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Animal anesthesia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080912/comparison-of-medetomidine-ketamine-and-butorphanol-azaperone-medetomidine-in-captive-bennett-s-wallabies-macropus-rufogriseus
#1
Megan K Watson, Mary Thurber, Sathya K Chinnadurai
The objective of this study was to compare a traditional partially reversible medetomidine-ketamine sedation with a more reversible butorphanol-azaperone-medetomidine combination in Bennett's wallabies ( Macropus rufogriseus ) maintained in a zoological collection. Fourteen animals were divided into two treatment groups. Individuals in group 1 received an intramuscular (i.m.) injection of butorphanol (0.54 ± 0.05 mg/kg), azaperone (0.22 ± 0.02 mg/kg), and medetomidine (0.16 ± 0.02 mg/kg). Individuals in group 2 received an i...
December 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070330/the-approximated-cardiovascular-reserve-index-complies-with-haemorrhage-related-hemodynamic-deterioration-pattern-a-swine-exsanguination-model
#2
Roy Nadler, Elon Glassberg, Itay E Gabbay, Linn Wagnert-Avraham, Gal Yaniv, David Kushnir, Arik Eisenkraft, Ben-Zion Bobrovsky, Uri Gabbay
BACKGROUND: To estimate the cardiovascular reserve we formulated the Cardiovascular Reserve Index (CVRI) based on physiological measurements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pattern of CVRI in haemorrhage-related haemodynamic deterioration in an animal model simulating combat injury. METHODS: Data were collected retrospectively from a research database of swine exsanguination model in which serial physiological measurements were made under anesthesia in 12 swine of haemorrhagic injury and 5 controls...
February 2017: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070113/pharmacological-characterization-of-microminipig-as-a-model-to-assess-the-drug-induced-cardiovascular-responses-for-non-clinical-toxicity-and-or-safety-pharmacology-studies
#3
Hirofumi Yokoyama, Yuji Nakamura, Hiroyuki Saito, Yukitoshi Nagayama, Kiyotaka Hoshiai, Takeshi Wada, Hiroko Izumi-Nakaseko, Kentaro Ando, Yasuki Akie, Atsushi Sugiyama
We tried to establish the halothane-anesthetized microminipigs as an alternative animal model for non-clinical toxicity and/or safety pharmacology studies. In order to characterize the halothane-anesthetized microminipigs, we firstly clarified the effects of halothane anesthesia on their cardiovascular system (n = 5). Then, we examined the cardiovascular effects of dl-sotalol in doses of 0.1, 0.3 and 1 mg/kg, i.v. on the halothane-anesthetized microminipigs (n = 6). Induction of the halothane anesthesia by itself prolonged the QT interval as well as QTcF, suggesting that the halothane anesthesia can reduce the cardiac repolarization reserve in microminipigs like in dogs...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067709/factors-associated-with-risk-of-neurologic-complications-after-peripheral-nerve-blocks-a-systematic-review
#4
Rakesh V Sondekoppam, Ban C H Tsui
The onset of neurologic complications after regional anesthesia is a complex process and may result from an interaction of host, agent, and environmental risk factors. The purpose of this systematic review was examine the qualitative evidence relating to various risk factors implicated in neurologic dysfunction after peripheral nerve block (PNB). The MEDLINE, OVID, and EMBASE databases were primary sources for literature. Cochrane, LILACS, DARE, IndMed, ERIC, NHS, and HTA via Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD; York University) databases were searched for additional unique results...
January 5, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061863/prognostic-indicators-for-perioperative-survival-after-diaphragmatic-herniorrhaphy-in-cats-and-dogs-96-cases-2001-2013
#5
Claire Legallet, Kelley Thieman Mankin, Laura E Selmic
BACKGROUND: To determine associations between perioperative mortality after surgery for traumatic diaphragmatic hernia, medical records of 17 cats and 79 dogs that underwent diaphragmatic herniorrhaphy were reviewed. RESULTS: The combined perioperative survival rate was 81.3% (88.2% in cats and 79.8% in dogs). Data from acute and chronic cases was assessed separately. Of the acute cases (12 cats and 48 dogs), 10 cats (83.3%) and 38 dogs (79.2%) survived to discharge...
January 7, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056424/neonatal-anesthetic-neurotoxicity-insight-into-the-molecular-mechanisms-of-long-term-neurocognitive-deficits
#6
REVIEW
Deshui Yu, Linji Li, Weiguo Yuan
Mounting animal studies have demonstrated that almost all the clinically used general anesthetics could induce widespread neuroapoptosis in the immature brain. Alarmingly, some published findings have reported long-term neurocognitive deficits in response to early anesthesia exposure which deeply stresses the potential seriousness of developmental anesthetic neurotoxicity. However, the connection between anesthesia induced neuroapoptosis and subsequent neurocognitive deficits remains controversial. It should be noted that developmental anesthesia related neurotoxicity is not limited to neuroapoptosis...
January 2, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053882/hepatoprotective-potential-of-ethanolic-extract-of-aquilaria-agallocha-leaves-against-paracetamol-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-sd-rats
#7
Janey Alam, Md Mujahid, Badruddeen, Yasmeen Jahan, Paramdeep Bagga, Md Azizur Rahman
Many traditional systems of medicines employ herbal drugs for the hepatoprotection. Aim of the study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of 'ethanolic extract of Aquilaria agallocha ( Chen Xiang) leaves' (AAE) against paracetamol (PCM) induced hepatotoxicity in SD rats. Group I animals were treated with 1% CMC for 8 days. Group II, III, IV and V animals were first treated with '1% CMC' 1 ml/kg/day, AAE 200 mg/kg/day, AAE 400 mg/kg/day and silymarin 100 mg/kg/day respectively for 7 days and then, orally administered with PCM 3 g/kg b...
January 2017: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053610/evaluation-of-stability-and-biocompatibility-of-phema-pmma-keratoprosthesis-by-penetrating-keratoplasty-in-rabbits
#8
Yawon Hwang, Gonhyung Kim
Artificial corneas have been developed as an alternative to natural donor tissue to replace damaged or diseased corneas. This study was conducted to evaluate the stability and biocompatibility of PHEMA-PMMA [poly (2-hydroxyl methacrylate)-poly (methyl methacrylate)] keratoprostheses in rabbits following penetrating keratoplasty. Sixteen male New Zealand White rabbits aged 16 weeks were divided into three groups. Group I and group II contained six rabbits each, while the control group had four rabbits. Experimental surgery was conducted under general anesthesia...
December 2016: Laboratory Animal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053243/descending-antinociception-induced-by-secondary-somatosensory-cortex-stimulation-in-experimental-neuropathy-role-of-the-medullospinal-serotonergic-pathway
#9
Boriss Sagalajev, Hanna Viisanen, Hong Wei, Antti Pertovaara
Stimulation of the secondary somatosensory cortex (S2) has attenuated pain in humans and inflammatory nociception in animals. Here we studied S2 stimulation-induced antinociception and its underlying mechanisms in an experimental animal model of neuropathy induced by spinal nerve ligation (SNL). Effect of S2 stimulation on heat-evoked limb withdrawal latency was assessed in lightly anesthetized rats that were divided into three groups based on prior surgery and monofilament testing before induction of anesthesia: i) Sham operated group, ii-iii) (mechanically) hypersensitive and non-hypersensitive SNL groups...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053064/scientific-knowledge-and-technology-animal-experimentation-and-pharmaceutical-development
#10
Lewis B Kinter, Joseph J DeGeorge
Human discovery of pharmacologically active substances is arguably the oldest of the biomedical sciences with origins >3500 years ago. Since ancient times, four major transformations have dramatically impacted pharmaceutical development, each driven by advances in scientific knowledge, technology, and/or regulation: (1) anesthesia, analgesia, and antisepsis; (2) medicinal chemistry; (3) regulatory toxicology; and (4) targeted drug discovery. Animal experimentation in pharmaceutical development is a modern phenomenon dating from the 20th century and enabling several of the four transformations...
December 2016: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046858/su-f-i-68-longitudinal-neurochemical-changes-on-rat-prefrontal-cortex-of-single-prolonged-stress-model-by-using-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-at-9-4t
#11
S-I Lim, K-H Song, C-H Yoo, D-C Woo, B-Y Choe
PURPOSE: Single prolonged stress (SPS) is an animal model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it has not been known how PTSD develops from the first exposure to traumatic events and neurochemical differences between acute/single stress and PTSD-triggering stress. Therefore, the object of this study is to determine time-dependent neurochemical changes in prefrontal cortex (PFC) of rats using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=14; body weight=200-220g) were used...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039649/or-fire-virtual-training-simulator-design-and-face-validity
#12
Denis Dorozhkin, Jaisa Olasky, Daniel B Jones, Steven D Schwaitzberg, Stephanie B Jones, Caroline G L Cao, Marcos Molina, Steven Henriques, Jinling Wang, Jeff Flinn, Suvranu De
BACKGROUND: The Virtual Electrosurgical Skill Trainer is a tool for training surgeons the safe operation of electrosurgery tools in both open and minimally invasive surgery. This training includes a dedicated team-training module that focuses on operating room (OR) fire prevention and response. The module was developed to allow trainees, practicing surgeons, anesthesiologist, and nurses to interact with a virtual OR environment, which includes anesthesia apparatus, electrosurgical equipment, a virtual patient, and a fire extinguisher...
December 30, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032008/effects-of-isoflurane-anesthesia-on-resting-state-fmri-signals-and-functional-connectivity-within-primary-somatosensory-cortex-of-monkeys
#13
Tung-Lin Wu, Arabinda Mishra, Feng Wang, Pai-Feng Yang, John C Gore, Li Min Chen
INTRODUCTION: Correlated low-frequency fluctuations of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) signals have been widely used for inferring intrinsic brain functional connectivity (FC). In animal studies, accurate estimate of anesthetic effects on rsfMRI signals is demanded for reliable interpretations of FC changes. We have previously shown that inter-regional FC can reliably delineate local millimeter-scale circuits within digit representations of primary somatosensory cortex (S1) subregions (areas 3a, 3b, and 1) in monkeys under isoflurane anesthesia...
December 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030956/effects-of-long-duration-administration-of-1-isoflurane-on-resting-cerebral-blood-flow-and-default-mode-network-in-macaque-monkeys
#14
Chunxia Li, Xiaodong Zhang
Isoflurane is an inhalational anesthetic widely used in medical procedures or biomedical researches. The duration of anesthesia administration varies from minutes to hours. It is known isoflurane has dose-dependent effects on brain functionality and physiology and long-duration anesthesia administration could cause neurocognitive decline in animals and humans. However, the duration effect of isoflurane on the brain physiology and functionality still remains poorly understood. In the present study, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and functional connectivity of adult rhesus monkeys (maintained with 1% isoflurane for four hours) was examined using MRI...
December 28, 2016: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029285/effect-of-fentanyl-and-lidocaine-on-the-end-tidal-sevoflurane-concentration-preventing-motor-movement-in-dogs
#15
Martin A Suarez, Reza Seddighi, Christine M Egger, Barton W Rohrbach, Sherry K Cox, Butch K KuKanich, Thomas J Doherty
OBJECTIVE To determine effects of fentanyl, lidocaine, and a fentanyl-lidocaine combination on the minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane preventing motor movement (MACNM) in dogs. ANIMALS 6 adult Beagles. PROCEDURES Dogs were anesthetized with sevoflurane in oxygen 3 times (1-week intervals). Baseline MACNM (MACNM-B) was determined starting 45 minutes after induction of anesthesia. Dogs then received 1 of 3 treatments IV: fentanyl (loading dose, 15 μg/kg; constant rate infusion [CRI], 6 μg/kg/h), lidocaine (loading dose, 2 mg/kg; CRI, 6 mg/kg/h), and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination at the same doses...
January 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028980/normal-values-for-heart-electrophysiology-parameters-of-healthy-swine-determined-on-electrophysiology-study
#16
Agnieszka Noszczyk-Nowak, Alicja Cepiel, Adrian Janiszewski, Robert Pasławski, Jacek Gajek, Urszula Pasławska, Józef Nicpoń
BACKGROUND: Swine are a well-recognized animal model for human cardiovascular diseases. Despite the widespread use of porcine model in experimental electrophysiology, still no reference values for intracardiac electrical activity and conduction parameters determined during an invasive electrophysiology study (EPS) have been developed in this species thus far. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to develop a set of normal values for intracardiac electrical activity and conduction parameters determined during an invasive EPS of swine...
November 2016: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026813/-mechanisms-of-perioperative-corneal-abrasions-alterations-in-tear-film-proteome
#17
E Yu Zernii, O S Gancharova, I E Ishutina, V E Baksheeva, M O Golovastova, E I Kabanova, M S Savchenko, M V Serebryakova, L F Sotnikova, A A Zamyatnin, P P Philippov, I I Senin
Perioperative corneal abrasion is an ophthalmic complication commonly found in patients underwent general anesthesia. In this study, correlations between development of corneal injury and proteomic changes in tear film during general anesthesia were examined using an animal (rabbit) model. Being started after 1-h anesthesia, the process of accumulation of pathological changes in the cornea unequivocally led clinically significant abrasions following 3-6 h of the narcosis. The corneal damage was associated with alterations in profiles of major proteins of the tear film...
November 2016: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017922/noise-and-non-neuronal-contributions-to-the-bold-signal-applications-to-and-insights-from-animal-studies
#18
Shella D Keilholz, Wen-Ju Pan, Jacob Billings, Maysam Nezafati, Sadia Shakil
The BOLD signal reflects hemodynamic events within the brain, which in turn are driven by metabolic changes and neural activity. However, the link between BOLD changes and neural activity is indirect and can be influenced by a number of non-neuronal processes. Motion and physiological cycles have long been known to affect the BOLD signal and are present in both humans and animal models. Differences in physiological baseline can also contribute to intra- and inter-subject variability. The use of anesthesia, common in animal studies, alters neural activity, vascular tone, and neurovascular coupling...
December 22, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011172/wake-sleep-and-cardiovascular-regulatory-changes-in-rats-made-obese-by-a-high-fat-diet
#19
Marco Luppi, Abed A Al-Jahmany, Flavia Del Vecchio, Matteo Cerri, Alessia Di Cristoforo, Timna Hitrec, Davide Martelli, Emanuele Perez, Giovanni Zamboni, Roberto Amici
Obesity is known to be associated with alterations in wake-sleep (WS) architecture and cardiovascular parameters. This study was aimed at assessing the possible influence of diet-induced obesity (DIO) on sleep homeostasis and on the WS state-dependent levels of arterial pressure (AP) and heart rate in the rat. Two groups of age-matched Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a high-fat hypercaloric diet, leading to DIO, or a normocaloric standard diet (lean controls) for 8 weeks. While under general anesthesia, animals were implanted with instrumentation for the recording of electroencephalogram, electromyogram, arterial pressure, and deep brain temperature...
December 21, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003670/isoflurane-induces-transient-impairment-of-retention-of-spatial-working-memory-in-rats
#20
Masaaki Tanino, Motomu Kobayashi, Toshihiro Sasaki, Ken Takata, Yoshimasa Takeda, Satoshi Mizobuchi, Kiyoshi Morita, Taku Nagai, Hiroshi Morimatsu
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) occurs in nearly one-third of patients after non-cardiac surgery. Many animal behavior studies have investigated the effect of general anesthesia on cognitive function. However, there have been no studies examining the effects on working memory specifically, with a focus on the retention of working memory. We demonstrate here that isoflurane anesthesia induces deficits in the retention of spatial working memory in rats, as revealed by an increase in isoflurane- induced across-phase errors in the delayed spatial win-shift (SWSh) task with a 30-min delay in an 8-arm radial arm maze on post-anesthesia days (PADs) 1,2,4, and 10...
December 2016: Acta Medica Okayama
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