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Monosodium Glutamate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443544/taste-sensitivity-to-a-mixture-of-monosodium-glutamate-and-inosine-5-monophosphate-by-mice-lacking-both-subunits-of-the-t1r1-t1r3-amino-acid-receptor
#1
Ginger D Blonde, Susan P Travers, Alan Craig Spector
The taste of L-glutamate and its synergism with 5'-ribonucleotides is thought to be primarily mediated through the T1R1+T1R3 heterodimer in some mammals including rodents and humans. While knockout (KO) mice lacking either receptor subunit show impaired sensitivity to a range of monosodium glutamate (MSG) concentrations mixed with 2.5mM inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) in amiloride, wild-type (WT) controls can detect this IMP concentration, hindering direct comparison between genotypes. Moreover, some residual sensitivity persists in the KO group, suggesting that the remaining subunit could maintain a limited degree of function...
February 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441869/monosodium-glutamate-induced-obesity-changed-the-expression-and-activity-of-glutathione-s-transferases-in-mouse-heart-and-kidney
#2
I Boušová, Š Košťáková, P Matoušková, H Bártíková, B Szotáková, L Skálová
Obesity may affect activity and/or expression of enzymes participating in xenobiotics' detoxification and antioxidant defense. This study sought to investigate the activities and expression of cardiac and renal glutathione S-transferase (GST) isoforms in order to reveal possible differences between obese and control mice. For this purpose, mice with monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced obesity were used as an experimental model. Obesity was induced in newborn male mice by repeated s.c. administration of MSG. At 8 months of age, mice were sacrificed and specific activity, protein and mRNA expressions levels of GSTs were analyzed in their heart and kidney...
May 1, 2017: Die Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414166/thermogravimetric-analysis-and-kinetic-modeling-of-low-transition-temperature-mixtures-pretreated-oil-palm-empty-fruit-bunch-for-possible-maximum-yield-of-pyrolysis-oil
#3
Chung Loong Yiin, Suzana Yusup, Armando T Quitain, Yoshimitsu Uemura, Mitsuru Sasaki, Tetsuya Kida
The impacts of low-transition-temperature mixtures (LTTMs) pretreatment on thermal decomposition and kinetics of empty fruit bunch (EFB) were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. EFB was pretreated with the LTTMs under different duration of pretreatment which enabled various degrees of alteration to their structure. The TG-DTG curves showed that LTTMs pretreatment on EFB shifted the temperature and rate of decomposition to higher values. The EFB pretreated with sucrose and choline chloride-based LTTMs had attained the highest mass loss of volatile matter (78...
January 31, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402603/monosodium-glutamate-impairs-the-contraction-of-uterine-visceral-smooth-muscle-ex-vivo-of-rat-through-augmentation-of-acetylcholine-and-nitric-oxide-signaling-pathways
#4
Mukti Mondal, Kaushik Sarkar, Partha Pratim Nath, Ashma Khatun, Sanghamitra Pal, Goutam Paul
The aim of the study was to examine the toxic effects of Monosodium glutamate (MSG), an extensively used food additive, on the contraction of uterine visceral smooth muscle (UVSM) in rat and to elucidate the probable neurocrine mechanism involved in it. MSG produced significant potentiation of the force and inhibition of frequency of uterus recorded ex vivo in chronic MSG exposure and in single dose acute experiments. MSG also produced significant potentiation of force of acetylcholine induced contraction and no alterations in atropine induced contraction of uterus...
February 2, 2018: Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389591/optimization-of-culture-conditions-for-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-production-in-fermented-adzuki-bean-milk
#5
Hung Yi Song, Roch Chui Yu
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), a nonprotein amino acid, is widely distributed in nature and fulfills several physiological functions. In this study, various lactic acid strains commonly used to produce fermented milk products were inoculated into adzuki bean milk for producing GABA. The high GABA producing strain was selected in further experiment to improve the GABA production utilizing culture medium optimization. The results demonstrated that adzuki bean milk inoculated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG increased GABA content from 0...
January 2018: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374793/taurine-supplementation-prevents-endothelial-dysfunction-and-attenuates-structural-changes-in-aortas-from-hypothalamic-obese-rats
#6
Valéria F Leão, Letícia L D M Ferreira, Cinthya M Melo, Maria L Bonfleur, Leandro L da Silva, Everardo M Carneiro, Juliana M Raimundo, Rosane A Ribeiro
PURPOSE: Obesity predisposes to cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The amino acid, L-taurine (Tau), regulates glucose and lipid homeostasis and vascular function. Here we investigated whether Tau supplementation prevents endothelial dysfunction in the thoracic aortas of monosodium glutamate-induced obese (MSG) rats. METHODS: Male rats received subcutaneous injections of MSG (4 mg/kg body weight/day) or saline (control group, CTL) during the first five days of life...
January 27, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329874/a-survey-of-free-glutamic-acid-in-foods-using-a-robust-lc-ms-ms-method
#7
Nur Cebi, Canan Ekinci Dogan, Elmas Oktem Olgun, Osman Sagdic
An effective and simultaneous liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was used with the aim of quantifying monosodium glutamate (MSG) in foodstuffs, such as chips, taste cubes, sauces and soups. The results were linear (R2 = 1), with very low LOD and LOQ values, 1.0 µg/kg, 5.0 µg/kg, respectively. Excellent repeatability and reproducibility were also achieved. This highly sensitive and robust LC-MS/MS technique was applied successfully for the detection and quantification of MSG in a wide variety of foodstuffs...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328403/arcuate-nucleus-neurons-are-not-essential-for-the-preprandial-peak-in-plasma-ghrelin-after-neonatal-monosodium-glutamate-treatment
#8
Qing-Chun Li, Qing-Feng Li, Yan-Lin Wang, Hong-Liang Sun, Zheng-Yao Jiang
The aim of the present study was to determine whether arcuate nucleus (ARC) lesions affect the ghrelin level in the plasma and the stomach in monosodium glutamate (MSG)‑treated mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the ARC was destroyed in mice treated neonatally with MSG, and whether the ARC lesions affect the ghrelin level in the plasma and lipid mobilization in MSG‑treated mice. The results revealed that MSG led to a marked reduction in ARC cresyl violet staining, tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (IR) neurons and neuropeptide Y‑IR fibers, compared with saline controls...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311399/efficacy-of-probiotics-and-smectite-in-rats-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#9
Nazarii Kobyliak, Ludovico Abenavoli, Tetyana Falalyeyeva, Tetyana Beregova
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: Today probiotics have been suggested as a treatment for the prevention of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Smectite is a natural silicate that binds to digestive mucous and has the ability to bind endo- and exotoxins. The present study was designed to determine whether probiotics plus smectite is superior to probiotic alone on the monosodium glutamate (MSG) induced NAFLD model in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 60 rats divided into 4 groups 15 animals in each...
January 2018: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304190/enhancement-of-saltiness-perception-by-monosodium-glutamate-taste-and-soy-sauce-odor-a-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#10
Takuya Onuma, Hiroaki Maruyama, Nobuyuki Sakai
Previous studies have reported that the umami taste of monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) and salty-smelling odors (e.g., soy sauce, bacon, sardines) enhance the perception of saltiness. This study aimed to investigate the neural basis of the enhancement of saltiness in human participants using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). University students who had passed a taste panel test participated in this study. Sodium chloride solutions were presented with or without either 0.10% MSG or the odor of soy sauce...
January 3, 2018: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300336/characterization-of-a-potential-probiotic-lactobacillus-brevis-rk03-and-efficient-production-of-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-in-batch-fermentation
#11
Chien-Hui Wu, Yi-Huang Hsueh, Jen-Min Kuo, Si-Jia Liu
Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from fish and evaluated for their γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing abilities. Out of thirty-two isolates, Lactobacillus brevis RK03 showed the highest GABA production ability. The effects of various fermentation parameters including initial glutamic acid level, culture temperature, initial pH, and incubation time on GABA production were investigated via a singleparameter optimization strategy. For industrial large-scale production, a low-cost GABA producing medium (GM) broth was developed for fermentation with L...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295558/effects-of-sleeve-gastrectomy-vs-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-on-eating-behavior-and-sweet-taste-perception-in-subjects-with-obesity
#12
Katie Nance, J Christopher Eagon, Samuel Klein, Marta Yanina Pepino
The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that weight loss induced by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) has greater effects on taste perception and eating behavior than comparable weight loss induced by sleeve gastrectomy (SG). We evaluated the following outcomes in 31 subjects both before and after ~20% weight loss induced by RYGB (n = 23) or SG (n = 8): (1) sweet, savory, and salty taste sensitivity; (2) the most preferred concentrations of sucrose and monosodium glutamate; (3) sweetness palatability, by using validated sensory testing techniques; and (4) eating behavior, by using the Food Craving Inventory and the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire...
December 24, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280389/the-effects-of-black-garlic-on-the-working-memory-and-pyramidal-cell-number-of-medial-prefrontal-cortex-of-rats-exposed-to-monosodium-glutamate
#13
Titis Nurmasitoh, Dwi Cahyani Ratna Sari, Ginus Partadiredja
Monosodium glutamate-induced exitotoxicity causes oxidative stress in many brain areas, including the medial prefrontal cortex. The ethanolic garlic (Allium sativum) extract is considered as a neuroprotective substance. The present study aimed at investigating the effects of the ethanolic fermented garlic extract on the working memory and the pyramidal cell number of the medial prefrontal cortex of adolescent male Wistar rats exposed to monosodium glutamate (MSG). Twenty-five rats were randomly divided into five groups...
December 27, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278027/environmental-enrichment-improved-cognitive-deficits-more-in-peri-adolescent-than-in-adult-rats-after-postnatal-monosodium-glutamate-treatment
#14
S Madhavadas, S Subramanian, B M Kutty
Exposure to enriched environment (EE) is known to promote sensory, cognitive, and motor stimulation with intensified levels of novelty and complexity. In this study, we investigated the positive regulatory effect of short-term exposure to EE on establishing functional recovery in monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced obese rats. Unless treated, MSG rats exhibited peripheral insulin resistance, cognitive deficits, and a reduction in the total hippocampal volume with decreased neuron count in the DG, CA3, and CA1 subfields...
December 1, 2017: Physiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227690/effect-of-the-induction-of-transgenerational-obesity-on-maternal-fetal-parameters
#15
Thaigra Sousa Soares, Ana Paula Andreolla, Carolina Abreu Miranda, Eduardo Klöppel, Luhara Silva Rodrigues, Rafaianne Queiroz Moraes-Souza, Débora Cristina Damasceno, Gustavo Tadeu Volpato, Kleber Eduardo Campos
Maternal obesity can cause complications for both women and their offspring for generations. Therefore, we intended to verify the repercussions of induction of transgenerational obesity on biochemical parameters, reproductive performance, and congenital anomaly frequency in Wistar rats. Female rats were used from successive generations. The female rats of parental generation (F0, n=10) were mated to obtain their offspring (F1 generation). F1 female rats received a monosodium glutamate (MSG) solution to induce obesity (n=07) or vehicle (control, n=06) during the neonatal period...
December 11, 2017: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222887/relationship-between-umami-taste-acuity-with-sweet-or-bitter-taste-acuity-and-food-selection-in-japanese-women-university-students
#16
Masaru Kubota, Chikako Toda, Ayako Nagai-Moriyama
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although there are many studies on the umami receptor and its signaling pathway, literature on the effect of umami taste acuity on dietary choices in healthy subjects is limited. The current study aims to clarify the relationship between umami taste acuity with sweet or bitter taste acuity, food preference and intake. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Forty-two healthy Japanese female university students were enrolled. The acuity for umami, sweet, and bitter tastes was evaluated using the filter-paper disc method...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188030/monosodium-glutamate-as-a-tool-to-reduce-sodium-in-foodstuffs-technological-and-safety-aspects
#17
REVIEW
Hellen D B Maluly, Adriana P Arisseto-Bragotto, Felix G R Reyes
Sodium chloride (NaCl) is the most commonly used ingredient to provide salty taste to foods. However, excess sodium in the bloodstream has been associated with the development of several chronic noncommunicable diseases. In order to limit sodium intake to levels considered safe, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends for adults a daily intake of not more than 5 g of NaCl (less than 2 g of sodium). One of the strategic actions recommended by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) to reduce sodium intake is reformulation of processed foods...
November 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161056/de-novo-food-allergy-in-pediatric-liver-transplantation-recipients
#18
Ratchaneewan Sinitkul, Wiparat Manuyakorn, Wasu Kamchaisatian, Soamarat Vilaiyuk, Suwat Benjaponpitak, Chatmanee Lertudompholwanit, Suporn Treepongkaruna
BACKGROUND: Food allergy (FA) prevalence is increasing in pediatric liver transplantation (LT). However, the clinical course is still limited. OBJECTIVE: This retrospective cohort study aimed to identify the prevalence, risk factors, and the natural history of de novo FA in children post LT. METHODS: Medical records of pediatric LT recipients from Jan 2001 - Dec 2014 were reviewed. De novo FA was diagnosed by symptoms after exposure to culprit food occurring after LT, and improvement after diet elimination...
November 22, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134509/selection-of-an-effective-indicator-for-rapid-detection-of-microorganisms-producing-%C3%AE-polyglutamic-acid-and-its-biosynthesis-under-submerged-fermentation-conditions-using-bacillus-methylotrophicus
#19
Poonam Mishra Chatterjee, Silpi Datta, Deepika Pandey Tiwari, Ritu Raval, Ashok Kumar Dubey
γ-Polyglutamic acid (γ-PGA) is a biosynthetic outcome of glutamic acid polymerization by microbes. In the current study, we have isolated Bacillus methylotrophicus on solid differential media containing methylene blue. This is the first report mentioning the use of methylene blue to distinguish the monomeric and polymeric form of glutamic acid in the liquid medium using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Our method can simplify the analytical process of γ-PGA confirmation using the aforementioned studies. This screening protocol is sensitive to the detection of γ-PGA quantities as low as 3 μg/mL; thus, the potent producers can be effectively screened...
November 13, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127646/can-we-spice-up-our-christmas-dinner-busting-the-myth-of-the-chinese-restaurant-syndrome
#20
N W E van den Berg, J Neefs, W R Berger, S W E Baalman, E Meulendijks, M Kawasaki, E M Kemper, F R Piersma, M W Veldkamp, R Wesselink, S P J Krul, J R de Groot
BACKGROUND: Monosodium glutamate (MSG), also referred to as Vetsin or E621, is a flavour enhancer frequently used in Asian cuisine and abundantly present in the famous Chinese dish Peking duck. MSG is notorious for triggering the onset of the so-called 'Chinese restaurant syndrome' (CRS), a complex of unpleasant symptoms, which might include flushing, sweating and the onset of atrial fibrillation (AF). This study aims to determine the effects of MSG on the occurrence of AF. METHODS: We conducted a placebo self-controlled single-arm study in the Academic Medical Centre in Amsterdam...
December 2017: Netherlands Heart Journal
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