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malic acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928535/effects-of-concentration-method-and-storage-time-on-some-bioactive-compounds-and-color-of-jujube-ziziphus-jujuba-var-vulgaris-concentrate
#1
Najmeh Shams Najafabadi, Mohammad Ali Sahari, Mohsen Barzegar, Zohreh Hamidi Esfahani
Jujube extract was concentrated by various heating methods including vacuum, microwave and conventional heating. The effect of concentration methods and storage time (for 90 days at 4 °C) on total phenolic and total monomeric anthocyanin contents, individual anthocyanins, individual organic acids, and color values of jujube concentrate was investigated separately. The desired level of concentration (65.0 °Brix) was achieved in 45, 96 and 117 min by the microwave, vacuum and conventional heating methods, respectively...
August 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928509/osmotic-dehydration-effects-on-major-and-minor-components-of-chestnut-castanea-sativa-mill-slices
#2
Teresa Delgado, José Alberto Pereira, Elsa Ramalhosa, Susana Casal
The effect of osmotic dehydration (OD) conditions (temperature, time and sucrose concentration) on some nutritional parameters, soluble sugars, organic acids, fatty acids and vitamin E composition of chestnut slices was studied. Temperature at 60 °C and contact time of 7.5 h decreased significantly both protein (in 20 and 15%) and fat (in 25 and 20%) contents when compared to 30 °C and contact time of 2.5 h, simultaneously with the incorporation of sugars from the osmotic medium. An increase in temperature from 30 to 60 °C and contact time from 2...
August 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918135/effects-of-addition-of-malic-or-citric-acids-on-fermentation-quality-and-chemical-characteristics-of-alfalfa-silage
#3
W C Ke, W R Ding, D M Xu, L M Ding, P Zhang, F D Li, X S Guo
We studied the effects on alfalfa preservation and chemical composition of the addition of different levels of malic acid and citric acid at ensiling as well as the utilization efficiency of these 2 organic acids after fermentation. Alfalfa was harvested at early bloom stage. After wilting to a dry matter content of approximately 40%, the alfalfa was chopped into 1- to 2-cm pieces for ensiling. Four levels (0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1% of fresh weight) of malic acid or citric acid were applied to chopped alfalfa at ensiling with 4 replicates for each treatment, and the treated alfalfa forages were ensiled for 60 d in vacuum-sealed polyethylene bags (dimensions: 200 mm × 300 mm) packed with 200 to 230 g of fresh alfalfa per mini silo and an initial density of 0...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895067/a-gc-ms-untargeted-metabolomics-analysis-in-the-plasma-and-liver-of-rats-lacking-dipeptidyl-peptidase-type-iv-enzyme-activity
#4
Antonio Murgia, Pierluigi Caboni, Erika Cadoni, Monica Serra, Fabio Marongiu, Ezio Laconi
This study was achieved with the aim to find metabolic changes between Fischer rats with different dipeptidyl peptidase-type 4 (DPPIV) expression. The DPPIV is an enzyme expressed in several tissues and is critically involved in the regulation of meal-related insulin secretion in healthy individuals. The metabolic consequences of chronic DPPIV inhibition were analyzed in a surrogate animal model of genetic enzyme deficiency. Hyphenated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and multivariate data analysis techniques were used to study the metabolic aqueous fraction profile of 18 plasma and liver samples in two syngeneic rat strains differing in DPPIV activity (DPPIV(+) vs...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888611/comparison-of-mammary-lipid-metabolism-in-dairy-cows-and-goats-fed-diets-supplemented-with-starch-plant-oil-or-fish-oil
#5
L Bernard, P G Toral, Y Chilliard
A direct comparison of cow and goat performance and milk fatty acid (FA) responses to diets known to induce milk fat depression in the bovine has suggested interspecies differences in rumen and mammary lipid metabolism. Thus, this study was conducted to infer some potential mechanisms responsible for the differences in mammary lipogenesis due to diet and ruminant species. To meet this objective, 12 cows and 15 goats were fed a basal diet (control), a similar diet supplemented with 2.2% fish oil (FO), or a diet containing 5...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888161/glyphosate-induced-oxidative-stress-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-affecting-peroxisomal-metabolism-and-triggers-activity-in-the-oxidative-phase-of-the-pentose-phosphate-pathway-oxppp-involved-in-nadph-generation
#6
Larisse de Freitas-Silva, Marta Rodríguez-Ruiz, Hayet Houmani, Luzimar Campos da Silva, José M Palma, Francisco J Corpas
Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide used worldwide. In susceptible plants, glyphosate affects the shikimate pathway and reduces aromatic amino acid synthesis. Using Arabidopsis seedlings grown in the presence of 20μM glyphosate, we analyzed H2O2, ascorbate, glutathione (GSH) and protein oxidation content as well as antioxidant catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzyme activity. We also examined the principal NADPH-generating system components, including glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH), NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICDH)...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887799/study-of-polar-organic-compounds-in-airborne-particulate-matter-of-a-coastal-urban-city
#7
Dimitra Balla, Dimitra Voutsa, Constantini Samara
Two classes of polar organic compounds, dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) and sugars/sugar anhydrides (S/SAs), were measured in airborne particulate matter in the area of Thessaloniki, northern Greece. The target compounds were measured simultaneously in two particle fractions PM10 and PM2.5 during cold and warm periods by employing extraction in an ultrasonic bath with a mixture of MeOH/DCM (1:2 v/v), derivatization with BSTFA-TMCS and GC-MS for analysis. At both fractions, phthalic was the predominant carboxylic acid during cold season and a-ketoglutaric acid in warm season, followed by maleic and malic...
September 8, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881243/assessing-biological-effects-of-fluoxetine-in-developing-zebrafish-embryos-using-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-based-metabolomics
#8
Priti Mishra, Zhiyuan Gong, Barry C Kelly
Continuous low-dose exposure of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in aquatic ecosystems is a concern worldwide. In this study, we utilized a gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based metabolomics approach to assess endogenous metabolite changes in developing zebrafish embryos exposed to different concentrations of the widely used antidepressant, fluoxetine. Embryos were exposed from 2 h post fertilization (hpf) until 96 hpf. Using the Fiehn GC-MS library, a total of 31 metabolites were positively identified in embryos...
August 31, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873741/hibiscus-sabdariffa-l-as-a-source-of-nutrients-bioactive-compounds-and-colouring-agents
#9
Inès Jabeur, Eliana Pereira, Lillian Barros, Ricardo C Calhelha, Marina Soković, M Beatriz P P Oliveira, Isabel C F R Ferreira
The nutritional and bioactive composition of plants have aroused much interest not only among scientists, but also in people's daily lives. Apart from the health benefits, plants are a source of pigments that can be used as natural food colorants. In this work, the nutritional composition of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. was analysed, as well as its bioactive compounds and natural pigments. Glucose (sugar), malic acid (organic acid), α-tocopherol (tocopherol) and linoleic acid (fatty acid) were the major constituents in the corresponding classes...
October 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873598/-1-h-hr-mas-nmr-based-metabolomics-study-of-different-persimmon-cultivars-diospyros-kaki-during-fruit-development
#10
Alan Diego da Conceição Santos, Flávia Aparecida Fonseca, Lívia Macedo Dutra, Maria de Fátima Costa Santos, Leociley Rocha Alencar Menezes, Francinete Ramos Campos, Noemi Nagata, Ricardo Ayub, Andersson Barison
(1)H HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy was used to track the metabolic changes throughout the whole development of astringent ('Giombo') and non-astringent ('Fuyu') cultivars of persimmon (Diospyros kaki). The NMR data revealed the low concentration of amino acids (threonine, alanine, citrulline and GABA) and organic acids (malic acid). In addition, the signals of carbohydrates (sucrose, glucose and fructose) seemed to play the most important role in the fruit development. In both cultivars, the growth was characterized by fluctuating sucrose concentration along with a constant increase in both glucose and fructose...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868653/metabonomic-analysis-of-serum-reveals-antifatigue-effects-of-yi-guan-jian-on-fatigue-mice-using-gas-chromatography-coupled-to-mass-spectrometry
#11
Sufang Shui, Xiaorong Cai, Rongqing Huang, Bingkun Xiao, Jianyun Yang
Yi Guan Jian (YGJ), one of the most commonly used traditional Chinese medicines (TCM), has been reported to possess significant antifatigue effects in the eastern. However, the mechanisms underlying its antifatigue effects remain largely unresolved. In this study, a metabonomics approach, involving gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and a multivariate statistical technique, was developed to estimate the extent to which YGJ alleviated the exhausting swimming induced fatigue of mice. High dose treatment with YGJ significantly extended the swimming time of fatigued mice...
September 3, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866798/development-of-an-amperometric-biosensor-platform-for-the-combined-determination-of-l-malic-fumaric-and-l-aspartic-acid
#12
Désirée L Röhlen, Johanna Pilas, Michael J Schöning, Thorsten Selmer
Three amperometric biosensors have been developed for the detection of L-malic acid, fumaric acid, and L -aspartic acid, all based on the combination of a malate-specific dehydrogenase (MDH, EC 1.1.1.37) and diaphorase (DIA, EC 1.8.1.4). The stepwise expansion of the malate platform with the enzymes fumarate hydratase (FH, EC 4.2.1.2) and aspartate ammonia-lyase (ASPA, EC 4.3.1.1) resulted in multi-enzyme reaction cascades and, thus, augmentation of the substrate spectrum of the sensors. Electrochemical measurements were carried out in presence of the cofactor β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) and the redox mediator hexacyanoferrate (III) (HCFIII)...
September 2, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863989/sorption-of-sulfamethazine-to-biochars-as-affected-by-dissolved-organic-matters-of-different-origin
#13
Mingyun Jia, Fang Wang, Yongrong Bian, Robert D Stedtfeld, Guangxia Liu, Jinping Yu, Xin Jiang
Sorption characteristic of sulfamethazine (SMT) to straw biochars pyrolyzed at 300°C (BC300) and 600°C (BC600), and the effect of ubiquitous DOM were investigated. Results showed that physisorption (partition) and weak chemical binding (π-π EDA interaction) dominated the sorption of SMT to BC300 and BC600, respectively. Graphene sheets in biochar played important roles in the sorption of SMT, leading to higher sorption capacity (Kf) on BC600 (1.77mg(1-n)L(n)g(-1)) than BC300 (0.11mg(1-n)L(n)g(-1)). Sorption amount of SMT to BC300 was not affected by polysaccharide and malic acid, while it was slightly promoted by citric acid, but dramatically increased 1...
August 29, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858668/effects-of-fe-plaque-and-organic-acids-on-metal-uptake-by-wetland-plants-under-drained-and-waterlogged-conditions
#14
W C Li, H Deng, M H Wong
This study aims to assess the role of Fe plaque in metal uptake and translocation by different wetland plants and examine the effects of organic acids on metal detoxification in wetland plants. It was found that although exposed to a similar level of metals in rhizosphere soil solution, metal uptake by shoots of Cypercus flabelliformis and Panicum paludosum was greatly reduced, consequently leading to a better growth under flooded than under drained conditions. This may be related to the enhanced Fe plaque in the former, but due to the decreased root permeability in the latter under anoxic conditions...
August 28, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847084/choline-chloride-chcl-and-monosodium-glutamate-msg-based-green-solvents-from-optimized-cactus-malic-acid-for-biomass-delignification
#15
Chung Loong Yiin, Armando T Quitain, Suzana Yusup, Yoshimitsu Uemura, Mitsuru Sasaki, Tetsuya Kida
This work aimed to develop an efficient microwave-hydrothermal (MH) extraction of malic acid from abundant natural cactus as hydrogen bond donor (HBD) whereby the concentration was optimized using response surface methodology. The ideal process conditions were found to be at a solvent-to-feed ratio of 0.008, 120°C and 20min with 1.0g of oxidant, H2O2. Next generation environment-friendly solvents, low transition temperature mixtures (LTTMs) were synthesized from cactus malic acid with choline chloride (ChCl) and monosodium glutamate (MSG) as hydrogen bond acceptors (HBAs)...
November 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841481/a-novel-array-of-interface-confined-molecules-assembling-natural-segments-for-delivery-of-multi-functionalities
#16
Sampson Anankanbil, Bianca Pérez, Jingwen Yang, Chiranjib Banerjee, Zheng Guo
HYPOTHESIS: Anionic surfactants can form stable monolayers around oil droplets via interactions with macromolecules thereby physically stabilizing high fish oil enriched emulsions (50-70% fish oil) while phenolic acids have antioxidant properties to prevent lipid oxidation. COSMO-RS (Conductor-like Screening Model for Real Solvents) is a powerful tool for the rational design of molecules with multi-functionalities. Therefore, it should be possible to assemble segments of natural molecules into a single multifunctional molecule using COSMO-RS to confer both physical and oxidative stability to fish oil enriched systems...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838812/polyphasic-characterization-of-bacteria-obtained-from-upland-rice-cultivated-in-cerrado-soil
#17
Lívia Fabiana Braga, Fênix Araújo de Oliveira, Eva Aparecida Prado do Couto, Karina Freire d'Eça Nogueira Santos, Enderson Petrônio de Brito Ferreira, Claudia Cristina Garcia Martin-Didonet
This work aimed to characterize 20 isolates obtained from upland rice plants, based on phenotypic (morphology, enzymatic activity, inorganic phosphate solubilization, carbon source use, antagonism), genotypic assays (16S rRNA sequencing) and plant growth promotion. Results showed a great morphological, metabolic and genetic variability among bacterial isolates. All isolates showed positive activity for catalase and protease enzymes and, 90% of the isolates showed positive activity for amylase, catalase and, nitrogenase...
August 5, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833143/antioxidant-properties-and-chemical-characterization-of-spanish-opuntia-ficus-indica-mill-cladodes-and-fruits
#18
Lucía Andreu, Nallely Nuncio-Jáuregui, Ángel A Carbonell-Barrachina, Pilar Legua, Francisca Hernández
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that consumption of Opuntia ficus-indica Mill has an important positive health benefit, mainly due to antioxidant properties, which justifies this research. This study examined antioxidant activity, organic acid and sugar profile, total phenolic and physicochemical characteristics of six Opuntia ficus-indica cultivars growing in the Spanish Mediterranean. It should be noted that in this research both, cladodes (young and adult) and fruits (peel and pulp) were analyzed...
August 21, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812768/chemical-nutritive-composition-and-a-wide-range-of-bioactive-properties-of-honey-mushroom-armillaria-mellea-vahl-fr-kummer
#19
Marina Kostić, Marija Smiljković, Jovana Petrović, Jasmina Glamočlija, Lillian Barros, Isabel C F R Ferreira, Ana Ćirić, Marina Soković
A. mellea fruiting bodies collected from nature were chemically characterized and shown to be rich in carbohydrates (81.25 g per 100 g dw), ash, fat and proteins (8.84 g per 100 g dw, 1.97 g per 100 g dw and 1.81 g per 100 g dw, respectively). Mannitol was the main free sugar while malic acid was the most abundant organic acid. δ-Tocopherol was the dominant form of tocopherols with 42.41 μg per 100 g dw. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were predominant, followed by saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. A methanolic extract prepared from these samples was tested for antioxidant, quorum sensing and antimicrobial assays, as well as for its cytotoxicity effects...
September 20, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810615/detecting-serum-and-urine-metabolic-profile-changes-of-ccl4-liver-fibrosis-in-rats-at-12-weeks-based-on-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#20
Jiarong Gao, Xiu-Juan Qin, Hui Jiang, Jin-Feng Chen, Ting Wang, Ting Zhang, Shuang-Zhi Xu, Jun-Mei Song
Liver fibrosis is caused by liver injury induced by a number of chronic liver diseases, including schistosome infection, hepatitis infection, metabolic disease, alcoholism and cholestasis. The tissue damage occurring after injury or inflammation of the liver is a reversible lesion; however, liver fibrosis has become a worldwide problem and poses a threat to human health. The development of an effective drug for the prevention and treatment of liver fibrosis is ongoing and uses information from different occurrences of liver fibrosis...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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