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Lin Huang, Jia Wang, Timothy J Wilson, David M J Lilley
Riboswitches are structural elements found in mRNA molecules that couple small-molecule binding to regulation of gene expression, usually by controlling transcription or translation. We have determined high-resolution crystal structures of the ykkC guanidine III riboswitch from Thermobifida fusca. The riboswitch forms a classic H-type pseudoknot that includes a triple helix that is continuous with a central core of conserved nucleotides. These form a left-handed helical ramp of inter-nucleotide interactions, generating the guanidinium cation binding site...
September 28, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
I M Kenawy, M A H Hafez, M A Ismail, M A Hashem
A novel chemically guanyl-modified cellulose (Gu-MC) - material has been synthesized for the adsorption of Cu(2+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+), Pb(2+) and Zn(2+) metal ions from aqueous solution. Cellulose was pretreated with periodate prior to its condensation with aminoguanidine for the formation of cellulose aldehyde-guanyl Schiff's. The synthesized material was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), elemental analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Moreover, the effect of contact time, pH, adsorbent dosage, interfering ions and initial concentration of metal ions on the adsorption capacity were investigated...
October 5, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Seyyed Majid Eslami, Maryam Ghasemi, Taraneh Bahremand, Majid Momeny, Mahdi Gholami, Mohammad Sharifzadeh, Ahmad Reza Dehpour
This study aims to investigate the role of zolpidem in lithium-pilocarpine induced status epilepticus (SE) and probable mechanisms involved in seizure threshold alteration. In the present study, lithium chloride (127mg/kg) was administered 20h prior to pilocarpine (60mg/kg) to induce SE in adult male Wistar rats. Different doses of zolpidem (0.1, 1, 2, 5, 10mg/kg) were injected 30min before pilocarpine administration. Furthermore, to find out whether nitric oxide (NO) plays a role in the observed effect, L-arginine and L-NAME were injected 15min before zolpidem...
October 4, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
Vitor Silva Pereira, Betina Elfving, Sâmia R L Joca, Gregers Wegener
The rapid and sustained antidepressant properties of ketamine provide evidence of the importance of the glutamatergic system in the neurobiology of depression. The antidepressant-like effects of ketamine are dependent on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in limbic brain areas. The nitrergic system is closely related to the glutamatergic system and generates antidepressant-like effects when blocked. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the behavioural effects induced by the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis by aminoguanidine or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blockade by ketamine would affect the gene expression of Bdnf and Mtor in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex in rats...
September 22, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
Qin Yan Wu, Sheng Zhou Ma, Wen Wen Zhang, Ke Bing Yao, Lu Chen, Fei Zhao, Yi Qing Zhuang
The roles of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt and polyamine (PA) degradation pathway on GABA accumulation were investigated in fresh tea leaves under anaerobic and aerobic sequential incubations. The GABA accumulation was mainly completed in the first anaerobic incubation through the interaction of the GABA shunt with the PA degradation pathway. When treated with aminoguanidine, the diamine oxidase and polyamine oxidase activities were almost completely inhibited, and the GABA contents decreased by 40...
February 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Sajad Jeddi, Asghar Ghasemi, Alireza Asgari, Amir Nezami-Asl
INTRODUCTION: REM sleep deprivation (SD) decreases tolerance of the rat heart to ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury; the underlying mechanisms, however, are unknown. This study aimed at determining whether changes in iNOS, Bax, and Bcl-2 gene expression are involved in this detrimental effect. METHOD: SD was induced by flowerpot technique for a period of 4 days. This method is simple and able to induce sleep fragmentation which occurs as one of the sleep disorder symptoms in clinical conditions...
September 23, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
Simranjeet Kaur, Anudeep Kaur, Gurjit Singh, Rajbir Bhatti
The present study was designed to investigate the effect of mercurius solubilis (Merc sol) on scopolamine induced memory deficits and motor coordination in mice. The Three different formulations of merc sol (30X, 200 M, 1 M) were screened for their in vitro antioxidant potential and DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and nitric oxide scavenging activity using response surface methodology. The Merc sol 30X formulation was found to be most potent and further subjected for in vivo experiment. The Memory impairment was induced by the administration of scopolamine (1 mg/kg i...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
Arati B Deshmukh, Shakuntala Bai, Aarthy T, Rubina S Kazi, Reema Banarjee, Rajeshwari Rathore, Vijayakumar Mv, Thulasiram Hv, Manoj Kumar Bhat, Kulkarni Mj
Methylglyoxal (MG) is a highly reactive dicarbonyl known to be elevated under the hyperglycemic conditions of diabetes and is implicated in the development of diabetic complications. Therefore, the current study investigates the role of MG in exacerbating insulin resistance at the insulin signaling level, as well as its effect on the global proteomic level. By using insulin sensitive rat muscle cells (L6) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing the insulin receptor (IR) and a glucose transporter fused with green fluorescent protein (GLUT4-GFP), we have observed that MG impairs insulin signaling, inhibits GLUT4 translocation and reduces glucose uptake...
September 19, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
Tao Chen, Xiao-Li Sun, Xi-Ai Yang, Jing-Jing Shi, Yi Liu, Jia-Ming Gong
The present study investigated the role of aminoguanidine in the prevention of harmful effects in astroglioma F98 cells induced by β‑amyloid treatment. MTT assay was used to analyze cell viability. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was analyzed using western blot analysis. Treatment of the F98 cells with a 15 µM concentration of β‑amyloid for 12 h reduced cell viability to 18% compared with the control cells. However, pretreatment with a 30 µM concentration of aminoguanidine for 12 h completely prevented the β‑amyloid‑induced reduction in cell viability...
August 29, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
Mariarosa Maietta, Raffaella Colombo, Roberto Lavecchia, Milena Sorrenti, Antonio Zuorro, Adele Papetti
The role of polyphenolic compounds extractable from artichoke solid wastes in the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) was studied. Outer bracts and stems were extracted using different water-ethanol mixtures and HPLC-DAD analyses indicated aqueous and hydro-alcoholic 20:80 stem extracts as the richest in polyphenols. The samples were characterized in their phenolic composition (using mass spectrometry) and antioxidant capacity. Antiglycative capacity was evaluated by in vitro BSA-sugars (glucose, fructose, and ribose) and BSA-methylglyoxal (MGO) tests, formation of Amadori products assay, direct glyoxal (GO) and MGO trapping capacity...
October 2017: Food Research International
Kasthuri Natarajan, Premila Abraham, Rekha Kota
The efficacy of methotrexate (MTX), a commonly used chemotherapeutic drug, is limited by intestinal injury. As the mechanism of MTX-induced small intestinal injury is not clear, there is no definitive treatment for MTX-induced gastrointestinal injury. The present study investigates the role of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in MTX-induced small intestinal injury and examines whether aminoguanidine is effective in preventing the damage. Eight Wistar rats were administered 3 consecutive i.p. injections of 7 mg/kg body wt...
September 4, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
Meenakshi Tiwari, Shail K Chaube
Nitric oxides (NO) act as one of the major signal molecules and modulate various cell functions including oocyte meiosis in mammals. The present study was designed to investigate the mechanism of NO action during spontaneous meiotic exit from diplotene arrest (EDA) in rat cumulus oocytes complexes (COCs) cultured in vitro. Diplotene-arrested COCs collected from ovary of immature female rats after 20 IU pregnant mare's serum gonadotropins (PMSG) for 48 h were exposed to various concentrations of NO donor, S-nitroso-N-acetyl penicillamine (SNAP) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor, aminoguanidine (AG) for 3 h in vitro and downstream factors were analyzed...
September 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Ekaruth Srisook, Mullika Palachot, Sakulrat Mankhong, Klaokwan Srisook
BACKGROUND: In our continuing search for anti-inflammatory agents from Thai herbs, Etlingera pavieana (Pierre ex Gagnep.) R.M.Sm. showed potent inhibition on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophages. However, the mechanism behind its inhibitory effect has not been yet explored, and little is known regarding its bioactive compounds responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, anti-inflammatory effect of hexane, ethyl acetate, and water fractions of rhizomal ethanol extracts of E...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Alexander Navarrete Santos, Kathleen Jacobs, Andreas Simm, Nicole Glaubitz, Rüdiger Horstkorte, Britt Hofmann
RATIONALE: Glyoxal (GO) and Methylglyoxal (MGO) are two dicarbonyls involved in the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Endothelial cells in the vessels are in constant contact with circulating AGEs and dicarbonyls. With this project, we aimed to elucidate the effect of GO and MGO on primary human vascular endothelial cells (HVECs). METHODS: Graft material from patients with coronary heart disease was used as HVECs source. HVECs were treated with different concentrations of GO and MGO...
August 3, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
An Ouyang, Tyler B Garner, Bradley S Fleenor
We tested the hypothesis that hesperidin would reverse age-related aortic stiffness, perivascular adipose (PVAT) mediated-arterial stiffening and PVAT advanced glycation end-products (AGE) accumulation. Aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) and intrinsic mechanical stiffness, two measures of arterial stiffness, were assessed in C57BL/6 mice that were young (6months), old (27-29months), or old treated with hesperidin for 4weeks. Old compared with young mice had increased aPWV (444±10 vs. 358±8cm/s, P<0.05) and mechanical stiffness (6506±369 vs...
August 3, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
Renata Tiscoski Nesi, Marina Valente Barroso, Valdirene de Souza Muniz, Ana Carolina de Arantes, Marco Aurélio Martins, Lycia de Brito Gitirana, Josiane Sabbadini Neves, Cláudia Farias Benjamim, Manuella Lanzetti, Samuel Santos Valenca
Asthma is an allergic inflammation driven by the Th2 immune response with release of cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-13, which contribute to the airflow limitations and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). The involvement of oxidative stress in this process is well-established, but the specific role of the superoxide anion and nitric oxide in asthma are poorly understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying the superoxide anion/nitric oxide production and detoxification in a murine asthma model...
August 24, 2017: Free Radical Research
Sagarika Bhattacharya, Rhitajit Sarkar, Biswarup Chakraborty, Angel Porgador, Raz Jelinek
Carbon dots (C-dots) prepared through heating of aminoguanidine and citric acid enable bimodal (colorimetric and fluorescence) detection of nitric oxide (NO) in aqueous solutions. The C-dots retained the functional units of aminoguanidine, which upon reaction with NO produced surface residues responsible for the color and fluorescence transformations. Notably, the aminoguanidine/citric acid C-dots were noncytotoxic, making possible real-time and high sensitivity detection of NO in cellular environments. Using multiprong spectroscopic and chromatography analyses we deciphered the molecular mechanism accounting for the NO-induced structural and photophysical transformations of the C-dots, demonstrating for the first time N2 release and azo dye formation upon the C-dots' surface...
August 25, 2017: ACS Sensors
Yuh-Hwa Liu, Yeh-Lin Lu, Der-Zen Liu, Wen-Chi Hou
Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) can promote intracellular reactive oxygen species production, and the levels of AGEs are highly correlated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes complications. Acetohydroxamic acid (acetH) is a bacterial urease inhibitor drug used to treat kidney stones and infections in the urinary tract, and hydroxyurea (HU) is a drug used for antineoplasm and sickle cell diseases. Both acetH and HU are hydroxamic acid derivatives. It was found that acetH and HU at 2.5 or 5 mM showed anti-AGE formation by lowering the AGEs' fluorescent intensities and N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine formation in bovine serum albumin/galactose models, and both showed better and significant differences (P<0...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Chao Chen, Xiao-Jing Yun, Li-Ze Liu, Hong Guo, Lian-Feng Liu, Xiao-Ling Chen
OBJECTIVE: Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) aggravates and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) ameliorates fibrosis in the lung. Our previous study demonstrated that aminoguanidine (AG), a preferred iNOS inhibitor, prevents bleomycin-induced injury and fibrosis in the lung. The diethylenetriamine nitric oxide adduct (DETA/NO) is a slow-release NO donor. Here, to clarify the exact role of the nitric oxide (NO) molecule in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis in vivo, we observed the effects of inhalation of aerosolized DETA/NO on fibrosis in the lungs of bleomycin-exposed rats with AG treatment, including the effects on the myofibroblast number, collagen deposition, peroxynitrite anion (ONOO(-)) formation, and injury in the lung...
July 27, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
V N Perfilova, T A Popova, I I Prokofiev, I S Mokrousov, O V Ostrovskii, I N Tyurenkov
Increased oxygen consumption by heart and brain mitochondria in the absence of ADP and reduced mitochondrial respiration in the presence of ADP were observed in rats exposed to stress simulated by suspension by the dorsal neck skin fold for 24 h, which attests to uncoupling of substrate oxidation and ATP synthesis and can cause electron drain from the respiratory chain, formation of ROS, and oxidative damage to cell structures. Blockade of inducible NO synthase with aminoguanidine (single intraperitoneal dose of 50 mg/kg before stress exposure) increased coupling of respiration and oxidative phosphorylation in heart and brain mitochondria of rats exposed to immobilization-painful stress, which was especially pronounced in cardiomyocytes...
June 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
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