylation-and-methylomes
#4
Josep Casadesús
Formation of C5-methylcytosine, N4-methylcytosine, and N6-methyladenine in bacterial genomes is postreplicative and involves transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-methionine to a base embedded in a specific DNA sequence context. Most bacterial DNA methyltransferases belong to restriction-modification systems; in addition, "solitary" or "orphan" DNA methyltransferases are frequently found in the genomes of bacteria and phage. Base methylation can affect the interaction of DNA-binding proteins with their cognate sites, either by a direct effect (e...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822545/proteome-remodeling-in-response-to-sulfur-limitation-in-candidatus-pelagibacter-ubique
#5
Daniel P Smith, Carrie D Nicora, Paul Carini, Mary S Lipton, Angela D Norbeck, Richard D Smith, Stephen J Giovannoni
The alphaproteobacterium "Candidatus Pelagibacter ubique" strain HTCC1062 and most other members of the SAR11 clade lack genes for assimilatory sulfate reduction, making them dependent on organosulfur compounds that occur naturally in seawater. To investigate how these cells adapt to sulfur limitation, batch cultures were grown in defined medium containing either limiting or nonlimiting amounts of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) as the sole sulfur source. Protein and mRNA expression were measured before, during, and after the transition from exponential growth to stationary phase...
July 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814539/study-on-formation-of-2-4-6-trichloroanisole-by-microbial-o-methylation-of-2-4-6-trichlorophenol-in-lake-water
#6
Kejia Zhang, Zhang Luo, Tuqiao Zhang, Minmin Mao, Jie Fu
To explore the mechanisms and influence factors on the production of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (2,4,6-TCA) in surface waters, the 2,4,6-TCA formation potential (FP) test was conducted by incubating the real lake water with the addition of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) precursor. Besides bacteria and fungi, two common cyanobacteria and algae species, i.e., Chlorella vulgaris and Anabaena flos-aquae, have been proved to have strong capabilities to produce 2,4,6-TCA, which may contribute the high 2,4,6-TCA FP (152...
October 28, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727432/s-adenosyl-methionine-same-for-depression-in-adults
#7
REVIEW
Ilaria Galizia, Lucio Oldani, Karine Macritchie, Erica Amari, Dominic Dougall, Tessa N Jones, Raymond W Lam, Guido Jacopo Massei, Lakshmi N Yatham, Allan H Young
BACKGROUND: Depression is a recurrent illness with high rates of chronicity, treatment-resistance and significant economic impact. There is evidence in the literature that S-adenosyl methionine (SAMe), a naturally occurring compound in the human body, has antidepressant efficacy. This product may be an important addition to the armamentarium of antidepressant agents. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of SAMe in comparison with placebo or antidepressants for the treatment of depression in adults...
October 10, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717843/homology-modeling-of-homo-sapiens-lipoic-acid-synthase-substrate-docking-and-insights-on-its-binding-mode
#8
Ezhilarasi Krishnamoorthy, Sameer Hassan, Luke Elizabeth Hanna, Indira Padmalayam, Rama Rajaram, Vijay Viswanathan
Lipoic acid synthase (LIAS) is an iron-sulfur cluster mitochondrial enzyme which catalyzes the final step in the de novo pathway for the biosynthesis of lipoic acid, a potent antioxidant. Recently there has been significant interest in its role in metabolic diseases and its deficiency in LIAS expression has been linked to conditions such as diabetes, atherosclerosis and neonatal-onset epilepsy, suggesting a strong inverse correlation between LIAS reduction and disease status. In this study we use a bioinformatics approach to predict its structure, which would be helpful to understanding its role...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689866/chemical-proteomic-profiling-of-human-methyltransferases
#9
Benjamin D Horning, Radu M Suciu, Darian A Ghadiri, Olesya A Ulanovskaya, Megan L Matthews, Kenneth M Lum, Keriann M Backus, Steven J Brown, Hugh Rosen, Benjamin F Cravatt
Methylation is a fundamental mechanism used in Nature to modify the structure and function of biomolecules, including proteins, DNA, RNA, and metabolites. Methyl groups are predominantly installed into biomolecules by a large and diverse class of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferases (MTs), of which there are ∼200 known or putative members in the human proteome. Deregulated MT activity contributes to numerous diseases, including cancer, and several MT inhibitors are in clinical development...
October 12, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648579/a-histone-h3k9m-mutation-traps-histone-methyltransferase-clr4-to-prevent-heterochromatin-spreading
#10
Chun-Min Shan, Jiyong Wang, Ke Xu, Huijie Chen, Jia-Xing Yue, Stuart Andrews, James J Moresco, John R Yates, Peter L Nagy, Liang Tong, Songtao Jia
Histone lysine-to-methionine (K-to-M) mutations are associated with multiple cancers, and they function in a dominant fashion to block the methylation of corresponding lysines on wild type histones. However, their mechanisms of function are controversial. Here we show that in fission yeast, introducing the K9M mutation into one of the three histone H3 genes dominantly blocks H3K9 methylation on wild type H3 across the genome. In addition, H3K9M enhances the interaction of histone H3 tail with the H3K9 methyltransferase Clr4 in a SAM (S-adenosyl-methionine)-dependent manner, and Clr4 is trapped at nucleation sites to prevent its spreading and the formation of large heterochromatin domains...
September 20, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594595/s-adenosyl-methionine-in-the-therapy-of-depression-and-other-psychiatric-disorders
#11
Nataša Karas Kuželički
Preclinical Research S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) is a major methyl donor and as such exerts its influence on CNS function through methylation reactions, such as methylation of several catecholamine moiety-containing neurotransmitters, epigenetic changes through methylation of DNA, RNA, RNA-binding proteins and histones, and phospholipid methylation. Based on available evidence, SAM is currently recommended as a next-step (second-line) treatment option following inadequate treatment response to a first-line antidepressant...
November 2016: Drug Development Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571175/methyl-transfer-by-substrate-signaling-from-a-knotted-protein-fold
#12
Thomas Christian, Reiko Sakaguchi, Agata P Perlinska, Georges Lahoud, Takuhiro Ito, Erika A Taylor, Shigeyuki Yokoyama, Joanna I Sulkowska, Ya-Ming Hou
Proteins with knotted configurations, in comparison with unknotted proteins, are restricted in conformational space. Little is known regarding whether knotted proteins have sufficient dynamics to communicate between spatially separated substrate-binding sites. TrmD is a bacterial methyltransferase that uses a knotted protein fold to catalyze methyl transfer from S-adenosyl methionine (AdoMet) to G37-tRNA. The product, m(1)G37-tRNA, is essential for life and maintains protein-synthesis reading frames. Using an integrated approach of structural, kinetic, and computational analysis, we show that the structurally constrained TrmD knot is required for its catalytic activity...
October 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562259/the-physiology-and-habitat-of-the-last-universal-common-ancestor
#13
Madeline C Weiss, Filipa L Sousa, Natalia Mrnjavac, Sinje Neukirchen, Mayo Roettger, Shijulal Nelson-Sathi, William F Martin
The concept of a last universal common ancestor of all cells (LUCA, or the progenote) is central to the study of early evolution and life's origin, yet information about how and where LUCA lived is lacking. We investigated all clusters and phylogenetic trees for 6.1 million protein coding genes from sequenced prokaryotic genomes in order to reconstruct the microbial ecology of LUCA. Among 286,514 protein clusters, we identified 355 protein families (∼0.1%) that trace to LUCA by phylogenetic criteria. Because these proteins are not universally distributed, they can shed light on LUCA's physiology...
2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27552169/modulation-of-conformational-equilibria-in-the-s-adenosylmethionine-sam-ii-riboswitch-by-sam-mg-2-and-trimethylamine-n-oxide
#14
Peter McPhie, Patrick Brown, Bin Chen, Theodore K Dayie, Allen P Minton
The dependence of the conformation of the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) II riboswitch on the concentration of added Mg(2+) ions and SAM, individually and in mixtures, was monitored by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and by measurement of the diffusion coefficient. The results are analyzed in the context of two complementary quantitative models, both of which are consistent with a single underlying physical model. Magnesium binding sites in the open state have an affinity on average higher than the affinity of those in the compact state, but formation of the compact state is accompanied by an increase in the number of binding sites...
September 13, 2016: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27457122/the-structure-and-catalytic-mechanism-of-sorghum-bicolor-caffeoyl-coa-o-methyltransferase
#15
Alexander M Walker, Steven A Sattler, Matt Regner, Jeffrey P Jones, John Ralph, Wilfred Vermerris, Scott E Sattler, ChulHee Kang
Caffeoyl-coenzyme A 3-O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT) is an S-adenosyl methionine (SAM)-dependent O-methyltransferase responsible for methylation of the meta-hydroxyl group of caffeoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) on the pathway to monolignols, with their ring methoxylation status characteristic of guaiacyl or syringyl units in lignin. In order to better understand the unique class of type 2 O-methyltransferases from monocots, we have characterized CCoAOMT from sorghum (Sorghum bicolor; SbCCoAOMT), including the SAM binary complex crystal structure and steady-state enzyme kinetics...
September 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27455459/structural-basis-for-trna-modification-by-elp3-from-dehalococcoides-mccartyi
#16
Sebastian Glatt, Rene Zabel, Olga Kolaj-Robin, Osita F Onuma, Florence Baudin, Andrea Graziadei, Valerio Taverniti, Ting-Yu Lin, Frauke Baymann, Bertrand Séraphin, Karin D Breunig, Christoph W Müller
During translation elongation, decoding is based on the recognition of codons by corresponding tRNA anticodon triplets. Molecular mechanisms that regulate global protein synthesis via specific base modifications in tRNA anticodons are receiving increasing attention. The conserved eukaryotic Elongator complex specifically modifies uridines located in the wobble base position of tRNAs. Mutations in Elongator subunits are associated with certain neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Here we present the crystal structure of D...
September 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445336/identification-of-a-distinct-substrate-binding-domain-in-the-bacterial-cysteine-methyltransferase-effectors-nlee-and-ospz
#17
Ying Zhang, Sabrina Mühlen, Clare V Oates, Jaclyn S Pearson, Elizabeth L Hartland
The type III secretion system effector protein NleE from enteropathogenic Escherichia coli plays a key role in the inhibition of NF-κB activation during infection. NleE inactivates the ubiquitin chain binding activity of host proteins TAK1-binding proteins 2 and 3 (TAB2 and TAB3) by modifying the Npl4 zinc finger domain through S-adenosyl methionine-dependent cysteine methylation. Using yeast two-hybrid protein interaction studies, we found that a conserved region between amino acids 34 and 52 of NleE, in particular the motif (49)GITR(52), was critical for TAB2 and TAB3 binding...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27422871/molecular-basis-of-rna-guanine-7-methyltransferase-rnmt-activation-by-ram
#18
Dhaval Varshney, Alain-Pierre Petit, Juan A Bueren-Calabuig, Chimed Jansen, Dan A Fletcher, Mark Peggie, Simone Weidlich, Paul Scullion, Andrei V Pisliakov, Victoria H Cowling
Maturation and translation of mRNA in eukaryotes requires the addition of the 7-methylguanosine cap. In vertebrates, the cap methyltransferase, RNA guanine-7 methyltransferase (RNMT), has an activating subunit, RNMT-Activating Miniprotein (RAM). Here we report the first crystal structure of the human RNMT in complex with the activation domain of RAM. A relatively unstructured and negatively charged RAM binds to a positively charged surface groove on RNMT, distal to the active site. This results in stabilisation of a RNMT lobe structure which co-evolved with RAM and is required for RAM binding...
December 1, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27419740/responses-of-bovine-early-embryos-to-s-adenosyl-methionine-supplementation-in-culture
#19
Habib A Shojaei Saadi, Dominic Gagné, Éric Fournier, Luis Manuel Baldoceda Baldeon, Marc-André Sirard, Claude Robert
AIM: There is a growing concern about the potential adverse effects of high dose folic acid (FA) supplementation before and during pregnancy. FA metabolism generates S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) which is an important cofactor of epigenetic programming. We sought to assess the impact of a large dose of SAM on early embryo development. MATERIALS & METHODS: In vitro cultured bovine embryos were treated with SAM from the eight-cell stage to the blastocyst stage. In addition to the phenotype, the genome-wide epigenetic and transcription profiles were analyzed...
August 2016: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27387533/plasmodium-adometdc-odc-bifunctional-enzyme-is-essential-for-male-sexual-stage-development-and-mosquito-transmission
#20
Robert J Hart, Atif Ghaffar, Shaymaa Abdalal, Benjamin Perrin, Ahmed S I Aly
Polyamines are positively-charged organic molecules that are important for cellular growth and division. Polyamines and their synthesizing enzymes are particularly abundant in rapidly proliferating eukaryotic cells such as parasitic protozoa and cancer cells. Polyamine biosynthesis inhibitors, such as Elfornithine, are now being considered for cancer prevention and have been used effectively against Trypanosoma brucei Inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis have caused growth arrest of Plasmodium falciparum blood stages in vitro, but in P...
2016: Biology Open
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