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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315653/techniques-for-nonterminal-blood-sampling-in-black-tailed-prairie-dogs-cynomys-ludovicianus
#1
Valerie Head, David Eshar, Melissa R Nau
Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are used as an animal model for research on gallbladder stones and several infectious diseases. A comprehensive, instructive resource regarding the appropriate techniques for venipuncture and collection of nonterminal blood samples in this species has not yet been published. Blood samples (1 mL or larger) were readily obtained from the jugular vein, femoral vein, or cranial vena cava, whereas peripheral sites, such as the cephalic vein, saphenous vein, and tarsal vein, mainly were useful for obtaining smaller volumes...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315642/comparison-of-atipamezole-with-yohimbine-for-antagonism-of-xylazine-in-mice-anesthetized-with-ketamine-and-xylazine
#2
Christopher F Janssen, Pauline Maiello, M Jerry Wright, Kara B Kracinovsky, Joseph T Newsome
The α2 adrenergic agonist xylazine produces a sedative effect and is typically combined with ketamine and used for anesthesia or chemical restraint of laboratory mice. Xylazine's sedative effect-and its undesirable side effects of bradycardia, hypotension, and poor tissue perfusion-can be reversed by administration of α2 antagonists, such as atipamezole or yohimbine. Although atipamezole and yohimbine dosing guidelines are available for mice, no controlled comparison has been performed to guide the lab animal community in the selection of one over the other...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315639/effect-of-home-cage-bedding-in-the-induction-chamber-on-serum-cortisol-and-corticosterone-levels-in-response-to-isoflurane-induced-anesthesia-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#3
Cara P Reiter, Amanda C Christy, Cara H Olsen, David E Bentzel
Mice are routinely anesthetized with isoflurane in an induction chamber. The AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals states that distress should be minimized during euthanasia but does not address this point in regard to induction of anesthesia. Here we evaluated the potential for familiar surroundings to reduce the adrenocortical response of mice during anesthesia induction with isoflurane. However, adding bedding from the animals' home cage to the induction chamber failed to significantly reduce serum cortisol or corticosterone levels in male and female C57BL/6J mice...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303363/test-retest-reliability-of-scotopic-full-field-electroretinograms-in-rabbits
#4
Jan Luebke, Alexandra Anton, Michael Bach
PURPOSE: To explore test-retest reliability of standard scotopic full-field ERG measurements in New Zealand White rabbits. The ERG is widely used for testing of retinal integrity after any ocular treatment. We here present detailed stimulus-response dependencies for single healthy and untreated animals, concentrating on test-retest reproducibility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five New Zealand White rabbits (aged 8-10 weeks, weight about 2.0-2.5 kg) underwent binocular ERG measurements after intramuscular anesthesia and pharmaceutical pupillary dilatation at a baseline day and 10 days later...
March 16, 2017: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301408/k-cl-cotransporter-2-mediated-cl-extrusion-determines-developmental-stage-dependent-impact-of-propofol-anesthesia-on-dendritic-spines
#5
Martin Puskarjov, Hubert Fiumelli, Adrian Briner, Timea Bodogan, Kornel Demeter, Claudia-Marvine Lacoh, Martina Mavrovic, Peter Blaesse, Kai Kaila, Laszlo Vutskits
BACKGROUND: General anesthetics potentiating γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated signaling are known to induce a persistent decrement in excitatory synapse number in the cerebral cortex when applied during early postnatal development, while an opposite action is produced at later stages. Here, the authors test the hypothesis that the effect of general anesthetics on synaptogenesis depends upon the efficacy of GABA receptor type A (GABAA)-mediated inhibition controlled by the developmental up-regulation of the potassium-chloride (K-Cl) cotransporter 2 (KCC2)...
March 16, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300332/computer-vision-based-diameter-maps-to-study-fluoroscopic-recordings-of-small-intestinal-motility-from-conscious-experimental-animals
#6
I Ramírez, J J Pantrigo, A S Montemayor, A E López-Pérez, M I Martín-Fontelles, S J H Brookes, R Abalo
BACKGROUND: When available, fluoroscopic recordings are a relatively cheap, non-invasive and technically straightforward way to study gastrointestinal motility. Spatiotemporal maps have been used to characterize motility of intestinal preparations in vitro, or in anesthetized animals in vivo. Here, a new automated computer-based method was used to construct spatiotemporal motility maps from fluoroscopic recordings obtained in conscious rats. METHODS: Conscious, non-fasted, adult, male Wistar rats (n=8) received intragastric administration of barium contrast, and 1-2 hours later, when several loops of the small intestine were well-defined, a 2 minutes-fluoroscopic recording was obtained...
March 16, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292634/ablative-liver-partition-and-portal-vein-embolization-proof-of-concept-testing-in-a-rabbit-model
#7
Ron C Gaba, James T Bui, Rajyasree Emmadi, Janesh Lakhoo
PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that a modified approach to portal vein embolization (PVE)-termed ablative liver partition (ALP) and PVE (ALP-PVE)-is feasible and results in greater future liver remnant (FLR) growth compared with PVE alone in a rabbit model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen rabbits (median weight, 2.7 kg) underwent PVE (n = 9) or ALP-PVE (n = 9). PVE to cranial liver lobes was performed with 100-300-μm microspheres and metallic coils; the caudal lobe was spared as the FLR...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291398/periodontal-therapy-in-dogs-using-bone-augmentation-products-marketed-for-veterinary-use
#8
Molly Angel
Periodontal disease is extremely common in companion animal practice. Patients presenting for a routine oral examination and prophylaxis may be found to have extensive periodontal disease and attachment loss. Vertical bone loss is a known sequela to periodontal disease and commonly involves the distal root of the mandibular first molar. This case report outlines two dogs presenting for oral examination and prophylaxis with general anesthesia. Both patients did not have any clinical symptoms of periodontal disease other than halitosis...
March 14, 2017: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288410/coronary-fat-embolism-following-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-an-experimental-study
#9
Ednan Bayram, Canan Atalay, Ender Altaş, Yavuzer Koza, Eşref Kabalar, Mahmut Açıkel, Mehmet Dumlu Aydın
BACKGROUND: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) can lead to neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE), and chylomicron metabolism may be altered unfavorably in acute lung injury. This study aimed to investigate the possible effect of NPE on the development of coronary fat embolism. METHODS: This study was conducted on 27 rabbits, 5 of which were used as the control (n=5). Experimental SAH was induced in 15 of the animals by injecting homologous blood into the cisterna magna, and the remaining 7 animals were administered only isotonic saline solution (Sham, n=7) in the same manner under general anesthesia...
March 7, 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287525/echocardiographic-approaches-and-protocols-for-comprehensive-phenotypic-characterization-of-valvular-heart-disease-in-mice
#10
Grace Casaclang-Verzosa, Maurice Enriquez-Sarano, Hector R Villaraga, Jordan D Miller
The aim of this manuscript and accompanying video is to provide an overview of the methods and approaches used for imaging heart valve function in rodents, with detailed descriptions of the appropriate methods for anesthesia, the echocardiographic windows used, the imaging planes and probe orientations for image acquisition, the methods for data analysis, and the limitations of emerging technologies for the evaluation of cardiac and valvular function. Importantly, we also highlight several future areas of research in cardiac and heart valve imaging that may be leveraged to gain insights into the pathogenesis of valve disease in preclinical animal models...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284817/differential-effects-of-gaseous-versus-injectable-anesthetics-on-changes-in-regional-cerebral-blood-flow-and-metabolism-induced-by-l-dopa-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Zisis Bimpisidis, Carl M Öberg, Natallia Maslava, M Angela Cenci, Cornelia Lundblad
Preclinical imaging of brain activity requires the use of anesthesia. In this study, we have compared the effects of two widely used anesthetics, inhaled isoflurane and ketamine/xylazine cocktail, on cerebral blood flow and metabolism in a rat model of Parkinson's disease and l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. Specific tracers were used to estimate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF - [(14)C]-iodoantipyrine) and regional cerebral metabolic rate (rCMR - [(14)C]-deoxyglucose) with a highly sensitive autoradiographic method...
March 8, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283552/anaesthetic-considerations-for-surgery-in-newborns
#12
Constance S Houck, Amy E Vinson
Almost 30 years ago, the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Fetus and Newborn coauthored a policy statement strongly advocating for the use of anaesthesia in all neonates stating 'local or systemic pharmacologic agents now available permit relatively safe administration of anesthesia or analgesia to neonates undergoing surgical procedures and that such administration is indicated according to the usual guidelines for the administration of anesthesia to high-risk, potentially unstable patients'. With current techniques and advanced monitoring, preterm and full-term infants routinely undergo surgical procedures under general anaesthesia to repair congenital defects that were lethal in years past...
March 10, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277546/decerebrate-mouse-model-for-studies-of-the-spinal-cord-circuits
#13
Claire F Meehan, Kyle A Mayr, Marin Manuel, Stan T Nakanishi, Patrick J Whelan
The adult decerebrate mouse model (a mouse with the cerebrum removed) enables the study of sensory-motor integration and motor output from the spinal cord for several hours without compromising these functions with anesthesia. For example, the decerebrate mouse is ideal for examining locomotor behavior using intracellular recording approaches, which would not be possible using current anesthetized preparations. This protocol describes the steps required to achieve a low-blood-loss decerebration in the mouse and approaches for recording signals from spinal cord neurons with a focus on motoneurons...
April 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277329/sevoflurane-compared-with-isoflurane-minimizes-lung-damage-in-pulmonary-but-not-in-extrapulmonary-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-in-rats
#14
Mariana N Araújo, Cíntia L Santos, Cynthia S Samary, Luciana B B Heil, Vinicius C M Cavalcanti, Fernanda F Cruz, Nathane S Felix, Johnatas D Silva, Marcelo M Morales, Paolo Pelosi, Fatima C Fernandes, Nivaldo R Villela, Pedro L Silva, Patricia R M Rocco
BACKGROUND: Volatile anesthetics modulate inflammation in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, it is unclear whether they act differently depending on ARDS etiology. We hypothesized that the in vivo and in vitro effects of sevoflurane and isoflurane on lung damage would not differ in pulmonary (p) and extrapulmonary (exp) ARDS. METHODS: Twenty-four Wistar rats were randomized to undergo general anesthesia (1-2 minutes) with sevoflurane and isoflurane...
March 8, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274833/investigating-the-spatiotemporal-characteristics-of-the-deoxyhemoglobin-related-and-deoxyhemoglobin-unrelated-functional-hemodynamic-response-across-cortical-layers-in-awake-marmosets
#15
Cecil Chern-Chyi Yen, Daniel Papoti, Afonso C Silva
Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become a major tool to map neural activity. However, the spatiotemporal characteristics of the BOLD functional hemodynamic response across the cortical layers remain poorly understood. While human fMRI studies suffer from low spatiotemporal resolution, the use of anesthesia in animal models introduces confounding factors. Additionally, inflow contributions to the fMRI signal become non-negligible when short repetition times (TRs) are used...
March 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274566/postoperative-atrial-fibrillation-the-role-of-the-inflammatory-response
#16
Yosuke Ishii, Richard B Schuessler, Sydney L Gaynor, Kiyomi Hames, Ralph J Damiano
OBJECTIVE: Abnormal atrial conduction has been shown to be a substrate for postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF). This study aimed to determine the relationship between the location of the atrial reentry responsible for POAF, and degree of atrial inflammation. METHODS: Normal mongrel dogs (n = 18) were divided into 3 groups: anesthesia alone (anesthesia), lateral right atriotomy (atriotomy), and lateral right atriotomy with anti-inflammatory therapy (steroid)...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273748/the-effects-of-uterine-artery-embolization-with-a-new-degradable-microsphere-in-an-experimental-study
#17
Johan Bengtsson, Wojciech Cwikiel, Pia C Sundgren, Erika Karlstam, Dolores Gavier-Widén, Inger Keussen
Background Transarterial particle embolization is a common treatment of uterine fibroids, aiming to obtain ischemia resulting in shrinking of the fibroid with preservation of normal uterine tissue. Embolization with non-degradable microspheres is established, but causes permanent occlusion of the arteries, affecting both the uterus as well as the fibroids. Purpose To evaluate in vivo degradation, local tissue effects, and possible recanalization following intra-arterial deposition of the new, degradable starch microspheres (DSM), in a short-term experimental pilot study...
January 1, 2017: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263113/factors-associated-with-anesthetic-related-death-in-dogs-and-cats-in-primary-care-veterinary-hospitals
#18
Nora S Matthews, Thomas J Mohn, Mingyin Yang, Nathaniel Spofford, Alison Marsh, Karen Faunt, Elizabeth M Lund, Sandra L Lefebvre
OBJECTIVE To identify risk factors for anesthetic-related death in pet dogs and cats. DESIGN Matched case-control study. ANIMALS 237 dogs and 181 cats. PROCEDURES Electronic medical records from 822 hospitals were examined to identify dogs and cats that underwent general anesthesia (including sedation) or sedation alone and had death attributable to the anesthetic episode ≤ 7 days later (case animals; 115 dogs and 89 cats) or survived > 7 days afterward (control animals [matched by species and hospital]; 122 dogs and 92 cats)...
March 15, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259273/a-double-blind-placebo-randomized-controlled-trial-of-minocycline-to-reduce-pain-after-carpal-tunnel-and-trigger-finger-release
#19
Catherine M Curtin, Debbie Kenney, Paola Suarez, Vincent R Hentz, Tina Hernandez-Boussard, Sean Mackey, Ian R Carroll
PURPOSE: Minocycline is a microglial cell inhibitor and decreases pain behaviors in animal models. Minocycline might represent an intervention for reducing postoperative pain. This trial tested whether perioperative administration of minocycline reduced time to pain resolution (TPR) after standardized hand surgeries with known prolonged pain profiles: carpal tunnel release (CTR) and trigger finger release (TFR). METHODS: This double-blinded randomized controlled trial included patients undergoing CTR or TFR under local anesthesia...
March 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259132/alterations-in-tear-biochemistry-associated-with-postanesthetic-chronic-dry-eye-syndrome
#20
E Yu Zernii, M O Golovastova, V E Baksheeva, E I Kabanova, I E Ishutina, O S Gancharova, A E Gusev, M S Savchenko, A P Loboda, L F Sotnikova, A A Zamyatnin, P P Philippov, I I Senin
Perioperative dry eye syndrome (DES) is a common ocular complication of long-term general anesthesia. Chronic DES can lead to permanent damage to the cornea and disturbance of visual function, up to total loss of vision. Here, a relationship between the duration of general anesthesia and the risk of chronic DES in patients was demonstrated. Using an experimental model of perioperative corneal abrasions in rabbits, it was found that introduction of animals to 3-h general anesthesia resulted in clinically significant chronic damage to the cornea in 50% of cases...
December 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
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