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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786525/on-farm-mortality-and-related-risk-factors-in-estonian-dairy-cows
#1
Kaari Reimus, Toomas Orro, Ulf Emanuelson, Arvo Viltrop, Kerli Mõtus
Mortality (unassisted death and euthanasia) reflects the health and welfare state of the cows and is associated with undesirable financial consequences for the farmer. The objective of this retrospective observational study was to identify risk factors associated with on-farm mortality in dairy cows. Data for a study period between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2015 were retrieved from the Estonian Agricultural Registers and Information Board and Estonian Livestock Performance Recording, Ltd. Cows from milk-recording herds with ≥20 cow-years were included...
July 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781504/epidural-versus-non-epidural-or-no-analgesia-for-pain-management-in-labour
#2
REVIEW
Millicent Anim-Somuah, Rebecca Md Smyth, Allan M Cyna, Anna Cuthbert
BACKGROUND: Epidural analgesia is a central nerve block technique achieved by injection of a local anaesthetic close to the nerves that transmit pain, and is widely used as a form of pain relief in labour. However, there are concerns about unintended adverse effects on the mother and infant. This is an update of an existing Cochrane Review (Epidural versus non-epidural or no analgesia in labour), last published in 2011. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of all types of epidural analgesia, including combined-spinal-epidural (CSE) on the mother and the baby, when compared with non-epidural or no pain relief during labour...
May 21, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771608/paced-breathing-and-phrenic-nerve-responses-evoked-by-epidural-stimulation-following-complete-high-cervical-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#3
Tatiana Bezdudnaya, Michael A Lane, Vitaliy Marchenko
Spinal cord injury (SCI) at the level of cervical segments often results in life-threatening respiratory complications and requires long-term mechanical ventilator assistance. Thus, restoring diaphragm activity and regaining voluntary control of breathing are the primary clinical goals for patients with respiratory dysfunction following cervical SCI. Epidural stimulation (EDS) is a promising strategy that has been explored extensively for non-respiratory functions, and to a limited extent within the respiratory system...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770864/agrobacterium-mediated-transformation-of-yeast-and-fungi
#4
Paul J J Hooykaas, G Paul H van Heusden, Xiaolei Niu, M Reza Roushan, Jalal Soltani, Xiaorong Zhang, Bert J van der Zaal
Two decades ago, it was discovered that the well-known plant vector Agrobacterium tumefaciens can also transform yeasts and fungi when these microorganisms are co-cultivated on a solid substrate in the presence of a phenolic inducer such as acetosyringone. It is important that the medium has a low pH (5-6) and that the temperature is kept at room temperature (20-25 °C) during co-cultivation. Nowadays, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (AMT) is the method of choice for the transformation of many fungal species; as the method is simple, the transformation efficiencies are much higher than with other methods, and AMT leads to single-copy integration much more frequently than do other methods...
May 17, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769402/gtsf-1-is-required-for-formation-of-a-functional-rna-dependent-rna-polymerase-complex-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#5
Miguel Vasconcelos Almeida, Sabrina Dietz, Stefan Redl, Emil Karaulanov, Andrea Hildebrandt, Christian Renz, Helle D Ulrich, Julian König, Falk Butter, René F Ketting
Argonaute proteins and their associated small RNAs (sRNAs) are evolutionarily conserved regulators of gene expression. Gametocyte-specific factor 1 (Gtsf1) proteins, characterized by two tandem CHHC zinc fingers and an unstructured C-terminal tail, are conserved in animals and have been shown to interact with Piwi clade Argonautes, thereby assisting their activity. We identified the Caenorhabditis elegans Gtsf1 homolog, named it gtsf-1 and characterized it in the context of the sRNA pathways of C. elegans We report that GTSF-1 is not required for Piwi-mediated gene silencing...
May 16, 2018: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768017/the-signaling-network-resulting-in-ventilator-induced-diaphragm-dysfunction
#6
Huibin Tang, Joseph B Shrager
Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a life-saving measure for those incapable of adequately ventilating or oxygenating without assistance. Unfortunately, even brief periods of MV result in diaphragm weakness (i.e., "ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction" - VIDD) that may render it difficult to wean the ventilator. Prolonged MV is associated with cascading complications and is a strong risk factor for death. Thus, prevention of VIDD may have a dramatic impact on mortality rates. Here, we summarized the current understanding of the pathogenic events underlying VIDD...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765667/a-novel-non-sequencing-approach-for-rapid-authentication-of-testudinis-carapax-et-plastrum-and-trionycis-carapax-by-species-specific-primers
#7
Huan Yang, Pingtian Yu, Yi Lu, Zhaoqun Jiao, Liqun Chen, Ying Zhou, Yuping Shen, Xiaobin Jia
A novel non-sequencing approach was developed to detect short DNA fragments ( ca 100 bp) for rapid authentication of two natural products, namely Testudinis Carapax et Plastrum and Trionycis Carapax, based on the difference in mitochondrial genome. Five specifically designed primer reactions were established to target species for reliable identification of their commercial products. They were confirmed to have a high level of inter-species-specificity and good intra-species stability. The limit of detection was estimated to be 1 ng of genomes for all of five assays...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764282/animal-assisted-therapy-in-elderly-patients-evidence-and-controversies-in-dementia-and-psychiatric-disorders-and-future-perspectives-in-other-neurological-diseases
#8
Silvio Peluso, Anna De Rosa, Natascia De Lucia, Antonella Antenora, Maddalena Illario, Marcello Esposito, Giuseppe De Michele
Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) includes a set of nonpharmacological interventions aimed at improving human health through the use of trained or untrained animals. In recent decades, AAT has been trialed for different neurological and psychiatric disorders. In patients with dementia, interaction with animals seems to have a positive influence on aggressiveness and anxiety and to ameliorate quality of life and relationship skills. In psychiatric patients, AAT seems to increase motivation and self-esteem, improve prosocial conduct, and decrease behavioral problems...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761298/lumbar-muscle-atrophy-caused-by-harness-replacement-in-a-chronic-calf-model-of-total-artificial-heart-implantation
#9
Jamshid H Karimov, Kimberly A Such, Raymond Dessoffy, Kiyotaka Fukamachi
The postoperative care of animals implanted with mechanical circulatory support devices is complex. The standard of care requires continuous monitoring of hemodynamic parameters post implant, wound care, and maintenance of the animal's well-being, but also includes controlling the animal's biomechanics under conditions of continuous restraint and harnessing. In such studies, a harness provides secure fixation of the exteriorized device driveline and pressure lines and aids animal handling (lifting, position adjustment, and assistance with standing up)...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Artificial Organs: the Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756170/further-characteristics-of-arcanobacterium-pinnipediorum-dsm-28752-t-and-arcanobacterium-wilhelmae-dsm-102162-t-two-novel-species-of-genus-arcanobacterium
#10
Osama Sammra, Jörg Rau, Jörn Wickhorst, Mazen Alssahen, Abdulwahed Ahmed Hassan, Christoph Lämmler, Ellen Prenger-Berninghoff, Amir Abdulmawjood
The newly described type strains Arcanobacterium pinnipediorum DSM 28752T and Arcanobacterium wilhelmae DSM 102162T , initially isolated from an anal swab of a harbor seal (Sammra et al. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 65:4539-4543, 2015) and the genital tract of a rhinoceros (Sammra et al. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 67:2093-2097, 2017), could be further characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and by sequencing the genomic targets 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region (ISR) and the genes rpoB, gap, and tuf...
May 13, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754903/gigantism-precedes-filter-feeding-in-baleen-whale-evolution
#11
R Ewan Fordyce, Felix G Marx
Baleen whales (Mysticeti) are the largest animals on Earth, thanks to their ability to filter huge volumes of small prey from seawater. Mysticetes appeared during the Late Eocene, but evidence of their early evolution remains both sparse and controversial [1, 2], with several models competing to explain the origin of baleen-based bulk feeding [3-6]. Here, we describe a virtually complete skull of Llanocetus denticrenatus, the second-oldest (ca. 34 Ma) mysticete known. The new material represents the same individual as the type and only specimen, a fragmentary mandible...
May 4, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751066/keeping-it-together-absence-of-genetic-variation-and-dna-incorporation-by-the-predatory-bacteria-micavibrio-aeruginosavorus-and-bdellovibrio-bacteriovorus-during-predation
#12
Shilpi Gupta, Alexander Lemenze, Robert J Donnelly, Nancy D Connell, Daniel E Kadouri
The use of predatory bacteria as a potential live therapeutic to control human infection is gaining increased attention. Earlier work with Micavibrio spp. and Bdellovibrio spp. has demonstrated the ability of these predators to control drug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens, Tier-1 select agents and biofilms. Additional studies also confirmed that introducing high doses of the predators into animals does not negatively impact animal well-being and might assist in reducing bacterial burden in vivo. The survival of predators requires extreme proximity to the prey cell, which might bring about horizontal transfer of genetic material, such as genes encoding for pathogenic genetic islands that would indirectly facilitate the spread of genetic material to other organisms...
May 8, 2018: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750685/predicting-plasma-free-hemoglobin-levels-in-patients-due-to-medical-device-related-hemolysis
#13
David M Saylor, Paul W Buehler, Ronald P Brown, Richard A Malinauskas
Blood passage through medical devices can cause hemolysis and increased levels of plasma-free hemoglobin (pfH) that may lead to adverse effects such as vasoconstriction and renal tubule injury. Although the hemolytic potential of devices is typically characterized in vitro using animal blood, the results can be impacted by various blood parameters, such as donor species. Moreover, it is unclear how to relate measured in vitro hemolysis levels to clinical performance because pfH accumulation in vivo depends on both hemolysis rate and availability of plasma haptoglobin (Hpt) that can bind and safely eliminate pfH...
May 7, 2018: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741115/the-role-of-biomaterials-in-implantation-for-central-nervous-system-injury
#14
Yu-Shuan Chen, Horng-Jyh Harn, Tzyy-Wen Chiou
Permanent deficits that occur in memory, sensation, and cognition can result from central nervous system (CNS) trauma that causes dysfunction and/or unregulated CNS regeneration. Some therapeutic approaches are preferentially applied to the human body. Therefore, cell transplantation, one of the therapeutic strategies, may be used to benefit people. However, poor cell viability and low efficacy are the limitations to cell transplantation strategies. Biomaterials have been widely used in several fields (e.g...
January 1, 2018: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740642/in-vitro-and-ex-vivo-measurement-of-the-biophysical-properties-of-blood-using-microfluidic-platforms-and-animal-models
#15
REVIEW
Yang Jun Kang, Sang-Joon Lee
Haemorheologically impaired microcirculation, such as blood clotting or abnormal blood flow, causes interrupted blood flows in vascular networks. The biophysical properties of blood, including blood viscosity, blood viscoelasticity, haematocrit, red blood bell (RBC) aggregation, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and RBC deformability, have been used to monitor haematological diseases. In this review, we summarise several techniques for measuring haemorheological properties, such as blood viscosity, RBC deformability and RBC aggregation, using in vitro microfluidic platforms...
May 9, 2018: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737479/locomotor-treadmill-training-promotes-soleus-trophism-by-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-pathway-in-paraplegic-rats
#16
Caroline Cunha do Espírito Santo, Daniela Dal Secco, Anamaria Meireles, Gabriel Ribeiro de Freitas, Franciane Bobinski, Mauricio Peña Cunha, Ana Lúcia Severo Rodrigues, Alessandra Swarowsky, Adair Roberto Soares Santos, Jocemar Ilha
Assisted-treadmill training, may be helpful in promoting muscle mass preservation after incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). However, biological mechanism involved in this process is still not fully understood. This study investigated the effects of locomotor treadmill training on muscle trophism mediated by protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) in paraplegic rats. Adult female Wistar rats underwent an incomplete thoracic SCI induced by compression using an aneurysm clip...
May 8, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734208/improved-lung-recruitment-and-oxygenation-during-mandatory-ventilation-with-a-new-expiratory-ventilation-assistance-device-a-controlled-interventional-trial-in-healthy-pigs
#17
Johannes Schmidt, Christin Wenzel, Marlene Mahn, Sashko Spassov, Heidi Cristina Schmitz, Silke Borgmann, Ziwei Lin, Jörg Haberstroh, Stephan Meckel, Sebastian Eiden, Steffen Wirth, Hartmut Buerkle, Stefan Schumann
BACKGROUND: In contrast to conventional mandatory ventilation, a new ventilation mode, expiratory ventilation assistance (EVA), linearises the expiratory tracheal pressure decline. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesised that due to a recruiting effect, linearised expiration oxygenates better than volume controlled ventilation (VCV). We compared the EVA with VCV mode with regard to gas exchange, ventilation volumes and pressures and lung aeration in a model of peri-operative mandatory ventilation in healthy pigs...
May 4, 2018: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733588/characterisation-of-degraded-proteins-in-paintings-using-bottom-up-proteomic-approaches-new-strategies-for-protein-digestion-and-analysis-of-data
#18
Sibilla Orsini, Avinash Yadav, Marialaura Dilillo, Liam A McDonnell, Ilaria Bonaduce
Chemical hydrolysis assisted by microwave irradiation has been proposed as an alternative method for the analysis of proteins in highly insoluble matrices. In this work, chemical hydrolysis was applied for the first time to detect degraded proteins from paintings and polychromes. To evaluate the performance of this approach, the number of identified peptides, protein sequence coverage (%) and PSMs were compared with those obtained using two trypsin based proteomics procedures used for the analysis of samples from cultural heritage objects...
May 7, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733306/a-fast-silver-staining-protocol-enabling-simple-and-efficient-detection-of-ssr-markers-using-a-non-denaturing-polyacrylamide-gel
#19
Ling Huang, Xiaohui Deng, Ronghua Li, Yanshi Xia, Guihua Bai, Kadambot H M Siddique, Peiguo Guo
Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) is one of the most effective markers used in plant and animal genetic research and molecular breeding programs. Silver staining is a widely used method for the detection of SSR markers in a polyacrylamide gel. However, conventional protocols for silver staining are technically demanding and time-consuming. Like many other biological laboratory techniques, silver staining protocols have been steadily optimized to improve detection efficiency. Here, we report a simplified silver staining method that significantly reduces reagent costs and enhances the detection resolution and picture clarity...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730306/empty-turnip-yellow-mosaic-virus-capsids-as-delivery-vehicles-to-mammalian-cells
#20
Doyeong Kim, Younghee Lee, Theo W Dreher, Tae-Ju Cho
Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) was able to enter animal cells when the spherical plant virus was conjugated with Tat, a cell penetrating peptide (CPP). Tat was chemically attached to the surface lysine residues of TYMV using hydrazone chemistry. Baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells were incubated with either unmodified or Tat-conjugated TYMV and examined by flow cytometry and confocal microscopic analyses. Tat conjugation was shown to be more efficient than Lipofectamine in allowing TYMV to enter the mammalian cells...
May 3, 2018: Virus Research
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