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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421398/integrating-travel-behavior-with-land-use-regression-to-estimate-dynamic-air-pollution-exposure-in-hong-kong
#1
Robert Tang, Linwei Tian, Thuan-Quoc Thach, Tsz Him Tsui, Michael Brauer, Martha Lee, Ryan Allen, Weiran Yuchi, Poh-Chin Lai, Paulina Wong, Benjamin Barratt
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies typically use subjects' residential address to estimate individuals' air pollution exposure. However, in reality this exposure is rarely static as people move from home to work/study locations and commute during the day. Integrating mobility and time-activity data may reduce errors and biases, thereby improving estimates of health risks. OBJECTIVES: To incorporate land use regression with movement and building infiltration data to estimate time-weighted air pollution exposures stratified by age, sex, and employment status for population subgroups in Hong Kong...
January 31, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419346/increasing-inequality-in-physical-activity-among-minnesota-secondary-schools-2001-2010
#2
Toben F Nelson, Richard F MacLehose, Cynthia Davey, Peter Rode, Marilyn S Nanney
BACKGROUND: Two Healthy People 2020 goals are to increase physical activity (PA) and to reduce disparities in PA. We explored whether PA at the school level changed over time in Minnesota schools and whether differences existed by demographic and socioeconomic factors. METHODS: We examine self-reported PA (n = 276,089 students; N = 276 schools) for 2001-2010 from the Minnesota Student Survey linked to school demographic data from the National Center for Education Statistics and the Rural-Urban Commuting Area Codes...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412240/leisure-time-physical-activity-but-not-commuting-physical-activity-is-associated-with-cardiovascular-risk-among-elsa-brasil-participants
#3
Francisco José Gondim Pitanga, Sheila M A Matos, Maria da Conceição Almeida, Sandhi Maria Barreto, Estela M L Aquino
BACKGROUND: Despite reports in the literature that both leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and commuting physical activity (CPA) can promote health benefits, the literature lacks studies comparing the associations of these domains of physical activity with cardiovascular risk scores. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between LTPA and CPA with different cardiovascular risk scores in the cohort of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health ELSA-Brasil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with data from 13,721 participants of both genders, aged 35-74 years, free of cardiovascular disease, from ELSA Brazil...
February 1, 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400262/air-pollution-as-a-risk-factor-in-health-impact-assessments-of-a-travel-mode-shift-towards-cycling
#4
Wasif Raza, Bertil Forsberg, Christer Johansson, Johan Nilsson Sommar
BACKGROUND: Promotion of active commuting provides substantial health and environmental benefits by influencing air pollution, physical activity, accidents, and noise. However, studies evaluating intervention and policies on a mode shift from motorized transport to cycling have estimated health impacts with varying validity and precision. OBJECTIVE: To review and discuss the estimation of air pollution exposure and its impacts in health impact assessment studies of a shift in transport from cars to bicycles in order to guide future assessments...
2018: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381119/access-to-showers-and-change-rooms-at-work-associated-with-active-commuting-among-older-workers-findings-from-a-national-population-survey
#5
Aviroop Biswas, Peter M Smith, Monique A M Gignac
Access to workplace showers and change rooms (WS/CR) has been found to be associated with active commuting (AC). Yet it is unclear whether this extends to older workers. We examined the association between WS/CR and AC (walking, cycling) comparing older and younger workers. Data came from 53,294 respondents to the 2007-2008 Canadian Community Health Survey. Associations between WS/CR and walking and cycling were analyzed for main effects and by age and sex using logistic regression. Compared with younger ages, workers 50 to 75 years old were more likely to cycle to work if WS/CR were available (odds ratio [OR] = 1...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Gerontology: the Official Journal of the Southern Gerontological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373565/intention-for-car-use-reduction-applying-a-stage-based-model
#6
Lars E Olsson, Jana Huck, Margareta Friman
This study investigates which variables drive intention to reduce car use by modelling a stage of change construct with mechanisms in the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Norm Activation Model (NAM). Web questionnaires (n = 794) were collected via 11 workplaces. The socio-demographics, work commute, stage of change, attitudes to sustainable travel modes, social norms, perceived behavioral control, and personal norm were assessed. An initial descriptive analysis revealed that 19% of the employees saw no reason to reduce their car use; 35% would like to reduce their car use but felt it was impossible; 12% were thinking about reducing their car use but were unsure of how or when to do this; 12% had an aim to reduce current car use, and knew which journeys to replace and which modes to use; and 23% try to use modes other than a car for most journeys, and will maintain or reduce their already low car use in the coming months...
January 26, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370176/patterns-of-sedentary-behavior-in-overweight-and-moderately-obese-users-of-the-catalan-primary-health-care-system
#7
Elena Martínez-Ramos, Angela-Maria Beltran, Carme Martín-Borràs, Lourdes Lasaosa-Medina, Jordi Real, José-Manuel Trujillo, Mercè Solà-Gonfaus, Elisa Puigdomenech, Eva Castillo-Ramos, Anna Puig-Ribera, Maria Giné-Garriga, Noemi Serra-Paya, Beatriz Rodriguez-Roca, Ana Gascón-Catalán, Carlos Martín-Cantera
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Prolonged sitting time (ST) has negative consequences on health. Changing this behavior is paramount in overweight/obese individuals because they are more sedentary than those with normal weight. The aim of the study was to establish the pattern of sedentary behavior and its relationship to health, socio-demographics, occupation, and education level in Catalan overweight/obese individuals. METHODS: A descriptive study was performed at 25 healthcare centers in Catalonia (Spain) with 464 overweight/moderately obese patients, aged25 to 65 years...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364363/association-between-active-commuting-and-elevated-blood-pressure-in-adolescents
#8
Fábio da Silva Santana, Aline Cabral Palmeira, Marcos André Moura Dos Santos, Breno Quintella Farah, Bruna Cadengue Coêlho de Souza, Raphael Mendes Ritti-Dias
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between active commuting and blood pressure in adolescents. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with high school students from public education network in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Data from 6039 students (14 to 19 years) were collected using a questionnaire. "Physically inactive" were considered those who reported not to walk or ride a bicycle to and from school on any day of the past week, and/or those who, regardless of the weekly frequency of practice this type of activity, reported the duration of commuting to school was less than 20 minutes (round trip)...
October 2017: Einstein
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301235/factors-associated-with-maintaining-the-mental-health-of-employees-after-the-fukushima-nuclear-disaster-findings-from-companies-located-in-the-evacuation-area
#9
Masatsugu Orui, Yuriko Suzuki, Aya Goto, Seiji Yasumura
After the nuclear disaster in Fukushima on 11 March 2011, some businesses were permitted to continue operating even though they were located in the evacuation area designated by the Japanese government. The aim of this study was to examine differences in the mental health status, workplace, living environment, and lifestyle of employees in the evacuation and non-evacuation areas. We also investigated factors related to their mental health status. Data for this cross-sectional study were collected from the questionnaire responses of 647 employees at three medium-sized manufacturing companies in the evacuation and non-evacuation areas...
December 31, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258366/dynamic-characteristics-of-a-new-three-dimensional-linear-homeomorphic-saccade-model
#10
Wei Zhou, Xiu Zhai, Alireza Ghahari, G Alex Korentis, David Kaputa, John D Enderle
A linear homeomorphic eye movement model that produces 3D saccadic eye movements consistent with anatomical and physiological evidence is introduced in this second part of a two-paper sequence. Central to the model is the implementation of a time-optimal neural control strategy involving six linear muscle models that faithfully represent the dynamic characteristics of 3D saccades. The muscle is modeled as a parallel combination of viscosity [Formula: see text] and series elasticity [Formula: see text], connected to the parallel combination of active-state tension generator [Formula: see text], viscosity element [Formula: see text], and length tension elastic element [Formula: see text]...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249477/levels-of-ambient-air-pollution-according-to-mode-of-transport-a-systematic-review
#11
Magda Cepeda, Josje Schoufour, Rosanne Freak-Poli, Chantal M Koolhaas, Klodian Dhana, Wichor M Bramer, Oscar H Franco
BACKGROUND: Controversy exists about the differences in air pollution exposure and inhalation dose between mode of transport. We aimed to review air pollution exposure and inhaled dose according to mode of transport and pollutant and their effect in terms of years of life expectancy (YLE). METHODS: In this systematic review, we searched ten online databases from inception to April 13, 2016, without language or temporal restrictions, for cohort, cross-sectional, and experimental studies that compared exposure to carbon monoxide, black carbon, nitrogen dioxide, and fine and coarse particles in active commuters (pedestrian or cyclist) and commuters using motorised transport (car, motorcycle, bus, or massive motorised transport [MMT-ie, train, subway, or metro])...
January 2017: Lancet. Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241397/static-characteristics-of-a-new-three-dimensional-linear-homeomorphic-saccade-model
#12
Wei Zhou, Xiu Zhai, Alireza Ghahari, G Alex Korentis, David Kaputa, John D Enderle
A linear homeomorphic saccade model that produces 3D saccadic eye movements consistent with physiological and anatomical evidence is introduced. Central to the model is the implementation of a time-optimal controller with six linear muscles and pulleys that represent the saccade oculomotor plant. Each muscle is modeled as a parallel combination of viscosity [Formula: see text] and series elasticity [Formula: see text] connected to the parallel combination of active-state tension generator [Formula: see text], viscosity element [Formula: see text], and length tension elastic element [Formula: see text]...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222610/characterizing-the-neighborhood-obesogenic-environment-in-the-multiethnic-cohort-a-multi-level-infrastructure-for-cancer-health-disparities-research
#13
Shannon M Conroy, Salma Shariff-Marco, Juan Yang, Andrew Hertz, Myles Cockburn, Yurii B Shvetsov, Christina A Clarke, Cheryl L Abright, Christopher A Haiman, Loïc Le Marchand, Laurence N Kolonel, Kristine R Monroe, Lynne R Wilkens, Scarlett Lin Gomez, Iona Cheng
PURPOSE: We characterized the neighborhood obesogenic environment in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) by examining the associations of obesity with attributes of the social and built environment, establishing a multi-level infrastructure for future cancer research. METHODS: For 102,906 African American, Japanese American, Latino, and white MEC participants residing predominately in Los Angeles County, baseline residential addresses (1993-1996) were linked to census and geospatial data, capturing neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES), population density, commuting, food outlets, amenities, walkability, and traffic density...
December 8, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185553/neurologists-should-endorse-active-transportation-for-their-patients
#14
Daniel Foster
It has been well-established that social determinants prevent far more deaths than medical care. Both behavior and social circumstance are closely linked to transportation. The connection between health and transportation is both direct (pedestrian injury, for example) and indirect (commuting access to work leading to employer-based health insurance, for example). Thus, transportation policy and health policy are interrelated. Neurologists should join community partnerships to promote safe and healthy transportation options for all people but especially for their patients...
August 2017: Neurology. Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182191/-association-of-active-commuting-with-obesity-findings-from-the-chilean-national-health-survey-2009-2010
#15
Alex Garrido-Méndez, Ximena Díaz, María Adela Martínez, Ana María Leiva, Cristian Álvarez, Rodrigo Ramírez Campillo, Carlos Cristi-Montero, Fernando Rodríguez, Carlos Salas-Bravo, Eliana Durán, Ana María Labraña, Nicolás Aguilar-Farías, Carlos Celis-Morales
BACKGROUND: Active commuting is associated with a lower risk for obesity in developed countries. AIM: To investigate the association between active commuting and obesity risk in Chile. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Active commuting was measured using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ v2) in 5,293 participants from the Chilean National Health Survey 2009-2010. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were the study outcomes...
July 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165126/associations-between-the-duration-of-active-commuting-to-school-and-academic-achievement-in-rural-chilean-adolescents
#16
Antonio García-Hermoso, Jose M Saavedra, Jordi Olloquequi, Robinson Ramírez-Vélez
BACKGROUND: Habitual active commuting to school may be positively associated with academic achievement. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between duration of walking or otherwise actively commuting to school and academic achievement. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 389 adolescents from seven rural schools (12-13 years). Mode and duration of active commuting to school (use of active means such as walking or biking to and from school) and screen time were self-reported...
April 4, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164276/physical-activity-and-heart-rate-variability-in-adolescents-with-abdominal-obesity
#17
Breno Quintella Farah, Aluísio Andrade-Lima, Antônio Henrique Germano-Soares, Diego Giulliano Destro Christofaro, Mauro Virgílio Gomes de Barros, Wagner Luiz do Prado, Raphael M Ritti-Dias
Physical activity is a protective factor for autonomic dysfunction. However, whether this occurs in adolescents with abdominal obesity is still unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the association between physical activity and heart rate variability (HRV) in adolescents with and without abdominal obesity. This cross-sectional study included 1152 boys (age: 17 ± 1 years). HRV measures of time (root mean square of the squared differences between adjacent normal RR intervals-RMSSD and the percentage of adjacent intervals over 50 ms-PNN50) and frequency domains (balance sympathetic-vagal-LF/HF) were evaluated, as well as total physical activity, commuting physical activity, leisure-time physical activity, and abdominal obesity...
November 21, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124104/built-environment-and-active-commuting-rural-urban-differences-in-the-u-s
#18
Jessie X Fan, Ming Wen, Neng Wan
The purpose of this research was to investigate rural-urban differences in participation rates in three modes of active commuting (AC) and their built environmental correlates. The 2010 Census supplemented with other datasets were used to analyze AC rates in percent of workers age 16+ walking, biking, or taking public transportation to work in 70,172 Census tracts, including 12,844 rural and 57,328 urban. Random-intercept factional logit regressions were used to account for zero-inflated data and for clustering of tracts within counties...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121794/what-factors-explain-bicycling-and-walking-for-commuting-by-elsa-brasil-participants
#19
Sheila Maria Alvim de Matos, Francisco José Gondim Pitanga, Maria da Conceição C Almeida, Ciro Oliveira Queiroz, Clarice Alves Dos Santos, Rogerio Tosta de Almeida, Ianne Tayrine Martins da Silva, Rosane Harter Griep, Leila Denise Alves Ferreira Amorim, Ana Luísa Patrão, Estela M L Aquino
PURPOSE: To analyze the factors associated with commuting by bicycling and walking in adult participants from ELSA-Brasil (Longitudinal Study of Adult Health). DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Six teaching/research institutions throughout Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 15 105 civil servants. MEASURES: Commuting by bicycling and walking was analyzed using the long-form International Physical Activity Questionnaire...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121096/personal-exposure-to-fine-particulate-air-pollution-while-commuting-an-examination-of-six-transport-modes-on-an-urban-arterial-roadway
#20
Robert A Chaney, Chantel D Sloan, Victoria C Cooper, Daniel R Robinson, Nathan R Hendrickson, Tyler A McCord, James D Johnston
Traffic-related air pollution in urban areas contributes significantly to commuters' daily PM2.5 exposures, but varies widely depending on mode of commuting. To date, studies show conflicting results for PM2.5 exposures based on mode of commuting, and few studies compare multiple modes of transportation simultaneously along a common route, making inter-modal comparisons difficult. In this study, we examined breathing zone PM2.5 exposures for six different modes of commuting (bicycle, walking, driving with windows open and closed, bus, and light-rail train) simultaneously on a single 2...
2017: PloS One
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