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Monosodium Glutamate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618758/investigation-of-the-behavioral-and-neurochemical-effects-of-monosodium-glutamate-on-neonatal-rats
#1
Ayşen Çetin Kardeşler, Eyüp Başkale
BACKGROUND/AIM: The objective of this study was to investigate and analyze the behavioral and neurochemical effects of monosodium glutamate (MSG) injections at various and subsequent dosages on male Wistar rats during the neonatal period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In order to determine the behavioral and neurochemical effects of MSG, the experiment was implemented on neonatal male Wistar rats and the test was repeated for various MSG dosages. After completing the experiment, additionally, levels of dopamine, GABA, catecholamine (dopamine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline) and glutamate in the brain cells of the decapitated rats were also measured using the ELISA method...
June 12, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614713/acute-lesioning-and-rapid-repair-of-hypothalamic-neurons-outside-the-blood-brain-barrier
#2
Ernie Yulyaningsih, Ivan A Rudenko, Martin Valdearcos, Emma Dahlén, Eirini Vagena, Alvin Chan, Arturo Alvarez-Buylla, Christian Vaisse, Suneil K Koliwad, Allison W Xu
Neurons expressing agouti-related protein (AgRP) are essential for feeding. The majority of these neurons are located outside the blood-brain barrier (BBB), allowing them to directly sense circulating metabolic factors. Here, we show that, in adult mice, AgRP neurons outside the BBB (AgRP(OBBB)) were rapidly ablated by peripheral administration of monosodium glutamate (MSG), whereas AgRP neurons inside the BBB and most proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons were spared. MSG treatment induced proliferation of tanycytes, the putative hypothalamic neural progenitor cells, but the newly proliferated tanycytes did not become neurons...
June 13, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612917/neonatal-exposure-to-monosodium-glutamate-results-in-dysmorphology-of-orofacial-lower-motor-neurons
#3
Lindsey Foran, Chloe Kupelian, Swati Laroia, Jeffrey Esper, Randy Joseph Kulesza
Glutamate is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and is stored and released by both neurons and astrocytes. Despite the important role of glutamate as a neurotransmitter, high levels of extracellular glutamate can result in excitotoxicity and apoptosis. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a naturally occurring sodium salt of glutamic acid that is used as a flavor enhancer in many processed foods. Neonatal exposure to MSG has been shown to result in neurodegeneration in several forebrain regions, characterized by neuronal loss and neuroendocrine abnormalities...
June 14, 2017: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611499/lactobacillus-futsaii-cs3-a-new-gaba-producing-strain-isolated-from-thai-fermented-shrimp-kung-som
#4
Chatthaphisuth Sanchart, Onnicha Rattanaporn, Dietmar Haltrich, Pimpimol Phukpattaranont, Suppasil Maneerat
Kung-Som is a popular traditional Thai fermented shrimp product. It is rich in glutamic acid, which is the major substrate for the biosynthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In the present study, LAB from Kung-Som were isolated, screened for GABA formation, and the two isolates that transform glutamic acid most efficiently into GABA were identified. Based on the API-CHL50 fermentation profile and a phylogenetic tree of 16S rDNA sequences, strain CS3 and CS5 were identified as Lactobacillus futsaii, which was for the first time shown to be a promising GABA producer...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605892/improvement-of-thermal-stability-of-bcg-vaccine
#5
Fatemeh Jahanbakhsh Sefidi, Homan Kaghazian, Gholam Ali Moradli, Seyed Mehdi Hassanzadeh
BAckground: Thermal stability (TS) is a part of the BCG vaccine characterization by which consistency of process in BCG vaccine production could be confirmed. To enhance the TS of the vaccine, some prevalent stabilizers in different concentration were added to the final formulation of BCG bulk prior to Freeze-drying process. We found a formulation more effective than the current stabilizer for retaining the higher viability of lyophilized BCG vaccine produced by Pasteur Institute of Iran...
June 13, 2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605507/comparison-of-the-tastes-of-l-alanine-and-monosodium-glutamate-in-c57bl-6j-wild-type-and-t1r3-knockout-mice
#6
Meghan C Eddy, Benjamin K Eschle, Eugene Delay
Previous research showed that L-alanine and monosodium L-glutamate elicit similar taste sensations in rats. This study reports the results of behavioral experiments designed to compare the taste capacity of C57BL/6J wild type and T1r3- mice for these two amino acids. In conditioned taste aversion experiments, wild type mice exhibited greater sensitivity than knockout mice for both L-amino acids, although knockout mice were clearly able to detect both amino acids at 50 mM and higher concentrations. Generalization of conditioned taste aversion between L-alanine and L-glutamate was bidirectionally equivalent for both mouse genotypes, indicating that both substances elicited similar tastes in both genotypes...
June 9, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587069/taste-perception-of-sweet-sour-salty-bitter-and-umami-and-changes-due-to-l-arginine-supplementation-as-a-function-of-genetic-ability-to-taste-6-n-propylthiouracil
#7
Melania Melis, Iole Tomassini Barbarossa
Behavioral reaction to different taste qualities affects nutritional status and health. 6-n-Propylthiouracil (PROP) tasting has been reported to be a marker of variation in taste perception, food preferences, and eating behavior, but results have been inconsistent. We showed that l-Arg can enhance the bitterness intensity of PROP, whilst others have demonstrated a suppression of the bitterness of quinine. Here, we analyze the taste perception of sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami and the modifications caused by l-Arg supplementation, as a function of PROP-taster status...
May 25, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579479/anti-obesogenic-and-hypolipidemic-effects-of-a-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-derived-from-the-saliva-of-the-gila-monster
#8
Patricia Lucio Alves, Fernando Mauricio Francis Abdalla, Rafaela Fadoni Alponti, Paulo Flavio Silveira
INTRODUCTION: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor (R) agonists are a class of incretin mimetic drugs that have been used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus and also considered strong candidates for the treatment of obesity. The original prototypical drug in this class is the exenatide, a synthetic peptide with the same structure as the native molecule, exendin-4, found in the saliva of the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum suspectum lizard). OBJECTIVES: To identify and compare the anti-obesogenic, antidyslipidemic and antidiabetogenic effects of agonism in GLP-1R by exenatide on two distinct models of obesity: induced by hypothalamic injury (MSG) or high-calorie diet (DIO)...
June 1, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546638/effects-of-obesity-on-liver-cytochromes-p450-in-various-animal-models
#9
Veronika Tomankova, Pavel Anzenbacher, Eva Anzenbacherova
The prevalence of obesity and other obesity-related diseases is increasing worldwide. Obesity is a disease characterized by increased body weight, or a condition resulting from excessive accumulation of body fat. Due to increased body fat deposits, obesity has also been associated with increased mortality resulting from higher incidence rates of hypertension, diabetes, or various types of cancer, such as breast, colorectal, cervical and prostate cancer. Physiological changes associated with obesity are likely to result in altered drug biotransformation...
May 25, 2017: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528338/chronic-glibenclamide-treatment-attenuates-walker-256-tumour-growth-in-prediabetic-obese-rats
#10
Claudinéia Conationi da Silva Franco, Carina Previate, Kátia Gama de Barros Machado, Silvano Piovan, Rosiane Aparecida Miranda, Kelly Valério Prates, Veridiana Mota Moreira, Júlio Cezar de Oliveira, Luiz Felipe Barella, Rodrigo Mello Gomes, Flávio Andrade Francisco, Isabela Peixoto Martins, Audrei Pavanello, Tatiane Aparecida Ribeiro, Laize Peron Tófolo, Ananda Malta, Aline Amenencia de Souza, Vander Silva Alves, Sandra da Silva Silveira, Maria Raquel Marçal Natali, Jean Carlos Fernando Besson, Hely de Morais, Helenir Medri de Souza, Juliane Rocha de Sant Anna, Marialba Avezum Alves de Castro Prado, Paulo Cezar de Freitas Mathias
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The sulphonylurea glibenclamide (Gli) is widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In addition to its antidiabetic effects, low incidences of certain types of cancer have been observed in Gli-treated diabetic patients. However, the mechanisms underlying this observation remain unclear. The aim of the present work was to evaluate whether obese adult rats that were chronically treated with an antidiabetic drug, glibenclamide, exhibit resistance to rodent breast carcinoma growth...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522248/adverse-effects-in-kidney-function-antioxidant-systems-and-histopathology-in-rats-receiving-monosodium-glutamate-diet
#11
María Del Carmen Contini, Ana Fabro, Néstor Millen, Adriana Benmelej, Stella Mahieu
We investigated the effects of adding of monosodium glutamate (MSG) to a standard diet on oxidative stress in kidney, nitric oxide excretion, renal ions handling and blood pressure. We examined the association of these changes with the effects on renal histology. The study was performed on male Wistar rats (5 weeks old) divided into 3 groups: 1) MSG group were fed a diet supplemented with 3g of MSG/kg b.w./day, five days a week, and spontaneous ingestion of a 1% MSG solution during 16 weeks; 2) NaCl group were fed a diet with NaCl (1g/kg b...
May 15, 2017: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486943/kb-r7943-reduces-4-aminopyridine-induced-epileptiform-activity-in-adult-rats-after-neuronal-damage-induced-by-neonatal-monosodium-glutamate-treatment
#12
Mariana Hernandez-Ojeda, Monica E Ureña-Guerrero, Paola E Gutierrez-Barajas, Jazmin A Cardenas-Castillo, Antoni Camins, Carlos Beas-Zarate
BACKGROUND: Neonatal monosodium glutamate (MSG) treatment triggers excitotoxicity and induces a degenerative process that affects several brain regions in a way that could lead to epileptogenesis. Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers (NCX1-3) are implicated in Ca(2+) brain homeostasis; normally, they extrude Ca(2+) to control cell inflammation, but after damage and in epilepsy, they introduce Ca(2+) by acting in the reverse mode, amplifying the damage. Changes in NCX3 expression in the hippocampus have been reported immediately after neonatal MSG treatment...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460669/pig-sperm-preincubation-and-gamete-coincubation-with-glutamate-enhance-sperm-oocyte-binding-and-in%C3%A2-vitro-fertilization
#13
M Spinaci, D Bucci, B Gadani, E Porcu, C Tamanini, G Galeati
As the taste receptor for monosodium glutamate (umami) is expressed in both murine and human spermatozoa and the presence of α-gustducin and α-transducin, G proteins involved in the umami taste signaling, has been described in boar germ cells, the aim of this study was to evaluate if monosodium glutamate (MSG) would exert any effect on sperm-oocyte binding, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and sperm parameters during in vitro induced capacitation. For sperm-zona pellucida binding assay, boar spermatozoa were preincubated for 1 h and then coincubated for 1 h with denuded in vitro matured oocytes in presence of different concentrations of MSG (0, 0...
June 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442748/pentamethylquercetin-induces-adipose-browning-and-exerts-beneficial-effects-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes-and-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#14
Yi Han, Jian-Zhao Wu, Ji-Zhong Shen, Lei Chen, Ting He, Man-Wen Jin, Hui Liu
Browning white adipocytes may be a new target in anti-obesity therapy. Pentamethylquercetin (PMQ) has been shown to have anti-obesity effects in monosodium glutamate-induced obese mice. Here, we aimed to study the anti-obesity effects of PMQ in vitro and in vivo and to determine if adipose browning is involved in the mechanism underlying the anti-obesity effects of PMQ. We evaluated the effects of PMQ on cell proliferation, cell differentiation, glucose consumption, cellular lipid metabolism, and related brown gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438014/characterization-of-a-glutamate-decarboxylase-gad-from-enterococcus-avium-m5-isolated-from-jeotgal-a-fermented-korean-sea-food
#15
Kang Wook Lee, Jae Min Shim, Zhuang Yao, Jeong A Kim, Hyun-Jin Kim, Jeong Hwan Kim
To develop starters for the production of functional foods or materials, lactic acid bacteria producing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were screened from jeotgals, Korean fermented sea foods. One isolate producing high amount of GABA from monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) was identified as Enterococcus avium by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. E. avium M5 produced 18.47 ± 1.26 mg/ml GABA when incubated for 48 h at 37°C in MRS broth with MSG (3%, w/v). A gadB gene encoding glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) was cloned and overexpressed in E...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437507/effects-of-experimental-pain-and-lidocaine-on-mechanical-somatosensory-profile-and-face-perception
#16
Yuri Martins Costa, Eduardo E Castrillon, Leonardo Rigoldi Bonjardim, Paulo César Rodrigues Conti, Lene Baad-Hansen, Peter Svensson
AIMS: To assess the effects of experimental muscle pain and topical lidocaine applied to the skin overlying the masseter muscle on the mechanical somatosensory profile and face perception of the masseter muscle in healthy participants. METHODS: A total of 28 healthy participants received a 45-minute application of a lidocaine or placebo patch to the skin overlying the masseter muscle followed by one injection of 0.2 mL sterile solution of monosodium glutamate. Measurements were taken four times during each session of quantitative sensory testing (QST) (T0 = baseline, T1 = 45 minutes after patch application, T2 = immediately after glutamate injection, and T3 = 25 minutes after the glutamate injection), and the following variables were measured: mechanical detection threshold (MDT), mechanical pain threshold (MPT), pressure pain threshold (PPT), pain report (pain on palpation, pain spreading on palpation, and pain intensity), pain drawing, and perceptual distortion...
April 2017: Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436061/resistance-exercise-reduces-memory-impairment-induced-by-monosodium-glutamate-in-male-and-female-rats
#17
Paulo Cesar Oliveira Araujo, Caroline Brandão Quines, Natália Silva Jardim, Marlon Regis Leite, Cristina Wayne Nogueira
What is the central question of this study? Monosodium glutamate causes cognitive impairment. Does resistance exercise improve the performance of rats treated with monosodium glutamate? What is the main finding and its importance? Resistance exercise is effective against monosodium glutamate-induced memory impairment in male and female rats. Monosodium glutamate (MSG), a flavour enhancer in diets, causes cognitive impairment in rodents. Exercise has been reported to protect against impairment of memory in humans...
April 23, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411553/cerium-dioxide-nanoparticles-possess-anti-inflammatory-properties-in-the-conditions-of-the-obesity-associated-nafld-in-rats
#18
Nazarii Kobyliak, Oleksandr Virchenko, Tetyana Falalyeyeva, Maryana Kondro, Tetyana Beregova, Petro Bodnar, Oleksandr Shcherbakov, Rostyslav Bubnov, Martin Caprnda, Delian Delev, Jan Sabo, Peter Kruzliak, Luis Rodrigo, Radka Opatrilova, Mykola Spivak
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The disease is associated with impairment of pro/antioxidant equilibrium and the inflammation in liver tissue. The aim of the work was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of the nanocrystalline cerium dioxide (nCeO2) on the rat model of NAFLD associated with monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced obesity. METHODS: The study was carried out on three groups of rats: control, MSG- and MSG+nCeO2...
June 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387830/development-of-liquid-bait-with-unique-bait-station-for-control-of-dolichoderus-thoracicus-hymenoptera-formicidae
#19
Chung-Chi Lin, Tsai-Wei Chang, Hung-Wei Chen, Chung-Han Shih, Po-Cheng Hsu
The Dolichoderus thoracicus (Smith) has seriously infested urban, village, and agricultural environments in Taiwan. To develop optimal bait for the effective control of D. thoracicus, we investigated the feeding preferences of this ant at different sugar and amino acid concentrations in a laboratory setting. The number of feeding workers was significantly higher for 20% sucrose compared with that for other sugars at 10% and 20% concentrations. Furthermore, among all tested concentrations of monosodium glutamate (MSG; 1%, 3%, 5%, and 10%), the highest number of ants were attracted by 1% MSG with 20% sucrose...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380195/duodenal-jejunal-bypass-normalizes-pancreatic-islet-proliferation-rate-and-function-but-not-hepatic-steatosis-in-hypothalamic-obese-rats
#20
K R Cantelli, G M Soares, R A Ribeiro, S L Balbo, C Lubaczeuski, A C Boschero, A C F Araújo, M L Bonfleur
Modifications in life-style and/or pharmacotherapies contribute to weight loss and ameliorate the metabolic profile of diet-induced obese humans and rodents. Since these strategies fail to treat hypothalamic obesity, we have assessed the possible mechanisms by which duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) surgery regulates hepatic lipid metabolism and the morphophysiology of pancreatic islets, in hypothalamic obese (HyO) rats. During the first 5 days of life, male Wistar rats received subcutaneous injections of monosodium glutamate (4 g/kg body weight, HyO group), or saline (CTL)...
March 30, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
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