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Colonic polyposis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725309/cronkhite-canada-syndrome-a-rare-cause-of-chronic-diarrhea
#1
Umair Iqbal, Ahmad Chaudhary, Muhammad Arsalan Karim, Hafsa Anwar, Nancy Merrell
Cronkhite-Canada syndrome (CCS) is a rare non-hereditary disease characterized by chronic diarrhea, diffuse intestinal polyposis and onychodystrophy. We present here a case of a middle-aged female who presented with chronic intermittent bloody diarrhea associated alopecia and loss of finger and toe nails. Labs were remarkable for microcytic anemia and severe hypoalbuminemia. Endoscopy showed numerous polyps scattered throughout the colon. She was treated with nutritional support and corticosteroid with complete resolution of her symptoms and endoscopic findings...
June 2017: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708837/extracellular-inhibitors-can-attenuate-tumorigenic-wnt-pathway-activity-in-adenomatous-polyposis-coli-mutants-predictions-of-a-validated-mathematical-model
#2
Gili Hochman, Karin Halevi-Tobias, Yuri Kogan, Zvia Agur
BACKGROUND: Despite considerable investigational efforts, no method to overcome the pathogenesis caused by loss of function (LoF) mutations in tumor suppressor genes has been successfully translated to the clinic. The most frequent LoF mutation in human cancers is Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), causing aberrant activation of the Wnt pathway. In nearly all colon cancer tumors, the APC protein is truncated, but still retains partial binding abilities. OBJECTIVE & METHODS: Here, we tested the hypothesis that extracellular inhibitors of the Wnt pathway, although acting upstream of the APC mutation, can restore normal levels of pathway activity in colon cancer cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705174/extensive-colorectal-lymphomatous-polyposis-complicated-by-acute-intestinal-obstruction-a-case-report
#3
Jaques Waisberg, Amanda do Val Anderi, Pedro Augusto Soffner Cardoso, José Henrique Miranda Borducchi, Demetrius Eduardo Germini, Maria Isete Fares Franco, Cidia Vasconcellos
BACKGROUND: Multiple lymphomatous polyposis is a rare type of gastrointestinal lymphoma that extensively infiltrates the intestine. Multiple lymphomatous polyposis originates from the mantle zone of the lymphoma follicle and is considered to be a mantle cell lymphoma, which is a relatively aggressive type of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. We report an unusual case of a patient with multiple lymphomatous polyposis with extensive colorectal involvement and acute intestinal obstruction, an atypical complication of this rare disease...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689546/-two-cases-of-the-rare-cronkhite-canada-syndrome
#4
Thorbjørn Christensen, Ove B Schaffalitzky de Muckadell
Cronkhite-Canada syndrome (CCS) is a rare non-heritable condition characterized by gastrointestinal polyposis, dysgeusia, malnutrition, total alopecia and onychodystrophia. Two Danish cases of CCS (an 88-year-old female and a 69-year-old male) presented with signs of malnutrition, dyspepsia, vomiting, dysgeusia and hair loss. An upper endoscopy revealed marked oedema and polyposis in the stomach. Both patients developed colonic adenocarcinomas which were radically operated. Treatment consisted of hyperalimentation, prednisolone and azathioprine...
July 3, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681123/estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-as-a-prognostic-marker-of-tumor-progression-in-colorectal-cancer-with-familial-adenomatous-polyposis-and-sporadic-polyps
#5
Paulo Roberto Stevanato Filho, Samuel Aguiar Júnior, Maria Dirlei Begnami, Fábio de Oliveira Ferreira, Wilson Toshihiko Nakagawa, Ranyell Matheus Sobreira Batista Spencer, Tiago Santoro Bezerra, Philip Edward Boggiss, Ademar Lopes
The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is lower in women than in men, and sex steroids can be considered contributing factors because oral contraception usage and estrogen replacement therapy are associated with decreased risk. Conversely, colorectal polyp development in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) begins during puberty. The objectives were to evaluate the relationship between the expression of these hormone receptors and adenoma-carcinoma progression, CRC stage and overall survival. We studied 120 A...
July 5, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670238/clinical-characteristics-of-patients-with-serrated-polyposis-syndrome-in-korea-comparison-with-western-patients
#6
Eun Ran Kim, Jaryong Jeon, Jin Hee Lee, Yoon Jung Lee, Sung Noh Hong, Dong Kyung Chang, Young-Ho Kim
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS) has been shown to increase the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, little is known about the characteristics of Asian patients with SPS. This study aimed to identify the clinicopathological features and risk of CRC in Korean patients with SPS as well as the differences between Korean and Western patients based on a literature review. METHODS: This retrospective study included 30 patients with SPS as defined by World Health Organization classification treated at Samsung Medical Center, Korea, between March 1999 and May 2011...
July 2017: Intestinal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668823/desmoid-tumors-in-familial-adenomatous-polyposis
#7
REVIEW
Maria Laura DE Marchis, Francesco Tonelli, Davide Quaresmini, Domenica Lovero, David Della-Morte, Franco Silvestris, Fiorella Guadagni, Raffaele Palmirotta
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a cancer syndrome caused by a germline mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene. It is characterized by the presence of hundreds of colonic polyps, which have a high tendency to undergo malignant transformation. Among associated lesions in FAP, desmoid tumors represent a common possible life-threatening condition that requires special attention. They are rare tumors occurring with a particularly high incidence in FAP, especially after surgery. In agreement with Knudson's 'two-hit' theory, the inactivation of the residual APC gene in FAP is a critical step in the development of both colorectal cancer and desmoids...
July 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654863/stat6-promotes-intestinal-tumorigenesis-in-a-mouse-model-of-adenomatous-polyposis-by-expansion-of-mdscs-and-inhibition-of-cytotoxic-cd8-response
#8
Asha Jayakumar, Alfred L M Bothwell
Intestinal tumorigenesis in the ApcMin/+ model is initiated by aberrant activation of Wnt pathway. Increased IL-4 expression in human colorectal cancer tissue and growth of colon cancer cell lines implied that IL-4-induced Stat6-mediated tumorigenic signaling likely contributes to intestinal tumor progression in ApcMin/+ mice. Stat6 also appears to promote expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) cells. MDSCs promote polyp formation in the ApcMin/+ model. Hence, Stat6 could have a broad role in coordinating both polyp cell proliferation and MDSC expansion...
June 24, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628110/colonic-organoids-derived-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-for-modeling-colorectal-cancer-and-drug-testing
#9
Miguel Crespo, Eduardo Vilar, Su-Yi Tsai, Kyle Chang, Sadaf Amin, Tara Srinivasan, Tuo Zhang, Nina H Pipalia, Huanhuan Joyce Chen, Mavee Witherspoon, Miriam Gordillo, Jenny Zhaoying Xiang, Frederick R Maxfield, Steven Lipkin, Todd Evans, Shuibing Chen
With the goal of modeling human disease of the large intestine, we sought to develop an effective protocol for deriving colonic organoids (COs) from differentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Extensive gene and immunohistochemical profiling confirmed that the derived COs represent colon rather than small intestine, containing stem cells, transit-amplifying cells, and the expected spectrum of differentiated cells, including goblet and endocrine cells. We applied this strategy to iPSCs derived from patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP-iPSCs) harboring germline mutations in the WNT-signaling-pathway-regulator gene encoding APC, and we generated COs that exhibit enhanced WNT activity and increased epithelial cell proliferation, which we used as a platform for drug testing...
July 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587064/prostaglandin-e2-induced-cox-2-expressions-via-ep2-and-ep4-signaling-pathways-in-human-lovo-colon-cancer-cells
#10
Hsi-Hsien Hsu, Yueh-Min Lin, Chia-Yao Shen, Marthandam Asokan Shibu, Shin-Yi Li, Sheng-Huang Chang, Chien-Chung Lin, Ray-Jade Chen, Vijaya Padma Viswanadha, Hui-Nung Shih, Chih-Yang Huang
Metastasis is the most dangerous risk faced by patients with hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer (HNPCC). The expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been observed in several types of human cancers and regulates the efficacy of many therapies. Here, we show that treatment with various concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2; 0, 1, 5 or 10 μM) promotes the migration ability of the human LoVo colon cancer cell line. As demonstrated by mRNA and protein expression analyses, EP2 and EP4 are the major PGE2 receptors expressed on the LoVo cell membrane...
May 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576136/novel-apc-gene-mutations-associated-with-protein-alteration-in-diffuse-type-gastric-cancer
#11
Souvik Ghatak, Payel Chakraborty, Sandeep Roy Sarkar, Biswajit Chowdhury, Arup Bhaumik, Nachimuthu Senthil Kumar
BACKGROUND: The role of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene in mitosis might be critical for regulation of genomic stability and chromosome segregation. APC gene mutations have been associated to have a role in colon cancer and since gastric and colon tumors share some common genetic lesions, it is relevant to investigate the role of APC tumor suppressor gene in gastric cancer. METHODS: We investigated for somatic mutations in the Exons 14 and 15 of APC gene from 40 diffuse type gastric cancersamples...
June 2, 2017: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565805/effects-of-dual-modified-resistant-indica-rice-starch-on-azoxymethane-induced-incipient-colon-cancer-in-mice
#12
Huaibo Yuan, Xiping Zhu, Deyi Chen, Wenjuan Wang, Shaohua Meng, Junhui Wang
In this study, the effects of different doses of dual modification-treated (DMT) indica rice resistant starch (IR-RS) on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced early colon cancer in mice were investigated. The investigated factors included body weight, gastrointestinal emptying rate, the number and morphology of aberrant crypt foci (ACFs) and the specific expressions of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and cytochrome c genes. The results demonstrated that DMT IR-RS controlled the increase in the body weights of the mice, increased the gastrointestinal emptying rates and reduced the numbers of ACFs and aberrant crypts...
May 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553956/autocrine-wnt2-signaling-in-fibroblasts-promotes-colorectal-cancer-progression
#13
N Kramer, J Schmöllerl, C Unger, H Nivarthi, A Rudisch, D Unterleuthner, M Scherzer, A Riedl, M Artaker, I Crncec, D Lenhardt, T Schwarz, B Prieler, X Han, M Hengstschläger, J Schüler, R Eferl, R Moriggl, W Sommergruber, H Dolznig
The canonical WNT signaling pathway is crucial for intestinal stem cell renewal and aberrant WNT signaling is an early event in colorectal cancer (CRC) development. Here, we show for the first time that WNT2 is one of the most significantly induced genes in CRC stroma as compared to normal stroma. The impact of stromal WNT2 on carcinoma formation or progression was not addressed so far. Canonical WNT/β-catenin signaling was assessed using a 7TGP-reporter construct. Furthermore, effects of WNT2 on fibroblast migration and invasion were determined using siRNA-mediated gene silencing...
May 29, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546515/the-interaction-between-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-cascade-and-pkg-activation-in-cancer
#14
Kevin Lee, Gary A Piazza
The activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade has been well studied and documented in colorectal cancer (CRC). The long-term use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been shown to reduce the incidence and risk of death from CRC in numerous epidemiological studies. The NSAID sulindac has also been reported to cause regression of precancerous adenomas in individuals with familial adenomatous polyposis who are at high risk of developing CRC. The mechanism responsible for cancer chemopreventive activity of NSAIDs is not well understood but may be unrelated to their cyclooxygenase inhibitory activity...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522919/protein-losing-pseudomembranous-colitis-with-cap-polyposis-like-features
#15
Wolfgang Kreisel, Guenther Ruf, Richard Salm, Adhara Lazaro, Bertram Bengsch, Anna-Maria Globig, Paul Fisch, Silke Lassmann, Annette Schmitt-Graeff
Protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) is characterized by loss of serum proteins into the gastrointestinal tract. It may lead to hypoproteinemia and clinically present as protein deficiency edema, ascites, pleural or pericardial effusion and/or malnutrition. In most cases the site of protein loss is the small intestine. Here we present an unusual case of severe PLE in a 55-year old female with a one-year history of recurrent diarrhea, crampy abdominal pain, and peripheral edema. Endoscopy and MRI showed a diffuse inflammatory thickening of the sigmoid colon and the rectum...
April 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467793/the-different-pathogeneses-of-sporadic-adenoma-and-adenocarcinoma-in-non-ampullary-lesions-of-the-proximal-and-distal-duodenum
#16
Ayumi Niwa, Seiya Kuwano, Hiroyuki Tomita, Keita Kimura, Yukiya Orihara, Tomohiro Kanayama, Kei Noguchi, Kenji Hisamatsu, Takayuki Nakashima, Yuichiro Hatano, Akihiro Hirata, Tatsuhiko Miyazaki, Kazuhiro Kaneko, Takuji Tanaka, Akira Hara
Non-ampullary duodenal adenoma with activation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling is common in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients, whereas sporadic non-ampullary adenoma is uncommon. The adenoma-carcinoma sequence similar to colon cancer is associated with duodenal tumors in FAP, but not always in sporadic tumors. We obtained 37 non-ampullary duodenal tumors, including 25 adenomas and 12 adenocarcinomas, were obtained from biopsies and endoscopic resections. We performed immunohistochemistry for β-catenin, the hallmark of Wnt activation, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), a putative cancer stem cell marker...
June 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451951/gastrointestinal-mantle-cell-lymphoma-with-isolated-mass-and-multiple-lymphomatous-polyposis-report-of-two-cases
#17
Shunichi Yanai, Shotaro Nakamura, Satoko Yamaguchi, Keisuke Kawasaki, Kazuyuki Ishida, Tamotsu Sugai, Junji Umeno, Motohiro Esaki, Takayuki Matsumoto
We herein report two patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), who had isolated mass and multiple lymphomatous polyposis (MLP) in the gastrointestinal tract. In case 1, esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a protruding mass in the duodenum and double-balloon endoscopy disclosed numerous polypoid lesions in the ileum. Case 2 had polyposis in the duodenum and a large mass-forming lesion in the ascending colon. Based on the histologic and immunohistochemical findings of the biopsy specimens, the diagnosis of MCL was made in both patients...
August 2017: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451866/the-116g%C3%A2-%C3%A2-a-msh6-and-ivs1-1121c%C3%A2-%C3%A2-t-pms2-genes-polymorphisms-modulate-the-risk-of-the-sporadic-colorectal-cancer-development-in-polish-population
#18
Piotr Zelga, Karolina Przybyłowska-Sygut, Marta Zelga, Adam Dziki, Ireneusz Majsterek
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is an evolutionarily conserved process that corrects mismatches generated during DNA replication. MMR defects were found to be associated with hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) and a subset of sporadic colon cancers. The inheritance of common variations in MMR genes may influences individual susceptibility to the development of colorectal cancer. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the association between gene polymorphisms Glu39Gly (c...
April 27, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450390/british-society-of-gastroenterology-position-statement-on-serrated-polyps-in-the-colon-and-rectum
#19
James E East, Wendy S Atkin, Adrian C Bateman, Susan K Clark, Sunil Dolwani, Shara N Ket, Simon J Leedham, Perminder S Phull, Matt D Rutter, Neil A Shepherd, Ian Tomlinson, Colin J Rees
Serrated polyps have been recognised in the last decade as important premalignant lesions accounting for between 15% and 30% of colorectal cancers. There is therefore a clinical need for guidance on how to manage these lesions; however, the evidence base is limited. A working group was commission by the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) Endoscopy section to review the available evidence and develop a position statement to provide clinical guidance until the evidence becomes available to support a formal guideline...
July 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441855/-correlation-between-mismatch-repair-proteins-status-and-clinicopathological-characteristics-in-sporadic-colorectal-cancer-patients
#20
Z T Xiao, R X Zhang, Y Zhao, J H Peng, S X Lu, H Z Zhang, P R Ding, X J Wu, Z H Lu, L R Li, D S Wan, Z Z Pan, G Chen
Objective: To explore the expression of mismatch repair (MMR) proteins in sporadic colorectal cancer (SCRC) patients, and its association with clinicopathological characteristics of SCRC. Methods: Patients with histologically confirmed colorectal cancer were consecutively recruited between December 2011 and June 2015 at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center. The exclusion criteria included multiple primary colorectal tumors, hereditary colorectal cancer (including Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis), and the patients without the MMR proteins status tested...
April 25, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
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