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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649467/monosodium-glutamate-ingestion-during-the-development-period-reduces-aggression-mediated-by-the-vagus-nerve-in-a-rat-model-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#1
Ruriko Nishigaki, Yoshihiro Yokoyama, Yuko Shimizu, Ryosuke Marumoto, Sachiyo Misumi, Yoshitomo Ueda, Akimasa Ishida, Yasuyuki Shibuya, Hideki Hida
We used an umami substance, monosodium glutamate (MSG), as a simple stimulant to clarify the mechanism of the formation of emotional behavior. A 60 mM MSG solution was fed to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), used as a model of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, from postnatal day 25 for 5 weeks kept in isolation. Emotional behaviors (anxiety and aggression) were then assessed by the open-field test, cylinder test and social interaction test. MSG ingestion during the developmental period resulted in a significant reduction in aggressive behavior but had few effects on anxiety-like behavior...
April 9, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644544/toxicity-of-flavor-enhancers-to-the-oriental-fruit-fly-bactrocera-dorsalis-hendel-diptera-tephritidae
#2
Chunyan Zheng, Dongyu Yang, Zhiqiang Li, Yijuan Xu
The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of flavor enhancers to the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). The flavor enhancers glycine, disodium guanylate, succinic acid disodium salt, monosodium glutamate (MSG), disodium inosinate, and L-alanine significantly increased the mortality of B. dorsalis flies. The mortality of flies that fed on glycine, disodium guanylate, succinic acid disodium salt, and MSG was greater than 90%. Additionally, fruit fly mortality increased with increases in both time and concentration...
April 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627936/invasive-fungal-infections-associated-with-prior-respiratory-viral-infections-in-immunocompromised-hosts
#3
Saira Ajmal, Maryam Mahmood, Omar Abu Saleh, Jenifer Larson, M Rizwan Sohail
BACKGROUND: Increased risk of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis after influenza infection has been reported; however data are limited. PURPOSE: To describe Invasive fungal infections (IFI) associated with preceding respiratory viral infection at a large referral center. METHODS: We reviewed all IFI cases among patients with positive influenza and/or RSV nasopharyngeal/lower respiratory tract PCR from October 2015 to December 2016. Cases of pulmonary IFI were classified as possible, probable, and definite based on EORTC-MSG definitions...
April 7, 2018: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625349/dietary-correlates-of-chronic-widespread-pain-in-meru-kenya
#4
Kathleen F Holton, Peter K Ndege, Daniel J Clauw
OBJECTIVE: To gather preliminary data examining whether dehydration and/or exposure to monosodium glutamate (MSG) may influence pain in Meru, Kenya. METHODS: Two small pilot studies were conducted in Meru, Kenya after community report of high chronic pain in the region. First, a prevalence estimate was conducted among 89 participants from random households. Second, widespread chronic pain participants, recruited from the community, completed a demographic questionnaire, pain impact questionnaire, and 1-wk food/symptom diary...
February 5, 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615900/peripheral-cb1-receptor-neutral-antagonist-am6545-ameliorates-hypometabolic-obesity-and-improves-adipokine-secretion-in-monosodium-glutamate-induced-obese-mice
#5
Haiming Ma, Guina Zhang, Chunrong Mou, Xiujuan Fu, Yadan Chen
Effect of peripheral cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) blockade by AM6545 in the monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced hypometabolic and hypothalamic obesity was observed, and the impact on intraperitoneal adipose tissue and adipokines was investigated. The MSG mice is characterized by excessive abdominal obesity, and combined with dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. 3-Week AM6545 treatment dose-dependently decreased the body weight, intraperitoneal fat mass, and rectified the accompanied dyslipidemia include elevated serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, free fatty acids, and lowered LDLc level...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615659/sex-based-differences-in-phagocyte-metabolic-profile-in-rats-with-monosodium-glutamate-induced-obesity
#6
Mariia P Rudyk, Valentyna V Pozur, Daryna O Voieikova, Yevheniia V Hurmach, Nataliia M Khranovska, Oksana V Skachkova, Vitalina M Svyatetska, Olexander G Fedorchuk, Larysa M Skivka, Tetiana V Berehova, Liudmyla I Ostapchenko
The important component of obesity pathogenesis is inflammatory activation of innate immune cells within adipose tissue and in other body locations. Both the course of obesity and innate immune reactivity are characterized by sex-associated differences. The aim of the work was a comparative investigation of metabolic profiles of phagocytes from different locations in male and female rats with MSG-induced obesity. The administration of monosodium glutamate (MSG) caused obesity, with sex-associated differences, that was more severe in male rats...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599485/neurocognitive-effects-of-umami-association-with-eating-behavior-and-food-choice
#7
Greta Magerowski, Gabrielle Giacona, Laura Patriarca, Konstantinos Papadopoulos, Paola Garza-Naveda, Joanna Radziejowska, Miguel Alonso-Alonso
Free glutamate, a key substance underlying the umami taste of foods, fulfills a number of physiological functions related to energy balance. Previous experimental studies have shown that intake of a broth or soup supplemented with monosodium glutamate (MSG) prior to a meal can decrease appetite and food intake, particularly in women with propensity to overeat and gain weight. In this study, we examined potential neurocognitive mechanisms underlying this effect. We evaluated changes after intake of a chicken broth with or without MSG added (MSG+/MSG-) in a sample of healthy young women...
March 30, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588172/short-term-perception-of-and-conditioned-taste-aversion-to-umami-taste-and-oral-expression-patterns-of-umami-taste-receptors-in-chickens
#8
Yuta Yoshida, Fuminori Kawabata, Yuko Kawabata, Shotaro Nishimura, Shoji Tabata
Umami taste is one of the five basic tastes (sweet, umami, bitter, sour, and salty), and is elicited by l-glutamate salts and 5'-ribonucleotides. In chickens, the elucidation of the umami taste sense is an important step in the production of new feedstuff for the animal industry. Although previous studies found that chickens show a preference for umami compounds in long-term behavioral tests, there are limitations to our understanding of the role of the umami taste sense in chicken oral tissues because the long-term tests partly reflected post-ingestive effects...
March 24, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580888/characterization-of-mouse-chorda-tympani-responses-evoked-by-stimulation-of-anterior-or-posterior-fungiform-taste-papillae
#9
Stuart A McCaughey
Different gustatory papilla types vary in their locations on the tongue. Distinctions have often made between types, but variation within fungiform papillae has seldom been explored. Here, regional differences in fungiform papillae were investigated by flowing solutions selectively over either an anterior fungiform (AF, tongue tip) or a posterior fungiform (PF, middle third) region as taste-evoked activity was measured in the chorda tympani nerve of C57BL/6J (B6) mice. Significantly larger responses were evoked by NaCl applied to the AF than PF region, and the ENaC blocker amiloride reduced the NaCl response size only for the former...
March 23, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580211/new-insight-into-the-mechanism-underlying-the-silk-gland-biological-process-by-knocking-out-fibroin-heavy-chain-in-the-silkworm
#10
Yong Cui, Yanan Zhu, Yongjian Lin, Lei Chen, Qili Feng, Wen Wang, Hui Xiang
BACKGROUND: Exploring whether and how mutation of silk protein contributes to subsequent re-allocation of nitrogen, and impacts on the timing of silk gland degradation, is important to understand silk gland biology. Rapid development and wide application of genome editing approach in the silkworm provide us an opportunity to address these issues. RESULTS: Using CRISPR/Cas9 system, we successfully performed genome editing of Bmfib-H. The loss-of-function mutations caused naked pupa and thin cocoon mutant phenotypes...
March 26, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574100/inhibitory-role-of-the-bm8-protein-in-the-propagation-of-bombyx-mori-nucleopolyhedrovirus
#11
Hiroyuki Hikida, Ryuhei Kokusho, Jun Kobayashi, Toru Shimada, Susumu Katsuma
Lepidopteran nucleopolyhedroviruses have distinct viral tissue tropisms in host larvae. We previously identified the Bm8 gene of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), the product of which inhibits viral propagation in the middle silk gland (MSG). However, it is unknown whether this inhibitory function of the Bm8 protein is specific to MSGs. Here we generated a Bm8-disrupted recombinant BmNPV expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) and examined viral propagation in B. mori cultured cells and larvae. We found that Bm8-disrupted BmNPV produced fewer budded viruses and more occlusion bodies (OBs) than the wild-type virus in both cultured cells and larvae...
March 21, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569854/il-25-axis-is-involved-in-the-pathogenesis-of-human-primary-and-experimental-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome
#12
Giuliana Guggino, Xiang Lin, Aroldo Rizzo, Fan Xiao, Laura Saieva, Stefania Raimondo, Diana Di Liberto, Giuseppina Candore, Piero Ruscitti, Paola Cipriani, Roberto Giacomelli, Francesco Dieli, Riccardo Alessandro, Giovanni Triolo, Liwei Lu, Francesco Ciccia
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of IL-25/IL-17RB axis in experimental Sjögren's syndrome (ESS) and in patients with primary Sjögren Syndrome (pSS) and pSS-associated lymphoma. METHODS: Expression of IL-25, IL-17RB, IL-17B and TRAF6 was analyzed on minor salivary glands (MSG) from pSS patients and on parotid glands from pSS-associated B cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). IL-17RB expression and the frequencies of natural type 2 innate lymphoid cells (nILC2), inflammatory ILC2 (iILC2) and M2-polarized macrophages were assessed by flow cytometry in salivary gland mononuclear cells (SGMC) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)...
March 23, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545123/mucormycosis-in-iran-a-six-year-retrospective-experience
#13
S Dolatabadi, B Ahmadi, A Rezaei-Matehkolaei, H Zarrinfar, A Skiada, H Mirhendi, R Nashibi, F Niknejad, M Nazeri, A Rafiei, M Gharaghani, M Erami, S Taghipour, F Piri, K Makimura
Mucormycosis is a devastating infection caused by Mucoralean fungi (Mucormycotina, Mucorales). Data concerning the global epidemiology of mucormycosis are scarce and little is known about the characteristics of mucormycosis in Iran. In this study, we aimed to understand the distribution of this infection in Iran retrospectively and to ascertain whether the patterns of infection are associated with specific host factors or not. A total of 208 cases were included in this study occurring during 2008-2014 and were validated according to (EORTC/MSG) criteria...
March 12, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526943/usefulness-of-aspergillus-galactomannan-antigen-testing-and-the-prediction-of-an-outbreak-during-hospital-reconstruction
#14
Hiroyasu Kaya, Jun Ozaki, Hirokazu Okumura
Objective This study retrospectively evaluated fungal dissemination due to hospital reconstruction and explored effective methods of predicting an outbreak. Methods Patients suspected of having invasive aspergillosis were tested for Aspergillus galactomannan antigen before and after reconstruction, and the mean values of three months of testing for positive patients were determined. The characteristics of patients with aspergillosis during this period were also assessed. Results Forty-five patients were positive for Aspergillus antigen (>0...
March 9, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522769/n-acetyl-l-cysteine-treatment-efficiently-prevented-pre-diabetes-and-inflamed-dysmetabolic-liver-development-in-hypothalamic-obese-rats
#15
Hernán Gonzalo Villagarcía, María Cecilia Castro, Luisa González Arbelaez, Guillermo Schinella, María Laura Massa, Eduardo Spinedi, Flavio Francini
AIM: Hypothalamic obese rats are characterized by pre-diabetes, dyslipidemia, hyperadiposity, inflammation and, liver dysmetabolism with oxidative stress (OS), among others. We studied endocrine-metabolic dysfunctions and, liver OS and inflammation in both monosodium l-glutamate (MSG)-neonatally damaged and control litter-mate (C) adult male rats, either chronically treated with N-Acetyl-l-Cysteine since weaned (C-NAC and MSG-NAC) or not. METHODOLOGY: We evaluated circulating TBARS, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, uric acid (UA) and, aspartate and alanine amino-transferase; insulin sensitivity markers (HOMA indexes, Liver Index of Insulin Sensitivity -LISI-) were calculated and liver steps of the insulin-signaling pathway were investigated...
March 6, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515987/clinical-and-pathological-correlation-in-pediatric-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#16
Nattachai Anantasit, Noramon Nuntacharruksa, Pimpin Incharoen, Aroonwan Preutthipan
Introduction: Invasive' pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) has been one of the major causes of mortality in immunocompromised patients. The gold standard method for a diagnosis of IPA is histopathological examination of the lung tissue; however, post-procedural bleeding limits the feasibility of lung biopsy. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) defined IPA...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510852/protective-role-of-co-administration-of-vitamin-d-in-monosodium-glutamate-induced-obesity-in-female-rats
#17
Padmanabha Nandan, Arun Kumar Nayanatara, Roopesh Poojary, K Bhagyalakshmi, M Nirupama, Rekha D Kini
PURPOSE: Obesity in females is an emerging health problem. The consumption of MSG has been considered as a risk factor for obesity. The tastemakers in Chinese and fast foods, such as fish sauce and soy sauce, contain very high levels of glutamate. The deficiency of Vitamin D is associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the effect of co-administration of Vitamin D on body weight control in MSG-induced obese rats. METHODS: Eighteen adult female Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups equally...
February 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471356/characterization-of-p57-a-stage-specific-antigen-of-pneumocystis-murina
#18
Lisa R Bishop, A Sally Davis, Kaitlynn Bradshaw, Monica Gamez, Ousmane H Cisse, Honghui Wang, Liang Ma, Joseph A Kovacs
Pneumocystis has a large multi-copy gene family encoding proteins related to the major surface glycoprotein (Msg) whose functions are largely unknown. We expressed one such protein of P. murina, p57, that is encoded by 3 highly conserved genes, and demonstrated by immunoblot that immunocompetent mice immunized with crude Pneumocystis antigens or that had cleared Pneumocystis infection developed antibodies to p57. Using hyper-immune anti-p57 serum combined with immunolabeling, we found that small trophic forms as well as intracystic bodies expressed p57, while it was not expressed on larger trophic forms or externally by cysts...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471112/evaluation-of-two-commercial-real-time-pcr-kits-a-fumigatus-%C3%A2-bio-evolution-and-mycogenie-%C3%A2-a-fumigatus-for-aspergillus-dna-detection-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-in-patients-with-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#19
Julie Denis, Faezeh Forouzanfar, Raoul Herbrecht, Elise Toussaint, Romain Kessler, Marcela Sabou, Ermanno Candolfi, Valérie Letsher-Bru
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a common complication of immunosuppression. Rapid diagnosis using molecular techniques is essential to improve patient survival. PCR techniques are promising in enhancing Aspergillus detection in blood and respiratory samples. Here, we evaluate for the first time the performances of two commercial Real-Time PCR kits, the A. fumigatus® Bio-Evolution and the MycoGENIE® A. fumigatus for the detection of A. fumigatus DNA in broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) from patients with and without IPA...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463544/gene-expression-of-pneumocystis-murina-after-treatment-with-anidulafungin-results-in-strong-signals-for-sexual-reproduction-cell-wall-integrity-and-cell-cycle-arrest-indicating-a-requirement-for-asci-formation-for-proliferation
#20
Melanie T Cushion, Alan Ashbaugh, Keeley Hendrix, Michael J Linke, Nikeya Tisdale, Steven G Sayson, Aleksey Porollo
The echinocandins are a class of anti-fungal agents that target β-1,3-D-glucan (BG) biosynthesis. In the ascigerous Pneumocystis species, treatment with these drugs deplete the asci life cycle stage which contain BG, but large numbers of forms which do not express BG remain in the infected lungs. In the present study, the gene expression profiles of Pneumocystis murina were compared between infected untreated mice and those treated with anidulafungin for 2 weeks to understand the metabolism of the persisting forms...
February 20, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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