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Alemnesh H Mirkuzie
About 40% of the new HIV infections in Ethiopia are among children < 15 years of age. The great majority of these infections occur through Mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT). For prevention of MTCT, the national guidelines has been revised to incorporate scientific advances in HIV prevention, treatment and care. Since 2005, the country has been implementing a peer mentor programme called Mother Support Group (MSG), which provides psychosocial and adherence support for HIV positive mothers. This study examined implementation of PMTCT guidelines revisions and outcomes of HIV exposed babies in the MSG in Addis Ababa...
2018: PloS One
Elisabeth Wehrle-Wieland, Kristina Affolter, Daniel Goldenberger, Sarah Tschudin Sutter, Joerg Halter, Jakob Passweg, Michael Tamm, Nina Khanna, Daiana Stolz
BACKGROUND: Accurate diagnosis of invasive mold diseases (IMD) remains challenging. Here, the performance of panfungal PCR, Aspergillus and Mucorales PCR in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was evaluated. METHODS: We conducted a single-center study including 167 hematologic patients at risk for IMD with BAL performed 2011-2014. Diagnostic performance of single tests (Aspergillus-, Mucorales-and panfungal PCR, galactomannan (GM)≥0.5 and ≥1, culture/cytology) or in combination was calculated for predicting IMD comparing proven/probable or proven/probable/possible IMD versus no IMD, respectively...
June 13, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Kejin Zhuang, Yujun Jiang, Xiaohan Feng, Li Li, Fangfang Dang, Wei Zhang, Chaoxin Man
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter found in the central nervous system of mammals. A range of bacterial species can synthesize GABA, including Lactobacillus plantarum of which L-monosodium glutamate (L-MSG) is an inducer of its production. In order to synthesize GABA in high concentrations, L-MSG was utilized as the single inducing factor, a chemically defined medium (CDM) was used as the fermentation substrate, with L. plantarum CGMCC 1.2437T cultured in medium supplemented with or without L-MSG...
2018: PloS One
Luis Delaye, Susana Ruiz-Ruiz, Enrique Calderon, Sonia Tarazona, Ana Conesa, Andrés Moya
Pneumocystis species are ascomycete fungi adapted to live inside the lungs of mammals. These ascomycetes show extensive stenoxenism, meaning that each species of Pneumocystis infects a single species of host. Here we study the effect exerted by natural selection on gene evolution in the genomes of three Pneumocystis species.We show that genes involved in host interaction evolve under positive selection. In the first place, we found strong evidence of episodic diversifying selection in Major surface glycoproteins (Msg)...
June 11, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Yusuf Nazir, Shuwahida Shuib, Mohd Sahaid Kalil, Yuanda Song, Aidil Abdul Hamid
In this study, optimization of growth, lipid and DHA production of Aurantiochytrium SW1 was carried out using response surface methodology (RSM) in optimizing initial fructose concentration, agitation speed and monosodium glutamate (MSG) concentration. Central composite design was applied as the experimental design and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the data. ANOVA analysis revealed that the process which adequately represented by quadratic model was significant (p < 0.0001) for all the response...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Wei Xiao, De-Ying Gong, Bing Mao, Xin-Miao Du, Lin-Li Cai, Min-Yu Wang, Juan-Juan Fu
BACKGROUND: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) has been increasingly reported in patients with underlying respiratory diseases (URD). Early diagnosis of IPA is crucial for mortality reduction and improved prognosis, yet remains difficult. Existing diagnostic tools for IPA largely rely on the detection of biomarkers based on serum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), both of which have their limitations. The use of sputum sample is non-invasive, and Aspergillus detection is feasible; however, the usefulness of sputum biomarkers for the diagnosis of IPA, especially in patients with URD, has not been systematically studied...
June 11, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Toni D Withiel, Vanessa L Sharp, Dana Wong, Jennie L Ponsford, Narelle Warren, Renerus J Stolwyk
Memory impairment is common following stroke. Memory skills groups (MSGs) utilising compensatory strategies and computerised cognitive training (CCT) are two rehabilitation approaches available to improve memory function; however, there is no consensus as to which is more effective following stroke. This study aimed to explore and contrast the qualitative experiences of 20 stroke survivors (Mage  = 61.90, SD = 10.48, range: 34-77 years) who received six weeks' training in MSG (manualised memory skills group, n = 10) or individual-CCT (LumosityTM , n = 10)...
June 11, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Li Jin, Lin Li, Guo-Yong Li, Sha Liu, Dan-Ju Luo, Qiong Feng, Dong-Sheng Sun, Wei Wang, Jian-Yun Liu, Qun Wang, Dan Ke, Xi-Fei Yang, Gong-Ping Liu
Epidemiological surveys show that 70-80% of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or show an abnormality of blood glucose levels. Therefore, an increasing number of evidence has suggested that diabetic hyperglycemia is tightly linked with the pathogenesis and progression of AD. In the present study, we replicated T2DM animal model via subcutaneous injection of newborn Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with monosodium glutamate (MSG) during the neonatal period to investigate the effects and underlying mechanisms of hyperglycemia on cognitive ability...
June 6, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Monica Sassi, Geetha Kutty, Gabriela A Ferreyra, Lisa R Bishop, Yueqin Liu, Ju Qiu, Da Wei Huang, Joseph A Kovacs
The major surface glycoprotein (Msg) is the most abundant surface protein of Pneumocystis species. Given that Msg is present on both the cyst and trophic form of Pneumocystis, and dendritic cells play a critical role in initiating host immune responses, we undertook studies to examine activation of bone marrow-derived myeloid dendritic cells by Msg purified from P. murina. Incubation of dendritic cells with Msg did not lead to increased expression of CD40, CD80, CD86, or MHCII, or increased secretion of any of 10 cytokines...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Anne-Pauline Bellanger, Houssein Gbaguidi-Haore, Natacha Tatoyan, Ana Berceanu, Emeline Scherer, Laurence Millon
Galactomannan antigen (GM) testing has been used for decades to screen immunocompromised patients for invasive aspergillosis (IA). Recent publications suggested that using a higher cut-off value than 0.5 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) could be more discriminant for hematology patients. We retrospectively analyzed the values of GM in BALF over 7 years (from 2010 to 2016). Performance indicators of the GM in BALF, according to three different cut-off values (0.5, 0.8, 1.5), were calculated using Stata 14...
May 30, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Corinna A Noel, Graham Finlayson, Robin Dando
Background: Research suggests that increased consumption of sweet, salt, or fat is associated with diminished perceived taste intensity and shifted preferences for the respective stimulus. It is unknown whether a similar effect occurs with the consumption of umami. Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of habitual exposure to umami stimuli on umami taste perception, hedonics, and satiety. Methods: Fifty-eight healthy men (n = 16) and women (n = 42) participated in a parallel-group, randomized controlled study...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Suzan Gonçalves Rosa, Pietro Maria Chagas, Ana Paula Pesarico, Cristina Wayne Nogueira
Monosodium glutamate (MSG), a food flavor enhancer used worldwide, has been studied because it may cause neurotoxicity, which is associated with oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate whether spinal cord and brain regions are affected by oxidative stress and the temporal profile of nociceptive responses induced by MSG in newborn and adult rats. The newborn (post natal day, PND 1) Wistar rats received ten subcutaneous injections of MSG (4.0 g/kg) or saline solution. At PND 3, 11 or 90, the rats performed nociceptive tests and parameters of oxidative stress were evaluated in samples of spinal cord and brain regions...
May 18, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Efstathia K Kapsogeorgou, Aristea Papageorgiou, Athanase D Protogerou, Michael Voulgarelis, Athanasios G Tzioufas
OBJECTIVES: Development of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is the major adverse outcome of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) affecting both morbidity and mortality. Preliminary evidence suggested that, although not deregulated compared with sicca controls, miR200b-5p levels are decreased in the minor salivary glands (MSGs) of SS patients with NHL. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the MSG expression of miR200b-5p in SS-associated NHLs and its potential predictive value for the identification of patients with SS susceptible to develop NHL...
May 19, 2018: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Kaja Saikrishna, Ringu Kumari, Kantamaneni Chaitanya, Subhankar Biswas, Pawan G Nayak, Jayesh Mudgal, Anoop Kishore, Krishnadas Nandakumar
In this study, we aimed to develop an experimental animal model for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using a combination of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and high sucrose diet (HSD). Young male Wistar rats (20-30 g) were injected with MSG (2 or 4 mg/g, i.p. for 4 days). These rats were also fed an HSD, while the control group was fed a starch diet (SFD) for 150 days. Parameters assessed periodically were body weight, feed intake, blood glucose level, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), lipid profile, liver and kidney function tests, skeletal muscle glucose uptake, cognitive function tests, and microvascular changes using isolated rat aorta...
2018: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
N Kobyliak, T Falalyeyeva, N Boyko, O Tsyryuk, T Beregova, L Ostapchenko
INTRODUCTION: The beneficial interaction between the microbiota and humans is how bacteria contained within the gut 'talk' to the immune system and in this landscape, probiotics and nutraceuticals play a major role. The study aims to determine whether probiotics plus nutraceuticals such as smectite or omega-3 are superior to probiotic alone on the monosodium glutamate (MSG) induced obesity model in rats. METHODS: Totally, 75 rats divided into five groups were included (n = 15, in each)...
May 22, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Anna Zink Eikeland, Marian Stingaciu, Aref Hasen Mamakhel, Matilde Saura-Múzquiz, Mogens Christensen
Nanocrystallites of the permanent magnetic material SrFe12 O19 were synthesised using a conventional sol-gel (CSG) and a modified sol-gel (MSG) synthesis route. In the MSG synthesis, crystallite growth takes place in a solid NaCl matrix, resulting in freestanding nanocrystallites, as opposed to the CSG synthesis, where the produced nanocrystals are strongly intergrown. The resulting nanocrystallites from both methods exhibit similar intrinsic magnetic properties, but significantly different morphology and degree of aggregation...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Caroline B Quines, Suzan G Rosa, Daniela Velasquez, Vinicius C Prado, José S S Neto, Cristina W Nogueira
Obesity is a chronic and complex medical condition characterized by excessive fat accumulation and its complications include metabolic syndrome, diabetes and chronic inflammation. The aim of this study was to expand the knowledge about p-chloro-diphenyl diselenide (p-ClPhSe)2 effects on enzymes and proteins involved in the metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates in a model of neuroendocrine obesity induced by MSG. Male Wistar rats were treated during the first ten postnatal days with MSG (4 g/kg, s.c.) and received (p-ClPhSe)2 (10 mg/kg, i...
May 5, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Jin Deng, Si-Ying Wu, Ya Liu, Ying Ma, Yi Xie, Zhi-Xing Chen, Zhong-Qiu Dai, Jie-Lun Deng, Mei Kang
OBJECTIVE: To determine the value of galactomannan (GM) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) for diagnosing invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. METHODS: According to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer / Invasive Fungal Infection Group (EORTC / IFICG) and the American Mycosis Research Group (MSG),and the American College of Infectious Diseases (IDSA) guidelines,295 patients with pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) and high risk of invasive infections were divided into four groups: IPA group (42 cases),clinically diagnosed group (68 cases),suspected group (61 cases),and non-IPA group (124 cases)...
January 2018: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
Zilin Yu, Hongrui Jiang, Rongcan Guo, Bo Yang, Gang You, Mouming Zhao, Xiaoling Liu
Four umami peptides were separated and purified by ultrafiltration, gel filtration chromatography and identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), the amino acid sequences of four peptides are Val-Pro-Tyr (VPY), Thr-Ala-Tyr (TAY), Ala-Ala-Pro-Tyr (AAPY) and Gly-Phe-Pro (GFP). The result illustrates that the umami amino acids are not the content of umami peptides, but bitter amino acids are included. The threshold of VPY, TAY, AAPY and GFP were 1.65 mmol/L, 1...
June 2018: Food Research International
R J van de Peppel, L G Visser, O M Dekkers, M G J de Boer
INTRODUCTION: Successful treatment of haematological malignancies is frequently complicated by invasive aspergillosis (IA), a life-threatening fungal infection that occurs in at least 10% of haematooncological patients. Case fatality rates (CFR) may fluctuate over time, depending on host pathogen interactions as well as on treatment and quality of patient care. We conducted a systematic review and metaanalysis of current - i.e. 2008-revised EORTC-MSG criteria era - incidence and case fatality rates (CFR) of IA in patients with haematological malignancy...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Infection
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