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Core stability

Shobini Jayaraman, Jose Luis Sánchez-Quesada, Olga Gursky
Lipids in the body are transported via lipoproteins that are nanoparticles comprised of lipids and amphipathic proteins termed apolipoproteins. This family of lipid surface-binding proteins is over-represented in human amyloid diseases. In particular, all major proteins of high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including apoA-I, apoA-II and serum amyloid A, can cause systemic amyloidoses in humans upon protein mutations, post-translational modifications or overproduction. Here, we begin to explore how the HDL lipid composition influences amyloid deposition by apoA-I and related proteins...
October 18, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Advaitha Madireddy, Settapong T Kosiyatrakul, Rebecca A Boisvert, Emilia Herrera-Moyano, María L García-Rubio, Jeannine Gerhardt, Elizabeth A Vuono, Nichole Owen, Zi Yan, Susan Olson, Andrés Aguilera, Niall G Howlett, Carl L Schildkraut
Common fragile sites (CFSs) are genomic regions that are unstable under conditions of replicative stress. Although the characteristics of CFSs that render them vulnerable to stress are associated mainly with replication, the cellular pathways that protect CFSs during replication remain unclear. Here, we identify and describe a role for FANCD2 as a trans-acting facilitator of CFS replication, in the absence of exogenous replicative stress. In the absence of FANCD2, replication forks stall within the AT-rich fragility core of CFS, leading to dormant origin activation...
October 20, 2016: Molecular Cell
Alexandre Darmon, Michael Benzaquen, Simon Čopar, Olivier Dauchot, Teresa Lopez-Leon
We investigate experimentally and numerically the defect configurations emerging when a cholesteric liquid crystal is confined to a spherical shell. We uncover a rich scenario of defect configurations, some of them non-existent in nematic shells, where new types of defects are stabilized by the helical ordering of the liquid crystal. In contrast to nematic shells, here defects are not simple singular points or lines, but have a large structured core. Specifically, we observe five different types of cholesteric shells...
October 21, 2016: Soft Matter
Frantz Le Dévédec, Loujin Houdaihed, Christine Allen
In this study, an amphiphilic copolymer that includes a core-forming block with phenyl groups was synthesized by living anionic polymerization of phenyl glycidyl ether (PheGE) on methoxy-polyethylene glycol (mPEG-b-PPheGE). Characterization of the copolymer revealed a narrow molecular distribution (PDI < 1.03) and confirmed the degree of polymerization of mPEG122-b-(PheGE)15. The critical micelle concentration of the copolymer was evaluated using an established fluorescence method with the aggregation behavior evaluated by dynamic light scattering and transmission electronic microscopy...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Christophe Beclin, Philipp Follert, Elke Stappers, Serena Barral, Coré Nathalie, Antoine de Chevigny, Virginie Magnone, Kévin Lebrigand, Ute Bissels, Danny Huylebroeck, Andreas Bosio, Pascal Barbry, Eve Seuntjens, Harold Cremer
During neurogenesis, generation, migration and integration of the correct numbers of each neuron sub-type depends on complex molecular interactions in space and time. MicroRNAs represent a key control level allowing the flexibility and stability needed for this process. Insight into the role of this regulatory pathway in the brain is still limited. We performed a sequential experimental approach using postnatal olfactory bulb neurogenesis in mice, starting from global expression analyses to the investigation of functional interactions between defined microRNAs and their targets...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sagar Satpathi, Mandar Kulkarni, Arnab Mukherjee, Partha Hazra
Among different polymorphs of DNA, G-quadruplex (GQ) formation in guanine rich sequences has received special attention due to its direct relevance to cellular aging and abnormal cell growths. To date, smaller ions like Na(+), K(+), Li(+), and NH4(+) are the best possible selective GQ stabilizing materials. Herein, we report that an ionic liquid (IL), i.e. guanidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate, can not only instigate the GQ formation in the absence of conventional GQ forming ions (like Na(+), K(+), NH4(+), etc...
October 21, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Jacek Dygut, Barbara Kalinowska, Mateusz Banach, Monika Piwowar, Leszek Konieczny, Irena Roterman
The presented analysis concerns the inter-domain and inter-protein interface in protein complexes. We propose extending the traditional understanding of the protein domain as a function of local compactness with an additional criterion which refers to the presence of a well-defined hydrophobic core. Interface areas in selected homodimers vary with respect to their contribution to share as well as individual (domain-specific) hydrophobic cores. The basic definition of a protein domain, i.e., a structural unit characterized by tighter packing than its immediate environment, is extended in order to acknowledge the role of a structured hydrophobic core, which includes the interface area...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Matthias Lehmann, Philipp Maier, Matthias Grüne, Markus Hügel
The molecular design of crowded hexasubstituted star mesogens based on a benzene core and alternating substitution with oligo(phenylenevinylene) arms and aryl units generates free space between the conjugated arm scaffolds. Various arylcarboxy building blocks, decorated with alkoxy chains have been incorporated in the void by mixing, hydrogen bonding or covalent bonds to the aryl groups. The mesogens assemble in columnar stacks ranging from soft crystals to rectangular and hexagonal columnar liquid crystals, revealed by polarized optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray scattering and modelling...
October 20, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Jorge L Rosas-Trigueros
Bax is a protein that promotes apoptosis (a form of cell death). The atomistic details of the mechanism by which Bax is activated during apoptosis remain a subject of debate. C-terminal basic residues in the sequence of Bax show remarkable conservation across a variety of species. The role of these charged residues in the stability of Bax was investigated by submitting substituted mutants to molecular dynamics simulations at high temperatures. Mutation of either or both K189 and K190 led to dramatic changes in helical content, radius of gyration, proximity of the C terminus to the core of the protein, exposure of the BH3 domain, and bundling of the core...
October 2016: FEBS Open Bio
Sepideh Hajian, Esmat Mehrabi, Masoumeh Simbar, Mohammad Houshyari, Farid Zayeri, Parastoo Hajian
BACKGROUND: Cancer diagnosis for everybody may be perceived as crisis and breast cancer, as the most common malignancy in women, can influence their well-being and multiple aspects of their health. So understanding that how women in various contexts and communities adjust to the illness is necessary to facilitate this adjustment and improve their quality of life. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to: 1) identify the core components of coping strategies to adjust to the illness in Iranian women with breast cancer perspective, 2) to develop and determine psychometric properties of a native self-report instrument to assess coping behaviors and measure the degree of adjustment with the breast cancer...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Cancer Prevention
Lei Zhang, Theresa Chimamkpam, Camelia I Onet, Nianyong Zhu, Rodolphe Clérac, Wolfgang Schmitt
We report a supramolecular approach to mixed-valent Mn coordination clusters that demonstrates how halide ions can be applied to influence the assembly of distinct tetranuclear building units to produce a number of related Mn coordination clusters with dense core structures that derive from a cuboctahedral arrangement of Mn ions. In all compounds the alignment of the Jahn-Teller axes of the Mn(III) centers coincides with the positions of the stabilizing chloride ligands. Thus, the relative chloride concentrations in the reaction mixtures allow us to modify the symmetry and magnetic anisotropy of this basic core structures resulting in isotropic polynuclear high-spin complexes at high Cl(-) concentrations and Single-Molecule Magnets at lower relative Cl(-) concentrations...
October 19, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Jin-Rong Huo, Xiao-Xu Wang, Lu Li, Hai-Xia Cheng, Yan-Jing Su, Ping Qian
This paper reports a study of the electronic properties, structural stability and catalytic activity of the W13@Pt42 core-shell structure using the First-principles calculations. The degree of corrosion of W13@Pt42 core-shell structure is simulated in acid solutions and through molecular absorption. The absorption energy of OH for this structure is lower than that for Pt55, which inhibits the poison effect of O containing intermediate. Furthermore we present the optimal path of oxygen reduction reaction catalyzed by W13@Pt42...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yusuke Matsui, Keisuke Shindo, Kayoko Nagata, Noriyoshi Yoshinaga, Kotaro Shirakawa, Masayuki Kobayashi, Akifumi Takaori-Kondo
HIV type 1 overcomes the host restriction factor apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) proteins by organizing an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex together with viral infectivity factor (Vif) and a host transcription cofactor core binding factor β (CBFβ ). CBFβ is essential for Vif to counteract APOBEC3 by enabling the recruitment of cullin 5 to the complex and increasing steady-state level of Vif protein, however, the mechanisms by which CBFβ up-regulates Vif protein remains unclear...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Shan Zhang, Jianbin Xu, Heng Chen, Zhangfa Song, Yalan Wu, Xingyi Dai, Jie Kong
In this contribution, amphiphilic star copolymers (H40-star-PCL-a-PEG) with an H40 hyperbranched polyester core and poly(ε-caprolactone)-a-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymer arms linked with acetal groups are synthesized using ring-opening polymerization and a copper (I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition click reaction. The acid-cleavable acetal groups between the hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments of the arms endow the amphiphilic star copolymers with pH responsiveness. In aqueous solution, unimolecular micelles can be formed with good stability and a unique acid degradability, as is desirable for anticancer drug carriers...
October 19, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Nicklaus Fankhauser, Sylvain Aubry
C4 photosynthesis allows highly efficient carbon fixation that originates from tightly regulated anatomical and biochemical modifications of leaf architecture. Recent studies showed that leaf transcriptome modifications during leaf ontogeny of closely related C3 (Tarenaya hassleriana) and C4 (Gynandropsis gynandra) species within the Cleomaceae family existed but they did not identify any dedicated transcriptional networks or factors specifically driving C4 leaf ontogeny. RNAseq analysis provides a steady-state quantification of whole-cell mRNAs but does not allow any discrimination between transcriptional and post-transcriptional processes that may occur simultaneously during leaf ontogeny...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Anders F Frellsen, Anders E Hansen, Rasmus I Jølck, Paul Kempen, Gregory W Severin, Palle H Rasmussen, Andreas Kjær, Andreas T I Jensen, Thomas L Andresen
By taking advantage of the ability of (64)Cu to bind non-specifically to gold surfaces, we have developed a new methodology to embed this radionuclide inside gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). (64)Cu enables the in vivo imaging of AuNPs by positron emission tomography (PET). AuNPs have a multitude of uses within health technology and are useful tools for general nanoparticle research. (64)Cu-AuNPs were prepared by incubating AuNP seeds with (64)Cu(2+), followed by the entrapment of the radionuclide by grafting a second layer of gold on the surface...
October 18, 2016: ACS Nano
Omid Sadeghi, Clément Falaise, Pedro I Molina, Ryan Hufschmid, Charles F Campana, Bruce C Noll, Nigel D Browning, May Nyman
The iron Keggin ion is identified as a structural building block in both magnetite and ferrihydrite, two important iron oxide phases in nature and in technology. Discrete molecular forms of the iron Keggin ion that can be both manipulated in water and chemically converted to the related metal oxides are important for understanding growth mechanisms, in particular, nonclassical nucleation in which cluster building units are preserved in the aggregation and condensation processes. Here we describe two iron Keggin ion structures, formulated as [Bi6FeO4Fe12O12(OH)12(CF3COO)10(H2O)2](3+) (Kegg-1) and [Bi6FeO4Fe12O12(OH)12(CF3COO)12](1+) (Kegg-2)...
October 18, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Thomas Sannicolo, Mélanie Lagrange, Anthony Cabos, Caroline Celle, Jean-Pierre Simonato, Daniel Bellet
Transparent electrodes attract intense attention in many technological fields, including optoelectronic devices, transparent film heaters and electromagnetic applications. New generation transparent electrodes are expected to have three main physical properties: high electrical conductivity, high transparency and mechanical flexibility. The most efficient and widely used transparent conducting material is currently indium tin oxide (ITO). However the scarcity of indium associated with ITO's lack of flexibility and the relatively high manufacturing costs have a prompted search into alternative materials...
October 18, 2016: Small
Yi-Hsuan Chen, Hua-Yi Hsu, Ming-Tyng Yeh, Chen-Cheng Chen, Chang-Yu Huang, Ying-Hsuan Chung, Zee-Fen Chang, Wei-Chen Kuo, Nei-Li Chan, Jui-Hsia Weng, Bon-Chu Chung, Yu-Ju Chen, Cheng-Bang Jian, Ching-Chieh Shen, Hwan-Ching Tai, Sheh-Yi Sheu, Jim-Min Fang
Targeting thymidylate kinase (TMPK) that catalyzes the phospho-transfer reaction for formation of dTDP from dTMP is a new strategy for anti-cancer treatment. This study is to understand the inhibitory mechanism of a previously identified human TMPK (hTMPK) inhibitor YMU1 (1a) by molecular docking, isothermal titration calorimetry, and photoaffinity labeling. The molecular dynamics simulation suggests that 1a prefers binding at the catalytic site of hTMPK, whereas the hTMPK inhibitors that bear pyridino[d]isothiazolone or benzo[d]isothiazolone core structure in lieu of the dimethylpyridine-fused isothiazolone moiety in 1a can have access to both the ATP-binding and catalytic sites...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Martina I Gocke, Arnaud Huguet, Sylvie Derenne, Steffen Kolb, Michaela A Dippold, Guido L B Wiesenberg
Soils, paleosols and terrestrial sediments serve as archives for studying climate change, and represent important terrestrial carbon pools. Archive functioning relies on the chronological integrity of the respective units. Incorporation of younger organic matter (OM) e.g. by plant roots and associated microorganisms into deep subsoil and underlying soil parent material may reduce reliability of paleoenvironmental records and stability of buried OM. Long-term effects of sedimentary characteristics and deep rooting on deep subsoil microbial communities remain largely unknown...
October 13, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
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