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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351671/a-novel-non-invasive-method-for-evaluating-electroencephalograms-on-laying-hens
#1
Krista N Eberle, Michael P Martin, Sanjay Shah, Ramon D Malheiros, Kimberly A Livingston, Kenneth E Anderson
The use of electroencephalograms (EEG) to study the avian brain relative to behavior was conducted as early as the 1960's. EEG readings, combined with visual cues, provide the ability to elucidate and correlate behaviors to neurological and physiological changes in a chicken. The use of EEG recordings in animal models require access to the brain to implant electrodes. Having the ability to observe EEG activity on sensible birds without surgical implantation could broaden the research in this area and give further insight related to the hen's state of awareness...
January 17, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344658/microrna-188-3p-is-involved-in-sevoflurane-anesthesia-induced-neuroapoptosis-by-targeting-mdm2
#2
Lei Wang, Mengliang Zheng, Shuishui Wu, Zhiqiang Niu
Sevoflurane is a commonly used inhalation anesthetic. Sevoflurane-induced neuroapoptosis and cognitive impairments in animals are widely reported, however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. The results of the present study demonstrated that sevoflurane anesthesia induced spatial memory impairments in rats, as determined by the Morris water maze test. Mechanistically, the current study demonstrated that sevoflurane administration significantly enhanced the expression of microRNA (miR)‑188‑3p...
January 16, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341023/anesthesia-and-monitoring-of-animals-during-mri-studies
#3
Jordi L Tremoleda, Sven Macholl, Jane K Sosabowski
The use of imaging represents a major impact on the refinement and the reduction of in vivo studies in animal models, in particular for allowing longitudinal monitoring of the onset and the progression of disease within the same animal, and studying the biological effects of drug candidate and their therapeutic effectiveness. But the use of imaging procedures can affect animal physiology, and the need to anesthetize the animals for imaging entails potential health risks. During anesthesia, there is an inevitable autonomic nervous system depression which induces cardiovascular depression, respiratory depression, and hypothermia...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340799/fully-automated-life-support-an-implementation-and-feasibility-pilot-study-in-healthy-pigs
#4
Wilfried Klingert, Jörg Peter, Christian Thiel, Karolin Thiel, Wolfgang Rosenstiel, Kathrin Klingert, Christian Grasshoff, Alfred Königsrainer, Martin Schenk
BACKGROUND: Automated systems are available in various application areas all over the world for the purpose of reducing workload and increasing safety. However, such support systems that would aid caregivers are still lacking in the medical sector. With respect to workload and safety, especially, the intensive care unit appears to be an important and challenging application field. Whereas many closed-loop subsystems for single applications already exist, no comprehensive system covering multiple therapeutic aspects and interactions is available yet...
January 16, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336085/endotracheal-tube-placement-during-computed-tomography-of-brachycephalic-dogs-alters-upper-airway-dimensional-measurements
#5
Nai-Chieh Liu, Eileen L Troconis, Matthew McMillan, Marie-Aude Genain, Lajos Kalmar, David J Price, David R Sargan, Jane F Ladlow
Computed tomography (CT) is used to document upper airway lesions in dogs with brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome. The presence of an endotracheal tube during CT scanning is often required for general anesthesia. We hypothesized that the endotracheal tube placement would change the soft tissue dimensions of the upper airway. The aims of this prospective, method comparison study were to evaluate the reliability of the previously reported upper airway CT measurements with endotracheal tube placement, and to propose measurements that are minimally affected by the endotracheal tube...
January 15, 2018: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320823/first-blindness-cases-of-horses-infected-with-setaria-digitata-nematoda-filarioidea-in-the-republic-of-korea
#6
Jihun Shin, Kyu-Sung Ahn, Guk-Hyun Suh, Ha-Jung Kim, Hak-Sub Jeong, Byung-Su Kim, Eunsang Choi, Sung-Shik Shin
Ocular setariases of cattle were reported but those of equine hosts have never been reported in the Republic of Korea (Korea). We found motile worms in the aqueous humor of 15 horses (Equus spp.) from 12 localities in southern parts of Korea between January 2004 and November 2017. After the affected animals were properly restrained under sedation and local anesthesia, 10 ml disposable syringe with a 16-gauge needle was inserted into the anterior chamber of the affected eye to successfully remove the parasites...
December 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306581/pringle-maneuver-increases-the-risk-of-anastomotic-leakage-after-colonic-resection-in-rats
#7
Boris Jansen-Winkeln, Evangelos Tagkalos, Axel Heimann, Timo Gaiser, Daniela Hirsch, Ines Gockel, Jens Mittler, Hauke Lang, Stefan Heinrich
BACKGROUND: Many centers use the Pringle's maneuver during liver resections. Since this maneuver might impair healing of bowel anastomoses, we evaluated its influence on the healing of colonic anastomosis in rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats underwent median laparotomy and sigmoid resection with end-to-end anastomosis under inhalation anesthesia. Thereafter, rats received a 25 minutes Pringle's maneuver (PM, group 1) or were kept under anesthesia for the same period of time (group 2)...
January 3, 2018: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297814/coagulation-assessment-underutilized-diagnostic-tools-in-zoo-and-aquatic-animal-medicine
#8
Trevor J Gerlach, Ashley Barratclough, Bobbi Conner
Veterinarians specializing in nondomestic species are faced with unique challenges regarding research and diagnostic capabilities given the wild and frequently dangerous nature of their patients. Standard diagnostic techniques used in small or large animal practice are not always possible due to anatomical constraints, size, tractability, or the inherent risk of anesthesia in highly valued, rare species. Diagnostic modalities that utilize simple, relatively noninvasive techniques show promise in evaluating nondomestic species and elucidating the pathophysiology behind poorly characterized disease processes in both wild and captive populations...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297808/captive-management-of-wild-impala-aepyceros-melampus-during-intensive-immobilization-and-general-anesthesia-study-trials
#9
Gareth E Zeiler, Leith C R Meyer
Immobilization and anesthesia of impala ( Aepyceros melampus) has become a popular research theme. This demand is brought about by the increased need to immobilize and anesthetize impala and other medium-sized wild ungulates because of their increased value in game ranching and zoological collections. To improve our understanding of immobilization and general anesthesia in these species, it is paramount to be able to study them in a practical, safe research environment that does not cause harm or unnecessary stress to the animals...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297798/evaluation-of-blood-gas-values-in-anesthetized-southern-white-rhinoceros-ceratotherium-simum-ventilated-with-a-novel-demand-ventilator-in-a-zoological-park-setting
#10
Mark Jeon, Khursheed R Mama, Jeffrey R Zuba, Nadine Lamberski, James E Oosterhuis, Meredith M Clancy, Katie W Delk, Matthew E Kinney, Patrick J Morris, Francisco Olea-Popelka
Rhinoceros conservation efforts are essential to the survival of the species. One such effort is focused on using advanced reproductive technologies to produce viable northern white rhinoceros ( Ceratotherium simum cottoni) embryos for implantation into southern white rhinoceros ( Ceratotherium simum simum) surrogates. Anesthesia may be required to facilitate necessary procedures in these surrogate rhinoceros, but commonly reported side effects including hypercapnia and hypoxemia limit anesthetic recumbency time due to animal safety concerns...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289666/efficacy-of-favipiravir-t-705-in-nonhuman-primates-infected-with-ebola-virus-or-marburg-virus
#11
Sandra L Bixler, Thomas M Bocan, Jay Wells, Kelly Wetzel, Sean Van Tongeren, Lian Dong, Nicole Lackemeyer, Ginger Donnelly, Lisa Cazares, Jonathan Nuss, Veronica Soloveva, Keith Koistinen, Lisa Welch, Carol Epstein, Li-Fang Liang, Dennis Giesing, Robert Lenk, Sina Bavari, Travis K Warren
Favipiravir is a broad-spectrum antiviral agent that has demonstrated efficacy against Ebola virus (EBOV) in rodents. However, there are no published reports of favipiravir efficacy for filovirus infection of nonhuman primates (NHPs). Here we evaluated the pharmacokinetic profile of favipiravir in NHPs, as well as in vivo efficacy against two filoviruses, EBOV and Marburg virus (MARV). While no survival benefit was observed in two studies employing once- or twice-daily oral dosing of favipiravir during EBOV infection of NHPs, an antiviral effect was observed in terms of extended time-to-death and reduced levels of viral RNA...
December 28, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288749/enhanced-wakefulness-following-lesions-of-a-mesopontine-locus-essential-for-the-induction-of-general-anesthesia
#12
Sa'ar Lanir-Azaria, Guy Meiri, Tamir Avigdor, Anne Minert, Marshall Devor
The induction of general anesthesia shares many features with the transition from wakefulness to non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, suggesting that the two types of brain-state transition are orchestrated by a common neuronal mechanism. Previous studies revealed a brainstem locus, the mesopontine tegmental anesthesia area (MPTA), that is of singular importance for anesthetic induction. Microinjection there of GABAergic anesthetics induces rapid loss-of-consciousness and lesions render the animal relatively insensitive to anesthetics administered systemically...
December 27, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288070/neonatal-erythropoietin-mitigates-impaired-gait-social-interaction-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-abnormalities-in-a-rat-model-of-prenatal-brain-injury
#13
Shenandoah Robinson, Christopher J Corbett, Jesse L Winer, Lindsay A S Chan, Jessie R Maxwell, Christopher V Anstine, Tracylyn R Yellowhair, Nicholas A Andrews, Yirong Yang, Laurel O Sillerud, Lauren L Jantzie
Children who are born preterm are at risk for encephalopathy of prematurity, a leading cause of cerebral palsy, cognitive delay and behavioral disorders. Current interventions are limited and none have been shown to reverse cognitive and behavioral impairments, a primary determinant of poor quality of life for these children. Moreover, the mechanisms of perinatal brain injury that result in functional deficits and imaging abnormalities in the mature brain are poorly defined, limiting the potential to target interventions to those who may benefit most...
December 26, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285072/changes-in-transcranial-electrical-motor-evoked-potentials-during-the-early-and-reversible-stage-of-permanent-spinal-cord-ischemia-predict-spinal-cord-injury-in-a-rabbit-animal-model
#14
Mingguang Wang, Fanguo Meng, Qimin Song, Jian Zhang, Chao Dai, Qingyan Zhao
The present study examined changes in the transcranial electrical motor-evoked potentials (TceMEP) waveform to predict neurological deficits and histopathological changes during the early and reversible stage of different levels of permanent spinal cord ischemic injury in a rabbit animal model. A total of 24 New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into four groups of 6 rabbits each. Group 1 underwent a ligation of the lumbar artery at three levels (L1-L3), group 2 underwent a ligation of the lumbar artery at four levels (L1-L4) and group 3 underwent a ligation of the lumbar artery at five levels (L1-L5)...
December 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284860/effect-of-locally-administered-dexmedetomidine-as-adjuvant-to-levobupivacaine-in-supraclavicular-brachial-plexus-block-double-blind-controlled-study
#15
Bikash Bisui, Swastika Samanta, Sumanta Ghoshmaulik, Amit Banerjee, Tirtha R Ghosh, Suman Sarkar
Context: Brachial plexus block is effective with good postoperative analgesia in upper limb surgery has gained importance as it safe, low cost, and maintains stable hemodynamics intraoperatively. To decrease the onset time and prolong the duration of nerve block bicarbonate, opioids (morphine, fentanyl, etc.), sympathomimetic agents (epinephrine, phenylephrine, etc.), α-2 agonists (clonidine and dexmedetomidine), calcium channel blocker (verapamil), magnesium sulfate, etc., were studied with local anesthetics and their isomers...
October 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282084/r-100-improves-pulmonary-function-and-systemic-fluid-balance-in-sheep-with-combined-smoke-inhalation-injury-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-sepsis
#16
Hiroshi Ito, Erik Malgerud, Sven Asmussen, Ernesto Lopez, Andrew L Salzman, Perenlei Enkhbaatar
BACKGROUND: Septic shock is a major cause of death in intensive care units around the world . The aim of the study was to investigate whether the novel drug R-100 (a superoxide degradation catalyst and nitric oxide donor) improves pulmonary function in a sheep model of septic shock caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and smoke inhalation. METHODS: Eleven female sheep were prepared surgically and randomly assigned to a treatment group (n = 5) or a control group (n = 6) after inhalation of cooled cotton smoke and airway instillation of live P...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276137/ketamine-inhibits-ultrasound-stimulation-induced-neuromodulation-by-blocking-cortical-neuron-activity
#17
Sungmin Han, Minkyung Kim, Hyungmin Kim, Hyunjoon Shin, Inchan Youn
Ultrasound (US) can be used to noninvasively stimulate brain activity. However, reproducible motor responses evoked by US are only elicited when the animal is in a light state of anesthesia. The present study investigated the effects of ketamine on US-induced motor responses and cortical neuronal activity. US was applied to the motor cortex of mice, and motor responses were evaluated based on robustness scores. Cortical neuronal activity was observed by fluorescence calcium imaging. US-induced motor responses were inhibited more than 20 min after ketamine injection, and US-triggered Ca2+ transients in cortical neurons were effectively blocked by ketamine...
December 21, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274903/early-versus-late-repair-of-rotator-cuff-tears-in-rats
#18
Leonardo Cavinatto, Eduardo Angeli Malavolta, Cesar Augusto Martins Pereira, Manuela Miranda-Rodrigues, Luiza Campos Moreira Silva, Cecilia Helena Gouveia, Cesar de Cesar Netto, Rames Mattar Junior, Arnaldo Amado Fereira Neto
BACKGROUND: In the event of a traumatic rotator cuff tear, patients are routinely advised that early surgical intervention produces an optimal repair, despite a lack of direct evidence to support this recommendation. To address this knowledge gap, massive rotator cuff tears in rats were assessed by biomechanical and bone morphometric analyses after early or late repair. METHODS: Combined supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendon tears of the left shoulder were created in 21 adult Wistar rats, which were divided into 2 groups...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274353/oxidative-stress-in-the-amygdala-contributes-to-neuropathic-pain
#19
B Sagalajev, H Wei, Z Chen, I Albayrak, A Koivisto, A Pertovaara
Earlier studies indicate that the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) contributes to neuropathic pain. Here we studied whether amygdaloid administration of antioxidants or antagonists of TRPA1 that is among ion channels activated by oxidative stress attenuates nociceptive or affective pain in experimental neuropathy, and whether this effect involves amygdaloid astrocytes or descending serotonergic pathways acting on the spinal 5-HT1A receptor. The experiments were performed in rats with spared nerve injury (SNI)...
December 20, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261032/a-novel-low-cost-anesthesia-and-injection-system-for-zebrafish-researchers
#20
Yiğit Oskay, Barbaros Çetin, Naz Şerifoğlu, Ayça Arslan-Ergül, Michelle M Adams
In this study, we designed and developed a novel low-cost system for anesthetizing and injecting adult zebrafish. The system utilizes a gradual cooling method for the anesthesia and maintains the fish in a stable anesthetic plane, as well as stabilizes the animal so that intraperitoneal injections can be consistently performed. It is a system that any laboratory with access to a workshop can build for their group. Moreover, it is a safe system for researchers, as well as a reliable one for repeated experiments since multiple fish can be injected quickly and there is little physical contact necessary between the investigator and the animal...
December 20, 2017: Zebrafish
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