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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728144/retinal-penetration-of-intravitreally-injected-tissue-plasminogen-activator-a-rat-model-study
#1
Kfir Tal, Assaf Dotan, Yael Nisgav, Mor Dachbash, Orly Gal-Or, Rita Ehrlich, Dan D Gaton, Dov Weinberger, Tami Livnat
PURPOSE: To determine whether intravitreal unconjugated tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) (alteplase) can penetrate the intact neural retina and reach the subretinal space in an experimental model. METHODS: This study was performed in 24 Sprague-Dawley rats aged 12 weeks. Under general anesthesia, the right eye was injected with either 0.75 μg of 3 μL tPA (14 rats; study group) or saline (10 rats, control group) into the vitreous. Animals were euthanized at 3, 24, and 48 h...
July 20, 2017: Ophthalmic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725184/sevoflurane-induces-coherent-slow-delta-oscillations-in-rats
#2
Jennifer A Guidera, Norman E Taylor, Justin T Lee, Ksenia Y Vlasov, JunZhu Pei, Emily P Stephen, J Patrick Mayo, Emery N Brown, Ken Solt
Although general anesthetics are routinely administered to surgical patients to induce loss of consciousness, the mechanisms underlying anesthetic-induced unconsciousness are not fully understood. In rats, we characterized changes in the extradural EEG and intracranial local field potentials (LFPs) within the prefrontal cortex (PFC), parietal cortex (PC), and central thalamus (CT) in response to progressively higher doses of the inhaled anesthetic sevoflurane. During induction with a low dose of sevoflurane, beta/low gamma (12-40 Hz) power increased in the frontal EEG and PFC, PC and CT LFPs, and PFC-CT and PFC-PFC LFP beta/low gamma coherence increased...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724492/evaluation-of-pain-assessment-techniques-and-analgesia-efficacy-in-a-female-guinea-pig-cavia-porcellus-model-of-surgical-pain
#3
Vanessa L Oliver, Stephanie Athavale, Katherine E Simon, Lon V Kendall, Jean A Nemzek, Jennifer L Lofgren
Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are a frequently used species in research, often involving potentially painful procedures. Therefore, evidence-based recommendations regarding analgesia are critically needed to optimize their wellbeing. Our laboratory examined the efficacy of carprofen and extended-release (ER) buprenorphine, alone and as a multimodal combination, for relieving postsurgical pain in guinea pigs. Animals were assessed by using evoked (mechanical hypersensitivity), nonevoked (video ethogram, cageside ethogram, time-to-consumption test), and clinical (weight loss) measurements for 96 h during baseline, anesthesia-analgesia, and hysterectomy conditions...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724486/behavioral-characteristics-of-adult-zebrafish-danio-rerio-after-ms222-anesthesia-for-fin-excision
#4
Mélissa Cm De Lombaert, Elizabeth L Rick, Lisa A Krugner-Higby, Marc A Wolman
The health of laboratory animals is an ethical responsibility of researchers and a critical determinant of experimental outcome. Therefore, all husbandry procedures should be evaluated for their effects on mortality, behavior, and physiology to maximize animal welfare and minimize experimental variability. For adult zebrafish, the excision of a small portion of the caudal fin (that is, 'fin clipping') under MS222 anesthesia is a common procedure to obtain tissue for genotyping. The potential effect of this procedure on behavioral and physiologic assays of feeding, anxiety, and stress has not previously been assessed...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717108/isoflurane-is-a-suitable-alternative-to-ether-for-anesthetizing-rats-prior-to-euthanasia-for-gene-expression-analysis
#5
Noriyuki Nakatsu, Yoshinobu Igarashi, Taiki Aoshi, Isao Hamaguchi, Masumichi Saito, Takuo Mizukami, Haruka Momose, Ken J Ishii, Hiroshi Yamada
Diethyl ether (ether) had been widely used in Japan for anesthesia, despite its explosive properties and toxicity to both humans and animals. We also had used ether as an anesthetic for euthanizing rats for research in the Toxicogenomics Project (TGP). Because the use of ether for these purposes will likely cease, it is required to select an alternative anesthetic which is validated for consistency with existing TGP data acquired under ether anesthesia. We therefore compared two alternative anesthetic candidates, isoflurane and pentobarbital, with ether in terms of hematological findings, serum biochemical parameters, and gene expressions...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717055/incidence-of-anaphylactic-reactions-after-propofol-administration-in-dogs
#6
Mamoru Onuma, Misao Terada, Sadaharu Ono, Akiyoshi Murakami, Tomoko Ishida, Tadashi Sano
Propofol is an anesthetic agent suspended in an emulsion system that includes egg yolk lecithin and soybean oil, because of which, there is concern about the use of propofol in patients allergic to these substances. We examined the association between propofol administration and incidence of adverse events in dogs with allergy to egg yolk lecithin and soybean oil. On the basis of the findings of an allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) test, 14 dogs with high levels (high-IgE group) and 7 dogs with low levels (normal-IgE group) of IgE were selected...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715950/efficacy-of-the-novel-medical-adhesive-mar-vivo-107-in-an-acute-porcine-liver-resection-model
#7
Hirokazu Tanaka, Kenji Fukushima, Pramod Kadaba Srinivasan, Kerstin Pawlowsky, Babette Koegel, Koichiro Hata, Yonson Ku, Shinji Uemoto, René H Tolba
BACKGROUND: Despite modern surgical techniques, insufficient hemostasis after liver trauma is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality after injury. Therefore, efficient hemostatic agents are indicated. In this study, we evaluated the hemostatic efficacy of a novel synthetic wound adhesive (MAR-VIVO-107) based on polyurethane/polyurea, compared with a widely used fibrin adhesive (Tisseel). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve German Landrace pigs were randomly assigned to 2 groups...
July 1, 2017: Surgical Innovation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713258/relationship-of-topology-multiscale-phase-synchronization-and-state-transitions-in-human-brain-networks
#8
Minkyung Kim, Seunghwan Kim, George A Mashour, UnCheol Lee
How the brain reconstitutes consciousness and cognition after a major perturbation like general anesthesia is an important question with significant neuroscientific and clinical implications. Recent empirical studies in animals and humans suggest that the recovery of consciousness after anesthesia is not random but ordered. Emergence patterns have been classified as progressive and abrupt transitions from anesthesia to consciousness, with associated differences in duration and electroencephalogram (EEG) properties...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706418/naringenin-prevents-experimental-liver-fibrosis-by-blocking-tgf%C3%AE-smad3-and-jnk-smad3-pathways
#9
Erika Hernández-Aquino, Natanael Zarco, Sael Casas-Grajales, Erika Ramos-Tovar, Rosa E Flores-Beltrán, Jonathan Arauz, Mineko Shibayama, Liliana Favari, Víctor Tsutsumi, José Segovia, Pablo Muriel
AIM: To study the molecular mechanisms involved in the hepatoprotective effects of naringenin (NAR) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis. METHODS: Thirty-two male Wistar rats (120-150 g) were randomly divided into four groups: (1) a control group (n = 8) that received 0.7% carboxy methyl-cellulose (NAR vehicle) 1 mL/daily p.o.; (2) a CCl4 group (n = 8) that received 400 mg of CCl4/kg body weight i.p. 3 times a week for 8 wk; (3) a CCl4 + NAR (n = 8) group that received 400 mg of CCl4/kg body weight i...
June 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700368/regional-anesthesia-and-analgesia-in-cancer-care-is-it-time-to-break-the-bad-news
#10
Mir W Sekandarzad, André A J van Zundert, Chris W Doornebal, Markus W Hollmann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is ongoing controversy regarding the tumor-protective effects of regional anesthesia in patients undergoing cancer surgery. Evidence of up-to-date systematic reviews will be presented alongside recent updates on the effects of opioids and local anesthetics. RECENT FINDINGS: In recent years, the literature regarding the effects of regional anesthesia techniques on cancer recurrence has raised many unanswered questions. Ongoing randomized controlled trials may not be able to shed light on the controversial discussion regarding the tumor protective effects of regional anesthesia because the expected effect size and event rate in those studies may be overstated...
July 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699371/minocycline-attenuates-high-mobility-group-box-1-translocation-microglial-activation-and-thalamic-neurodegeneration-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-postnatal-day-17-rats
#11
Dennis William Simon, Rajesh K Aneja, Henry Alexander, Michael J Bell, Hulya Bayir, Patrick M Kochanek, Robert S B Clark
In response to cell injury the danger signal high mobility group box-1 (HMGB) is released, activating macrophages by binding pattern recognition receptors. We investigated the role of the anti-inflammatory drug minocycline in attenuating HMGB1 translocation, microglial activation, and neuronal injury in a rat model of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). Postnatal day 17 Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to moderate-severe controlled cortical impact (CCI). Animals were randomized to treatment with minocycline (90 mg/kg, i...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698070/surgical-preparation-of-rats-and-mice-for-intravital-microscopic-imaging-of-abdominal-organs
#12
George J Rhodes
Intravital microscopy is a powerful research tool that can provide insight into cellular and subcellular events that take place in organs in the body. However, meaningful results can only be obtained from animals whose physiology is preserved during the process of microscopy. Here I discuss the importance of preserving the overall state of health of the animal, methods of anesthesia, surgical techniques for intravital microscopy of various abdominal organs, methods to maintain and monitor the physiology of the animal during microscopy and associated peri- and post-operative recovery considerations...
July 8, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697869/perioperative-mortality-in-cats-and-dogs-undergoing-spay-or-castration-at-a-high-volume-clinic
#13
J K Levy, K M Bard, S J Tucker, P D Diskant, P A Dingman
High volume spay-neuter (spay-castration) clinics have been established to improve population control of cats and dogs to reduce the number of animals admitted to and euthanazed in animal shelters. The rise in the number of spay-neuter clinics in the USA has been accompanied by concern about the quality of animal care provided in high volume facilities, which focus on minimally invasive, time saving techniques, high throughput and simultaneous management of multiple animals under various stages of anesthesia...
June 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697490/the-influence-of-blood-pressure-on-fetal-aortic-distensibility-an-animal-validation-study
#14
Christoph Wohlmuth, Kenneth J Moise, Ramesha Papanna, Ciprian Gheorghe, Anthony Johnson, Yisel Morales, Helena M Gardiner
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Aortic distension waveforms describe the change in diameter or cross-sectional area over the cardiac cycle. We aimed to validate the association of aortic fractional area change (AFAC) with blood pressure (BP) in a fetal lamb model. METHODS: Four pregnant ewes underwent open fetal surgery under general anesthesia at 107-120 gestational days. A 4-Fr catheter was introduced into the fetal femoral artery and vein, or the carotid artery and jugular vein...
July 12, 2017: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692439/lipid-emulsion-in-local-anesthetic-toxicity
#15
Martyn Harvey, Grant Cave
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Enthusiasm for regional anesthesia has been driven by multimodal benefits to patient outcomes. Despite widespread awareness and improved techniques (including the increasing use of ultrasound guidance for block placement), intravascular sequestration and the attendant risk of local anesthetic systemic toxicity (LAST) remains. Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) for the treatment of LAST has been endorsed by anesthetic regulatory societies on the basis of animal study and human case report data...
July 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688993/fat-demented-and-stupid-an-unrecognized-legacy-of-pediatric-urology
#16
REVIEW
Christopher S Cooper
The human body is an unfathomably intricate structure consisting of many connected and intertwined systems. This makes it impossible for therapeutic interventions to selectively target only one physiologic system without some impact or side effects on all the other systems. The resiliency of the human body modifies and disguises side effects, some of which may be undetectable for years and not apparent without scientific investigation. Pediatric urologists employ relatively few medications for the common conditions they treat and in general these consist of antibiotics, anticholinergics, and anesthetics...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686538/differential-intraocular-pressure-measurements-by-tonometry-and-direct-cannulation-after-treatment-with-soluble-adenylyl-cyclase-inhibitors
#17
Jarel K Gandhi, Uttio Roy Chowdhury, Zahid Manzar, Jochen Buck, Lonny R Levin, Michael P Fautsch, Alan D Marmorstein
PURPOSE: To validate the increase in intraocular pressure (IOP) caused by soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) inhibitors and determine reasons behind variation in IOP measurements performed by tonometry. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were administered DMSO solubilized sAC inhibitors (KH7 or LRE-1) by intraperitoneal injection. Two hours post-treatment, mice were anesthetized with avertin or ketamine/xylazine/acepromazine (KXA). IOP was measured by a rebound tonometer or direct cannulation of the anterior chamber...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682536/ketamine-for-depression-3-does-chirality-matter
#18
REVIEW
Chittaranjan Andrade
Ketamine is a racemic mixture of the enantiomers R-ketamine and S-ketamine (esketamine). S-ketamine has greater analgesic and anesthetic effects than R-ketamine and is less likely to cause psychotomimetic and other adverse effects. There is therefore an emerging interest favoring the use of S-ketamine over racemic ketamine when the drug is used for analgesia or anesthesia. This article examines preclinical and clinical literature on the antidepressant properties of S-ketamine. Animal data suggest potential advantages for R-ketamine over S-ketamine...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678965/calcium-hydroxide-associated-with-a-new-vehicle-psidium-cattleianum-leaf-extracts-tissue-response-evaluation
#19
Diego Valentim, Carlos Roberto Emerenciano Bueno, Vanessa Abreu Sanches Marques, Ana Maria Veiga Vasques, Marina Tolomei Sandoval Cury, Luciano Tavares Angelo Cintra, Eloi Dezan
The aim of this study was to evaluate edemogenic activity and subcutaneous inflammatory reaction induced by Psidium cattleianum leaf extracts associated with Ca(OH)2. Thirty male Wistar rats, split equally into three groups [aqueous extract + Ca(OH)2; ethanolic extract + Ca(OH)2; and propylene glycol + Ca(OH)2], were assessed every 3 h or 6 h (five animals in each period). Under general anesthesia, 0.2 mL of 1% Evans blue per 100 g of body weight was injected into the penile vein and each combination to be evaluated was subcutaneously injected into the dorsal region 30 min thereafter...
July 3, 2017: Brazilian Oral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672938/edaravone-improves-spatial-memory-and-modulates-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-mediated-apoptosis-after-abdominal-surgery-in-mice
#20
Ayong Tian, Hong Ma, Rongwei Zhang, Yong Cui, Chengfu Wan
Patients who receive major surgery often develop postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD); however, there is a lack of effective management as the pathogenesis of this disorder has not been fully elucidated. The neuroprotective effects of edaravone have been characterized in both in vitro cultured cells and in experimental animal models. The present study aimed to determine the potential role of edaravone in surgery-induced cognitive decline in mice. Animals were assigned to three groups: Control group (n=32), where mice received local anesthesia; surgery group (n=32), where mice underwent abdominal surgery under anesthesia; and edaravone group (n=32), where mice received abdominal surgery and were administered with edaravone (3 mg/kg)...
July 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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