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active commuting

Chance Pistoll, John Furler
BACKGROUND: Active transport (ie walking, cycling, using public transport) can play a part in reducing non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Very little is known about how general practitioners (GPs) can contribute to promoting active transport. We explored GPs' ideas around active transport, and potential barriers and facilitators to its promotion in the clinical setting. METHODS: Using a maximal variation sample, we conducted 10 semi-structured interviews with GPs in Victoria, Australia...
October 2017: Australian Family Physician
Eva Heinen, Amelia Harshfield, Jenna Panter, Roger Mackett, David Ogilvie
BACKGROUND: Intervention studies suggest that changing the built environment may encourage a modal shift from car travel towards active travel. However, little is known about the detail of patterns of changes in travel behaviour. METHOD: Adult commuters working in Cambridge (UK) completed annual questionnaires between 2009 and 2012. Commuting was assessed using a validated seven-day travel-to-work record. The intervention consisted of the opening of a guided busway with a path for walking and cycling in 2011...
September 2017: Journal of Transport & Health
Oliver T Mytton, David Ogilvie, Simon Griffin, Søren Brage, Nick Wareham, Jenna Panter
The promotion of active travel (walking and cycling) is one promising approach to prevent the development of obesity and related cardio-metabolic disease. However the associations between active travel and adiposity remain uncertain. We used the Fenland study (a population based-cohort study; Cambridgeshire, UK, 2005-15) to describe the association of commuting means with DEXA measured body fat and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) among commuters (aged 29-65years; n=7680). We stratified our sample into those living near (within five miles) and far (five miles or further) from work, and categorised commuting means differently for each group reflecting their different travel options...
October 10, 2017: Preventive Medicine
J S Quist, M Rosenkilde, M B Petersen, A S Gram, A Sjödin, B Stallknecht
BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercise is recommended for weight management but energy balance is often less negative than predicted from exercise energy expenditure (ExEE). OBJECTIVE: To examine effects of active commuting and leisure-time exercise on fat loss in women and men with overweight and obesity. METHODS: We randomized 130 younger, physically inactive women and men with overweight and obesity (body mass index: 25-35 kg/m(2)) to 6 months of habitual lifestyle (CON, n=18), active commuting (BIKE, n=35), or leisure-time exercise of moderate (MOD, 50% VO2peak reserve, n=39) or vigorous intensity (VIG, 70% VO2peak reserve, n=38)...
October 10, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Catherine L Falconer, Ashley R Cooper, Ellen Flint
OBJECTIVES: To describe the active commuting (AC) patterns of adults with type 2 diabetes and how these relate to physical activity and sedentary behaviour in UK Biobank. Social and environmental correlates of AC will also be explored. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of a cohort study. SETTINGS: This is a population cohort of over 500 000 people recruited from 22 centres across the UK. Participants aged between 37 and 73 years were recruited between 2006 and 2010...
October 8, 2017: BMJ Open
Mina Nicole Händel, Sofus Christian Larsen, Jeanett Friis Rohde, Maria Stougaard, Nanna Julie Olsen, Berit Lilienthal Heitmann
BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence to support the effectiveness of primary interventions aiming to prevent excess weight gain among young children. Evaluating behavioral changes, such as physical activity (PA), may add to future development of efficient interventions. The objective was to evaluate the effect on PA outcomes of the 15 month Healthy Start intervention that focused on changing diet, PA, sleep and stress management among normal weight but obesity-prone preschool children...
2017: PloS One
Lewis Steell, Alex Garrido-Méndez, Fanny Petermann, Ximena Díaz-Martínez, María Adela Martínez, Ana María Leiva, Carlos Salas-Bravo, Cristian Alvarez, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Carlos Cristi-Montero, Fernando Rodríguez, Felipe Poblete-Valderrama, Pedro Delgado Floody, Nicolás Aguilar-Farias, Naomi D Willis, Carlos A Celis-Morales
Background: There is limited evidence on how active commuting is associated with health benefits in developing countries. The aim of this study therefore was to investigate the associations between active commuting and markers of adiposity and cardiometabolic risk in the Chilean adult population. Methods: In total, 5157 participants from the Chilean National Health Survey 2009-10 were included in this cross-sectional study. Active commuting was measured using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ v2)...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Public Health
Aline Cabral Palmeira, Breno Quintella Farah, Antônio Henrique Germano Soares, Bruno Remígio Cavalcante, Diego Giulliano Destro Christofaro, Mauro Virgílio Gomes de Barros, Raphael Mendes Ritti-Dias
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between heart rate variability (HRV) parameters with leisure time and commuting physical activities in adolescent boys. METHODS: The sample included 1152 male adolescents aged 14 to 19 years. The variation of consecutive heart beats (RR intervals) was assessed and HRV parameters in time (SDNN, RMSSD, pNN50) and frequency domains (LF/HF) were calculated. Leisure time and commuting physical activities were obtained using a questionnaire...
July 2017: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
Daniela Lazo-Cancino, Selim S Musleh, Cristian E Hernandez, Eduardo Palma, Enrique Rodriguez-Serrano
BACKGROUND: Fragmentation of native forests is a highly visible result of human land-use throughout the world. In this study, we evaluated the effects of landscape fragmentation and matrix features on the genetic diversity and structure of Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, the natural reservoir of Hantavirus in southern South America. We focused our work in the Valdivian Rainforest where human activities have produced strong change of natural habitats, with an important number of human cases of Hantavirus...
2017: PeerJ
Angel Dzhambov, Terry Hartig, Iana Markevych, Boris Tilov, Donka Dimitrova
BACKGROUND: Urban greenspace can benefit mental health through multiple mechanisms. They may work together, but previous studies have treated them as independent. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to compare single and parallel mediation models, which estimate the independent contributions of different paths, to several models that posit serial mediation components in the pathway from greenspace to mental health. METHODS: We collected cross-sectional survey data from 399 participants (15-25 years of age) in the city of Plovdiv, Bulgaria...
September 26, 2017: Environmental Research
Na-Ryum Bin, Hongmei Song, Chiping Wu, Marcus Lau, Shuzo Sugita, James H Eubanks, Liang Zhang
We describe here a simple, cost-effective apparatus for continuous tethered electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring of spontaneous recurrent seizures in mice. We used a small, low torque slip ring as an EEG commutator, mounted the slip ring onto a standard mouse cage and connected rotary wires of the slip ring directly to animal's implanted headset. Modifications were made in the cage to allow for a convenient installation of the slip ring and accommodation of animal ambient activity. We tested the apparatus for hippocampal EEG recordings in adult C57 black mice...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Tomoaki Matsuo, Rina So, Hiroyuki Sasai, Kazunori Ohkawara
OBJECTIVES: The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Japan (JNIOSH) developed a new Worker's Living Activity-time Questionnaire (JNIOSH-WLAQ) which primarily evaluates workers' sedentary behavior. The purpose of this study was to investigate the test-retest reliability and criterion validity of the WLAQ. METHODS: One hundred and thirty eight workers completed the WLAQ twice in one week. During the week, they wore a thigh-worn inclinometer (activPAL) and maintained a daily log as criteria measurements...
September 26, 2017: Sangyō Eiseigaku Zasshi, Journal of Occupational Health
Dorota Kaleta, Sylwia Kalucka, Franciszek Szatko, Teresa Makowiec-Dąbrowska
Physical activity (PA) has well-documented health benefits helping to prevent development of non-communicable diseases. The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence and factors associated with physical inactivity during leisure-time (LTPA) and commuting (CPA) among adult social assistance beneficiaries in Piotrkowski district. The studied sample consisted of 1817 respondents. Over 73% of the study population did not meet the recommended levels of LTPA. Fifty two % of the respondents had none leisure-time physical activity and 21...
September 26, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jim-Lino Kämmerle, Falko Brieger, Max Kröschel, Robert Hagen, Ilse Storch, Rudi Suchant
Every year, there are millions of documented vehicle collisions involving cervids across Europe and North America. While temporal patterns in collision occurrence are relatively well described, few studies have targeted deer behaviour as a critical component of collision prevention. In this study, we investigated weekly and daily patterns in road crossing behaviour in roe deer. Using road crossing events and movement data obtained from GPS telemetry, we employed mixed-effect models to explain frequency and timing of crossings at five road segments by a number of predictors including traffic volume, deer movement activity and the presence of wildlife warning reflectors...
2017: PloS One
Pablo Tercedor, Emilio Villa-González, Manuel Ávila-García, Carolina Díaz-Piedra, Alejandro Martínez-Baena, Alberto Soriano-Maldonado, Isaac José Pérez-López, Inmaculada García-Rodríguez, Sandra Mandic, Juan Palomares-Cuadros, Víctor Segura-Jiménez, Francisco Javier Huertas-Delgado
BACKGROUND: The lack of physical activity and increasing time spent in sedentary behaviours during childhood place importance on developing low cost, easy-toimplement school-based interventions to increase physical activity among children. The PREVIENE Project will evaluate the effectiveness of five innovative, simple, and feasible interventions (active commuting to/from school, active Physical Education lessons, active school recess, sleep health promotion, and an integrated program incorporating all 4 interventions) to improve physical activity, fitness, anthropometry, sleep health, academic achievement, and health-related quality of life in primary school children...
September 26, 2017: BMC Public Health
Bronwyn A Hradsky, Alan Robley, Ray Alexander, Euan G Ritchie, Alan York, Julian Di Stefano
Invasive and over-abundant predators pose a major threat to biodiversity and often benefit from human activities. Effective management requires understanding predator use of human-modified habitats (including resource subsidies and disturbed environments), and individual variation within populations. We investigated selection for human-modified habitats by invasive red foxes, Vulpes vulpes, within two predominantly forested Australian landscapes. We predicted that foxes would select for human-modified habitats in their range locations and fine-scale movements, but that selection would vary between individuals...
September 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
Angel Dzhambov, Boris Tilov, Iana Markevych, Donka Dimitrova
Given the ubiquitous nature of both noise pollution and mental disorders, their alleged association has not escaped the spotlight of public health research. The effect of traffic noise on mental health is probably mediated by other factors, which have not been elucidated sufficiently. Herein, we aimed to disentangle the pathways linking road traffic noise to general mental health in Bulgarian youth, with a focus on several candidate mediators - noise annoyance, perceived restorative quality of the living environment, physical activity, and neighborhood social cohesion...
September 13, 2017: Environment International
Peter Congdon
There is much ongoing research about the effect of the urban environment as compared with individual behaviour on growing obesity levels, including food environment, settlement patterns (e.g., sprawl, walkability, commuting patterns), and activity access. This paper considers obesity variations between US counties, and delineates the main dimensions of geographic variation in obesity between counties: by urban-rural status, by region, by area poverty status, and by majority ethnic group. Available measures of activity access, food environment, and settlement patterns are then assessed in terms of how far they can account for geographic variation...
September 7, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Javier Molina-García, Ana Queralt, Marc A Adams, Terry L Conway, James F Sallis
The study aim was to examine associations of neighborhood built environment and neighborhood socio-economic status (SES) with multiple physical activity (PA) behaviors, sedentary time, and obesity indicators among adolescents. Cross-sectional study of 325 adolescents aged 14-18years recruited from schools in Valencia, Spain. Participants' home neighborhoods were classified according to walkability and SES levels. Walkability was defined as an index of three built environment characteristics (i.e., residential density, land use mix, and street connectivity) based on geographic information system data...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine
Stephen A Wise, Susan S-C Tai, Carolyn Q Burdette, Johanna E Camara, Mary Bedner, Katrice A Lippa, Michael A Nelson, Federica Nalin, Karen W Phinney, Lane C Sander, Joseph M Betz, Christopher T Sempos, Paul M Coates
Since 2005, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has collaborated with the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) to improve the quality of measurements related to human nutritional markers of vitamin D status. In support of the NIH-ODS Vitamin D Initiative, including the Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP), NIST efforts have focused on (1) development of validated analytical methods, including reference measurement procedures (RMPs); (2) development of Standard Reference Materials (SRMs); (3) value assignment of critical study samples using NIST RMPs; and (4) development and coordination of laboratory measurement QA programs...
September 1, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
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