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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096618/evaluation-of-sperm-recovered-after-slaughter-from-cauda-epididymides-of-red-sokoto-bucks
#1
A H Abu, A I Kisani, T Ahemen
AIM: Viable spermatozoa could be recovered from the cauda epididymides for the purpose of preservation of genetic material of male animals with desirable traits and for use in reproductive biotechnology. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of storage time on testicular and epididymal biometry, sperm reserves and epididymal sperm characteristics of red Sokoto bucks post mortem. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Testes-epididymides were collected immediately after slaughter of mature red Sokoto bucks and transported in ice chest to the laboratory...
December 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094213/examination-of-the-early-wound-healing-process-under-different-wound-dressing-conditions
#2
Toshiro Kibe, Takashi Koga, Kazuhide Nishihara, Takao Fuchigami, Takuya Yoshimura, Tetsushi Taguchi, Norifumi Nakamura
OBJECTIVE: Various types of wound-healing dressings have been used to assist in the healing of surgical wounds. We analyzed the wound-healing process in an animal model using different existing wound dressings. STUDY DESIGN: Full-thickness defects were created using a biopsy punch on the backs of 7-week-old rats. The wounded areas were covered with NEOVEIL (polyglycolic acid [PGA]) or TERUDERMIS (collagen sponge [CS]) affixed using a rat jacket. The wound area, neo-epithelium length, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression were evaluated and compared among the control, PGA, and CS groups...
November 11, 2016: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092946/carcinogenesis-of-the-oral-cavity-environmental-causes-and-potential-prevention-by-black-raspberry
#3
Karam El-Bayoumy, Kun-Ming Chen, Shang-Min Zhang, Yuan-Wan Sun, Shantu Amin, Gary Stoner, Joseph B Guttenplan
Worldwide, cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx comprise the sixth most common malignancies. Histologically, more than 90% of oral cancers are squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Epidemiologic data strongly support the role of exogenous factors such as tobacco, alcohol, and human papilloma virus infection as major causative agents. Avoidance of risk factors has only been partially successful, and survival rates have not improved despite advances in therapeutic approaches. Therefore, new or improved approaches to prevention and/or early detection are critical...
January 17, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092273/in-vivo-testing-of-extracorporeal-membrane-ventilators-ila-activve%C3%A2-vs-prototype-i-lung%C3%A2
#4
Sabine Kischkel, Stefan Bergt, Beate Brock, Johan von Grönheim, Anne Herbst, Marc-Jonas Epping, Georg Matheis, Esther Novosel, Joerg Schneider, Philipp Warnke, Andreas Podbielski, Jan P Roesner, Peter I Lelkes, Brigitte Vollmar
A side-by-side comparison of the decarboxylation efficacy of two pump-driven veno-venous extracorporeal lung assist devices, i.e. a first prototype of the new miniaturized ambulatory extracorporeal membrane ventilator, I-lung® versus the commercial system iLA-activve® over a period of 72 hours in a large animal model.Fifteen German Landrace pigs were anesthetized and underwent mechanical hypoventilation to induce severe hypercapnia. Decarboxylation was accomplished by either the I-lung® or the iLA-activve® via a double lumen catheter in the jugular vein...
January 4, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088123/antibody-dependent-cellular-cytotoxicity-and-influenza-virus
#5
REVIEW
Hillary A Vanderven, Sinthujan Jegaskanda, Adam K Wheatley, Stephen J Kent
Antibodies are a key defence against influenza infection and disease, but neutralizing antibodies are often strain-specific and of limited utility against divergent or pandemic viruses. There is now considerable evidence that influenza-specific antibodies with Fc-mediated effector functions, such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), can assist in the clearance of influenza infection in vitro and in animal models. Further, ADCC-mediating antibodies that recognize a broad array of influenza strains are common in humans, likely as a result of being regularly exposed to influenza infections...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079523/symbiont-induced-odorant-binding-proteins-mediate-insect-host-hematopoiesis
#6
Joshua B Benoit, Aurélien Vigneron, Nichole A Broderick, Yineng Wu, Jennifer S Sun, John R Carlson, Serap Aksoy, Brian L Weiss
Symbiotic bacteria assist in maintaining homeostasis of the animal immune system. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie symbiont-mediated host immunity are largely unknown. Tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) house maternally transmitted symbionts that regulate the development and function of their host's immune system. Herein we demonstrate that the obligate mutualist, Wigglesworthia, up-regulates expression of odorant binding protein six in the gut of intrauterine tsetse larvae. This process is necessary and sufficient to induce systemic expression of the hematopoietic RUNX transcription factor lozenge and the subsequent production of crystal cells, which actuate the melanotic immune response in adult tsetse...
January 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077768/corticosterone-and-timing-of-migratory-departure-in-a-songbird
#7
Cas Eikenaar, Florian Müller, Clara Leutgeb, Sven Hessler, Konstantin Lebus, Philip D Taylor, Heiko Schmaljohann
Bird migration entails replenishing fuel stores at stopover sites. There, individuals make daily decisions whether to resume migration, and must also decide their time of departure. Variation in departure timing affects the total time required to complete a migratory journey, which in turn affects fitness through arrival time at the breeding and wintering grounds. It is well established that stopover departure decisions are based on cues from innate rhythms, intrinsic factors and extrinsic factors. Yet, virtually nothing is known about the physiological mechanism(s) linking these cues to departure decisions...
January 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077756/developing-a-risk-based-trading-scheme-for-cattle-in-england-farmer-perspectives-on-managing-trading-risk-for-bovine-tuberculosis
#8
R Little, K Wheeler, S Edge
This paper examines farmer attitudes towards the development of a voluntary risk-based trading scheme for cattle in England as a risk mitigation measure for bovine tuberculosis (bTB). The research reported here was commissioned to gather evidence on the type of scheme that would have a good chance of success in improving the information farmers receive about the bTB risk of cattle they buy. Telephone interviews were conducted with a stratified random sample of 203 cattle farmers in England, splitting the interviews equally between respondents in the high-risk area and low-risk area for bTB...
January 11, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074089/antiviral-activity-of-animal-venom-peptides-and-related-compounds
#9
REVIEW
Élida Cleyse Gomes da Mata, Caroline Barbosa Farias Mourão, Marisa Rangel, Elisabeth Ferroni Schwartz
Viruses exhibit rapid mutational capacity to trick and infect host cells, sometimes assisted through virus-coded peptides that counteract host cellular immune defense. Although a large number of compounds have been identified as inhibiting various viral infections and disease progression, it is urgent to achieve the discovery of more effective agents. Furthermore, proportionally to the great variety of diseases caused by viruses, very few viral vaccines are available, and not all are efficient. Thus, new antiviral substances obtained from natural products have been prospected, including those derived from venomous animals...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073113/in-vitro-to-in-vivo-extrapolation-for-drug-induced-liver-injury-using-a-pair-ranking-method
#10
Zhichao Liu, Hong Fang, Jürgen Borlak, Ruth Roberts, Weida Tong
Preclinical animal toxicity studies may not accurately predict human toxicity. In light of this, in vitro systems have been developed that have the potential to supplement or even replace animal use. We examined in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) of gene expression data obtained from The Open Japanese Toxicogenomics Project-Genomics Assisted Toxicity Evaluation System (Open TG-GATEs) for 131 compounds given to rats for 28 days, and to human or rat hepatocytes for 24 hours. Notably, a Pair Ranking (PRank) method was developed to assess IVIVE potential with a PRank score based on the preservation of the order of similarity rankings of compound pairs between the platforms using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to measure area under the curve (AUC)...
January 11, 2017: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070685/porcine-spine-finite-element-model-a-complementary-tool-to-experimental-scoliosis-fusionless-instrumentation
#11
Bahe Hachem, Carl-Eric Aubin, Stefan Parent
PURPOSE: Developing fusionless devices to treat pediatric scoliosis necessitates lengthy and expensive animal trials. The objective was to develop and validate a porcine spine numerical model as an alternative platform to assess fusionless devices. METHODS: A parametric finite element model (FEM) of an osseoligamentous porcine spine and rib cage, including the epiphyseal growth plates, was developed. A follower-type load replicated physiological and gravitational loads...
January 9, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070295/quantitative-evaluation-of-hybridization-and-the-impact-on-biodiversity-conservation
#12
Anna M van Wyk, Desiré L Dalton, Sean Hoban, Michael W Bruford, Isa-Rita M Russo, Coral Birss, Paul Grobler, Bettine Janse van Vuuren, Antoinette Kotzé
Anthropogenic hybridization is an increasing conservation threat worldwide. In South Africa, recent hybridization is threatening numerous ungulate taxa. For example, the genetic integrity of the near-threatened bontebok (Damaliscus pygargus pygargus) is threatened by hybridization with the more common blesbok (D. p. phillipsi). Identifying nonadmixed parental and admixed individuals is challenging based on the morphological traits alone; however, molecular analyses may allow for accurate detection. Once hybrids are identified, population simulation software may assist in determining the optimal conservation management strategy, although quantitative evaluation of hybrid management is rarely performed...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069513/structure-and-mechanical-implications-of-the-pectoral-fin-skeleton-in-the-longnose-skate-chondrichthyes-batoidea
#13
Wei Huang, Watcharapong Hongjamrassilp, Jae-Young Jung, Philip A Hastings, Vlado A Lubarda, Joanna McKittrick
Animal propulsion systems are believed to show high energy and mechanical efficiency in assisting movement compared to artificial designs. As an example, batoid fishes have very light cartilaginous skeletons that facilitate their elegant swimming via enlarged wing-like pectoral fins. The aim of this work is to illustrate the hierarchical structure of the pectoral fin of a representative batoid, the Longnose Skate (Raja rhina), and explain the mechanical implications of its structural design. At the macro level, the pectoral fins are comprised of radially oriented fin rays, formed by staggered mineralized skeletal elements stacked end-to-end...
January 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069063/the-ribosomal-transcription-units-of-haplorchis-pumilio-and-h-taichui-and-the-use-of-28s-rdna-sequences-for-phylogenetic-identification-of-common-heterophyids-in-vietnam
#14
Thanh Hoa Le, Khue Thi Nguyen, Nga Thi Bich Nguyen, Huong Thi Thanh Doan, Do Trung Dung, David Blair
BACKGROUND: Heterophyidiasis is now a major public health threat in many tropical countries. Species in the trematode family Heterophyidae infecting humans include Centrocestus formosanus, Haplorchis pumilio, H. taichui, H. yokogawai, Procerovum varium and Stellantchasmus falcatus. For molecular phylogenetic and systematic studies on trematodes, we need more prospective markers for taxonomic identification and classification. This study provides near-complete ribosomal transcription units (rTU) from Haplorchis pumilio and H...
January 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067630/novel-swine-model-of-ricin-induced-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#15
Shahaf Katalan, Reut Falach, Amir Rosner, Michael Goldvaser, Tal Brosh-Nissimov, Ayana Dvir, Avi Mizrachi, Orr Goren, Barak Cohen, Yoav Gal, Anita Sapoznikov, Sharon Ehrlich, Tamar Sabo, Chanoch Kronman
Pulmonary exposure to the plant toxin ricin, leads to respiratory insufficiency and death. To date, in-depth study of the functional disorders ensuing pulmonary intoxication, a prerequisite for establishing a clinically-relevant therapeutic protocol, is hampered by the lack of an appropriate animal model. To this end, we set up the pig, as a large animal model for the comprehensive study of the multifarious clinical manifestations of pulmonary ricinosis.Here we report for the first time, the monitoring of barometric whole body plethysmography for pulmonary function tests in non-anesthetized ricin-intoxicated pigs...
January 6, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062006/challenges-in-the-rabbit-haemorrhagic-disease-2-rhdv2-molecular-diagnosis-of-vaccinated-rabbits
#16
C L Carvalho, E L Duarte, M Monteiro, A Botelho, T Albuquerque, M Fevereiro, A M Henriques, S S Barros, Margarida Dias Duarte
Molecular methods are fundamental tools for the diagnosis of viral infections. While interpretation of results is straightforward for unvaccinated animals, where positivity represents ongoing or past infections, the presence of vaccine virus in the tissues of recently vaccinated animals may mislead diagnosis. In this study, we investigated the interference of RHDV2 vaccination in the results of a RT-qPCR for RHDV2 detection, and possible associations between mean Cq values of five animal groups differing in age, vaccination status and origin (domestic/wild)...
January 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060071/corneal-lenticule-allotransplantation-after-femtosecond-laser-small-incision-lenticule-extraction-in-rabbits
#17
Jing Zhao, Yang Shen, Mi Tian, Ling Sun, Yu Zhao, Xiaoyu Zhang, Xingtao Zhou
PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility of allotransplanting extracted lenticules after femtosecond laser-assisted small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) in rabbits and the subsequent healing process. METHODS: Fourteen New Zealand white rabbits were divided evenly into 2 groups. The rabbits in group A received SMILE procedures with a -6.00 D correction. The lenticules from group A were immediately inserted into a femtosecond laser-created corneal stromal pocket in group B...
February 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053070/automated-microsampling-technologies-and-enhancements-in-the-3rs
#18
L David Hopper
Data collected in vivo is essential for advising decisions on drug screening and development and basic research, and animal models are used extensively for acquiring experimental measurements. Traditionally, collection of specimens has been invasive, stressful to animal subjects, labor intensive, time-consuming and costly, and required many animals when using small models with low fluid volumes, such as rats or mice. Utilizing automated microsampling (AMS) alone or in an integrative pharmacology approach to evaluate multiple physiological, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic endpoints simultaneously in the same animal accomplishes multiple experimental goals...
December 2016: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043585/occurrence-of-zoonotic-tuberculosis-in-occupationally-exposed-high-risk-groups-in-peshawar-pakistan
#19
Irfan Khattak, Muhammad H Mushtaq, Sultan Ayaz, Mansur U D Ahmad, Sadeeq U Rahman
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: To determine the occurrence of active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) due to Mycobacterium bovis in abattoir workers, butchers, livestock farmers, and veterinarians and to document their knowledge and practices regarding bovine TB (bTB). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among abattoir workers, butchers, livestock farmers, veterinary doctors, and veterinary assistants. Sputum samples were collected from the respondents with a chronic cough and data on sociodemographic conditions, knowledge, and practices regarding TB were obtained...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042343/limited-tumor-tissue-drug-penetration-contributes-to-primary-resistance-against-angiogenesis-inhibitors
#20
Szilvia Torok, Melinda Rezeli, Olga Kelemen, Akos Vegvari, Kenichi Watanabe, Yutaka Sugihara, Anna Tisza, Timea Marton, Ildiko Kovacs, Jozsef Tovari, Viktoria Laszlo, Thomas H Helbich, Balazs Hegedus, Thomas Klikovits, Mir Alireza Hoda, Walter Klepetko, Sandor Paku, Gyorgy Marko-Varga, Balazs Dome
Resistance mechanisms against antiangiogenic drugs are unclear. Here, we correlated the antitumor and antivascular properties of five different antiangiogenic receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (RTKIs) (motesanib, pazopanib, sorafenib, sunitinib, vatalanib) with their intratumoral distribution data obtained by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI). In the first mouse model, only sunitinib exhibited broad-spectrum antivascular and antitumor activities by simultaneously suppressing vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) and desmin expression, and by increasing intratumoral hypoxia and inhibiting both tumor growth and vascularisation significantly...
2017: Theranostics
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