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V I Zhilyuk, A E Levykh, V I Mamchur
In rats with chronic alloxan-induced hyperglycemia, pramiracetam and phenylpiracetam (but not piracetam) had a strong antiaggregant effect that was mediated by various mechanisms of platelet aggregation modulation. The effect of pramiracetam is mainly realized via the inhibition of thromboxane A2 metabolism, while activity of phenylpiracetam is primarily associated with a normalizing effect on function of constitutive NO synthase in platelets and vascular endothelium.
April 2014: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
V I Zhiliuk, A É Levykh, V I Mamchur
The effects of nootropic drugs (noopept, pentoxifylline, piracetam, pramiracetam, Ginkgo biloba extract, entrop, cerebrocurin and citicoline) on platelet aggregation in rats with experimental diabetes have been studied. It is established that all these drugs exhibit an inhibitory action of various degrees against platelet hyperreactivity under conditions of chronic hyperglycemia. The maximum universality of the antiaggregatory action is characteristic of pramiracetam, entrop and Ginkgo biloba extract.
2012: Eksperimental'naia i Klinicheskaia Farmakologiia
Massimo Bambagiotti-Alberti, Gianluca Bartolucci, Bruno Bruni, Silvia A Coran, Massimo Di Vaira
The structure of the title compound, C(14)H(28)N(3)O(2) (+)·HSO(4) (-), a nootropic drug (pramiracetam) investigated for cognition-enhancing properties, is closely similar to that of the previously determined acetonitrile solvate, both structures being characterized by the presence of ribbons of hydrogen-bonded ions. The pyrrolidine ring adopts an envelope conformation.
2008: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Structure Reports Online
Andrei G Malykh, M Reza Sadaie
There is an increasing interest in nootropic drugs for the treatment of CNS disorders. Since the last meta-analysis of the clinical efficacy of piracetam, more information has accumulated. The primary objective of this systematic survey is to evaluate the clinical outcomes as well as the scientific literature relating to the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics, mechanism of action, dosing, toxicology and adverse effects of marketed and investigational drugs. The major focus of the literature search was on articles demonstrating evidence-based clinical investigations during the past 10 years for the following therapeutic categories of CNS disorders: (i) cognition/memory; (ii) epilepsy and seizure; (iii) neurodegenerative diseases; (iv) stroke/ischaemia; and (v) stress and anxiety...
February 12, 2010: Drugs
L P De Vreese, M Neri, R Boiardi, P Ferrari, L Belloi, G Salvioli
The aim of this study was to assess the influence of drug therapy (DT) with pramiracetam and memory training (MT), each alone, and in combination (DTMT), on both the objective memory and metamemory performance. Thirty-five non-depressed, non-demented healthy elderly (mean age: 64.8 years) with objective (story recall) and/or subjective (cognitive difficulties scale) memory loss were randomly included in four open-label conditions: an MT condition (n = 10), a DT condition (n = 8), a DTMT condition (n = 10), and a control (CTR) condition (n = 7)...
1996: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
M Mauri, E Sinforiani, F Reverberi, P Merlo, G Bono
Pramiracetam has been evaluated for its potential antiamnesic properties in scopolamine-induced amnesia in healthy volunteers. Two groups of twelve males, 18-42 and 55-65 years old, respectively, were randomly assigned to oral treatment with pramiracetam (600 mg twice a day) or with placebo for 10 consecutive days. On day 11 each subject was injected intramuscularly with scopolamine hydrobromide (0.5 mg). Before scopolamine injection and then 1, 3 and 6 h after it, subjects were administered the following psychometric tests: simple and choice visual reaction times, digit symbol substitution test, Rey's 15 words test for short and long term verbal memory...
March 1994: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
L A Dziak, V A Golik, E V Miziakina
Morbidity rise of cerebrovascular pathology is followed by remarkable cognitive decline. Chronic cerebral blood insufficiency and stroke consequences compose a group of the diseases which lead to different types of memory deterioration, consecutive memory decline and as a result to professional and social dysadaptation. The morphological basis of the problem consists in progressive structural cerebral deficit with forming a new adaptive system. The activity of this system is often not effective due to a lack of mediator supply...
December 2003: Likars'ka Sprava
Z Fang, X Liu, Y Xiao, W Jiang
Pharmacokinetic rules of pramiracetam were studied here. After giving pramiracetam orally to dogs, we drew their blood at various times. The drug concentrations in blood plasma were detected by HPLC. 3p87 program was used to calculate the pharmacokinetic parameters. The time-concentration curve corresponded to one apartment model. T1/2 was about 2.3-3.9 hours in various doses. After pramiracetam was given to rats per os, high concentrations of pramiracetam were detected in the rats' tissues. The kidney had the highest concentration of pramiracetam; the liver had the next highest concentration, and then the intestine, lung, muscle, heart, gonad, spleen and sebum had the high concentration in order...
December 1999: Hua Xi Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of West China University of Medical Sciences, Huaxi Yike Daxue Xuebao
T M Itil, E Eralp, I Ahmed, A Kunitz, K Z Itil
In 1994, a standardized dry extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves (SeGb), has been approved by German health authorities for the treatment of primary degenerative dementia and vascular dementia. More than 24 different brands of Ginkgo biloba extract are sold in the United States. Tacrine, also known as tetrahydroaminoacrine (THA), and donepezil are currently the only drugs approved in the United States for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Previous studies demonstrated that SeGb and tacrine induce significant pharmacological effects on the brains of young, healthy human males, as determined by bioelectrical activity measurements obtained using the quantitative pharmaco-electroencephalogram (QPEEG) method...
1998: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
D Maresová, P Mares
The possible protective action of pramiracetam, a pyrrolidinone nootropic drug, against hypobaric hypoxia was studied in two age groups of immature rats with implanted electrodes. Epileptic afterdischarges induced by hippocampal stimulation were used as a measure of hypoxic damage. Pramiracetam did not substantially change these afterdischarges in 12- and 18-day-old rat pups which were not exposed to hypoxia. Hypobaric hypoxia (simulated altitude of 7000 m for one hour) led to prolongation of the first afterdischarge in both age groups...
1996: Physiological Research
M T Corasaniti, A M Paoletti, E Palma, T Granato, M Navarra, G Nisticò
The effect of systemic administration of pramiracetam on neuronal type nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and NOS mRNA expression were studied in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex in rats. A dose of 300 mg/kg (i.p.) of this nootropic produced an approximately 20% increase in NOS activity in rat brain cortical homogenates but not in hippocampal homogenates; no significant changes were observed in NOS mRNA expression in the cortex and hippocampus. A lower dose of pramiracetam (100 mg/kg i.p.) was ineffective on NOS mRNA expression and enzyme activity...
May 1995: Functional Neurology
Z Hlinák, I Krejci
The present study describes the effect of kynurenic (KYNA) and 5,7-dichlorokynurenic (DCKA) acids, acting as selective antagonists at the glycine site on the NMDA receptor complex, upon short-term memory of male rats. Oxiracetam (OXIR) or pramiracetam (PRAM) were used as reference compounds. In the social recognition test, adult animals were injected SC with a drug or vehicle immediately after the first exposure to a juvenile male, 21-24 days old, and reexposed to the same or a novel juvenile 120 min later...
August 1995: Psychopharmacology
A H Gouliaev, A Senning
Nearly three decades have now passed since the discovery of the piracetam-like nootropics, compounds which exhibit cognition-enhancing properties, but for which no commonly accepted mechanism of action has been established. This review covers clinical, pharmacokinetic, biochemical and behavioural results presented in the literature from 1965 through 1992 (407 references) of piracetam, oxiracetam, pramiracetam, etiracetam, nefiracetam, aniracetam and rolziracetam and their structural analogues. The piracetam-like nootropics are capable of achieving reversal of amnesia induced by, e...
May 1994: Brain Research. Brain Research Reviews
L Parnetti
Pharmacological treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease is becoming more important, as evidenced by the number of drugs being developed in different countries. It has been shown in the majority of clinical trials that cholinesterase inhibitors, such as tacrine (tetrahydroaminoacridine), are able to induce beneficial effects in cognition and memory. Tacrine, like most of the other oral antidementia agents, is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. It is excreted mainly through the kidney, with a terminal elimination half-life of about 3 hours...
August 1995: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
T Chang, R M Young
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 13, 1983: Journal of Chromatography
D E Butler, I C Nordin, Y J L'Italien, L Zweisler, P H Poschel, J G Marriott
A series of N-[(dialkylamino)alkyl]-2-oxo-1- pyrrolidineacetamides was synthesized. The title compounds reversed electroconvulsive shock (ECS) induced amnesia in mice when administered subsequent to the ECS treatment and were inactive in a general observational test for central nervous system (CNS) activity. Active compounds exhibited an inverted U-shaped dose-response curve. Among the compounds with the broadest dose-response curve, as well as the most potent, were those with the N-[2-[bis(1-methylethyl)amino] ethyl] or 2,6- dimethylpiperidinoethyl residues as amide substituent...
May 1984: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
B P Poschel, P M Ho, F W Ninteman
The basal EEG profile of the aged Fisher-344 rat was consistently different from that of the young rat, showing dominant high voltage slow-wave components. These slow waves were present in both the frontal cerebral cortex and dorsal hippocampus. Absent or greatly attenuated in the aged rat's hippocampal EEG was rhythmic theta activity, which was always dominant in the young awake rat's hippocampus. These EEG differences were clearly apparent only under basal test conditions, i.e., following habituation to the test situation...
November 15, 1985: Experientia
B P Poschel, P M Ho, F W Ninteman, M J Callahan
Following oral or intravenous administration, a representative cognition activator drug, pramiracetam sulfate, is shown to have a pharmacologic therapeutic window at three different levels of study: learned behavior, gross EEG activity of the frontal cortex and hippocampus, and firing rate of single hippocampal neurons.
September 15, 1985: Experientia
T Chang, R M Young, J R Goulet, G J Yakatan
The pharmacokinetics of pramiracetam, a new, investigational, cognition activator, were assessed in normal male volunteers as part of a clinical tolerance study. In a double-blind, randomized design, two groups of six subjects each received alternating placebo and single 400, 800, 1,200, and 1,600 mg oral doses of pramiracetam after an overnight fast. Mean (+/- SD) peak plasma concentrations of the four dose groups (2.71 +/- 0.54, 5.40 +/- 1.34, 6.13 +/- 0.71, 8.98 +/- 0.71 micrograms/mL) were attained between two to three hours following drug administration...
May 1985: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
S R Franklin, V H Sethy, A H Tang
Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) to mice before the training trial in a passive avoidance task produced an amnesic effect at the 24-hour retention test. Pretreatment by IP injection of piracetam, etiracetam, or pramiracetam, 30 minutes before HC-3 injections antagonized the amnesic effects of HC-3. Pretreatment with choline was not effective. The depletion of cerebral acetylcholine by the HC-3 injection was not prevented by piracetam or etiracetam.
October 1986: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
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