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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101749/twenty-seven-years-of-cerebral-pyruvate-recycling
#1
Sebastián Cerdán
Cerebral pyruvate recycling is a metabolic pathway deriving carbon skeletons and reducing equivalents from mitochondrial oxaloacetate and malate, to the synthesis of mitochondrial and cytosolic pyruvate, lactate and alanine. The pathway allows both, to provide the tricarboxylic acid cycle with pyruvate molecules produced from alternative substrates to glucose and, to generate reducing equivalents necessary for the operation of NADPH requiring processes. At the cellular level, pyruvate recycling involves the activity of malic enzyme, or the combined activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and pyruvate kinase, as well as of those transporters of the inner mitochondrial membrane exchanging the corresponding intermediates...
January 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099419/genomic-deletion-of-malic-enzyme-2-confers-collateral-lethality-in-pancreatic-cancer
#2
Prasenjit Dey, Joelle Baddour, Florian Muller, Chia Chin Wu, Huamin Wang, Wen-Ting Liao, Zangdao Lan, Alina Chen, Tony Gutschner, Yaan Kang, Jason Fleming, Nikunj Satani, Di Zhao, Abhinav Achreja, Lifeng Yang, Jiyoon Lee, Edward Chang, Giannicola Genovese, Andrea Viale, Haoqiang Ying, Giulio Draetta, Anirban Maitra, Y Alan Wang, Deepak Nagrath, Ronald A DePinho
The genome of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) frequently contains deletions of tumour suppressor gene loci, most notably SMAD4, which is homozygously deleted in nearly one-third of cases. As loss of neighbouring housekeeping genes can confer collateral lethality, we sought to determine whether loss of the metabolic gene malic enzyme 2 (ME2) in the SMAD4 locus would create cancer-specific metabolic vulnerability upon targeting of its paralogous isoform ME3. The mitochondrial malic enzymes (ME2 and ME3) are oxidative decarboxylases that catalyse the conversion of malate to pyruvate and are essential for NADPH regeneration and reactive oxygen species homeostasis...
January 18, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092854/biopharmaceutical-characterization-of-praziquantel-cocrystals-and-cyclodextrin-complexes-prepared-by-grinding
#3
Martina Cugovčan, Jasna Jablan, Jasmina Lovrić, Dominik Cinčić, Nives Galić, Mario Jug
Mechanochemical activation using several different co-grinding additives was applied as a green chemistry approach to improve physiochemical and biopharmaceutical properties of praziquantel (PZQ). Liquid assisted grinding with an equimolar amount of citric acid (CA), malic acid (MA), salicylic acid (SA) and tartaric acid (TA) gained in cocrystal formation, which all showed pH-dependent solubility and dissolution rate. However, the most soluble cocrystal of PZQ with MA was chemically unstable, as seen during the stability testing...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071001/purified-isolation-of-vacuoles-from-sedum-alfredii-leaf-derived-protoplasts
#4
Xiao-Yu Gao, Xing-Cheng Liao, Ruo-Lai Wu, Ting Liu, Hai-Xing Wang, Ling-Li Lu
This study aims to develop a method for isolating and purifying protoplasts/vacuoles from fresh leaves of the Cd hyperaccumulator plant species, Sedum alfredii. The results revealed that preheating cellulase and macerozyme at 50 °C for 5 min significantly accelerated the cell wall degradation. For the most optimal conditions for mesophyll protoplast isolation, the mixture of fresh leaves and cell lysates was followed by a 2-h-long vibration. The protoplast lysate for vacuole isolation was diluted, and 0.675 mmol/L was identified as the most appropriate 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonic acid (CHAPS) level, in which S...
2017: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057501/cloning-and-characterization-of-pyruvate-carboxylase-gene-responsible-for-calcium-malate-overproduction-in-penicillium-viticola-152-and-its-expression-analysis
#5
Ibrar Khan, Sadia Qayyum, Shehzad Ahmed, Farhana Maqbool, Isfahan Tauseef, Kashif Syed Haleem, Zhen-Ming Chi
In this study, a pyruvate carboxylase gene (PYC) from a marine fungus Penicillium viticola 152 isolated from marine algae was cloned and characterized by using Genome Walking method. An open reading frame (ORF) of The PYC gene (accession number: KM593097) had 3582bp encoding 1193 amino acid protein (isoelectric point: 5.01) with a calculated molecular weight of 131.2757kDa. A putative promoter (intronless) of the gene was located at -666bp and contained a TATA box, several CAAT boxes, the 5'-SYGGRG-3' and a 5'-HGATAR-3' sequences...
January 2, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054502/enhanced-ph-stability-cell-viability-and-reduced-degradation-rate-of-poly-l-lactide-based-composite-in-vitro-effect-of-modified-magnesium-oxide-nanoparticles
#6
Jinjun Yang, Xiuxiang Cao, Yun Zhao, Liang Wang, Bei Liu, Junping Jia, Hui Liang, Minfang Chen
The modified MgO nanoparticles (m-MgO-NPs) by a copolymer containing the malic acid and low molecular weight (LMW) poly(L-lactide) (poly(L-lactide-co-malic acid), PLMA) have been successfully prepared. MgO nanoparticles (MgO-NPs) were coated by the PLMA and m-MgO-NPs were uniformly dispersed in the PLLA matrix to a novel biocomposite material (PLLA/m-MgO-NPs) with more excellent interface bonding and uniformer dispersion, compared to the PLLA/MgO-NPs. Compared to neat PLLA and PLLA/MgO-NPs film, the m-MgO-NPs not only shown the obvious neutralization effect on the acidic solution in the degradation of the PLLA and better hydrophilicity, but also exhibited the higher cell viability and decrease the toxicity to the cell in the degradation process of PLLA in vitro...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050761/role-of-the-polycarboxylic-compounds-in-the-response-of-silene-vulgaris-to-chromium
#7
Ana E Pradas Del Real, Jose Manuel Silvan, Sonia de Pascual-Teresa, Ana Guerrero, Pilar García-Gonzalo, M Carmen Lobo, Araceli Pérez-Sanz
This work aims to investigate the nature and the specific mechanisms by which polycarboxylic compounds participate in the tolerance of Silene vulgaris to Cr with special attention given to the rhizosphere system. This knowledge is important to use this species in the implementation of phytoremediation technologies in Cr-polluted soils. According to the results, chromium is chelated and mobilized by the citric and malic acids in plant tissues, while oxalic acid might participate in the reduction and chelation of Cr in the rhizosphere...
January 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043922/reconstruction-of-a-genome-scale-metabolic-model-and-in-silico-analysis-of-the-polymalic-acid-producer-aureobasidium-pullulans-cctcc-m2012223
#8
Jun Feng, Jing Yang, Xiaorong Li, Meijin Guo, Bochu Wang, Shang-Tian Yang, Xiang Zou
Aureobasidium pullulans is a yeast-like fungus used for producing biopolymers e.g. polymalic acid (PMA) and pullulan. A high PMA producing strain, A. pullulans CCTCC M2012223, was isolated and sequenced in our previous study. To understand its metabolic performance, a genome-scale metabolic model, iZX637, consisting of 637 genes, 1347 reactions and 1133 metabolites, was reconstructed based on genome annotation and literature mining studies. The iZX637 model was validated by simulating cell growth, utilization of carbon and nitrogen sources, and gene essentiality analysis in A...
December 30, 2016: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042988/effect-of-fulvic-acid-induction-on-the-physiology-metabolism-and-lipid-biosynthesis-related-gene-transcription-of-monoraphidium-sp-fxy-10
#9
Raoqiong Che, Li Huang, Jun-Wei Xu, Peng Zhao, Tao Li, Huixian Ma, Xuya Yu
Fulvic acid (FA) triggers lipid accumulation in Monoraphidium sp. FXY-10, which can produce biofuels. Therefore, the metabolism shift and gene expression changes influenced by fulvic acid should be investigated. In this study, lipid and protein contents increased rapidly from 44.6% to 54.3% and from 31.4% to 39.7% under FA treatment, respectively. By contrast, carbohydrate content sharply declined from 49.5% to 32.5%. The correlation between lipid content and gene expression was also analyzed. Results revealed that accD, ME, and GPAT genes were significantly correlated with lipid accumulation...
March 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040580/physiological-effects-of-%C3%AE-linolenic-acid-and-sesamin-on-hepatic-fatty-acid-synthesis-and-oxidation
#10
Takashi Ide, Haruka Iwase, Saaya Amano, Saki Sunahara, Ayuka Tachihara, Minako Yagi, Tsuyoshi Watanabe
Interrelated effects of γ-linolenic acid (GLA) and sesamin, a sesame lignan, on hepatic fatty acid synthesis and oxidation were examined. Rats were fed experimental diets supplemented with 0 or 2 g/kg sesamin (1:1 mixture of sesamin and episesamin) and containing 100 g/kg of palm oil (saturated fat), safflower oil rich in linoleic acid, or oil of evening primrose origin containing 43% GLA (GLA oil) for 18 days. In rats fed sesamin-free diets, GLA oil, compared with other oils, increased the activity and mRNA levels of various enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation, except for some instances...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040178/blueberry-proanthocyanidins-against-human-norovirus-surrogates-in-model-foods-and-under-simulated-gastric-conditions
#11
Snehal Joshi, Amy B Howell, Doris H D'Souza
Blueberry proanthocyanidins (B-PAC) are known to decrease titers of human norovirus surrogates in vitro. The application of B-PAC as therapeutic or preventive options against foodborne viral illness needs to be determined using model foods and simulated gastric conditions in vitro. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antiviral effect of B-PAC in model foods (apple juice (AJ) and 2% reduced fat milk) and simulated gastrointestinal fluids against cultivable human norovirus surrogates (feline calicivirus; FCV-F9 and murine norovirus; MNV-1) over 24 h at 37 °C...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025164/grilling-enhances-antidiarrheal-activity-of-terminalia-bellerica-roxb-fruits
#12
Garima Pandey, Shyam Sundar Gupta, Anil Bhatia, O P Sidhu, A K S Rawat, Ch V Rao
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Terminalia bellerica Roxb. fruits are rich in a variety of biologically active ingredients. Tharu and Buksa tribes of Udham Singh Nagar, Uttarakhand, India use grilled fruits of Terminalia bellerica as an effective cure for diarrhea. AIM OF THE STUDY: We validated the ethnobotanical claim by comparing the antidiarrheal effect of grilled fruits (GF) with dried fruits (DF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The 50% ethanolic extracts of GF and DF were successively fractionated; the antioxidant and bacterial inhibition activity were studied using DPPH free radical scavenging, anti-lipid peroxidation and broth dilution method respectively...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018952/change-in-thermal-transitions-and-water-uptakes-of-poly-l-lactic-acid-blends-upon-hydrolytic-degradation
#13
Hideko T Oyama, Daisuke Tanishima, Shintaro Maekawa
This article reports experimental data related to the research article entitled "Poly(malic acid-co-l-lactide) as a Superb Degradation Accelerator for Poly(l-lactic acid) at Physiological Conditions" (H.T. Oyama, D. Tanishima, S. Maekawa, 2016) [1]. Hydrolytic degradation of poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) blends with poly(aspartic acid-co-l-lactide) (PAL) and poly(malic acid-co-l-lactide) (PML) oligomers was investigated in a phosphate buffer solution at 40 °C. It was found in the differential scanning calorimetry measurements that upon hydrolysis the cold crystallization temperature (Tc ) and the melting temperature (Tm ) significantly shifted to lower temperature...
February 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012001/cell-wall-swelling-fracture-mode-and-the-mechanical-properties-of-cherry-fruit-skins-are-closely-related
#14
Martin Brüggenwirth, Moritz Knoche
Cell wall swelling, fracture mode (along the middle lamellae vs. across cell walls), stiffness, and pressure at fracture of the sweet cherry fruit skin are closely related. Skin cracking is a common phenomenon in many crops bearing fleshy fruit. The objectives were to investigate relationships between the mode of fracture, the extent of cell wall swelling, and the mechanical properties of the fruit skin using sweet cherry (Prunus avium) as a model. Cracking was induced by incubating whole fruit in deionised water or by fracturing exocarp segments (ESs) in biaxial tensile tests...
December 23, 2016: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999882/effects-of-organic-acids-and-sylvite-on-phytoextraction-of-241-am-contaminated-soil
#15
Ping Wang, Liang Du, Zhaoyi Tan, Rongbo Su, Taowen Li
Contamination of soil with Americium ((241)Am) at nuclear sites in China poses a serious problem. We screened six plants, from five families, for their (241)Am-enrichment potential. Europium (Eu), which is morphologically and chemically similar to the highly toxic (241)Am, was used in its place. Moreover, the effects of sylvite, citric acid (CA), malic acid (MA), and humic acid (HA) on the absorption of (241)Am by the plants, and its transport within them, were evaluated along with their effect on plant biomass and (241)Am extraction volume...
December 20, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999345/combined-use-of-s-pombe-and-l-thermotolerans-in-winemaking-beneficial-effects-determined-through-the-study-of-wines-analytical-characteristics
#16
Ángel Benito, Fernando Calderón, Santiago Benito
The most common way to produce red wine is through the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for alcoholic fermentation and lactic acid bacteria for malolactic fermentation. This traditional winemaking methodology produces microbiologically stable red wines. However, under specific conditions off-flavours can occur, wine quality can suffer and human health problems are possible, especially after the second fermentation by the lactic acid bacteria. In warm countries, problems during the malolactic fermentation arise because of the high pH of the must, which makes it very difficult to properly control the process...
December 18, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991550/proteomic-analysis-reveals-that-metabolic-flows-affect-the-susceptibility-of-aeromonas-hydrophila-to-antibiotics
#17
Zujie Yao, Wanxin Li, Yi Lin, Qian Wu, Feifei Yu, Wenxiong Lin, Xiangmin Lin
The overuse of antibiotics results in the development of antibiotic resistance and limits the useful life of these drugs in fighting bacteria, including Aeromonas hydrophila, a well-known opportunistic pathogen that causes serious infections in fish and other animals. In this study, we investigated the adaptive resistance mechanism in A. hydrophila by multiple proteomic methods. Dimethyl labeling and label-free methods were performed to compare the differential expression of proteins in response to various doses of oxytetracycline (OXY)...
December 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984164/timeline-and-bibliography-of-early-isolations-of-plant-metabolites-1770-1820-and-their-impact-to-pharmacy-a-critical-study
#18
Jacek Drobnik, Elżbieta Drobnik
Plant metabolites became objects of chemical research for pharmaceutical and medicinal reasons. The period of pure plant substances in chemistry started 1770 with isolation of tartaric acid from wine (wine in pharmacy is a plant-derived preparation). Carl Scheele isolated 7 plant acids: tartaric, benzoic, citric, oxalic, malic, glucuronic and gallic. The era of alkaloids started 1803 when narcotine was discovered and published. Since that time, pharmacists and toxicologists began to recognize alkaloids (or substances regarded as such) as highly active principles responsible for their powerful, thus easily-observed actions to humans and test animals...
October 27, 2016: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979222/effects-of-sulfur-dioxide-concentration-on-organic-acids-and-%C3%AE-carotene-in-dried-apricots-during-storage
#19
Ayşenur Salur-Can, Meltem Türkyılmaz, Mehmet Özkan
The effects of various sulfur dioxide (SO2) concentrations (0, 451, 832, 1594, 2112 and 3241mg/kg) on the profiles and contents of organic acids (OAs) and β-carotene in sulfured dried apricots (SDAs) were investigated during storage at 4, 20 and 30°C for 379days. In all samples, four OAs [malic acid (MA), citric acid (CA), succinic acid (SA) and oxalic acid (OXA)] were identified. SA (13.9-31.8g/kgdw) was the major OA in SDAs containing SO2 at lower than 1594mgSO2/kg, while MA (11.7-11.7g/kgdw) was the major OA in SDAs containing SO2 at higher than 1594mgSO2/kg...
April 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956867/vinegar-production-from-jabuticaba-myrciaria-jaboticaba-fruit-using-immobilized-acetic-acid-bacteria
#20
Disney Ribeiro Dias, Monique Suela Silva, Angélica Cristina de Souza, Karina Teixeira Magalhăes-Guedes, Fernanda Severo de Rezende Ribeiro, Rosane Freitas Schwan
Cell immobilization comprises the retention of metabolically active cells inside a polymeric matrix. In this study, the production of jabuticaba (Myrciaria jaboticaba) vinegar using immobilized Acetobacter aceti and Gluconobacter oxydans cells is proposed as a new method to prevent losses of jabuticaba fruit surplus. The pulp of jabuticaba was processed and Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCMA 0200 was used to ferment the must for jabuticaba wine production. Sugars, alcohols (ethanol and glycerol) and organic acids were assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography...
September 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
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