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Crystal growth basalt

M Polacci, F Arzilli, G La Spina, N Le Gall, B Cai, M E Hartley, D Di Genova, N T Vo, S Nonni, R C Atwood, E W Llewellin, P D Lee, M R Burton
Magma crystallisation is a fundamental process driving eruptions and controlling the style of volcanic activity. Crystal nucleation delay, heterogeneous and homogeneous nucleation and crystal growth are all time-dependent processes, however, there is a paucity of real-time experimental data on crystal nucleation and growth kinetics, particularly at the beginning of crystallisation when conditions are far from equilibrium. Here, we reveal the first in situ 3D time-dependent observations of crystal nucleation and growth kinetics in a natural magma, reproducing the crystallisation occurring in real-time during a lava flow, by combining a bespoke high-temperature environmental cell with fast synchrotron X-ray microtomography...
May 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
D E Moser, K R Chamberlain, K T Tait, A K Schmitt, J R Darling, I R Barker, B C Hyde
Invaluable records of planetary dynamics and evolution can be recovered from the geochemical systematics of single meteorites. However, the interpreted ages of the ejected igneous crust of Mars differ by up to four billion years, a conundrum due in part to the difficulty of using geochemistry alone to distinguish between the ages of formation and the ages of the impact events that launched debris towards Earth. Here we solve the conundrum by combining in situ electron-beam nanostructural analyses and U-Pb (uranium-lead) isotopic measurements of the resistant micromineral baddeleyite (ZrO2) and host igneous minerals in the highly shock-metamorphosed shergottite Northwest Africa 5298 (ref...
July 25, 2013: Nature
G R Byerly, M R Palmer
Tourmaline-rich rocks are common in the low-grade, interior portions of the Barberton greenstone belt of South Africa, where shallow-marine sediments and underlying altered basaltic and komatiitic lavas contain up to 50% tourmaline. The presence of tourmaline-bearing rip-up clasts, intraformational tourmaline pebbles and tourmaline-coated grains indicate that boron mineralization was a low-temperature, surficial process. The association of these lithologies with stromatolites, evaporites, and shallow-water sedimentary structures and the virtual absence of tourmaline in correlative deep-water facies rocks in the greenstone belt strengthens this model...
May 1991: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology. Beitr├Ąge Zur Mineralogie und Petrologie
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