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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538729/cryo-em-structure-of-the-activated-glp-1-receptor-in-complex-with-a-g-protein
#1
Yan Zhang, Bingfa Sun, Dan Feng, Hongli Hu, Matthew Chu, Qianhui Qu, Jeffrey T Tarrasch, Shane Li, Tong Sun Kobilka, Brian K Kobilka, Georgios Skiniotis
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a hormone with essential roles in regulating insulin secretion, carbohydrate metabolism and appetite. GLP-1 effects are mediated through binding to the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R), a class B G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that signals primarily through the stimulatory G protein Gs. Class B GPCRs are important therapeutic targets; however, our understanding of their mechanism of action is limited by the lack of structural information on activated and full-length receptors. Here we report the cryo-electron microscopy structure of the peptide-activated GLP-1R-Gs complex at near atomic resolution...
May 24, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538145/nmr-analysis-of-amide-hydrogen-exchange-rates-in-a-pentapeptide-repeat-protein-from-a-%C3%A2-thaliana
#2
Shenyuan Xu, Shuisong Ni, Michael A Kennedy
At2g44920 from Arabidopsis thaliana is a pentapeptide-repeat protein (PRP) composed of 25 repeats capped by N- and C-terminal α-helices. PRP structures are dominated by four-sided right-handed β-helices typically consisting of mixtures of type II and type IV β-turns. PRPs adopt repeated five-residue (Rfr) folds with an Rfr consensus sequence (STAV)(D/N)(L/F)(S/T/R)(X). Unlike other PRPs, At2g44920 consists exclusively of type II β-turns. At2g44920 is predicted to be located in the thylakoid lumen although its biochemical function remains unknown...
May 23, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538101/chemical-endgroup-modified-diblock-copolymers-elucidate-anchor-and-chain-mechanism-of-membrane-stabilization
#3
Evelyne M Houang, Karen J Haman, Mihee Kim, Wenjia Zhang, Dawn A Lowe, Yuk Yin Sham, Timothy P Lodge, Benjamin J Hackel, Frank S Bates, Joseph M Metzger
Block copolymers can be synthesized in an array of architectures and compositions to yield diverse chemical properties. The triblock copolymer Poloxamer 188 (P188), the family archetype, consisting of a hydrophobic polypropylene oxide core flanked by hydrophilic polyethylene oxide chains, can stabilize cellular membranes during stress. However, little is known regarding the molecular basis of membrane interaction by copolymers in living organisms. By leveraging diblock architectural design, discrete end-group chemistry modifications can be tested...
May 24, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535668/stability-of-retroviral-vectors-against-ultracentrifugation-is-determined-by-the-viral-internal-core-and-envelope-proteins-used-for-pseudotyping
#4
Soo-Hyun Kim, Kwang-Il Lim
Retroviral and lentiviral vectors are mostly pseudotyped and often purified and concentrated via ultracentrifugation. In this study, we quantified and compared the stabilities of retroviral [murine leukemia virus (MLV)-based] and lentiviral [human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-based] vectors pseudotyped with relatively mechanically stable envelope proteins, vesicular stomatitis virus glycoproteins (VSVGs), and the influenza virus WSN strain envelope proteins against ultracentrifugation. Lentiviral genomic and functional particles were more stable than the corresponding retroviral particles against ultracentrifugation when pseudotyped with VSVGs...
May 2, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535347/preparation-and-characterization-of-protein-loaded-electrospun-fiber-mat-and-its-release-kinetics
#5
Peng Wen, Yan Wen, Xiao Huang, Minhua Zong, Hong Wu
For the enhancement of protein's bioavailability, a specific delivery system was developed by coaxial electrospinning. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as protein model and the core-sheath fiber mat was fabricated using sodium alginate as shell layer and the BSA-loaded chitosan nanoparticle that prepared previously as core layer. By optimizing electrospinning parameters, uniform fibers with diameters ranging from 200 nm to 600 nm were obtained, and transmission electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed its core-sheath structure...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535064/ten-fold-enhancement-of-inas-nanowire-photoluminescence-emission-with-an-inp-passivation-layer
#6
Pamela Jurczak, Yunyan Zhang, Jiang Wu, Ana M Sanchez, Martin Aagesen, Huiyun Liu
In this letter, we demonstrate that a significant improvement of optical performance of InAs nanowires can be achieved by capping the core InAs nanowires with a thin InP shell, which successfully passivates the surface states reducing the rate of non-radiative recombination. The improvements have been confirmed by detailed photoluminescence measurements, which showed up to ten-fold increase in the intensity of room-temperature photoluminescence from the capped InAs/InP nanowires compared to the sample with core-only InAs nanowires...
May 23, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535051/structural-properties-of-nonionic-monorhamnolipid-aggregates-in-water-studied-by-classical-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#7
Elango Munusamy, Charles M Luft, Jeanne E Pemberton, Steven D Schwartz
Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to investigate the structure and stabilizing factors of aggregates of the nonionic form of the most common congener of monorhamnolipids, α-rhamnopyranosyl-β-hydroxydecanoyl-β-hydroxydecanoate (Rha- C10-C10), in water. Aggregates of size ranging from 5 monomers to 810 monomers were observed in the simulation forming spherical and ellipsoidal structures, a torus like structure and a unilamellar vesicle. The effects of hydrophobic chain conformation and alignment in the aggregate, role of H-bonds between monomer...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533969/ranking-of-critical-species-to-preserve-the-functionality-of-mutualistic-networks-using-the-k-core-decomposition
#8
Javier García-Algarra, Juan Manuel Pastor, José María Iriondo, Javier Galeano
BACKGROUND: Network analysis has become a relevant approach to analyze cascading species extinctions resulting from perturbations on mutualistic interactions as a result of environmental change. In this context, it is essential to be able to point out key species, whose stability would prevent cascading extinctions, and the consequent loss of ecosystem function. In this study, we aim to explain how the k-core decomposition sheds light on the understanding the robustness of bipartite mutualistic networks...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532073/fabrication-of-vinyl-organosilicon-poly-n-n-4-5-dihydroxy-1-2-phenylene-bis-methylene-bisacrylamide-core-shell-antibacterial-agent
#9
Zhijia Zhang, Xiaole Zhao, Yingchun Su, Defeng Xing, Xiaojun Han
We demonstrate that antibacterial agent N, N'-[(4, 5-dihydroxy-1, 2-phenylene)bis(methylene)]bisacrylamide (OHABA) can be assembled on the surface of vinyl organosilicon nanospheres (VOSNs) by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Chemically cross-linked vinyl organosilicon cores were facilely fabricated by sol-gel method as support, which densely grafted poly-OHABA (POHABA) as shells. Antibacterial assessment test results revealed that POHABA-based core@shell structure displayed high antibacterial performance, long-term stability, and kept broad-spectrum antibacterial effect of against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531980/self-assembled-nanomicelles-of-damnacanthal-loaded-amphiphilic-modified-chitosan-preparation-characterization-and-cytotoxicity-study
#10
Pakin Sukamporn, Seung Joon Baek, Wandee Gritsanapan, Suwabun Chirachanchai, Thararat Nualsanit, Pleumchitt Rojanapanthu
Damnacanthal (Dam) is a phytochemical with many pharmacological properties including anticancer activity. However, its hydrophobicity, poor bioavailability and stability limit its application in many biological approaches. In this study, Dam nanomicelles as an emerging platform were developed to overcome limitations. The deoxycholic and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether grafted chitosan (DCA-CS-mPEG) was synthesized and characterized by FTIR and (1)H NMR and the degree of substitution (DS) was determined by elemental analysis (EA)...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529973/high-affinity-mannotetraose-as-an-alternative-to-dextran-in-cona-based-fluorescent-affinity-glucose-assay-due-to-improved-fret-efficiency
#11
Andrea K Locke, Brian M Cummins, Gerard L Coté
Diabetes mellitus affects millions of people worldwide and requires that individuals tightly self-regulate their blood glucose levels to minimize the associated secondary complications. Continuous monitoring devices potentially offer patients a long-term means to tightly monitor their glucose levels. In recent years, fluorescent affinity sensors based on lectins (e.g., Concanavalin A (ConA)) have been implemented in such devices. Traditionally, these sensors pair the lectin with a multivalent ligand, like dextran, in order to develop a competitive binding assay that changes its fluorescent properties in response to the surrounding glucose concentrations...
May 27, 2016: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529057/structural-basis-for-the-versatile-and-methylation-dependent-binding-of-ctcf-to-dna
#12
Hideharu Hashimoto, Dongxue Wang, John R Horton, Xing Zhang, Victor G Corces, Xiaodong Cheng
The multidomain CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF), containing a tandem array of 11 zinc fingers (ZFs), modulates the three-dimensional organization of chromatin. We crystallized the human CTCF DNA-binding domain in complex with a known CTCF-binding site. While ZF2 does not make sequence-specific contacts, each finger of ZF3-7 contacts three bases of the 15-bp consensus sequence. Each conserved nucleotide makes base-specific hydrogen bonds with a particular residue. Most of the variable base pairs within the core sequence also engage in interactions with the protein...
May 15, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527991/lignosulfonate-stabilized-selenium-nanoparticles-and-their-deposition-on-spherical-silica
#13
Anna Modrzejewska-Sikorska, Emilia Konował, Łukasz Klapiszewski, Grzegorz Nowaczyk, Stefan Jurga, Teofil Jesionowski, Grzegorz Milczarek
We report a novel room-temperature synthesis of selenium nanoparticles, which for the first time uses lignosulfonate as a stabilizer. Various lignosulfonates obtained both from hardwood and softwood were tested. Selenium oxide was used as the precursor of zero-valent selenium. Three different reducers were tested - sodium borohydride, hydrazine and ascorbic acid - and the latter proved most effective in terms of the particle size and stability of the final colloid. The lignosulfonate-stabilized selenium nanoparticles had a negative zeta potential, dependent on pH, which for some lignosulfonates reached -50mV, indicating the excellent stability of the colloid...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525395/the-shell-effect-on-the-room-temperature-photoluminescence-from-zno-mgo-core-shell-nanowires-exciton-phonon-coupling-and-strain
#14
Nadia Vega, Oscar Marin, Ezequiel Tosi, Gustavo Grinblat, Edgar Mosquera, M Moreno, Mónica Tirado, D Comedi
The room temperature photoluminescence (PL) from ZnO/MgO core/shell nanowires (NWs) grown by a simple two-step vapour transport method was studied for various MgO shell widths (w). Two distinct effects induced by the MgO shell were clearly identified. The first one, related to the ZnO/MgO interface formation, is evidenced by strong enhancements of the zero-phonon and first phonon replica of the excitonic emission, which are accompanied by a total suppression of its second phonon replica. This effect can be explained by the reduction of the band bending within the ZnO NW core that follows the removal of atmospheric adsorbates and associated surface traps during the MgO growth process on one hand, and a reduced exciton-phonon coupling as a result of the mechanical stabilization of the outermost ZnO NW monolayers by the MgO shell on the other hand...
May 19, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524649/synthesis-and-stabilization-of-colloidal-perovskite-nanocrystals-by-multidentate-polymer-micelles
#15
Shaocong Hou, Yuzheng Guo, Yuguo Tang, Qimin Quan
Lead halide perovskites have emerged as low-cost, high-performance optical and optoelectronic materials, however, their material stability has been a limiting factor for broad applications. Here, we demonstrate stable core-shell colloidal perovskite nanocrystals using a novel, facile and low-cost co-polymer templated synthesis approach. The block co-polymer serves as a confined nano-reactor during perovskite crystallization and passivates the perovskite surface by forming a multidentate capping shell, thus significantly improving its photo-stability in polar solvents...
May 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524376/fluorinated-peg-polypeptide-polyplex-micelles-have-good-serum-resistance-and-low-cytotoxicity-for-gene-delivery
#16
Ting Wu, Longhai Wang, Shenggang Ding, Yezi You
A novel PEGylation polypeptide, poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(l-lysine)-b-poly(l-cysteine) (PEG-PLL-PCys) triblock copolymer is synthesized via the sequential ring-opening polymerization of amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides initiated by methoxypolyethylene glycol amine (mPEG-NH2 , Mw is 2 kDa). Subsequently, the obtained polypeptide is partially conjugated with fluorocarbon chains via disulfide exchange reaction. PLL segment can condense plasmid DNA through an electrostatic force to form a complex core, PEG segment surrounding the complex like a corona can prevent the complex from precipitation and reduce the adsorption of serum, while PCys segment with fluorocarbon can enhance the cellular uptake and the stability of the formed polyplex micelles in physiological conditions...
May 19, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523617/one-pot-synthesis-of-lightly-doped-zn1-x-cu-x-o-and-au-zn1-x-cu-x-o-with-solar-light-photocatalytic-activity-in-liquid-phase
#17
Anis Fkiri, Marisa Rico Santacruz, Amine Mezni, Leila-Samia Smiri, Valérie Keller, Nicolas Keller
We report on the facile and low-temperature one-pot chemical synthesis of lightly doped Zn1-x Cu x O and hybrid Au-Zn1-x Cu x O photocatalysts with low Cu molar content (0 < x < 0.7%) using 1,3-propanediol polyol simultaneously as solvent, reducing and a stabilizing agent, without any final thermal treatment. The photocatalysts have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption study, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522809/nickel-cobalt-sulfide-core-shell-structure-on-3d-graphene-for-supercapacitor-application
#18
Lemu Girma Beka, Xin Li, Weihua Liu
Three-dimensional (3D) core/shell structure of nickel cobalt sulfide is nano-engineered by using series of hydrothermal steps on a CVD grown graphene for supercapacitor application. This core/shell is composited of NiCo2S4 nanotube (NCS) as core and CoxNi(3-x)S2 (CNS) nanosheets as a shell. The as-synthesized composite exhibits excellent electrochemical properties by using the advantage of NCS nanontube core as superhighway for electron and ion transport, and CNS nanosheets shell as high active area pseudocapacitive material...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521100/single-step-synthesis-of-small-azide-functionalized-gold-nanoparticles-versatile-water-dispersible-reagents-for-click-chemistry
#19
Edward W Elliott, Aurora L Ginzburg, Zachary C Kennedy, Zhenshuo Feng, James E Hutchison
Nanoparticles possessing functional groups that can be readily conjugated (e.g. through click chemistry) are important precursors for the preparation of customized nanohybrid products. Such nanoparticles, if they are stable against agglomeration, are easily dispersible and have well-defined surface chemistry and size. As click-ready reagents, they can be stored until their time of use and then simply dispersed and reacted with an appropriate substrate. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are excellent candidates for this purpose and some clickable gold nanoparticles have been developed; however, AuNPs for use in aqueous systems are often prepared through difficult multistep processes and/or can be poorly dispersible in water...
May 18, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520475/kombucha-multimicrobial-community-under-simulated-spaceflight-and-martian-conditions
#20
O Podolich, I Zaets, O Kukharenko, I Orlovska, O Reva, L Khirunenko, M Sosnin, A Haidak, S Shpylova, E Rabbow, M Skoryk, M Kremenskoy, R Demets, N Kozyrovska, J-P de Vera
Kombucha microbial community (KMC) produces a cellulose-based biopolymer of industrial importance and a probiotic beverage. KMC-derived cellulose-based pellicle film is known as a highly adaptive microbial macrocolony-a stratified community of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In the framework of the multipurpose international astrobiological project "BIOlogy and Mars Experiment (BIOMEX)," which aims to study the vitality of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms and the stability of selected biomarkers in low Earth orbit and in a Mars-like environment, a cellulose polymer structural integrity will be assessed as a biomarker and biotechnological nanomaterial...
May 2017: Astrobiology
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