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malic acid

Man-Jun Yang, Zhi-Xue Cheng, Ming Jiang, Zao-Hai Zeng, Bo Peng, Xuan-Xian Peng, Hui Li
Vibrio alginolyticus is a waterborne pathogen that infects a wide variety of hosts including fish and human, and the outbreak of this pathogen can cause a huge economic loss in aquaculture. Thus, enhancing host's capability to survive from V. alginolyticus infection is key to fighting infection and this remains still unexplored. In the present study, we established a V. alginolyticus-zebrafish interaction model by which we explored how zebrafish survived from V. alginolyticus infection. We used GC-MS based metabolomic approaches to characterize differential metabolomes between survival and dying zebrafish upon infection...
January 17, 2018: Virulence
Lei Gao, Shengjie Zhao, Xuqiang Lu, Nan He, Hongju Zhu, Junling Dou, Wenge Liu
Soluble sugars and organic acids are important components of fruit flavor and have a strong impact on the overall organoleptic quality of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit. Several studies have analyzed the expression levels of the genes related to soluble sugar accumulation and the dynamic changes in their content during watermelon fruit development and ripening. Nevertheless, to date, there have been no reports on the organic acid content in watermelon or the genes regulating their synthesis. In this study, the soluble sugars and organic acids in watermelon were measured and a comparative transcriptome analysis was performed to identify the key genes involved in the accumulation of these substances during fruit development and ripening...
2018: PloS One
Fabian Avila-Salas, Adolfo Marican, Jorge Villaseñor, Mauricio Arenas-Salinas, Yerko Argandoña, Julio Caballero, Esteban F Durán-Lara
This study describes the in-silico design, synthesis, and evaluation of a cross-linked PVA hydrogel (CLPH) for the absorption of organophosphorus pesticide dimethoate from aqueous solutions. The crosslinking effectiveness of 14 dicarboxilic acids was evaluated through in-silico studies using semiempirical quantum mechanical calculations. According to the theoretical studies, the nanopore of PVA cross-linked with malic acid (CLPH-MA) showed the best interaction energy with dimethoate. Later, using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, three hydrogels with different proportions of PVA:MA (10:2, 10:4, and 10:6) were used to evaluate their interactions with dimethoate...
January 4, 2018: Nanomaterials
J Iyyappan, B Bharathiraja, G Baskar, J Jayamuthunagai, S Barathkumar, R Anna Shiny
In the present investigation, crude glycerol derived from transesterification process was utilized to produce the commercially-valuable malic acid. A combined resistant on methanol and malic acid strain of Aspergillus niger MTCC 281 mutant was generated in solid medium containing methanol (1-5%) and malic acid (40-80 g/L) by the adaptation process for 22 weeks. The ability of induced Aspergillus niger MTCC 281 mutant to utilize crude glycerol and pure glycerol to produce malic acid was studied. The yield of malic acid was increased with 4...
December 20, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Filipe C Pikart, Mauro A Marabesi, Paulo T Mioto, Ana Z Gonçalves, Alejandra Matiz, Frederico R R Alves, Helenice Mercier, Marcos P M Aidar
The Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) can be a transitory strategy for saving water during unfavourable conditions, like a dry season. In some cases, CAM can also contribute to the maintenance of photosynthetic integrity, even if carbon gain and growth are impaired. CAM occurs in different intensities, being stronger or weaker depending on the degree of nocturnal malic acid accumulation. For example, Guzmania monostachia is an epiphytic tank bromeliad that shows an increase in its nocturnal organic acid accumulation and a variable CAM behaviour when exposed to water deficit...
December 19, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Huijie Fu, Haiying Yu, Tingxuan Li, Xizhou Zhang
A hydroponic experiment with two different cadmium (Cd) accumulating rice lines of Lu527-8 (the high Cd accumulating rice line) and Lu527-4 (the normal rice line) was carried out to explore the links among Cd stress, root exudates and Cd accumulation. The results showed that (1) Cd stress increased quantities of organic acids, but had no effect on composition in root exudates of the two rice lines. In Cd treatments, the contents of every detected organic acid in root exudates of Lu527-8 were 1.76-2.43 times higher than those of Lu527-4...
December 22, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Joanna Chojak-Koźniewska, Elżbieta Kuźniak, Anna Linkiewicz, Sławomir Sowa
This study examines how salt stress interacts with bacterial infection at the metabolic level. We measured chlorophyll a fluorescence as well as profiles of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME), NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICDH) and fumarase activities, malic and citric acids contents and the expression of NADP-ICDH and NADP-ME in the organ-dependent (root vs leaves) response of cucumber plants exposed to individual or sequential action of salt stress (50 mM or 100 mM NaCl) and Pseudomonas syringae pv lachrymans (Psl)...
December 7, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Manikharda Manikharda, Makoto Takahashi, Mika Arakaki, Kaoru Yonamine, Fumio Hashimoto, Kensaku Takara, Koji Wada
Shimatogarashi (Capsicum frutescens) is a typical chili pepper domesticated in southern Japan. Important traits of Shimatogarashi peppers, such as color; proportion of organic acids, capsaicinoids, and aromatic compounds; and antioxidant activity in three stages of maturity (green (immature), orange (turning), and red (mature) stages) were characterized. The results indicated that the concentration of organic acids, including ascorbic, citric, and malic acid, increased during ripening. In addition, the amount of capsaicinoids, which are responsible for the pungent taste of chili peppers, increased as the fruit matured to the orange and red stages...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
Xiaojie Liu, Samantha Ahlgren, Henrie A A J Korthout, Luis F Salomé-Abarca, Lina M Bayona, Robert Verpoorte, Young Hae Choi
Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) made mainly with abundant primary metabolites are being increasingly applied in green chemistry. The advantages of NADES as green solvents have led to their use in novel green products for the food, cosmetics and pharma markets. However, one of the main difficulties encountered in the development of novel products and their quality control arises from their low vapour pressure and high viscosity. These features create the need for the development of new analytical methods suited to this type of sample...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Ryusei Oshima, Akira Kotani, Minpei Kuroda, Kazuhiro Yamamoto, Yoshihiro Mimaki, Hideki Hakamata
High-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) using 20 mM phosphate mobile phase and an octadecylsilyl column (Triart C18, 150 × 3.0 mm i.d., 3 μm) has been developed for the analysis of hydrophilic compounds in the water extract of Schisandrae Fructus samples. The present HPLC-UV method permits the accurate and precise determination of malic, citric, and protocatechuic acids in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP) Schisandrae Fructus, Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus and Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Natural Medicines
Jessica Fiori, Elisa Amadesi, Flaminia Fanelli, Concetta Valentina Tropeano, Michela Rugolo, Roberto Gotti
A selective and sensitive method for the determination of low molecular mass organic acids (LMMOAs) in cell and mitochondrial extracts is presented. The analytical method consists in the separation by reversed phase liquid chromatography and detection with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) of the LMMOAs like malic, succinic, formic and citric acids. These acids are among the cellular intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), thus their quantitation can provide essential information about the catabolic and anabolic processes occurring in cells under physiological and pathological conditions...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Conghao Sun, Liping Xu, Xiangping Chen, Tianyun Qiu, Tao Zhou
An eco-friendly and benign process has been investigated for the dissolution of Li, Co, Ni, and Mn from the cathode materials of spent LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 batteries, using DL-malic acid as the leaching agent in this study. The leaching efficiencies of Li, Co, Ni, and Mn can reach about 98.9%, 94.3%, 95.1%, and 96.4%, respectively, under the leaching conditions of DL-malic acid concentration of 1.2 M, hydrogen peroxide content of 1.5 vol.%, solid-to-liquid ratio of 40 g l-1, leaching temperature of 80°C, and leaching time of 30 min...
December 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Carlos Calderón, Cristina Santi, Michael Lämmerhofer
Chiral 2-hydroxycarboxylic acids are compounds that have been linked to particular diseases and are putative biomarkers with some diagnostic potential. The importance of identifying whether a particular enantiomer is related to certain diseases has been encouraged recently. However, in many cases it has not yet been elucidated whether there are stereochemical implications with respect to these biomarkers and whether their enantioselective analysis provides new insights and diagnostic potential. In this study 13 disease-related chiral 2-hydrocarboxylic acids were studied for their chiral separation by high-performance liquid chromatography on three cinchona alkaloid-derived chiral stationary phases...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
Adriaan van den Bruinhorst, Theodora Spyriouni, Jörg-Rüdiger Hill, Maaike C Kroon
The liquid range and applicability of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are determined by their physicochemical properties. In this work, the physicochemical properties of glycolic acid:proline and malic acid:proline were evaluated experimentally and with MD simulations at five different ratios. Both DESs exhibited esterification upon preparation, which affected the viscosity in particular. In order to minimize oligomer formation and water release, three different experimental preparation methods were explored, but none could prevent esterification...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Xueshan Wang, Hai Du, Yan Zhang, Yan Xu
Many microorganisms in environment participate in the fermentation process of Chinese liquor. However, it is unknown what extent of the environmental microbiota influences on fermentation. In this study, high-throughput sequencing combined with multiphasic metabolite target analysis were applied to study the microbial succession and metabolism changes during Chinese liquor fermentation from two environments (old and new workshops). SourceTracker was applied to evaluate the contribution of environmental microbiota to fermentation...
December 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Yu Jin Park, Eun Sung Jung, Digar Singh, Da Eun Lee, Seunghwan Kim, Young Wook Lee, Jeong-Gu Kim, Choong Hwan Lee
The beech mushrooms have customarily been revered by oriental societies for their nutritional and health benefits. We explored the mass spectrometry (MS) based spatial metabolomic variations between parts (cap and stipe) of two beech mushroom strains (brown and white). The principal component analysis (PCA) revealed their distinct primary (cap and stipe: PC1, 25.5%; strains: PC2, 12.5%) and secondary (cap and stipe: PC1, 10.3%; strains: PC2, 7.6%) metabolite patterns. The caps were rich in amino acids, fatty acids, and N-acetylglucosamine with higher protein and nitrogen contents...
December 2017: Food Research International
Seung Kyou You, Young-Chul Joo, Dae Hee Kang, Sang Kyu Shin, Jeong Eun Hyeon, Han Min Woo, Youngsoon Um, Chulhwan Park, Sung Ok Han
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used for edible purposes, such as human food or as an animal feed supplement. Fatty acids are also beneficial as feed supplements, but S. cerevisiae produces less fatty acids. In this study, we enhanced fatty acid production of S. cerevisiae by overexpressing acetyl-CoA carboxylase, thioesterase, and malic enzyme associated with fatty acid metabolism. The enhanced strain pAMT showed 2.4-fold higher fatty acids than the wild-type strain. To further increase the fatty acids, various nitrogen sources were analyzed and calcium nitrate was selected as an optimal nitrogen source for fatty acid production...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Wenshan Ke, Xiong Lin, Zhengshen Yu, Qiqiang Sun, Qian Zhang
In order to search new local plant molluscicides for the control of the vectors of schistosomiasis, leaves of Macleaya cordata (Willd) R. Br. were used to extract and separate alkaloid components by thinner acid method and column chromatography, and the molluscicidal effect of alkaloid components against snail Oncomelania hupensis was determined by bioassay. The results showed that 7 alkaloid components (AN1-7) were obtained after extracting and separating alkaloids from the leaves of M. cordata, where AN2 was found being the most toxic against snail O...
November 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Ruairi C Robertson, Clara Seira Oriach, Kiera Murphy, Gerard M Moloney, John F Cryan, Timothy G Dinan, R P Ross, Catherine Stanton
n-3 PUFA are lipids that play crucial roles in immune-regulation, cardio-protection and neurodevelopment. However, little is known about the role that these essential dietary fats play in modulating caecal microbiota composition and the subsequent production of functional metabolites. To investigate this, female C57BL/6 mice were assigned to one of three diets (control (CON), n-3 supplemented (n3+) or n-3 deficient (n3-)) during gestation, following which their male offspring were continued on the same diets for 12 weeks...
December 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
Lin Lu, Meiling Wang, Xiudong Liao, Liyang Zhang, Xugang Luo
Two experiments were designed to investigate the effects of Mn source and concentration on the mRNA expression and enzymatic activities of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and malic enzyme (ME) in cultured primary broiler hepatocytes. In Expt 1, primary broiler hepatocytes were treated with 0 (control), 0·25, 0·50 or 0·75 mmol/l of Mn as inorganic manganese chloride (MnCl2.4H2O) for 24 and 48 h. In Expt 2, primary broiler hepatocytes were incubated with 0 (control), 0·25 or 0·50 mmol/l of Mn as either manganese chloride or Mn-amino acid chelate for 48 h...
November 27, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
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