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frontal lobe seizure

R Espert, M Gadea, M Alino, J Oltra-Cucarella, C Perpina
INTRODUCTION: Moyamoya disease (MMD) is an occlusive cerebrovascular disease characterized by progressive stenosis or occlusion in the terminal portion of the bilateral internal carotid arteries, affecting both children and adults. AIM: To conduct a review and update on MMD from a clinical, neuroradiological, neuropsychological and genetic perspective. DEVELOPMENT: In this pathology, which occurs with ischemia or cerebral hemorrhage, an unusual compensatory vascular network (moyamoya vessels) develops at the base of the brain in the form of collateral channels...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Noah Sideman, Ganne Chaitanya, Xiaosong He, Gaelle Doucet, Na Young Kim, Michael R Sperling, Ashwini D Sharan, Joseph I Tracy
OBJECTIVE: In epilepsy, asymmetries in the organization of mesial temporal lobe (MTL) functions help determine the cognitive risk associated with procedures such as anterior temporal lobectomy. Past studies have investigated the change/shift in a visual episodic memory laterality index (LI) in mesial temporal lobe structures through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task activations. Here, we examine whether underlying task-related functional connectivity (FC) is concordant with such standard fMRI laterality measures...
February 27, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
J Bryan Iorgulescu, Sean Ferris, Ashima Agarwal, Sandro Casavilca Zambrano, D Ashley Hill, Robert Schmidt, Arie Perry
Meningioangiomatosis (MA) is a rare entity characterized by the perivascular spread of meningothelial and fibroblastic cells along the Virchow-Robin spaces of small leptomeningeal and intracortical blood vessels [1,2]. Sporadic cases of MA are thought to represent benign hamartomatous proliferations that are associated with refractory seizures and plaque-like cerebral hemispheric masses, primarily involving the temporal and/or frontal lobes. A distinct subset of MA presents in association with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), where the MA is often multifocal, non-epileptogenic, and accompanied by perilesional glial microhamartomas [3,4]...
March 1, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
Shanika R Samarasekera, Samuel F Berkovic, Ingrid E Scheffer
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of open-label lacosamide in patients with refractory sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy. The study was a case review of eight patients with refractory sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy treated with lacosamide. Seizure diaries compared the mean baseline seizure frequency with the most recent 3 months of follow-up. Five (62.5%) patients were responders, defined as ≥50% reduction in seizure frequency, over a mean duration of exposure of 21.5 months...
February 25, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Suyash Singh, Kuntal Kanti Das, Sushila Jaiswal, Raj Kumar
BACKGROUND: Exophytic growth (EG), where in the tumor mass grows beyond the neuraxial boundary formed by pia mater, remains a rare pattern of glioma growth. It has been described in gliomas at several locations like the brainstem, cerebellum, suprasellar area, spinal cord and the insula. However, EG in hemispheric grade 2 astrocytomas, particularly affecting the convexity subarachnoid space, as against the more spacious basal subarachnoid space, is exceedingly rare. To the best of our knowledge, there is only one such case reported in the English literature...
February 15, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Katrin Walther, Müjgan Dogan Onugoren, Michael Buchfelder, Stephanie Gollwitzer, Wolfgang Graf, Burkhard S Kasper, Peter Kriwy, Katrin Kurzbuch, Johannes Lang, Karl Rössler, Stefan Schwab, Michael Schwarz, Hermann Stefan, Hajo M Hamer
OBJECTIVE: Only limited data exist on psychosocial long-term outcome after epilepsy surgery in patients with extratemporal epilepsy. The aim of this study was to investigate psychosocial outcome after extratemporal epilepsy surgery and to assess factors predicting favorable outcome. METHOD: Sixty-five out of 104 eligible patients who had undergone extratemporal epilepsy surgery at our epilepsy center between 1990 and 2015 (mean age: 42.2. years; 75% of the resections in the frontal lobe) completed a questionnaire asking about seizure status, employment status, marital and living situation, driving status, depressive symptoms, and quality of life (QOL)...
February 14, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Hava Özlem Dede, Nerses Bebek, Candan Gürses, Leyla Baysal-Kıraç, Betül Baykan, Ayşen Gökyiğit
OBJECTIVES: Genital automatisms (GAs) are uncommon clinical phenomena of focal seizures. They are defined as repeated fondling, grabbing, or scratching of the genitals. The aim of this study was to determine the lateralizing and localizing value and associated clinical characteristics of GAs. METHODS: Three hundred thirteen consecutive patients with drug-resistant seizures who were referred to our tertiary center for presurgical evaluation between 2009 and 2016 were investigated...
February 1, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
A B Gago-Veiga, R Toledano, I García-Morales, M A Pérez-Jiménez, J Bernar, A Gil-Nagel
BACKGROUND: Ring chromosome 20 (R20) syndrome is a chromosomal disorder characterized mainly by drug-resistant frontal lobe seizures, recurrent nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE), and typical EEG features. The aim of this study was to investigate if this triad is common and specific to all patients with R20. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study (from 2000 to 2011), we selected patients who fulfilled at least two out of three criteria: drug-resistant frontal lobe seizures, recurrent NCSE, and characteristic electroencephalography (EEG) features...
February 2, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Aimee F Luat, Michael E Behen, Harry T Chugani, Csaba Juhász
PURPOSE: Most children with Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) develop seizures that may contribute to neurocognitive status. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that very early seizure onset has a particularly detrimental effect on the cognitive and/or motor outcomes of children with unilateral SWS. We also tested whether side of SWS brain involvement modulates the effect of seizure variables on the pattern of cognitive abnormalities. METHODS: Thirty-four children (22 girls; mean age 6...
February 2, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Sho Okune, Kazuhiro Ishii, Shogo Ouchi, Kazuki Sakakura, Masahide Matsuda, Akira Tamaoka
CLIPPERS (chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids) is an inflammatory central nervous system disorder that gives rise to brainstem symptoms such as diplopia and articulatory disorders. It shows characteristic "salt-and-pepper" enhancing brainstem lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. We present an unusual case of CLIPPERS, in which a 29-year-old man initially presented with a seizure. Brain MRI revealed faint open-ring enhancements in the right frontal lobe, and a brain biopsy was performed to make a definitive diagnosis...
January 26, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Mengmeng Wang, Rende Zhang, Xueyou Liu, Dongming Li, Peichao Zhao, Yuchao Zuo, Peng Zhang, Junkuan Wang, Hongwei Sun
OBJECTIVE: Cortical ependymomas (CEs), supratentorial ependymoma that selectively involve the cerebral cortex, is relatively rare neoplasm which have not been extensively described. The purpose of our study was to identify the clinical features, radiologic characteristics, and treatment of a series of such tumors. METHODS: Thirteen patients with cortical ependymomas from our hospital were included in this study. Epidemiological characteristics, clinical features, imaging findings, treatment methods and clinical outcomes were reviewed retrospectively...
January 30, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Zahari N Tchopev, Ping-Hong Yeh, Greg W Morgan, Eric Meyer, Johanna M Wolf, John M Ollinger, Gerard P Riedy, Lisa C Young
Sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy (SHE) (previously frontal lobe epilepsy) is a rare seizure disorder commonly misdiagnosed or unrecognized, causing negative patient sequelae. While usually reported in familial studies, it is more commonly acquired. Diagnosis is a challenge due to its low incidence in comparison with the more common sleep disorders or psychogenic etiologies in the differential diagnosis. Diagnosis is scaled on degree of certainty based on described or clinically documented semiology, with video EEG as a helpful, but not necessary, adjunct...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
George Fotakopoulos, Demosthenes Makris, Eleni Tsianaka, Polikceni Kotlia, Paulos Karakitsios, Charalabos Gatos, Alkiviadis Tzannis, Kostas Fountas
OBJECT: To identify the risk factors for post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) and to document the incidence of PTA after mild traumatic brain injuries. METHODS: This was a prospective study, affecting mild TBI (mTBI) (Glasgow Coma Scale 14-15) cases attending to the Emergency Department between January 2009 and April 2012 (40 months duration). Patients were divided into two groups (Group A: without PTA, and Group B: with PTA, and they were assessed according to the risk factors...
February 5, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Hea Ree Park, Min Jae Seong, Young-Min Shon, Eun Yeon Joo, Dae-Won Seo, Seung Bong Hong
Ictal automatism with preserved responsiveness (APR) has been reported, particularly in nondominant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but its pathophysiology remains poorly understood. This study sought to investigate the relationship between APRs and increased cerebral blood flow (CBF) using ictal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in TLE. Forty-seven subjects with right mesial TLE (15 with and 32 without APR) were enrolled. Patients with APR (APR+) were subdivided into four groups according to degree of responsiveness during seizures...
January 19, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Malgosia A Kokoszka, Fedor Panov, Maite La Vega-Talbott, Patricia E McGoldrick, Steven M Wolf, Saadi Ghatan
The responsive neurostimulation (RNS) system, an adjunctive treatment for pharmacoresistant partial-onset seizures with 1 or 2 foci, has been available to patients aged 18 years or older since the device's FDA approval in 2013. Herein, the authors describe their off-label application of this technology in 2 pediatric patients and the consequent therapeutic benefit without surgical complications or treatment side effects. A 14-year-old nonambulatory, nonverbal male with severe developmental delay was considered for RNS therapy for medically and surgically refractory epilepsy with bilateral seizure onsets in the setting of a normal radiological examination and a known neuropathological diagnosis of type I cortical dysplasia...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Iva Speck, Matthias Echternach, Daniela Sammler, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage
The objective of our study was to assess alterations in speech as a possible localizing sign in frontal lobe epilepsy. Ictal speech was analyzed in 18 patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) during seizures and in the interictal period. Matched identical words were analyzed regarding alterations in fundamental frequency (ƒo) as an approximation of pitch. In patients with FLE, ƒo of ictal utterances was significantly higher than ƒo in interictal recordings (p = 0.016). Ictal ƒo increases occurred in both FLE of right and left seizure origin...
January 31, 2018: Epilepsia
Serdal Gungor, Betul Kilic, Yilmaz Tabel, Ayse Selimoglu, Unsal Ozgen, Sezai Yilmaz
Objective: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is characterized by typical radiologic findings in the posterior regions of the cerebral hemispheres and cerebellum. The symptoms include headache, nausea, vomiting, visual disturbances, focal neurologic deficits, and seizures. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical and radiological features of PRES in children and to emphasize the recognition of atypical features. Materials & Methods: We retrospectively examined 23 children with PRES from Mar 2010-Apr 2015 in Inonu University Turgut Ozal Medical Center in Turkey...
2018: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
Hari Guragain, Jan Cimbalnik, Matt Stead, David M Groppe, Brent M Berry, Vaclav Kremen, Daniel Kenney-Jung, Jeffrey Britton, Gregory A Worrell, Benjamin H Brinkmann
OBJECTIVE: To assess the variation in baseline and seizure onset zone interictal high-frequency oscillation (HFO) rates and amplitudes across different anatomic brain regions in a large cohort of patients. METHODS: Seventy patients who had wide-bandwidth (5 kHz) intracranial EEG (iEEG) recordings during surgical evaluation for drug-resistant epilepsy between 2005 and 2014 who had high-resolution MRI and CT imaging were identified. Discrete HFOs were identified in 2-hour segments of high-quality interictal iEEG data with an automated detector...
February 20, 2018: Neurology
Y Song, M Zhong, F-C Cai
OBJECTIVE: Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) are the main methods for treatment of neonatal seizures; however, a few AEDs may cause developing brain damage of neonate. This study aims to investigate effects of oxcarbazepine (OXC) on developing brain damage of neonatal rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Both of neonatal and adult rats were divided into 6 groups, including Control, OXC 187.5 mg/kg, OXC 281.25 mg/kg, OXC 375 mg/kg group, LEV and PHT group. Body weight and brain weight were evaluated...
January 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Fukuko Yamamoto, Hironori Yamagiwa, Fuminori Iwamoto, Tsutomu Kasugai
Epithelioid hemangioendotheliomas(EHEs)most commonly occur in the liver, lung, bone, and soft tissues, but rarely in the brain. Here, we describe a case of primary intracranial epithelioid hemangioendothelioma manifested by an epileptic attack. A 53-year-old woman with no previous convulsive history presented at our hospital after experiencing a seizure. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass in her right frontal lobe, with edema, which was well enhanced with gadolinium. Systemic computed tomography, on the other hand, did not show any tumor involvement in other organs...
January 2018: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
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