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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892996/variability-of-school-children-s-activity-comes-from-recess-and-before-school
#1
Iku Suzuki, Masayuki Okuda, Maki Tanaka, Shigeru Inoue, Shigeho Tanaka, Chiaki Tanaka
BACKGROUND: An accurate description of physical activity (PA) at school is required for appropriate health interventions. We examined PA patterns of children, and identified time periods that influenced them. METHODS: Forty students in 5 Japanese primary schools were asked to wear triaxial accelerometers for at least7 days. We obtained coefficients of variance (CV) at 15 min intervals, and conducted factor analysis of the school periods. A questionnaire was used to investigate where students spent time before school, and during recesses...
June 12, 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890608/population-mobility-and-urban-wastewater-dynamics
#2
Chrystelle N H Atinkpahoun, Nang Dinh Le, Steve Pontvianne, Hélène Poirot, Jean-Pierre Leclerc, Marie-Noëlle Pons, Henri H Soclo
Dynamic influent models, which have been proposed to test control strategies using virtual wastewater treatment plants, should be as realistic as possible. The number of inhabitants in the catchment at any given time and their ways of life are among the parameters affecting the quality of these models. Census data related to work and school commutes were used to evaluate the number of people present in a given urban area. Based on the example of a large urban catchment (Grand Nancy, France), the results show that a population increase of 30% could occur during working hours resulting from the imbalance between workers leaving and coming into the catchment...
May 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887998/effects-of-6-months-of-active-commuting-and-leisure-time-exercise-on-fibrin-turnover-in-sedentary-individuals-with-overweight-and-obesity-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
Anne Sofie Gram, Martin Bæk Petersen, Jonas Salling Quist, Mads Rosenkilde, Bente Stallknecht, Else-Marie Bladbjerg
Obesity and exercise constitute important factors for cardiovascular disease risk, but the long-term effects of different exercise modalities on haemostatic biomarkers are not well elucidated. We investigated the effects of 6 months of active commuting or leisure-time exercise on measures of fibrin turnover in individuals who are overweight and obese. Ninety younger (20-40 years), sedentary, healthy women and men who are overweight and obese (BMI: 25-35 kg/m2 ) were randomised to 6 months of habitual lifestyle (CON, n =16), active commuting (BIKE, n =19), or leisure-time exercise of moderate (MOD, ∼50% VO2 peak reserve, n =31) or vigorous intensity (VIG, ∼70% VO2 peak reserve, n =24)...
2018: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886445/work-related-injuries-resulting-in-death-in-chile-a-cross-sectional-study-on-2014-and-2015-registries
#4
Vivienne C Bachelet
OBJECTIVE: To characterise work-related fatal events that occurred in Chile in 2014 and 2015 in workers covered by the Occupational Accidents and Professional Disease No 16.744 Act. DESIGN: Cross-sectional on registries of the Chilean Worker's Health and Safety National Information System, specifically focusing on the Fatal Work Accidents Registry of the Social Security Superintendence. STUDY POPULATION: Secondary data analysis on all 815 cases of occupational injury-related deaths registered in 2014 and 2015 in Chile and that were accredited by the Social Security Superintendence up to March 2016...
June 9, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29862886/how-community-and-peer-perceptions-promote-college-students-pro-social-bystander-actions-to-prevent-sexual-violence
#5
Victoria L Banyard, Andrew J Rizzo, Yamilex Bencosme, Alison C Cares, Mary M Moynihan
The prevalence of sexual violence crimes on U.S. college campuses is prompting institutions of higher education to increasingly invest in centers to support survivors and programs to prevent the violence before it happens. Understanding bystanders to sexual violence and what may motivate them to step in and help is a promising prevention strategy. The purpose of this study was to understand how potential active bystanders' (first-year college students) perceptions of community (including a sense of one's influence in the community and positive peer norms for helping) and individual beliefs about self (including sense of responsibility and self-efficacy) affect their self-reports of performing bystander behavior to address sexual violence risks...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785956/using-alternatives-to-the-car-and-risk-of-all-cause-cardiovascular-and-cancer-mortality
#6
Jenna Panter, Oliver Mytton, Stephen Sharp, Søren Brage, Steven Cummins, Anthony A Laverty, Katrien Wijndaele, David Ogilvie
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between using alternatives to the car which are more active for commuting and non-commuting purposes, and morbidity and mortality. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study using data from 3 58 799 participants, aged 37-73 years, from UK Biobank. Commute and non-commute travel were assessed at baseline in 2006-2010. We classified participants according to whether they relied exclusively on the car or used alternative modes of transport that were more active at least some of the time...
May 21, 2018: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780977/modeling-interdependent-and-periodic-real-world-action-sequences
#7
Takeshi Kurashima, Tim Althoff, Jure Leskovec
Mobile health applications, including those that track activities such as exercise, sleep, and diet, are becoming widely used. Accurately predicting human actions in the real world is essential for targeted recommendations that could improve our health and for personalization of these applications. However, making such predictions is extremely difficult due to the complexities of human behavior, which consists of a large number of potential actions that vary over time, depend on each other, and are periodic...
April 2018: Proceedings of the International World-Wide Web Conference
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754077/characteristics-of-peak-concentrations-of-black-carbon-encountered-by-elementary-school-children
#8
Hyeran Jeong, Donguk Park
The objectives of this study were to examine characteristics of peak concentrations, including frequency, duration, and relative magnitude, and estimate its contributions to overall daily exposure to BC by activity and microenvironment. We assessed daily personal exposures from August 2015 to January 2016 (75.2% of weekdays and 24.8% of weekend days; 64.1% of school days and 35.9% of holidays) among forty 10-12 years old children living in the Seoul metropolitan area. These children were equipped with a microaethalometer (BC monitor) and recorded a time-activity diary...
May 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738609/potential-of-electric-bicycles-to-improve-the-health-of-people-with-type-2-diabetes-a-feasibility-study
#9
A R Cooper, B Tibbitts, C England, D Procter, A Searle, S J Sebire, E Ranger, A S Page
AIM: To explore in a feasibility study whether 'e-cycling' was acceptable to, and could potentially improve the health of, people with Type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Twenty people with Type 2 diabetes were recruited and provided with an electric bicycle for 20 weeks. Participants completed a submaximal fitness test at baseline and follow-up to measure predicted maximal aerobic power, and semi-structured interviews were conducted to assess the acceptability of using an electric bicycle...
May 8, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734721/commuting-mode-choice-in-a-high-density-city-do-land-use-density-and-diversity-matter-in-hong-kong
#10
Yi Lu, Guibo Sun, Chinmoy Sarkar, Zhonghua Gou, Yang Xiao
Hong Kong is a densely populated and transit-oriented Chinese city, which provides an ideal urban environment with which to study the various successful facets of land use policy as a model for potential replication to curb increasing car use in other Chinese cities. We examine the commuting mode choice of 203,900 households living in 4768 street blocks in Hong Kong from 2011 census. A street block is the smallest planning unit, made up of one or more housing estates with a homogenous built environment and socioeconomic status...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723331/sociodemographic-inequalities-in-leisure-time-physical-activity-and-active-commuting-to-school-in-brazilian-adolescents-national-school-health-survey-pense-2009-2012-and-2015
#11
Rodrigo Wiltgen Ferreira, Andrea Ramirez Varela, Luciana Zaranza Monteiro, César Augusto Häfele, Simone José Dos Santos, Andrea Wendt, Inácio Crochemore Mohnsam Silva
The objective of this study was to identify inequalities in leisure-time physical activity and active commuting to school in Brazilian adolescents, as well as trends according to gender, type of school, maternal schooling, and geographic region, from 2009 to 2015. This was a descriptive study based on data from the Brazilian National School Health Survey (PeNSE) in 2009, 2012, and 2015. Students were defined as active in their leisure time when they practiced at least 60 minutes of physical activity a day on five or more of the seven days prior to the interview...
2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718953/estimating-city-level-travel-patterns-using-street-imagery-a-case-study-of-using-google-street-view-in-britain
#12
Rahul Goel, Leandro M T Garcia, Anna Goodman, Rob Johnson, Rachel Aldred, Manoradhan Murugesan, Soren Brage, Kavi Bhalla, James Woodcock
BACKGROUND: Street imagery is a promising and growing big data source providing current and historical images in more than 100 countries. Studies have reported using this data to audit road infrastructure and other built environment features. Here we explore a novel application, using Google Street View (GSV) to predict travel patterns at the city level. METHODS: We sampled 34 cities in Great Britain. In each city, we accessed 2000 GSV images from 1000 random locations...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697889/public-support-for-bicycling-and-transport-policies-in-inner-sydney-australia-a-cross-sectional-survey
#13
Chris Rissel, Melanie Crane, Chris Standen, Li Ming Wen, Richard Ellison, Stephen Greaves
OBJECTIVE: To describe the degree of community support - and factors associated with this support - for a number of potential transport policy options among an inner-city sample of residents in Sydney, Australia. METHODS: This study analysed data collected from a cross-sectional online survey: Wave 3 of the Sydney Transport and Health Study, conducted in September-October 2015 (n=418). RESULTS: There was a high level of overall support for policies to make public transport cheaper (85%), have more bicycle paths separated from motor vehicles (82%) and have a public bike-share program (72%), with similar levels of support across usual commute mode, age and sex...
April 26, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696538/variations-in-individuals-exposure-to-black-carbon-particles-during-their-daily-activities-a-screening-study-in-brazil
#14
Amanda Maria Carvalho, Patricia Krecl, Admir Créso Targino
Black carbon (BC) is a fraction of airborne PM2.5 emitted by combustion, causing deleterious effects on human health. Due to its abundance in cities, assessing personal exposure to BC is of utmost importance. Personal exposure and dose of six couples with different working routines were determined for 48 h based on 1-min mobile BC measurements and on ambient concentrations monitored simultaneously at home (outdoor) and at a suburban site. Although couples spent on average ~ 10 h together at home, the routine of each individual in other microenvironments led to 3-55% discrepancies in exposure between partners...
April 25, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673340/active-commuting-to-and-from-university-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-among-colombian-university-students
#15
Antonio García-Hermoso, Andrea P Quintero, Enrique Hernández, Jorge Enrique Correa-Bautista, Mikel Izquierdo, Alejandra Tordecilla-Sanders, Daniel Prieto-Benavides, Carolina Sandoval-Cuellar, Katherine González-Ruíz, Emilio Villa-González, Robinson Ramírez-Vélez
BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence concerning how active commuting (AC) is associated with health benefits in young. The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between AC to and from campus (walking) and obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a sample of Colombian university students. METHODS: A total of 784 university students (78.6% women, mean age = 20.1 ± 2.6 years old) participated in the study. The exposure variable was categorized into AC (active walker to campus) and non-AC (non/infrequent active walker to campus: car, motorcycle, or bus) to and from the university on a typical day...
April 19, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604327/changes-in-the-mode-of-travel-to-work-and-the-severity-of-depressive-symptoms-a-longitudinal-analysis-of-uk-biobank
#16
Craig S Knott, Jenna Panter, Louise Foley, David Ogilvie
Although commuting provides an opportunity for incorporating physical activity into daily routines, little is known about the effect of active commuting upon depressive symptoms. This study aimed to determine whether changes in commute mode are associated with differences in the severity of depressive symptoms in working adults. Commuters were selected from the UK Biobank cohort if they completed ≥2 assessment centre visits between 2006 and 2016. Modes of travel to work were self-reported at each visit. Participants were categorised as 'inactive' (car only) or 'active' commuters (any other mode(s), including walking, cycling and public transport)...
July 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519800/the-change-in-living-kidney-donation-in-women-and-men-in-the-united-states-2005-2015-a-population-based-analysis
#17
Jagbir Gill, Yayuk Joffres, Caren Rose, Julie Lesage, David Landsberg, Matthew Kadatz, John Gill
The factors underlying the decline in living kidney donation in the United States since 2005 must be understood to inform strategies to ensure access to this option for future patients. Population-based estimates provide a better assessment of donation activity than do trends in the number of living donor transplants. Using data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients and the United States Census, we determined longitudinal changes in living kidney donation between 2005 and 2015, focusing on the effect of sex and income...
April 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499669/generational-differences-in-patterns-of-physical-activities-over-time-in-the-canadian-population-an-age-period-cohort-analysis
#18
Mayilee Canizares, Elizabeth M Badley
BACKGROUND: Using longitudinal panel data, the aim of this study was to examine the contribution of age, period, and cohort effects on changes in physical activity over time in a population-based sample of Canadians. We focused on three domains of physical activities: leisure time, commuting (i.e. walking and cycling), and daily activities (i.e. sedentary behavior). We also examined whether changes in sedentary behavior related to changes in participation in leisure time and commuting activities...
March 2, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498263/impacts-of-personal-mobility-and-diurnal-concentration-variability-on-exposure-misclassification-to-ambient-pollutants
#19
Rakefet Shafran-Nathan, Yuval, David M Broday
Appreciating the uncertainty margins of exposure assessment to air pollution requires good understanding of its variability throughout the daily activities. This study describes a modeling framework for estimating exposure to air pollutants for a representative sample of working Israeli adults ( N ∼ 168 000) for which both the residence and workplace addresses were available. Individual daily trajectories were simulated by accounting for five generic daily activities: at home, at work, while in commute from home to work and back, and during out-of-home leisure activities...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496615/systematic-review-of-interventions-for-promoting-active-school-transport
#20
REVIEW
Emilio Villa-González, Yaira Barranco-Ruiz, Kelly R Evenson, Palma Chillón
Active commuting to school has been recognized as a potential avenue to increase physical activity in children and adolescents. However, active commuting to school has declined over time, and interventions are needed to reverse this trend. The main aim in the current study was to update a previous systematic review on interventions focused on active travel to school, following the same methodology and addressing the quality and effectiveness of new studies detected in the more recent scientific literature. A systematic review was conducted to identify intervention studies of active commuting to school published from February 2010 to December 2016...
June 2018: Preventive Medicine
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