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Functional neurological

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786114/endothelium-dependent-vasodilation-in-the-cerebral-arterioles-of-rats-deteriorates-during-acute-hyperglycemia-and-then-is-restored-by-reducing-the-glucose-level
#1
Kazuhiro Kito, Kumiko Tanabe, Koji Sakata, Naokazu Fukuoka, Kiyoshi Nagase, Mami Iida, Hiroki Iida
PURPOSE: Acute hyperglycemia in patients with traumatic brain injury correlates with a poor neurological outcome. We investigated the endothelium function of rat cerebral arterioles during acute hyperglycemia and after reducing the glucose levels using insulin. We also examined whether or not oxidative stress was involved in the cerebral arteriole response to acute hyperglycemia. METHODS: In isoflurane-anesthetized, mechanically ventilated rats, we used closed cranial window preparation to measure the changes in the pial arteriolar diameter following the topical application of acetylcholine (ACh) or adenosine...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785932/cortical-thickness-correlates-of-minor-neurological-signs-in-patients-with-first-episode-psychosis
#2
Simone Ciufolini, Maria Francesca Ponteduro, Tiago Reis-Marques, Heather Taylor, Valeria Mondelli, Carmine M Pariante, Stefania Bonaccorso, Raymond Chan, Andy Simmons, Anthony David, Marta Di Forti, Robin M Murray, Paola Dazzan
Neurological soft signs (NSS) are subtle abnormalities of motor and sensory function that are present in the absence of localized brain pathological lesions. In psychoses they have been consistently associated with a distinct pattern of cortical and subcortical brain structural alterations at the level of the heteromodal cortex and basal ganglia. However, a more specific and accurate evaluation of the cytoarchitecture of the cortical mantle could further advance our understanding of the neurobiological substrate of psychosis...
May 18, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785673/the-impact-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-on-bipolar-depression-mania-and-euthymia-a-systematic-review-of-preliminary-data
#3
Clément Dondé, Nicholas H Neufeld, Pierre A Geoffroy
The neurobiological basis of bipolar disorders (BD) has received increased attention and several brain regions and brain circuits have been correlated with clinical symptoms. These brain regions and circuits may represent targets for neuromodulation techniques such as transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS). We systematically reviewed the literature to explore the risks and benefits of tDCS in BD and examined all mood states. Following the PRISMA guidelines, a systematic literature search using several databases was performed from April 2002 to June 2017...
May 21, 2018: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785117/mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplantation-as-an-effective-treatment-strategy-for-ischemic-stroke-in-asia-a-meta-analysis-of-controlled-trials
#4
Ping Xue, Min Wang, Guanhua Yan
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy in patients with ischemic stroke (IS). Materials and methods: Clinical trials involved in this research were searched from PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Embase, Wanfang and CNKI database. Therapeutic effects of MSC therapy were assessed according to National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), Barthel index (BI), Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) and Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and its safety was evaluated based on adverse events...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784996/dual-function-injectable-angiogenic-biomaterial-for-the-repair-of-brain-tissue-following-stroke
#5
Lina R Nih, Shiva Gojgini, S Thomas Carmichael, Tatiana Segura
Stroke is the primary cause of disability due to the brain's limited ability to regenerate damaged tissue. After stroke, an increased inflammatory and immune response coupled with severely limited angiogenesis and neuronal growth results in a stroke cavity devoid of normal brain tissue. In the adult, therapeutic angiogenic materials have been used to repair ischaemic tissues through the formation of vascular networks. However, whether a therapeutic angiogenic material can regenerate brain tissue and promote neural repair is poorly understood...
May 21, 2018: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784971/normalized-spatial-complexity-analysis-of-neural-signals
#6
Huibin Jia, Yanwei Li, Dongchuan Yu
The spatial complexity of neural signals, which was traditionally quantified by omega complexity, varies inversely with the global functional connectivity level across distinct region-of-interests, thus provides a novel approach in functional connectivity analysis. However, the measures in omega complexity are sensitive to the number of neural time-series. Here, normalized spatial complexity was suggested to overcome the above limitation, and was verified by the functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) data from a previous published autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784875/a-human-specific-truncated-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-receptor-subunit-assembles-with-full-length-%C3%AE-7-and-forms-functional-receptors-with-different-stoichiometries
#7
Matías Lasala, Jeremías Corradi, Ariana Bruzzone, María Del Carmen Esandi, Cecilia Bouzat
The cholinergic α7 nicotinic receptor gene, CHRNA7, encodes a subunit that forms the homopentameric α7 receptor, involved in learning and memory. In humans, exons 5-10 in CHRNA7 are duplicated and fused to the FAM7A genetic element, giving rise to the hybrid gene CHRFAM7A. Its product, dupα7, is a truncated subunit lacking part of the N-terminal extracellular ligand-binding domain and is associated with neurological disorders, including schizophrenia, and immunomodulation.We combined dupα7 expression on mammalian cells with patch clamp recordings to understand its functional role...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784659/united-states-of-amnesia-rescuing-memory-loss-from-diverse-conditions
#8
EDITORIAL
Clara Ortega-de San Luis, Tomás J Ryan
Amnesia - the loss of memory function - is often the earliest and most persistent symptom of dementia. It occurs as a consequence of a variety of diseases and injuries. These include neurodegenerative, neurological or immune disorders, drug abuse, stroke or head injuries. It has both troubled and fascinated humanity. Philosophers, scientists, physicians and anatomists have all pursued an understanding of how we learn and memorise, and why we forget. In the last few years, the development of memory engram labelling technology has greatly impacted how we can experimentally study memory and its disorders in animals...
May 18, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784561/parkinson-s-disease-phenotype-is-influenced-by-the-severity-of-the-mutations-in-the-gba-gene
#9
Avner Thaler, Noa Bregman, Tanya Gurevich, Tamara Shiner, Yonatan Dror, Ofir Zmira, Ziv Gan-Or, Anat Bar-Shira, Mali Gana-Weisz, Avi Orr-Urtreger, Nir Giladi, Anat Mirelman
OBJECTIVE: Mutations in the glucocerebrosidase (GBA) gene are divided into mild and severe (mGBA, sGBA) based on their contribution to the phenotype of Gaucher disease (GD) among homozygotes. We conducted a longitudinal analysis of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients carrying mutations in the GBA gene to better characterize genotype-phenotype correlations. METHODS: Patients underwent a comprehensive assessment of medical, neurological, cognitive and non-motor functions...
May 17, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784083/a-homozygous-loss-of-function-camk2a-mutation-causes-growth-delay-frequent-seizures-and-severe-intellectual-disability
#10
Poh Hui Chia, Franklin Lei Zhong, Shinsuke Niwa, Carine Bonnard, Kagistia Hana Utami, Ruizhu Zeng, Hane Lee, Ascia Eskin, Stanley F Nelson, William H Xie, Samah Al-Tawalbeh, Mohammad El-Khateeb, Mohammad Shboul, Mahmoud A Pouladi, Mohammed Al-Raqad, Bruno Reversade
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMK2) plays fundamental roles in synaptic plasticity that underlies learning and memory. Here, we describe a new recessive neurodevelopmental syndrome with global developmental delay, seizures and intellectual disability. Using linkage analysis and exome sequencing, we found that this disease maps to chromosome 5q31.1-q34 and is caused by a biallelic germline mutation in CAMK2A . The missense mutation, p.His477Tyr is located in the CAMK2A association domain that is critical for its function and localization...
May 22, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783900/the-efficacy-comparison-of-citalopram-fluoxetine-and-placebo-on-motor-recovery-after-ischemic-stroke-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Marjan Asadollahi, Mahtab Ramezani, Ziba Khanmoradi, Ehsan Karimialavijeh
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to assess the effectiveness of oral citalopram, compared with fluoxetine and a placebo, in patients with post-stroke motor disabilities. DESIGN: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted between January 2015 and January 2016. SETTING: The neurology department of a university-affiliated urban hospital in Tehran, Iran. SUBJECTS: Ninety adult patients with acute ischemic stroke, hemiplegia, or hemiparesis and a Fugl-Meyer Motor Scale score of below 55 were included...
May 1, 2018: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783748/neuronal-dysfunction-associated-with-cholesterol-deregulation
#12
Annalisa Marcuzzi, Claudia Loganes, Erica Valencic, Elisa Piscianz, Lorenzo Monasta, Sabrine Bilel, Roberta Bortul, Claudio Celeghini, Marina Zweyer, Alberto Tommasini
Cholesterol metabolism is crucial for cells and, in particular, its biosynthesis in the central nervous system occurs in situ, and its deregulation involves morphological changes that cause functional variations and trigger programmed cell death. The pathogenesis of rare diseases, such as Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency or Smith⁻Lemli⁻Opitz Syndrome, arises due to enzymatic defects in the cholesterol metabolic pathways, resulting in a shortage of downstream products. The most severe clinical manifestations of these diseases appear as neurological defects...
May 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783240/-effect-of-preventive-treatment-on-cognitive-performance-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#13
Maria S Shorobura
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: cognitive, emotional and psychopathological changes play a significant role in the clinical picture of multiple sclerosis and influence the effectiveness of drug therapy, working capacity, quality of life, and the process of rehabilitation of patients with multiple sclerosis. The aim: investigate the changes in cognitive function in patients with multiple sclerosis, such as information processing speed and working memory of patients before and after treatment with immunomodulating drug...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783067/motor-retraining-more-for-functional-movement-disorders-outcomes-from-a-one-week-multidisciplinary-rehabilitation-program
#14
Alexandra Jacob, Darryl Kaelin, Abbey Roach, Craig Ziegler, Kathrin LaFaver
BACKGROUND: Functional Movement Disorders (FMD) are conditions of abnormal motor control thought to be caused by psychological factors. These disorders are commonly seen in neurological practice and prognosis is often poor. No consensus treatment guidelines have been established, however the role of physical therapy in addition to psychotherapy has increasingly been recognized. This study reports patient outcomes from a multidisciplinary FMD treatment program using motor retraining (MoRe) strategies...
May 18, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783061/enhanced-extinction-of-aversive-memories-in-mice-lacking-sparc-related-protein-containing-immunoglobulin-domains-1-spig1-fstl4
#15
Ryoko Suzuki, Akihiro Fujikawa, Yukio Komatsu, Kazuya Kuboyama, Naomi Tanga, Masaharu Noda
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in synaptic plasticity related to learning and memory. We previously reported that SPARC-related protein-containing immunoglobulin domains 1 (SPIG1, also known as Follistatin-like protein 4, FSTL4) binds to pro-BDNF and negatively regulates BDNF maturation; however, its neurological functions, particularly in learning and memory, have not yet been elucidated. We herein examined the electrophysiological and behavioral phenotypes of Spig1-knockout (Spig1-KO) mice...
May 18, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782953/electrodermal-reactivity-to-emotional-stimuli-in-healthy-subjects-and-patients-with-disorders-of-consciousness
#16
Jacques Luauté, Anne Dubois, Lizette Heine, Chloé Guironnet, Ariane Juliat, Valérie Gaveau, Barbara Tillmann, Fabien Perrin
OBJECTIVES: After a coma, one major challenge is the detection of awareness in patients with disorders of consciousness. In some patients, the only manifestation indicative of awareness is an appropriate emotional response. Preferred music is a powerful medium to elicit emotions and auto-biographical memory. Furthermore, music has been shown to improve cognitive functions both in healthy subjects and patients with neurological impairment. We hypothesized that signs of awareness could be enhanced in some patients with disorders of consciousness under appropriate emotional stimulation such as preferred music and also probably preferred odors...
May 18, 2018: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782307/cutaneous-manifestations-of-tuberous-sclerosis
#17
Mirjana Bakić, Marina Ratković, Branka Gledović, Balsa Vujović, Danilo Radunović, Vera Babić, Vladimir Prelević
Dear Editor, Tuberous sclerosis (TS) is an autosomal dominant multisystem disease, which occurs due to genetically determined hyperplasia of ectodermal and mesodermal cells. Clinical manifestations present on the skin and in the nervous system, kidneys, heart, and other organs. Recent studies estimate the incidence of TS at 1/6000 to 1/10,000 live births, and a prevalence in the general population of approximately 1 in 20,000 (1). There are two different genetic loci responsible for TS: 9q34 (TSC1-hamartin) and 16p13...
April 2018: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782204/paraoxonase-1-q192r-genotype-and-activity-affect-homocysteine-thiolactone-levels-in-humans
#18
Joanna Perła-Kaján, Kamila Borowczyk, Rafał Głowacki, Ottar Nygård, Hieronim Jakubowski
Genetic or nutritional deficiencies in 1 carbon and homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism elevate Hcy-thiolactone levels and are associated with cardiovascular and neurologic diseases. Hcy-thiolactone causes protein damage, cellular toxicity, and proatherogenic changes in gene expression in human cells and tissues. A polymorphic cardio-protective enzyme, paraoxonase 1 (PON1), hydrolyzes Hcy-thiolactone in vitro. However, whether Hcy-thiolactone hydrolysis is a physiologic function of the PON1 protein and whether polymorphisms in the PON1 gene affect Hcy-thiolactone levels in humans was unknown...
May 21, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781732/role-of-positive-lifestyle-activities-on-mood-cognition-well-being-and-disease-characteristics-in-multiple-sclerosis
#19
Lauren B Strober, Alexandra Becker, John J Randolph
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological condition associated with a wide variety of physical, cognitive, and mood-related symptoms. While disease-modifying treatment has been shown to reduce the severity and frequency of MS symptom relapses, engagement in certain daily activities holds promise as an adjunctive treatment to better manage disease sequelae. The present study sought to determine whether healthy nutritional choices, exercise, and social/intellectual engagement impacts functioning in individuals with MS...
July 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781583/altered-white-matter-connectivity-associated-with-visual-hallucinations-following-occipital-stroke
#20
Sara A Rafique, John R Richards, Jennifer K E Steeves
INTRODUCTION: Visual hallucinations that arise following vision loss stem from aberrant functional activity in visual cortices and an imbalance of activity across associated cortical and subcortical networks subsequent to visual pathway damage. We sought to determine if structural changes in white matter connectivity play a role in cases of chronic visual hallucinations associated with visual cortical damage. METHODS: We performed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and probabilistic fiber tractography to assess white matter connectivity in a patient suffering from continuous and disruptive phosphene (simple) visual hallucinations for more than 2 years following right occipital stroke...
May 21, 2018: Brain and Behavior
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