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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938451/antibody-mediated-targeting-of-the-fgfr1c-isoform-increases-glucose-uptake-in-white-and-brown-adipose-tissue-in-male-mice
#1
Jo E Lewis, Ricardo J Samms, Scott Cooper, Jeni C Luckett, Alan C Perkins, James D Dunbar, Dennis P Smith, Paul J Emmerson, Andrew C Adams, Francis J P Ebling, Kostas Tsintzas
The increased prevalence of obesity and its cardiometabolic implications demonstrates the imperative to identify novel therapeutic targets able to effect meaningful metabolic changes in this population. Antibody-mediated targeting of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1c isoform (FGFR1c) has been shown to ameliorate hyperglycaemia and protect from diet- and genetically-induced obesity in rodents and non-human primates. However, it is currently unknown which tissue(s) contribute to this glucose lowering effect...
August 16, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938420/bone-structural-characteristics-and-response-to-bisphosphonate-treatment-in-children-with-hajdu-cheney-syndrome
#2
Sophia Sakka, Rachel I Gafni, Justin H Davies, Bart Clarke, Peter Tebben, Mark Samuels, Vrinda Saraff, Klaus Klaushofer, Nadja Fratzl-Zelman, Paul Roschger, Frank Rauch, Wolfgang Högler
Context: Hajdu-Cheney syndrome (HJCYS) is a rare, multisystem, bone disease caused by heterozygous mutations in the NOTCH2 gene. Histomorphometric and bone ultrastructural analyses in children have not been reported and sparse evidence exists on response to bisphosphonate (BP) therapy. Objective: To investigate clinical and bone histomorphometric characteristics, bone matrix mineralization and the response of bone geometry and density to BP therapy. Patients: Five children with HJCYS (3 males) aged between 6...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938406/ct-derived-body-fat-distribution-and-incident-cardiovascular-disease-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#3
Morgana L Mongraw-Chaffin, Matthew A Allison, Gregory L Burke, Michael H Criqui, Kunihiro Matsushita, Pamela Ouyang, Ravi V Shah, Christina M Shay, Cheryl A M Anderson
Background: Visceral fat has been shown to be associated with increased cardiometabolic risk, but the role of subcutaneous fat remains unclear, and evidence from diverse populations is lacking. We hypothesized that visceral, but not subcutaneous fat, would be independently associated with incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Methods: Among 1,910 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis with abdominal fat measurements from computed tomography (CT) scans and followed for an average of 9...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938330/temporal-scalp-thickness-body-mass-index-and-suprafascial-placement-of-receiver-coil-of-the-cochlear-implant
#4
Orhan Ozturan, Alper Yenigun, Erol Senturk, Omer Faruk Calim, Fadlullah Aksoy, Sabri Baki Eren
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study are to demonstrate the relationship between the thickness of the temporal scalp and body mass index (BMI), age, and sex, and to present the surgical technique which we perform in patients with a thick scalp. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective, cross-sectional study. This study was performed in a tertiary referral center. Cranial computed tomography images of 469 subjects were included in the study. These subjects were evaluated according to BMI, age, and sex...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938327/adipose-tissue-derived-stromal-vascular-fraction-increases-osteogenesis-in-an-experimental-design-zygomatic-bone-defect-model
#5
Gaye Toplu, Derya Ozcelik, Merdan Serin, Havva Erdem, Arzu Turkseven Topacoglu
INTRODUCTION: Facial bone defects are frequently encountered problems in clinical practice. Bone grafts, flaps, and alloplastic materials are often used in their treatment. This leads to donor site morbidity and prolongation of the operation. The authors have planned this study to examine whether adipose tissue derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) has an osteogenic effect in the critical sized membranous bone defect of the zygomatic bone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty male Wistar Albino rats were used...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938321/the-pierre-robin-mandible-is-hypoplastic-and-morphologically-abnormal
#6
Elizabeth G Zellner, Russell R Reid, Derek M Steinbacher
BACKGROUND: For Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) patients, there is incomplete characterization of 3D differences and effects of mandibular distraction osteogenesis (MDO) on the mandible compared to normal controls. METHODS: PRS infants who underwent MDO at 2 craniofacial referral centerals with pre- and postoperative computed tomography (CT) scans were identified. A group of age-matched control patients with CTs were identified in the PACS database. Demographic and perioperative data were recorded...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938317/postoperative-changes-in-isolated-medial-orbital-wall-fractures-based-on-computed-tomography
#7
Soyeon Jung, Jang Won Lee, Chung Hun Kim, Euna Hwang, Hyoseob Lim, Sung Won Jung, Sung Hoon Koh
The treatment has been improved on the accurate reduction of blow-out fracture for many decades. But still, it has been limited to reduce completely when surgeons are approaching by conventional technique. The authors analyzed the postoperative results using computed tomography (CT) scans after conventional open reduction of isolated medial wall fracture. Thirty-seven patients with isolated medial wall fracture were reviewed. All patients underwent preoperative, immediate, and postoperative CT scans. Two surgeons have performed the surgery by conventional open reduction with transcaruncular approach and absorbable mesh insertion...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938316/frontal-hyperostosis-in-the-patients-of-craniosynostosis-after-cranial-distraction-osteogenesis
#8
Koji Kawamoto, Cheng Chun Wu, Keisuke Imai
BACKGROUND: Conventional fronto-orbital advancement and distraction osteogenesis (DOG) have been used to treat craniosynostosis, both of which are considered effective. During the authors' practice, a phenomenon of frontal hyperostosis has been observed in the patients of craniosynostosis after DOG, which has yet to be reported in the literature. The purpose of this study is trying to identify the factors related to the phenomenon. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 1997 to 2010, all patients of craniosynostosis undergoing DOG were reviewed...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938228/sex-determination-from-chest-measurements-in-a-sample-of-egyptian-adults-using-multislice-computed-tomography
#9
Ragaa T Darwish, Manal H Abdel-Aziz, Abdel-Aziz M El Nekiedy, Zahraa K Sobh
BACKGROUND: In forensic sciences to determine one's sex is quite important during the identity defining stage. The reliability of sex determination depends on the completeness of the remains and the degree of sexual dimorphism inherent in the population. Computed Tomography is the imaging modality of choice for two- and three-dimensional documentation and analysis of many autopsy findings. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present work was to assess the reliability of Three-dimensional Multislice Computed Tomography (3D MSCT) to determine sexual dimorphism from certain chest measurements; sternum and fourth rib using the 3D MSCT and to develop equations for sex determination from these bones among adult Egyptians sample...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938197/a-collagen-membrane-containing-osteogenic-protein-1-facilitates-bone-regeneration-in-a-rat-mandibular-bone-defect
#10
Manami Ozaki, Tadahiro Takayama, Takanobu Yamamoto, Yasumasa Ozawa, Mayu Nagao, Natsuko Tanabe, Akira Nakajima, Naoto Suzuki, Masao Maeno, Seiichi Yamano, Shuichi Sato
OBJECTIVES: Osteogenic protein-1 (OP-1) has shown osteoinductive activities and is useful for clinical treatments, including bone regeneration. Regenerative procedures using a bioabsorbable collagen membrane (BCM) are well established in periodontal and implant dentistry. We evaluated the subsequent effects of the BCM in combination with OP-1 on bone regeneration in a rat mandibular circular critical-sized bone defect in vivo. DESIGN: We used 8 rats that received surgery in both sides of the mandible, and created the total 16 defects which were divided into 4 groups: Group 1; no treatment, as a control, Group 2; BCM alone, Group 3; BCM containing low dose 0...
September 8, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938127/stomach-perforation-post-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-a-case-report
#11
Aasim Khan, Neil Merrett, Selwyn Selvendran
INTRODUCTION: Stomach perforation after cardiopulmonary resuscitation is a rare finding. This is mainly caused by incorrect management of the airway during CPR performed by non-medical personnel. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We report a case of 72year old female who sustained a stomach perforation during prolonged CPR in an out of hospital arrest situation. This was diagnosed on a computed tomography scan of the abdomen requiring midline laparotomy and a primary repair of the stomach...
August 24, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937575/committee-opinion-no-723-guidelines-for-diagnostic-imaging-during-pregnancy-and-lactation
#12
(no author information available yet)
Imaging studies are important adjuncts in the diagnostic evaluation of acute and chronic conditions. However, confusion about the safety of these modalities for pregnant and lactating women and their infants often results in unnecessary avoidance of useful diagnostic tests or the unnecessary interruption of breastfeeding. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging are not associated with risk and are the imaging techniques of choice for the pregnant patient, but they should be used prudently and only when use is expected to answer a relevant clinical question or otherwise provide medical benefit to the patient...
October 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937570/committee-opinion-no-723-summary-guidelines-for-diagnostic-imaging-during-pregnancy-and-lactation
#13
(no author information available yet)
Imaging studies are important adjuncts in the diagnostic evaluation of acute and chronic conditions. However, confusion about the safety of these modalities for pregnant and lactating women and their infants often results in unnecessary avoidance of useful diagnostic tests or the unnecessary interruption of breastfeeding. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging are not associated with risk and are the imaging techniques of choice for the pregnant patient, but they should be used prudently and only when use is expected to answer a relevant clinical question or otherwise provide medical benefit to the patient...
October 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937510/advancements-in-staging-and-imaging-for-penile-cancer
#14
Sarah R Ottenhof, Andrew R Leone, Simon Horenblas, Philippe E Spiess, Erik Vegt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review recent advancements in staging and imaging of penile cancer, including surveillance after therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: For cN0 patients, the sentinel lymph node biopsy is currently considered the preferred way for invasive staging. It has largely replaced other modalities such as staging inguinal lymphadenectomy. Its diagnostic value increases when combined with other staging modalities such as ultrasound with fine-needle aspiration cytology (US-FNAC) or fluorodeoxyglucose-PET with computed tomography (PET/CT)...
September 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937496/characterizing-intraorbital-optic-nerve-changes-on-diffusion-tensor-imaging-in-thyroid-eye-disease-before-dysthyroid-optic-neuropathy
#15
Hwa Lee, Young Hen Lee, Sang-Il Suh, Eun-Kee Jeong, Sehyun Baek, Hyung Suk Seo
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether the optic nerve is affected by thyroid eye disease (TED) before the development of dysthyroid optic neuropathy with diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI). METHODS: Twenty TED patients and 20 controls were included. The mean, axial, and radial diffusivities and fractional anisotropy (FA) value were measured at the optic nerves in DTI. Extraocular muscle diameters were measured on computed tomography. The diffusivities and FA of the optic nerves were compared between TED and controls and between active and inactive stages of TED...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937495/noninvasive-computed-tomography-derived-fractional-flow-reserve-based-on-structural-and-fluid-analysis-reproducibility-of-on-site-determination-by-unexperienced-observers
#16
Keiken Ri, Kanako K Kumamaru, Shinichiro Fujimoto, Yuko Kawaguchi, Tomotaka Dohi, Sou Yamada, Kazuhisa Takamura, Yosuke Kogure, Norikazu Yamada, Etsuro Kato, Ryusuke Irie, Tomohiro Takamura, Michimasa Suzuki, Masaaki Hori, Shigeki Aoki, Hiroyuki Daida
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of computed tomography (CT)-derived fractional flow reserve (FFR) determined on site by inexperienced observers using a postprocessing software based on structural and fluid analysis. METHODS: Using 21 coronary vessels in 7 patients who underwent 320-row coronary CT angiography and catheter-FFR, 2 independent inexperienced observers (A: a student radiation technologist; B: a nonmedical staff) determined the CT-FFR using a postprocessing software...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937494/high-pitch-coronary-computed-tomographic-angiography-using-the-third-generation-dual-source-computed-tomography-initial-experience-in-patients-with-high-heart-rate
#17
Ruiqi Feng, Jingsong Mao, Xiaofei Liu, Yu Zhao, Jiajie Tong, Liang Zhang
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility, image quality, and radiation dose of prospectively high-pitch coronary computed tomographic (CT) angiography in patients with high heart rates (HRs) using the third-generation dual-source CT. METHODS: One hundred consecutive patients with sinus rhythm and HR between 70 and 100 beats per minute were enrolled into this study. All patients were divided into 2 groups. Patients in group A (n = 46) were examined with prospectively high-pitch scan mode in which image acquisition was triggered at 30% of the R-R interval...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937493/adaptive-statistical-iterative-reconstruction-v-versus-adaptive-statistical-iterative-reconstruction-impact-on-dose-reduction-and-image-quality-in-body-computed-tomography
#18
Marco Gatti, Filippo Marchisio, Marco Fronda, Osvaldo Rampado, Riccardo Faletti, Laura Bergamasco, Roberto Ropolo, Paolo Fonio
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact on dose reduction and image quality of the new iterative reconstruction technique: adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR-V). METHODS: Fifty consecutive oncologic patients acted as case controls undergoing during their follow-up a computed tomography scan both with ASIR and ASIR-V. Each study was analyzed in a double-blinded fashion by 2 radiologists. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses of image quality were conducted...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937491/improved-calcium-scoring-at-dual-energy-computed-tomography-angiography-using-a-high-z-contrast-element-and-novel-material-separation-technique
#19
Jack W Lambert, Yuxin Sun, Karen G Ordovas, Robert G Gould, Sizhe Wang, Benjamin M Yeh
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of existing dual-energy computed tomography (CT) angiography coronary artery calcium scoring methods to those obtained using an experimental tungsten-based contrast material and a recently described contrast material extraction process (CMEP). METHODS: Phantom coronary arteries of varied diameters, with different densities and arcs of simulated calcified plaque, were sequentially filled with water, iodine, and tungsten contrast materials and scanned within a thorax phantom at rapid-kVp-switching dual-energy CT...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937489/a-novel-registration-based-semiautomatic-mandible-segmentation-pipeline-using-computed-tomography-images-to-study-mandibular-development
#20
Ying Ji Chuang, Benjamin M Doherty, Nagesh Adluru, Moo K Chung, Houri K Vorperian
OBJECTIVE: We present a registration-based semiautomatic mandible segmentation (SAMS) pipeline designed to process a large number of computed tomography studies to segment 3-dimensional mandibles. METHOD: The pipeline consists of a manual preprocessing step, an automatic segmentation step, and a final manual postprocessing step. The automatic portion uses a nonlinear diffeomorphic method to register each preprocessed input computed tomography test scan on 54 reference templates, ranging in age from birth to 19 years...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
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