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malic acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638469/dual-ph-sensitive-charge-reversal-nanocomplex-for-tumor-targeted-drug-delivery-with-enhanced-anticancer-activity
#1
Qing Zhou, Yilin Hou, Li Zhang, Jianlin Wang, Youbei Qiao, Songyan Guo, Li Fan, Tiehong Yang, Lin Zhu, Hong Wu
Poly(β-L-malic acid) (PMLA), a natural aliphatic polyester, has been proven to be a promising carrier for anti-cancer drugs. In spite of excellent bio-compatibility, the application of PMLA as the drug carrier for cancer therapy is limited by its low cellular uptake efficiency. The strong negative charge of PMLA impedes its uptake by cancer cells because of the electrostatic repulsion. In this study, a dual pH-sensitive charge-reversal PMLA-based nanocomplex (PMLA-PEI-DOX-TAT@PEG-DMMA) was developed for effective tumor-targeted drug delivery, enhanced cellular uptake, and intracellular drug release...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631237/structural-characterization-of-pyoverdines-produced-by-pseudomonas-putida-kt2440-and-pseudomonas-taiwanensis-vlb120
#2
Matthias Baune, Yulin Qi, Karen Scholz, Dietrich A Volmer, Heiko Hayen
The previously unknown sequences of several pyoverdines (PVD) produced by a biotechnologically-relevant bacterium, namely, Pseudomonas taiwanensis VLB120, were characterized by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The same structural characterization scheme was checked before by analysis of Pseudomonas sp. putida KT2440 samples with known PVDs. A new sample preparation strategy based on solid-phase extraction was developed, requiring significantly reduced sample material as compared to existing methods...
June 19, 2017: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612355/effect-of-particle-size-on-phytochemical-composition-and-antioxidant-properties-of-two-persimmon-flours-from-diospyros-kaki-thunb-vars-rojo-brillante-and-triumph-coproducts
#3
Raquel Lucas-González, Juana Fernández-López, José Ángel Pérez-Álvarez, Manuel Viuda-Martos
BACKGROUND: This contribution studies the influence of the particle size of persimmon flours (from two cultivars, 'Rojo Brillante' and 'Triumph') on their primary (sugars and organic acids) and secondary (polyphenols, flavonoids and carotenoids) metabolite content, and also on their antioxidant activity, to assess whether these flours could find applications in the food industry as a potential functional ingredient. RESULTS: The main sugars were fructose and glucose and the principal organic acid was malic acid...
June 14, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612342/effect-of-glycine-nitrogen-on-lettuce-growth-under-soilless-culture-a-metabolomics-approach-to-identify-the-main-changes-occurred-in-plant-primary-and-secondary-metabolism
#4
Xiao Yang, Lei Feng, Li Zhao, Xiaosong Liu, Danial Hassani, Danfeng Huang
BACKGROUND: Lettuce is a significant source of antioxidants and bioactive compounds. Nitrate is a cardinal fertilizer in horticulture and influences vegetable yield and quality; however, the negative effects of nitrate on the biosynthesis of flavonoids require further study. It is expected that using fertilizers containing organic N could promote the synthesis of health-promoting compounds. RESULTS: Lettuces were hydroponically cultured in media containing 9 mM nitrate or 9 mM glycine for 4 weeks...
June 14, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601082/thiamine-induces-long-term-changes-in-amino-acid-profiles-and-activities-of-2-oxoglutarate-and-2-oxoadipate-dehydrogenases-in-rat-brain
#5
P M Tsepkova, A V Artiukhov, A I Boyko, V A Aleshin, G V Mkrtchyan, M A Zvyagintseva, S I Ryabov, A L Ksenofontov, L A Baratova, A V Graf, V I Bunik
Molecular mechanisms of long-term changes in brain metabolism after thiamine administration (single i.p. injection, 400 mg/kg) were investigated. Protocols for discrimination of the activities of the thiamine diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent 2-oxoglutarate and 2-oxoadipate dehydrogenases were developed to characterize specific regulation of the multienzyme complexes of the 2-oxoglutarate (OGDHC) and 2-oxoadipate (OADHC) dehydrogenases by thiamine. The thiamine-induced changes depended on the brain-region-specific expression of the ThDP-dependent dehydrogenases...
June 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596074/introduction-of-an-acetyl-coa-carboxylation-bypass-into-escherichia-coli-for-enhanced-free-fatty-acid-production
#6
Kwang Soo Shin, Sung Kuk Lee
This study investigated the effect of the methylmalonyl-CoA carboxyltransferase (MMC) of Propionibacterium freudenreichii on production of free fatty acid (FFA) in Escherichia coli. Overexpression of the MMC exhibited a 44% increase in FFA titer. Co-overexpression of MMC and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PPC), which supplies the MMC precursor, further improved the titer by 40%. Expression of malic enzyme (MaeB) led to a 23% increase in FFA titer in the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC)-overexpressing cells, but no increase in the MMC-overexpressing cells...
May 31, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594267/a-plant-pathogenic-bacterium-exploits-the-tricarboxylic-acid-cycle-metabolic-pathway-of-its-insect-vector
#7
Nabil Killiny, Yasser Nehela, Faraj Hijaz, Christopher I Vincent
Huanglongbing in citrus is caused by a phloem-limited, uncultivable, gram-negative α-proteobacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas). CLas is transmitted by the phloem-sucking insect, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), in a persistent, circulative, and propagative manner. In this study, we investigated the metabolomic and respiration rates changes in D. citri upon infection with CLas using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas exchange analysis. The level of glycine, L-serine, L-threonine, and gamma-amino butyric acid were higher in CLas-infected D...
June 8, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591430/qualitative-hplc-dad-esi-tof-ms-analysis-cytotoxic-and-apoptotic-effects-of-croatian-endemic-centaurea-ragusina-l-aqueous-extracts
#8
Mila Radan, Ivana Carev, Vele Tešević, Olivera Politeo, Vedrana Čikeš Čulić
Centaurea ragusina L., an endemic Croatian plant species, revealed a good cytotoxic activity of aqueous extracts on human bladder (T24) and human glioblastoma (A1235) cancer cell lines. The chemical constituents were tentatively identified using high performance liquid chromatography HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF-MS in negative ionization mode. The main compounds of herba extract were sesquiterpene lactones: solstitialin A-3, 13 diacetate and epoxyrepdiolide; organic acid: quinic acid. The main compounds of flower extract were organic acids: quinic acid, citric acid and malic acid; sesquiterpene lactone: cynaropicrin; phenolic compounds: chlorogenic acid and phenylpropanoid: syringin...
June 7, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581736/highly-efficient-malolactic-fermentation-of-red-wine-using-encapsulated-bacteria-in-a-robust-biocomposite-of-silica-alginate
#9
Guillermo Simó, Josefina Vila-Crespo, Encarnación Fernández-Fernández, Violeta Ruipérez, José Manuel Rodríguez-Nogales
Bacteria encapsulation to develop malolactic fermentation emerges as a biotechnological strategy that provides significant advantages over the use of free cells. Two encapsulation methods have been proposed embedding Oenococcus oeni, (i) interpenetrated polymer networks of silica and Ca-alginate and (ii) Ca-alginate capsules coated with hydrolyzed 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (hAPTES). On the basis of our results, only the first method was suitable for bacteria encapsulation. The optimized silica-alginate capsules exhibited a negligible bacteria release and an increase of 328% and 65% in L-malic acid consumption and mechanical robustness, respectively, compared to untreated alginate capsules...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576465/metformin-and-caffeic-acid-regulate-metabolic-reprogramming-in-human-cervical-carcinoma-siha-htb-35%C3%A2-cells-and-augment-anticancer-activity-of-cisplatin-via-cell-cycle-regulation
#10
Malgorzata Tyszka-Czochara, Karolina Bukowska-Strakova, Marcin Majka
Metformin shows benefits in anticancer prevention in humans. In this study, normal human fibroblasts (FB) and metastatic cervical cancer cells (SiHa) were exposed to 10 mM Metformin (Met), 100 μM Caffeic Acid (trans-3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid, CA) or combination of the compounds. Both drugs were selectively toxic towards cancer cells, but neither Met nor CA treatment suppressed growth of normal cells. Met and CA regulated metabolic reprogramming in SiHa tumor cells through different mechanisms: Met suppressed regulatory enzymes Glurtaminase (GLS) and Malic Enzyme 1 (ME1) and enhanced pyruvate oxidation via tricarboxylic acids (TCA) cycle, while CA acted as glycolytic inhibitor...
May 30, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574668/unified-asymmetric-total-syntheses-of-alotaketals-a-d-and-phorbaketal-a
#11
Hang Cheng, Zhihong Zhang, Hongliang Yao, Wei Zhang, Jingxun Yu, Rongbiao Tong
The novel tricyclic spiroketal alotane-type sesterterpenoids showed strikingly different biological activities and potency with subtle structural alterations. Asymmetric total syntheses of such tricyclic sesterterpenoid alotaketals A-D and phorbaketal A were accomplished (29-31 steps from (-)-malic acid) in a collective way for the first time. The key features of our strategy included (i) the new cascade cyclization of vinyl epoxy δ-keto-alcohol (VEKA) to forge the common tricyclic spiroketal intermediate, (ii) a late-stage allylic C-H oxidation, and (iii) olefin cross metathesis to install the different side chains...
June 2, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570676/shaofu-zhuyu-decoction-ameliorates-obesity-mediated-hepatic-steatosis-and-systemic-inflammation-by-regulating-metabolic-pathways
#12
Moonju Hong, Jeeyoun Jung, Hee-Sook Park, So Min Lee, Nam-Joo Jeong, Soon-Hee Kim, Kyoung-Won Lee, Ju-A Lee, Myung-Sunny Kim
Shaofu Zhuyu decoction (SFZYD, also known as Sobokchugeo-tang), a classical prescription drug in traditional East Asian medicine, has been used to treat blood stasis syndrome (BSS). Hepatic steatosis is the result of excess caloric intake, and its pathogenesis involves internal retention of phlegm and dampness, blood stasis, and liver Qi stagnation. To evaluate the effects of treatment with SFZYD on obesity-induced inflammation and hepatic steatosis, we fed male C57BL/6N mice a high fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks and then treated them with SFZYD by oral gavage for an additional 4 weeks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569513/gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-studies-of-the-component-composition-of-carboxylic-acids-of-the-rhizomes-of-iris-medwedewii-and-iris-carthaliniae-iridaceae
#13
Javanshir I Isayev, Оlga O Mykhailenko, Vladumir M Kovalyov, Gamid M Gurbanov, Murad Y Suleymanov
The composition of carboxylic acids of the rhizomes of Iris carthaliniae and Iris medwedewii by the gas chromatography - mass spectrometry method has been studied for the first time. The total content of carboxylic acids for I. carthaliniae was 1.34%, including (%) - 0.65 fatty; 0.36 mono-, di- and tri-carboxylic; 0.33 phenol carboxylic acids. The yield of carboxylic acids for I. medwedewii was 1.58%, including (%) - 0.73 fatty; 0.38 mono-, di- and tri-carboxylic; 0.47 phenol carboxylic acids. The dominant fatty acids in the rhizomes of I...
2017: Ceská a Slovenská Farmacie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556789/characterization-of-metabolite-profile-in-phyllanthus-niruri-and-correlation-with-bioactivity-elucidated-by-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-based-metabolomics
#14
Ahmed Mediani, Faridah Abas, M Maulidiani, Alfi Khatib, Chin Ping Tan, Intan Safinar Ismail, Khozirah Shaari, Amin Ismail
Phyllanthus niruri is an important medicinal plant. To standardize the extract and guarantee its maximum benefit, processing methods optimization ought to be amenable and beneficial. Herein, three dried P. niruri samples, air (AD), freeze (FD) and oven (OD), extracted with various ethanol to water ratios (0%, 50%, 70%, 80% and 100%) were evaluated for their metabolite changes using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR)-based metabolomics approach. The amino acids analysis showed that FD P. niruri exhibited higher content of most amino acids compared to the other dried samples...
May 30, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551271/comparison-of-fruit-quality-and-gc-ms-based-metabolite-profiling-of-kiwifruit-jecy-green-natural-and-exogenous-ethylene-induced-ripening
#15
Sooyeon Lim, Jeong Gu Lee, Eun Jin Lee
We applied exogenous ethylene to 'Jecy green' kiwifruit to elucidate the differences in fruit quality and metabolite profiling between naturally ripe (NR) and ethylene-induced ripe (ER) kiwifruit. Kiwifruit were exposed to ethylene (200μL/L) for 12h at 20°C and maintained for 9days at 20°C. Two metabolites of ascorbic acid and arabinose significantly decreased during kiwifruit ripening regardless of the ripening method. The concentrations of sucrose, myo-inositol, citric acid, and malic acid in NR fruit were substantially higher than those in ER fruit, while the concentrations of fructose, glucose, and quinic acid in ER fruit were higher than those in NR fruit...
November 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551268/tea-tree-oil-exhibits-antifungal-activity-against-botrytis-cinerea-by-affecting-mitochondria
#16
Yonghua Li, Xingfeng Shao, Jiayu Xu, Yingying Wei, Feng Xu, Hongfei Wang
In order to investigate the effects of tea tree oil (TTO) on mitochondrial morphology and function in Botrytis cinerea, mycelia were treated with TTO at different concentrations. TTO at 2ml/l severely damaged mitochondria, resulting in matrix loss and increased mitochondrial irregularity. Mitochondrial membrane permeability was increased by TTO, as evidenced by a decrease in intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content and an increase in extracellular ATP content. Increasing concentrations of TTO decreased the activities of enzymes related to mitochondrial function and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, affecting malic dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, ATPase, citrate synthetase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, while sharply increasing the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
November 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550409/lipid-droplets-accumulation-and-other-biochemical-changes-induced-in-the-fungal-pathogen-ustilago-maydis-under-nitrogen-starvation
#17
Lucero Romero Aguilar, Juan Pablo Pardo, Mónica Montero Lomelí, Oscar Ivan Luqueño Bocardo, Marco A Juárez Oropeza, Guadalupe Guerra Sánchez
In many organisms, the growth under nitrogen-deprivation or a poor nitrogen source impacts on the carbon flow distribution and causes accumulation of neutral lipids, which are stored as lipid droplets (LDs). Efforts are in progress to find the mechanism of LDs synthesis and degradation, and new organisms capable of accumulating large amounts of lipids for biotechnological applications. In this context, when Ustilago maydis was cultured in the absence of a nitrogen source, there was a large accumulation of lipid bodies containing mainly triacylglycerols...
May 26, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538198/protein-and-metabolic-engineering-for-the-production-of-organic-acids
#18
Jingjing Liu, Jianghua Li, Hyun-Dong Shin, Long Liu, Guocheng Du, Jian Chen
Organic acids are natural metabolites of living organisms. They have been widely applied in the food, pharmaceutical, and bio-based materials industries. In recent years, biotechnological routes to organic acids production from renewable raw materials have been regarded as very promising approaches. In this review, we provide an overview of current developments in the production of organic acids using protein and metabolic engineering strategies. The organic acids include propionic acid, pyruvate, itaconic acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, malic acid and citric acid...
September 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530574/sensory-profile-of-ethyl-%C3%AE-d-glucopyranoside-and-its-contribution-to-quality-of-sea-buckthorn-hippopha%C3%A3-rhamnoides-l
#19
Xueying Ma, Oskar Laaksonen, Jari Heinonen, Tuomo Sainio, Heikki Kallio, Baoru Yang
The contribution of ethyl β-d-glucopyranoside (EG) to sensory profile of sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. rhamnoides) was studied. The content of natural existing EG varied between 0.6 and 19.8g/L in the sea buckthorn studied. The taste threshold of pure EG was estimated in water solution as 1.1±1.3g/L, and the suprathreshold aqueous EG solution (5.0g/L) was perceived mainly as bitter. In aqueous sugar-acid mixtures, acids were the major contributors to sourness and astringency, whereas the added EG or sugars showed little impact on the overall sensory profile...
October 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503801/pioppino-mushroom-in-the-southern-italy-an-undervalued-source-of-nutrients-and-bioactive-compounds
#20
Nicola Landi, Severina Pacifico, Sara Ragucci, Antonella M A Di Giuseppe, Federica Iannuzzi, Armando Zarrelli, Simona Piccolella, Antimo Di Maro
BACKGROUND: Agrocybe aegerita (V. Brig.) Singer, commonly known as Pioppino, is a popular edible mushroom, known in the Campania Region (Italy). Despite its habitual consumption, few nutritional and biochemical information is available. Thus, nutritional values, antiradical properties and chemical composition of the wild Pioppino were compared to those of the cultivated Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange) Imbach (known as Champignon), equally analysed. RESULTS: Macronutrient components (proteins, carbohydrates and lipids), free and protein amino acids and fatty acid content of poplar mushroom were achieved...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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