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Monosodium Glutamate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339990/detecting-thresholds-for-bitter-umami-and-sweet-tastants-in-broiler-chicken-using-a-2-choice-test-method
#1
Shira L Cheled-Shoval, Naama Reicher, Masha Y Niv, Zehava Uni
The sense of taste has a key role in nutrient sensing and food intake in animals. A standardized and simple method for determination of tastant-detection thresholds is required for chemosensory research in poultry. We established a 24-h, 2-alternative, forced-choice solution-consumption method and applied it to measure detection thresholds for 3 G-protein-coupled receptor-mediated taste modalities-bitter, sweet, and umami-in chicken. Four parameters were used to determine a significant response: 1) tastant-solution consumption; 2) water (tasteless) consumption; 3) total consumption (tastant and water together); 4) ratio of tastant consumption to total consumption...
March 2, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334294/an-examination-of-the-role-of-l-glutamate-and-inosine-5-monophosphate-in-hedonic-taste-guided-behavior-by-mice-lacking-the-t1r1-t1r3-receptor
#2
Ginger D Blonde, Alan C Spector
The heterodimeric T1R1 + T1R3 receptor is considered critical for normal signaling of L-glutamate and 5'-ribonucleotides in the oral cavity. However, some taste-guided responsiveness remains in mice lacking one subunit of the receptor, suggesting that other receptors are sufficient to support some behaviors. Here, mice lacking both receptor subunits (KO) and wild-type (WT, both n = 13) mice were tested in a battery of behavioral tests. Mice were trained and tested in gustometers with a concentration series of Maltrin-580, a maltodextrin, in a brief-access test (10-s trials) as a positive control...
March 17, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303588/dietary-consumption-of-monosodium-l-glutamate-induces-adaptive-response-and-reduction-in-the-life-span-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#3
Amos O Abolaji, Charles O Olaiya, Oluwagbenga J Oluwadahunsi, Ebenezer O Farombi
Adaptive response is the ability of an organism to better counterattack stress-induced damage in response to a number of different cytotoxic agents. Monosodium L-glutamate (MSG), the sodium salt of amino acid glutamate, is commonly used as a food additive. We investigated the effects of MSG on the life span and antioxidant response in Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster). Both genders (1 to 3 days old) of flies were fed with diet containing MSG (0.1, 0.5, and 2.5-g/kg diet) for 5 days to assess selected antioxidant and oxidative stress markers, while flies for longevity were fed for lifetime...
March 16, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298151/effect-of-exclusion-of-frequently-consumed-dietary-triggers-in-a-cohort-of-children-with-chronic-primary-headache
#4
Sepideh Taheri
BACKGROUND: Although dietary factors are known to trigger headaches, the relationship between food and headache in children remains unclear. This prospective, observational case series aimed to evaluate the effect of exclusion of frequently-consumed foods in a cohort of children with headache. METHODS: One hundred and fifteen children aged 3-15 (mean 10.5) years with primary headache were followed in a paediatric outpatient clinic. Patients who frequently consumed foods or food additives known to trigger headaches were advised to exclude them for six weeks and to return for follow-up with headache and food diary...
March 2017: Nutrition and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270006/-effects-of-dietary-monosodium-glutamate-on-gene-expression
#5
Júlia Vanda Jurasek, László Bence Raposa, Andrea Gubicskóné Kisbenedek, Veronika Varga, Zoltán Szabó, Tímea Varjas
INTRODUCTION: Nowadays, the food industry more often uses different type of additives during the food production. AIM: Our aim was to examine the monosodium-glutamate's effect (in animal experiment) on DNA-methyltransferases in gene expression patterns of mRNA levels. MATERIALS AND METHOD: In the investigation we used 24 (n=24) CD1 type female mice. The animals were fed with different equivalent human doses of the tested substance. After autopsy, mRNA was isolated from different tissues (lung, liver, kidney, spleen)...
March 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248971/clofibrate-inhibits-the-umami-savory-taste-of-glutamate
#6
Matthew Kochem, Paul A S Breslin
In humans, umami taste can increase the palatability of foods rich in the amino acids glutamate and aspartate and the 5'-ribonucleotides IMP and GMP. Umami taste is transduced, in part, by T1R1-T1R3, a heteromeric G-protein coupled receptor. Umami perception is inhibited by sodium lactisole, which binds to the T1R3 subunit in vitro. Lactisole is structurally similar to the fibrate drugs. Clofibric acid, a lipid lowering drug, also binds the T1R3 subunit in vitro. The purpose of this study was to determine whether clofibric acid inhibits the umami taste of glutamate in human subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237619/glutamate-affects-the-production-of-epoxyeicosanoids-within-the-brain-the-up-regulation-of-brain-cyp2j-through-the-mapk-creb-signaling-pathway
#7
Mingzhou Liu, Quanfei Zhu, Jinhua Wu, Xuming Yu, Mingbai Hu, Xianfei Xie, Zheqiong Yang, Jing Yang, Yu-Qi Feng, Jiang Yue
Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, and chronic glutamate excitotoxicity has been thought to be involved in numerous neurodegenerative diseases. We investigated the effects of glutamate at concentrations lower than the usual extrasynaptic concentrations on the production of epoxyeicosanoids mediated by brain CYP2J. Glutamate increased CYP2J2 mRNA levels in astrocytes in a dose-dependent manner, while an antagonist of the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5 receptor) attenuated the glutamate-induced increases in CYP2J2 levels by glutamate...
April 15, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214329/-p-clphse-2-reduces-hepatotoxicity-induced-by-monosodium-glutamate-by-improving-mitochondrial-function-in-rats
#8
Caroline B Quines, Pietro M Chagas, Diane Hartmann, Nélson R Carvalho, Félix A Soares, Cristina W Nogueira
It is has been demonstrated that mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and chronic inflammatory process are associated with progress of morbid obesity in human patients. For this reason, the searching for safe and effective antiobesity drugs has been the subject of intense research. In this context, the organic selenium compounds have attracted much attention due to their pharmacological properties, such as antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective action of p-chloro-diphenyl diselenide (p-ClPhSe)2 , an organic selenium compound, in a model of obesity induced by monosodium glutamate (MSG) administration in rats...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197528/antimutagenic-effect-of-hibiscus-sabdariffa-l-aqueous-extract-on-rats-treated-with-monosodium-glutamate
#9
Ana Carla Guidini Valentini Gheller, Jacqueline Kerkhoff, Gerardo Magela Vieira Júnior, Kleber Eduardo de Campos, Marina Mariko Sugui
Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a plant of the Malvaceae family, commonly known as roselle. H. sabdariffa is known to contain antioxidant, cholesterol-lowering, antiobesity, insulin resistance reduction, antihypertensive, and skin cancer chemopreventive properties. This study evaluated the effects of H. sabdariffa aqueous extract against cyclophosphamide (CPA, 25 mg/Kg) induced damage to DNA in male Wistar rats by micronucleus test. Samples of H. sabdariffa calyx were obtained in the municipality of Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso, Brazil...
2017: TheScientificWorldJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184327/the-effects-of-monosodium-glutamate-and-tannic-acid-on-adult-rats
#10
Ibrahim Ugur Calis, Didem Turgut Cosan, Faruk Saydam, Umut Kerem Kolac, Ahu Soyocak, Hulyam Kurt, Hasan Veysi Gunes, Varol Sahinturk, Fezan Sahin Mutlu, Zeynep Ozdemir Koroglu, Irfan Degirmenci
BACKGROUND: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a widely-used flavor enhancer and stabilizer in ready-made or packaged foods. The excessive use of MSG has been shown to increase oxidative stress in different organ systems and causes glucose metabolism disorders, obesity, and coronary diseases. OBJECTIVES: In this study, the antioxidant activity of tannic acid was investigated experimentally with respect to its protective effects against overdosed MSG-induced oxidative stress in rats...
October 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110193/effects-of-polyphenol-compounds-melanin-on-nafld-nash-prevention
#11
Natalia Belemets, Nazarii Kobyliak, Oleksandr Virchenko, Tetyana Falalyeyeva, Tsyryuk Olena, Petro Bodnar, Oleksiy Savchuk, Tetyana Galenova, Martin Caprnda, Luis Rodrigo, Lubomir Skladany, Delian Delev, Radka Opatrilova, Peter Kruzliak, Tetyana Beregova, Lyudmyla Ostapchenko
BACKGROUND: One of the pathogenic mechanisms of the progression non-alcoholic liver disease (NAFLD) to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). So, antioxidant therapy is necessary for successful treatment of the liver injury. We have paid attention to melanin produced by yeast Nadsoniella nigra strain X-1 as novel antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents with low toxicity. In current study we aimed to investigate the preventive effect of melanin on the monosodium glutamate (MSG) induced NAFLD model in rats...
April 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087338/auditory-hindbrain-atrophy-and-anomalous-calcium-binding-protein-expression-after-neonatal-exposure-to-monosodium-glutamate
#12
Lindsey Foran, Kaitlyn Blackburn, Randy J Kulesza
Glutamate is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and is stored and released by both neurons and astrocytes. Despite the important role of glutamate as a neurotransmitter, elevated extracellular glutamate can result in excitotoxicity and apoptosis. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a naturally occurring sodium salt of glutamic acid that is used as a flavor enhancer in many processed foods. Previous studies have shown that MSG administration during the early postnatal period results in neurodegenerative changes in several forebrain regions, characterized by neuronal loss and neuroendocrine abnormalities...
March 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077281/does-acute-or-habitual-protein-deprivation-influence-liking-for-monosodium-glutamate
#13
Una Masic, Martin R Yeomans
The umami flavour generated by monosodium glutamate (MSG) has been proposed as the marker for the presence of protein in foods. As protein is the most closely regulated macronutrient in the diet, the present study addressed whether acute protein deprivation, habitual protein intake or a combination of the two influenced liking for the taste of MSG. 24 low-restraint male participants (mean age: 22; BMI: 23) consumed either their habitual breakfast (baseline), a low protein breakfast (breakfast meal with low protein milk and milkshake) or a high protein breakfast (breakfast meal with high protein milk and milkshake) on three different days, and then evaluated the acceptability of umami (MSG), salty (NaCl) or sweet (Acesulphame K) tastes at low or high concentrations in a soup context at lunchtime...
January 7, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058453/early-history-of-the-breeding-of-amino-acid-producing-strains
#14
Shigeru Nakamori
Amino acid production started in Japan in 1908 with the extraction of monosodium glutamate (MSG) from acid hydrolysates of proteins. In addition to extraction, other methods of amino acid production include chemical synthesis, fermentation, and enzymatic synthesis both for glutamic acid and other amino acids. In this chapter, we review the historical transition of these production methods; currently, fermentation is the chief production method of amino acids. All wild-type microorganisms possess a negative feedback control system (feedback inhibition and repression) on the enzymes within the amino acid biosynthetic pathways...
January 6, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055264/inos-inhibition-improves-autonomic-dysfunction-and-oxidative-status-in-hypertensive-obese-rats
#15
Natalia Veronez da Cunha, Fernanda Novi Cortegoso Lopes, Carolina Panis, Rubens Cecchini, Phileno Pinge-Filho, Marli Cardoso Martins-Pinge
It has been suggested that nitric oxide (NO) from iNOS source is involved in inflammation and oxidative stress, and hypertension in obese subjects involves an inflammatory process. However, no study evaluated the participation of iNOS inhibition on cardiovascular, autonomic, and inflammatory parameters in obese rats. Obesity was induced by the administration of 4 mg/g body weight of monosodium glutamate (MSG) or equimolar saline (CTR) in newborn rats. On the 60th day, treatment with aminoguanidine (Amino, 50 mg/kg), an iNOS inhibitor, or 0...
2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040184/effect-of-osmotic-dehydration-of-olives-as-pre-fermentation-treatment-and-partial-substitution-of-sodium-chloride-by-monosodium-glutamate-in-the-fermentation-profile-of-kalamata-natural-black-olives
#16
Stamatoula Bonatsou, Vasilis Iliopoulos, Athanasios Mallouchos, Eleni Gogou, Vasiliki Oikonomopoulou, Magdalini Krokida, Petros Taoukis, Efstathios Z Panagou
This study examined the effect of osmotic dehydration of Kalamata natural black olives as pre-fermentation treatment in combination with partial substitution of NaCl by monosodium glutamate (MSG) on the fermentation profile of olives. Osmotic dehydration was undertaken by immersing the olives in 70% (w/w) glucose syrup overnight at room temperature. Further on, three different mixtures of NaCl and MSG with/without prior osmotic dehydration of olives were investigated, namely (i) 6.65% NaCl - 0.35% MSG (5% substitution), (ii) 6...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004032/histological-and-metabolic-state-of-dams-suckling-small-litter-or-msg-treated-pups
#17
Claudia Regina Capriglioni Cancian, Nayara Carvalho Leite, Elisangela Gueiber Montes, Stefani Valeria Fisher, Leticia Waselcoski, Emily Caroline Lopes Stal, Renata Zanardini Christoforo, Sabrina Grassiolli
Lactation is an important function that is dependent on changes in the maternal homeostasis and sustained by histological maternal adjustments. We evaluated how offspring manipulations during the lactational phase can modulate maternal morphologic aspects in the mammary gland, adipose tissue, and pancreatic islets of lactating dams. Two different models of litter-manipulation-during-lactation were used: litter sizes, small litters (SL) or normal litters (NL) and subcutaneous injections in the puppies of monosodium glutamate (MSG), or saline (CON)...
2016: TheScientificWorldJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995099/mislabelling-of-d%C3%A3-ner-kebab-sold-in-italy
#18
Gaetano Liuzzo, Roberto Rossi, Federica Giacometti, Silvia Piva, Andrea Serraino, Giulia Mescolini, Gianfranco Militerno
The aim of this study was to assess whether Döner kebabs sold in Italy comply with legal labelling requirements. A checklist of EU labelling requirements was drawn up and nine labels of Döner kebab marketed in the province of Modena were collected to evaluate the mandatory information laid down in article 9 of Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011 together with the mandatory requirements of Regulation (EC) 853/2004 for meat preparations. The study showed that different additives are commonly used in Döner kebabs, including E 621 (monosodium glutamate)...
September 20, 2016: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968878/dietary-patterns-and-risk-of-breast-cancer-in-chinese-women-a-population-based-case-control-study
#19
Shurong Lu, Xingyu Huang, Hao Yu, Jie Yang, Renqiang Han, Jian Su, Wencong Du, Jinyi Zhou, Xiaojin Yu, Ming Wu
BACKGROUND: The incidence rate of breast cancer has markedly increased in recent years in China, yet the association of breast cancer with dietary patterns such as a Chinese traditional diet has not been studied. We aimed to examine this association among women from the Jiangsu Province of China. METHODS: In this case-control study, we used the data from local population-based cancer registry agency to recruit newly diagnosed patients with primary breast cancer as cases...
October 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926796/novel-umami-ingredients-umami-peptides-and-their-taste
#20
REVIEW
Yin Zhang, Chandrasekar Venkitasamy, Zhongli Pan, Wenlong Liu, Liming Zhao
Umami substances are very important for food seasoning and healthy eating. In addition to monosodium glutamate and some nucleotides, recent investigations have revealed that several peptides also exhibit umami taste. In recent years, 52 peptides have been reported to show umami taste, including 24 dipeptides, 16 tripeptides, 5 octapeptides, 2 pentapeptides, 2 hexapeptides, 1 tetrapeptide, 1 heptapeptide, and 1 undecapeptide. Twenty of these peptides have been examined for the present of umami taste. In this review, we have listed these umami peptides based on their category, source, taste, and threshold concentration...
January 2017: Journal of Food Science
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