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Monosodium Glutamate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087338/auditory-hindbrain-atrophy-and-anomalous-calcium-binding-protein-expression-after-neonatal-exposure-to-monosodium-glutamate
#1
Lindsey Foran, Kaitlyn Blackburn, Randy J Kulesza
Glutamate is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and is stored and released by both neurons and astrocytes. Despite the important role of glutamate as a neurotransmitter, elevated extracellular glutamate can result in excitotoxicity and apoptosis. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a naturally occurring sodium salt of glutamic acid that is used as a flavor enhancer in many processed foods. Previous studies have shown that MSG administration during the early postnatal period results in neurodegenerative changes in several forebrain regions, characterized by neuronal loss and neuroendocrine abnormalities...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077281/does-acute-or-habitual-protein-deprivation-influence-liking-for-monosodium-glutamate
#2
Una Masic, Martin R Yeomans
The umami flavour generated by monosodium glutamate (MSG) has been proposed as the marker for the presence of protein in foods. As protein is the most closely regulated macronutrient in the diet, the present study addressed whether acute protein deprivation, habitual protein intake or a combination of the two influenced liking for the taste of MSG. 24 low-restraint male participants (mean age: 22; BMI: 23) consumed either their habitual breakfast (baseline), a low protein breakfast (breakfast meal with low protein milk and milkshake) or a high protein breakfast (breakfast meal with high protein milk and milkshake) on three different days, and then evaluated the acceptability of umami (MSG), salty (NaCl) or sweet (Acesulphame K) tastes at low or high concentrations in a soup context at lunchtime...
January 7, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058453/early-history-of-the-breeding-of-amino-acid-producing-strains
#3
Shigeru Nakamori
Amino acid production started in Japan in 1908 with the extraction of monosodium glutamate (MSG) from acid hydrolysates of proteins. In addition to extraction, other methods of amino acid production include chemical synthesis, fermentation, and enzymatic synthesis both for glutamic acid and other amino acids. In this chapter, we review the historical transition of these production methods; currently, fermentation is the chief production method of amino acids. All wild-type microorganisms possess a negative feedback control system (feedback inhibition and repression) on the enzymes within the amino acid biosynthetic pathways...
January 6, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055264/inos-inhibition-improves-autonomic-dysfunction-and-oxidative-status-in-hypertensive-obese-rats
#4
Natalia Veronez da Cunha, Fernanda Novi Cortegoso Lopes, Carolina Panis, Rubens Cecchini, Phileno Pinge-Filho, Marli Cardoso Martins-Pinge
It has been suggested that nitric oxide (NO) from iNOS source is involved in inflammation and oxidative stress, and hypertension in obese subjects involves an inflammatory process. However, no study evaluated the participation of iNOS inhibition on cardiovascular, autonomic, and inflammatory parameters in obese rats. Obesity was induced by the administration of 4 mg/g body weight of monosodium glutamate (MSG) or equimolar saline (CTR) in newborn rats. On the 60th day, treatment with aminoguanidine (Amino, 50 mg/kg), an iNOS inhibitor, or 0...
January 5, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040184/effect-of-osmotic-dehydration-of-olives-as-pre-fermentation-treatment-and-partial-substitution-of-sodium-chloride-by-monosodium-glutamate-in-the-fermentation-profile-of-kalamata-natural-black-olives
#5
Stamatoula Bonatsou, Vasilis Iliopoulos, Athanasios Mallouchos, Eleni Gogou, Vasiliki Oikonomopoulou, Magdalini Krokida, Petros Taoukis, Efstathios Z Panagou
This study examined the effect of osmotic dehydration of Kalamata natural black olives as pre-fermentation treatment in combination with partial substitution of NaCl by monosodium glutamate (MSG) on the fermentation profile of olives. Osmotic dehydration was undertaken by immersing the olives in 70% (w/w) glucose syrup overnight at room temperature. Further on, three different mixtures of NaCl and MSG with/without prior osmotic dehydration of olives were investigated, namely (i) 6.65% NaCl - 0.35% MSG (5% substitution), (ii) 6...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004032/histological-and-metabolic-state-of-dams-suckling-small-litter-or-msg-treated-pups
#6
Claudia Regina Capriglioni Cancian, Nayara Carvalho Leite, Elisangela Gueiber Montes, Stefani Valeria Fisher, Leticia Waselcoski, Emily Caroline Lopes Stal, Renata Zanardini Christoforo, Sabrina Grassiolli
Lactation is an important function that is dependent on changes in the maternal homeostasis and sustained by histological maternal adjustments. We evaluated how offspring manipulations during the lactational phase can modulate maternal morphologic aspects in the mammary gland, adipose tissue, and pancreatic islets of lactating dams. Two different models of litter-manipulation-during-lactation were used: litter sizes, small litters (SL) or normal litters (NL) and subcutaneous injections in the puppies of monosodium glutamate (MSG), or saline (CON)...
2016: TheScientificWorldJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995099/mislabelling-of-d%C3%A3-ner-kebab-sold-in-italy
#7
Gaetano Liuzzo, Roberto Rossi, Federica Giacometti, Silvia Piva, Andrea Serraino, Giulia Mescolini, Gianfranco Militerno
The aim of this study was to assess whether Döner kebabs sold in Italy comply with legal labelling requirements. A checklist of EU labelling requirements was drawn up and nine labels of Döner kebab marketed in the province of Modena were collected to evaluate the mandatory information laid down in article 9 of Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011 together with the mandatory requirements of Regulation (EC) 853/2004 for meat preparations. The study showed that different additives are commonly used in Döner kebabs, including E 621 (monosodium glutamate)...
September 20, 2016: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968878/dietary-patterns-and-risk-of-breast-cancer-in-chinese-women-a-population-based-case-control-study
#8
Shurong Lu, Xingyu Huang, Hao Yu, Jie Yang, Renqiang Han, Jian Su, Wencong Du, Jinyi Zhou, Xiaojin Yu, Ming Wu
BACKGROUND: The incidence rate of breast cancer has markedly increased in recent years in China, yet the association of breast cancer with dietary patterns such as a Chinese traditional diet has not been studied. We aimed to examine this association among women from the Jiangsu Province of China. METHODS: In this case-control study, we used the data from local population-based cancer registry agency to recruit newly diagnosed patients with primary breast cancer as cases...
October 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926796/novel-umami-ingredients-umami-peptides-and-their-taste
#9
REVIEW
Yin Zhang, Chandrasekar Venkitasamy, Zhongli Pan, Wenlong Liu, Liming Zhao
Umami substances are very important for food seasoning and healthy eating. In addition to monosodium glutamate and some nucleotides, recent investigations have revealed that several peptides also exhibit umami taste. In recent years, 52 peptides have been reported to show umami taste, including 24 dipeptides, 16 tripeptides, 5 octapeptides, 2 pentapeptides, 2 hexapeptides, 1 tetrapeptide, 1 heptapeptide, and 1 undecapeptide. Twenty of these peptides have been examined for the present of umami taste. In this review, we have listed these umami peptides based on their category, source, taste, and threshold concentration...
January 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918843/cucurbita-ficifolia-cucurbitaceae-modulates-inflammatory-cytokines-and-ifn-%C3%AE-in-obese-mice
#10
Á Fortis-Barrera, R García-Macedo, J C Almanza-Perez, G Blancas-Flores, A Zamilpa-Alvarez, J L Flores-Sáenz, M Cruz, R Román-Ramos, F J Alarcón-Aguilar
This study investigated the effect of aqueous extract of Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché on systemic chronic inflammation in an obesity model induced by monosodium glutamate (MSG) via modulating the expression of adipokines (TNF-α, IL-6, resistin, and adiponectin) and immune-regulatory cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-10). Cucurbita ficifolia extract was administered daily by gavage to lean and MSG-obese mice for 30 days. At the end of treatment, cytokine mRNA expression in adipose tissue was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the protein levels of these cytokines were also quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
September 19, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909736/discovery-and-history-of-amino-acid-fermentation
#11
Shin-Ichi Hashimoto
There has been a strong demand in Japan and East Asia for L-glutamic acid as a seasoning since monosodium glutamate was found to present umami taste in 1907. The discovery of glutamate fermentation by Corynebacterium glutamicum in 1956 enabled abundant and low-cost production of the amino acid, creating a large market. The discovery also prompted researchers to develop fermentative production processes for other L-amino acids, such as lysine. Currently, the amino acid fermentation industry is so huge that more than 5 million metric tons of amino acids are manufactured annually all over the world, and this number continues to grow...
December 2, 2016: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890806/the-endocrine-disrupting-potential-of-monosodium-glutamate-msg-on-secretion-of-the-glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-gut-hormone-and-glp-1-receptor-interaction
#12
Maeve Shannon, Brian Green, Gary Willars, Jodie Wilson, Natalie Matthews, Joanna Lamb, Anna Gillespie, Lisa Connolly
Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a suspected obesogen with epidemiological evidence positively correlating consumption to increased body mass index and higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome. ELISA and high content analysis (HCA) were employed to examine the disruptive effects of MSG on the secretion of enteroendocrine hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R), respectively. Following 3h MSG exposure of the enteroendocrine pGIP/neo: STC-1 cell line model (500μg/ml) significantly increased GLP-1 secretion (1...
January 4, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880963/enhanced-production-of-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-by-optimizing-culture-conditions-of-lactobacillus-brevis-hye1-isolated-from-kimchi-a-korean-fermented-food
#13
Hee Seon Lim, In-Tae Cha, Seong Woon Roh, Hae-Hun Shin, Myung-Ji Seo
This study evaluated the effects of culture conditions, including carbon and nitrogen sources, L-monosodium glutamate (MSG), and initial pH, on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production by Lactobacillus brevis HYE1 isolated from kimchi, a Korean traditional fermented food. L. brevis HYE1 was screened by the production analysis of GABA and genetic analysis of glutamate decarboxylase gene, resulting in 14.64 mM GABA after 48 h of cultivation in MRS media containing 1% (w/v) MSG. In order to increase GABA production by L...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872968/new-functions-and-potential-applications-of-amino-acids
#14
Hisayuki Uneyama, Hisamine Kobayashi, Naoto Tonouchi
Currently, several types of amino acids are being produced and used worldwide. Nevertheless, several new functions of amino acids have been recently discovered that could result in other applications. For example, oral stimulation by glutamate triggers the cephalic phase response to prepare for food digestion. Further, the stomach and intestines have specific glutamate-recognizing systems in their epithelial mucosa. Regarding clinical applications, addition of monosodium glutamate to the medicinal diet has been shown to markedly enhance gastric secretion in a vagus-dependent manner...
November 22, 2016: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832295/present-global-situation-of-amino-acids-in-industry
#15
Naoto Tonouchi, Hisao Ito
At present, amino acids are widely produced and utilized industrially. Initially, monosodium glutamate (MSG) was produced by extraction from a gluten hydrolysate. The amino acid industry started using the residual of the lysate. The discovery of the functions of amino acids has led to the expansion of their field of use. In addition to seasoning and other food use, amino acids are used in many fields such as animal nutrients, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. On the other hand, the invention of the glutamate fermentation process, followed by the development of fermentation methods for many other amino acids, is no less important...
November 11, 2016: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825986/intracerebroventricular-injection-of-ghrelin-decreases-wheel-running-activity-in-rats
#16
Yumiko Miyatake, Tetsuya Shiuchi, Kazuaki Mawatari, Satomi Toda, Yasuko Taniguchi, Akari Futami, Fukiko Sato, Masashi Kuroda, Mayu Sebe, Rie Tsutsumi, Nagakatsu Harada, Yasuhiko Minokoshi, Tadahiro Kitamura, Koro Gotoh, Masaki Ueno, Yutaka Nakaya, Hiroshi Sakaue
There is an increasing interest in elucidating the molecular mechanisms by which voluntary exercise is regulated. In this study, we examined how the central nervous system regulates exercise. We used SPORTS rats, which were established in our laboratory as a highly voluntary murine exercise model. SPORTS rats showed lower levels of serum ghrelin compared with those of the parental line of Wistar rats. Intracerebroventricular and intraperitoneal injection of ghrelin decreased wheel-running activity in SPORTS rats...
January 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794467/gaba-production-and-structure-of-gadb-gadc-genes-in-lactobacillus-and-bifidobacterium-strains-from-human-microbiota
#17
R A Yunes, E U Poluektova, M S Dyachkova, K M Klimina, A S Kovtun, O V Averina, V S Orlova, V N Danilenko
Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) is an active biogenic substance synthesized in plants, fungi, vertebrate animals and bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria are considered the main producers of GABA among bacteria. GABA-producing lactobacilli are isolated from food products such as cheese, yogurt, sourdough, etc. and are the source of bioactive properties assigned to those foods. The ability of human-derived lactobacilli and bifidobacteria to synthesize GABA remains poorly characterized. In this paper, we screened our collection of 135 human-derived Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains for their ability to produce GABA from its precursor monosodium glutamate...
December 2016: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777467/characterization-of-swiftlet-edible-bird-nest-a-mucin-glycoprotein-and-its-adulterants-by-raman-microspectroscopy
#18
Eric K S Shim, Gleen F Chandra, S Pedireddy, Soo-Y Lee
Edible bird's nest (EBN) is made from the glutinous salivary secretion of highly concentrated mucin glycoprotein by swiftlets (genus Aerodramus or Collocalia) native to the Indo-Pacific region. The unique Raman spectrum of EBN has vibrational lines that can be assigned to peptides and saccharides in the glycoprotein, and it can be used to screen for adulteration. The common edible adulterants classified into two types. Type I adulterants, such as fish bladder, pork skin, karaya gum, coralline seaweed, agar strips, and tremella fungus, were solids which adhered externally on the surface of the EBN cement...
September 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754020/chl-02-3-evidence-and-initiatives-in-the-dietary-salt-reduction-in-china
#19
Chao Chu, Yumeng Cao, Jianjun Mu
BACKGROUND: Salt reduction are crucial in the management of hypertension. Over the past few decades, Series of national activities and studies focusing on salt reduction and salt intake education were promoted by the Chinese government. However, the current status of dietary sodium and potassium intake of Chinese population is unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to analyze the status of dietary salt and potassium intake in the Chinese population through summarizing the previous studies from 1998 to 2011 and then propose appropriate initiatives...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741439/experimentally-induced-masseter-pain-changes-masseter-but-not-sternocleidomastoid-muscle-related-activity-during-mastication
#20
Fernanda Pasinato, Clarissa C Santos-Couto-Paz, Jorge Luis Lopes Zeredo, Sergio Bruzadelli Macedo, Eliane C R Corrêa
The aim of this study was to verify the effects of induced masseter-muscle pain on the amplitude of muscle activation, symmetry and coactivation of jaw- and neck-muscles during mastication. Twenty-eight male volunteers, mean age±SD 20.6±2.0years, participated in this study. Surface electromyography of the masseter and sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscles was performed bilaterally during mastication of a gummy candy before and after injections of monosodium glutamate solution and isotonic saline solution. As a result, we observed a decrease in the amplitude of activation of the masseter muscle on the working side (p=0...
December 2016: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
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