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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027308/animal-models-for-analyzing-metabolic-syndrome-associated-liver-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Koichi Tsuneyama, Kazuchika Nishitsuji, Minoru Matsumoto, Tomoko Kobayashi, Yuki Morimoto, Takaaki Tsunematsu, Hirohisa Ogawa
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a worldwide healthcare issue and a dominant risk factor for the development of incurable diseases affecting the entire body. The hepatic manifestations of MS include nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its progressive variant, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH is known to progress to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Excellent animal models for determining the mechanism of pathogenesis and establishing therapeutic treatment of NASH/HCC are strongly required worldwide...
October 12, 2017: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022648/probiotics-for-experimental-obesity-prevention-focus-on-strain-dependence-and-viability-of-composition
#2
Nazarii Kobyliak, Tetyana Falalyeyeva, Tetyana Beregova, Mykola Spivak
INTRODUCTION: a comparative animal study of the efficacy of intermittent short-course administration of lyophilised single-, three-, and live multistrain probiotic on obesity. METHODS: We included 70 rats divided into seven groups (n = 10 in each). Rats of group I were intact. Newborn rats of groups II-VII were injected with monosodium glutamate (MSG) (4 mg/g). Rats of group II (MSG-obesity group) were untreated. The group III-V received lyophilised monoprobiotics B...
October 12, 2017: Endokrynologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020284/performance-of-targeted-fungal-sequencing-for-culture-independent-diagnosis-of-invasive-fungal-disease
#3
Carlos A Gomez, Indre Budvytiene, Allison J Zemek, Niaz Banaei
Background: Identification of fungi causing invasive fungal disease (IFD) is critical for guiding antifungal therapy. We describe the performance and clinical impact of a targeted panfungal PCR amplicon sequencing assay for culture-independent diagnosis of IFD. Methods: Between January 2009 and September 2016, 233 specimens, consisting of fresh and formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues, and sterile body fluids with known diagnosis of IFD based on reference method results (n=117), and specimens with negative fungal culture, but with microscopic and ancillary findings indicative of IFD (n=116), were included...
August 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019097/efficacy-of-conventional-and-liposomal-povidone-iodine-in-infected-mesh-skin-grafts-an-exploratory-study
#4
Peter M Vogt, Joerg Hauser, Stefan Mueller, Bjoern Bosse, Michael Hopp
INTRODUCTION: Infection is a major threat to wound healing and a leading cause of graft loss in patients undergoing meshed skin grafts (MSGs). Therefore, topical antisepsis is important in the overall treatment scheme. METHODS: An exploratory satellite group of 14 patients with infected MSGs were enrolled as part of a prospective, randomized, controlled, parallel-group, open-label, pilot Phase II study that investigated the efficacy and tolerability of 3% liposomal povidone-iodine hydrogel (PVP-ILH, Repithel(®); RepiGel(®)) versus chlorhexidine gauze in non-infected MSGs...
October 10, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993739/increased-subjective-distaste-and-altered-insula-activity-to-umami-tastant-in-patients-with-bulimia-nervosa
#5
Rikukage Setsu, Yoshiyuki Hirano, Miki Tokunaga, Toru Takahashi, Noriko Numata, Koji Matsumoto, Yoshitada Masuda, Daisuke Matsuzawa, Masaomi Iyo, Eiji Shimizu, Michiko Nakazato
The aim of this study was to examine differences in brain neural activation in response to monosodium glutamate (MSG), the representative component of umami, between patients with bulimia nervosa (BN) and healthy women (HW) controls. We analyzed brain activity after ingestion of an MSG solution using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a group of women with BN (n = 18) and a group of HW participants (n = 18). Both groups also provided a subjective assessment of the MSG solution via a numerical rating scale...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989843/a-novel-lumbar-motion-segment-classification-to-predict-changes-in-segmental-sagittal-alignment-after-lateral-interbody-fixation
#6
Frank L Acosta, Vivek A Mehta, Anush Arakelyan, Doniel Drazin, Clarissa Cortland, Patrick C Hsieh, John C Liu, Martin H Pham
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. OBJECTIVES: Lateral interbody fixation is being increasingly used for the correction of segmental sagittal parameters. One factor that affects postoperative correction is the resistance afforded by posterior hypertrophic facet joints in the degenerative lumbar spine. In this article, we describe a novel preoperative motion segment classification system to predict postoperative correction of segmental sagittal alignment after lateral lumbar interbody fusion...
October 2017: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966482/comparative-evaluation-of-galactomannan-test-with-bronchoalveolar-lavage-and-serum-for-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-aspergillosis-in-patients-with-hematological-malignancies
#7
Ankit Gupta, Malini R Capoor, Trupti Shende, Bhawna Sharma, Ritin Mohindra, Jagdish Chander Suri, Dipender Kumar Gupta
INTRODUCTION: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with hematological malignancies. In recent years, testing for values of galactomannan (GM) in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid has been investigated as a diagnostic test for IPA for such patients, but global experience and consensus on optical density (OD) cutoffs, especially for BAL galactomannan remains lacking. METHODS: We performed a prospective case-control study to determine an optimal BAL GM OD cutoff for IPA in at-risk patients...
October 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956459/empirical-antifungal-treatment-for-diagnosed-and-undiagnosed-invasive-fungal-disease-in-patients-with-hematologic-malignancies
#8
Qi Deng, Hai-Rong Lv, Xue-Mei Lin, Ming-Feng Zhao, Li Geng, Yu-Ming Li
BACKGROUND: Empirical antifungal therapy is effective in some patients with risk factors for invasive fungal disease (IFD) who do not qualify for the EORTC/MSG criteria for IFD, but who fail to respond to anti-bacterial and anti-viral therapy. OBJECTIVE: This retrospective single-center study investigated the epidemiology of IFD and empirical antifungal therapy in patients with hematological malignancies. METHODS: This study recruited 893 patients with hematologic malignancies who had failed to respond to anti-bacterial and anti-viral treatment and received antifungal therapy, but not for antifungal prophylaxis...
September 28, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955956/modeling-molecular-docking-probing-catalytic-binding-mode-of-acetyl-coa-malate-synthase-g-in-brucella-melitensis-16m
#9
Pradeepkiran Jangampalli Adi, Nanda Kumar Yellapu, Bhaskar Matcha
There are enormous evidences and previous reports standpoint that the enzyme of glyoxylate pathway malate synthase G (MSG) is a potential virulence factor in several pathogenic organisms, including Brucella melitensis 16M. Where the lack of crystal structures for best candidate proteins like MSG of B. melitensis 16M creates big lacuna to understand the molecular pathogenesis of brucellosis. In the present study, we have constructed a 3-D structure of MSG of Brucella melitensis 16M in MODELLER with the help of crystal structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis malate synthase (PDB ID: 2GQ3) as template...
December 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954212/changes-in-the-expression-level-of-mapk-pathway-components-induced-by-monosodium-glutamate-administration-produce-neuronal-death-in-the-hippocampus-from-neonatal-rats
#10
Martha Catalina Rivera-Carvantes, José Jaime Jarero-Basulto, Alfredo Ignacio Feria-Velasco, Carlos Beas-Zárate, Mónica Navarro-Meza, Mariana Berenice González-López, Graciela Gudiño-Cabrera, Julio Cesar García-Rodríguez
Excessive Glutamate (Glu) release may trigger excitotoxic cellular death by the activation of intracellular signaling pathways that transduce extracellular signals to the cell nucleus, which determines the onset of a death program. One such signaling pathway is the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), which is involved in both survival and cell death. Experimental evidences from the use of specific inhibitors supports the participation of some MAPK pathway components in the excitotoxicity mechanism, but the complete process of this activation, which terminates in cell damage and death, is not clearly understood...
September 24, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945326/reliable-differentiation-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia-from-pneumocystis-colonization-by-quantification-of-major-surface-glycoprotein-gene-using-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction
#11
Shivaprakash M Rudramurthy, Megha Sharma, Madhubala Sharma, Pankaj Rawat, Anup Ghosh, V Lakshmishree, Ritesh Aggarwal, Meenu Singh, Arunaloke Chakrabarti
BACKGROUND: A clear differentiation between pneumonia due to Pneumocystis jirovecii and 'colonization' is required for optimal case management. OBJECTIVE: A quantification of fungal burden using major surface glycoprotein (MSG) gene-based real-time PCR was undertaken for the same. METHODS: Lower respiratory tract samples collected from 104 patients of clinically suspected Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) were subjected to quantitative PCR using MSG gene...
September 25, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943112/update-on-food-safety-of-monosodium-l-glutamate-msg
#12
REVIEW
Helen Nonye Henry-Unaeze
OBJECTIVE: This evidence-based safety review of the flavor enhancer monosodium l-glutamate (MSG) was triggered by its global use and recent studies expressing some safety concerns. METHODOLOGY: This article obtained information through search of evidence-based scientific databases, especially the US National Library of Medicine NIH. RESULTS: (A) MSG is a water-soluble salt of glutamate, a non-essential amino acid, normally synthesized in the body and prevalent in protein foods...
September 18, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919347/invasive-mold-infections-of-the-central-nervous-system-in-patients-with-hematologic-cancer-or-stem-cell-transplantation-2000-2016-uncommon-with-improved-survival-but-still-deadly-often
#13
Minas P Economides, Leomar Y Ballester, Vinodh A Kumar, Ying Jiang, Jeffrey Tarrand, Victor Prieto, Harrys A Torres, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis
BACKGROUND: Historically considered to have very poor outcome, there is paucity of recent data regarding invasive mold infections (IMIs) of the central nervous system (CNS) in patients with hematologic cancer (HC) or stem cell transplantation (SCT). METHODS: We reviewed the records of HC patients and/or SCT recipients who were diagnosed with CNS IMIs (EORTC/MSG criteria) at MD Anderson Cancer Center (1/1/2000-6/31/2016). Risk factors for survival at day (d) 42 post diagnosis were assessed...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918254/permissive-role-for-mglu1-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-in-excitotoxic-retinal-degeneration
#14
Francesca Liberatore, Domenico Bucci, Giada Mascio, Michele Madonna, Paola Di Pietro, Martina Beneventano, Alda Maria Puliti, Giuseppe Battaglia, Valeria Bruno, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Maria Rosaria Romano
Neuroprotection is an unmet need in eye disorders characterized by retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death, such as prematurity-induced retinal degeneration, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration. In all these disorders excitotoxicity is a prominent component of neuronal damage, but clinical data discourage the development of NMDA receptor antagonists as neuroprotectants. Here, we show that activation of mGlu1 metabotropic glutamate receptors largely contributes to excitotoxic degeneration of RGCs. Mice at postnatal day 9 were challenged with a toxic dose of monosodium glutamate (MSG, 3g/kg), which caused the death of >70% of Brn-3a(+) RGCs...
November 5, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918159/identification-of-circular-rna-in-the-bombyx-mori-silk-gland
#15
Huaiyan Gan, Tieshan Feng, Yuqian Wu, Chun Liu, Qingyou Xia, Tingcai Cheng
Bombyx mori is an economically important holometabolous lepidopteran insect. In B. mori endogenous noncoding RNAs such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs play crucial biological functions in metamorphosis and sex determination. In addition, circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been recently identified as noncoding RNAs in most common model organisms and show potential as gene regulators. However, to date, there have been few studies on the circRNAs present in the B. mori genome conducted to date. Here, we identified 3916 circRNAs by deep circular transcriptome sequencing using the silk gland of B...
September 14, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912088/sip-and-spit-or-sip-and-swallow-choice-of-method-differentially-alters-taste-intensity-estimates-across-stimuli
#16
Cordelia A Running, John E Hayes
While the myth of the tongue map has been consistently and repeatedly debunked in controlled studies, evidence for regional differences in suprathreshold intensity has been noted by multiple research groups. Given differences in physiology between the anterior and posterior tongue (fungiform versus foliate and circumvallate papillae) and differences in total area stimulated (anterior only versus whole tongue, pharynx, and epiglottis), small methodological changes (sip and spit versus sip and swallow) have the potential to substantially influence data...
November 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892151/the-genetic-breakdown-of-sporophytic-self-incompatibility-in-tolpis-coronopifolia-asteraceae
#17
Boryana Koseva, Daniel J Crawford, Keely E Brown, Mark E Mort, John K Kelly
Angiosperm diversity has been shaped by mating system evolution, with the most common transition from outcrossing to self-fertilizing. To investigate the genetic basis of this transition, we performed crosses between two species endemic to the Canary Islands, the self-compatible (SC) species Tolpis coronopifolia and its self-incompatible (SI) relative Tolpis santosii. We scored self-compatibility as self-seed set of recombinant plants within two F2 populations. To map and genetically characterize the breakdown of SI, we built a draft genome sequence of T...
September 11, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886250/dectin-2-is-a-c-type-lectin-receptor-that-recognizes-pneumocystis-and-participates-in-innate-immune-responses
#18
Theodore J Kottom, Deanne M Hebrink, Paige E Jenson, Paige L Marsolek, Marcel Wüthrich, Huafeng Wang, Bruce Klein, Sho Yamasaki, Andrew H Limper
Pneumocystis remains an important fungal pathogen causing life-threatening pneumonia in patients with AIDS and malignancy. Lung fungal pathogens are recognized by C-type Lectin Receptors (CLRs), which bind specific ligands and stimulate innate immune responses. Previously, a role for the CLR Dectin-1 has been shown to mediate immune responses to Pneumocystis spp. For this reason, we investigated a potential role for Dectin-2. Rats with Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) exhibited elevated Dectin-2 mRNA levels. Soluble Dectin-2 CRD fusions protein showed binding to intact Pneumocystis carinii (Pc) and to native Pneumocystis major surface glycoprotein/glycoprotein A (Msg/gpA)...
September 8, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870728/clinical-use-of-fungal-pcr-from-deep-tissue-samples-in-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-fungal-diseases-a-retrospective-observational-study
#19
Mari Ala-Houhala, Pirkko Koukila-Kähkölä, Jenni Antikainen, Jaana Valve, Juha Kirveskari, Veli-Jukka Anttila
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the clinical use of panfungal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for diagnosis of invasive fungal diseases (IFDs). We focused on the deep tissue samples. METHODS: We first described the design of panfungal PCR, which is in clinical use at Helsinki University Hospital. Secondly, we retrospectively evaluated the results of 307 fungal PCR tests performed from 2013-2015. Samples were taken from normally sterile tissues and fluids. The patient population was non-selected...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847084/choline-chloride-chcl-and-monosodium-glutamate-msg-based-green-solvents-from-optimized-cactus-malic-acid-for-biomass-delignification
#20
Chung Loong Yiin, Armando T Quitain, Suzana Yusup, Yoshimitsu Uemura, Mitsuru Sasaki, Tetsuya Kida
This work aimed to develop an efficient microwave-hydrothermal (MH) extraction of malic acid from abundant natural cactus as hydrogen bond donor (HBD) whereby the concentration was optimized using response surface methodology. The ideal process conditions were found to be at a solvent-to-feed ratio of 0.008, 120°C and 20min with 1.0g of oxidant, H2O2. Next generation environment-friendly solvents, low transition temperature mixtures (LTTMs) were synthesized from cactus malic acid with choline chloride (ChCl) and monosodium glutamate (MSG) as hydrogen bond acceptors (HBAs)...
November 2017: Bioresource Technology
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