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Animal assistance

E Laurin, K K Thakur, I A Gardner, P Hick, N J G Moody, M S J Crane, I Ernst
Design and reporting quality of diagnostic accuracy studies (DAS) are important metrics for assessing utility of tests used in animal and human health. Following standards for designing DAS will assist in appropriate test selection for specific testing purposes and minimize the risk of reporting biased sensitivity and specificity estimates. To examine the benefits of recommending standards, design information from published DAS literature was assessed for 10 finfish, seven mollusc, nine crustacean and two amphibian diseases listed in the 2017 OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
Li Zheng, Gui-Min Zhang, Yan-Peng Dong, Yi-Fan Wen, Dong Dong, Chu-Zhao Lei, Xing-Lei Qi, Hong Chen, Li-Jun Huo, Yong-Zhen Huang
As a member of MYLK family, MYLK4 gene may play a vital role in muscle development. In this study, one novel single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was identified the bovine MYLK4 by sequencing pooled DNA samples (pool-Seq) and forced polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (forced PCR-RFLP) methods. Overall, we reported one mutation (SNP1) in the intron 10 region within the bovine MYLK4 gene in 559 individuals representing five main cattle breeds from China (Nanyang, NY; Qinchuan; Jiaxian, JX; Pinan cattle; and Caidamu cattle, CDM)...
March 14, 2018: Animal Biotechnology
Carsten Schwarz, Patrick Vandeputte, Amandine Rougeron, Sandrine Giraud, Thomas Dugé de Bernonville, Ludovic Duvaux, Amandine Gastebois, Ana Alastruey-Izquierdo, Maria Teresa Martín-Gomez, Estrella Martin Mazuelos, Amparo Sole, Josep Cano, Javier Pemán, Guillermo Quindos, Françoise Botterel, Marie-Elisabeth Bougnoux, Sharon Chen, Laurence Delhaès, Loïc Favennec, Stéphane Ranque, Ludwig Sedlacek, Joerg Steinmann, Jose Vazquez, Craig Williams, Wieland Meyer, Solène Le Gal, Gilles Nevez, Maxime Fleury, Nicolas Papon, Françoise Symoens, Jean-Philippe Bouchara
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the major genetic inherited disease in Caucasian populations. The respiratory tract of CF patients displays a sticky viscous mucus, which allows for the entrapment of airborne bacteria and fungal spores and provides a suitable environment for growth of microorganisms, including numerous yeast and filamentous fungal species. As a consequence, respiratory infections are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in this clinical context. Although bacteria remain the most common agents of these infections, fungal respiratory infections have emerged as an important cause of disease...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Sellappan Selvaraju, Sivashanmugam Parthipan, Lakshminarayana Somashekar, B Krishnan Binsila, Atul P Kolte, Arunachalam Arangasamy, Janivara Parameshwaraiah Ravindra, Stephen A Krawetz
With artificial insemination (AI) and other precision dependent assisted reproductive technologies (ART) being followed in large scale in human and animal reproduction, assessing semen quality and fertilizability is under continuous scrutiny. Various tests have been developed to predict semen quality, but so far no single, highly reliable test is available. In this regard, transcriptomic profiling of spermatozoa assumes significance as it carries the information about spermatogenesis, sperm function, and paternal roles in post-fertilization events...
March 14, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Safiou B Adehan, Hassane Adakal, Donald Gbinwoua, Daté Yokossi, Sébastien Zoungrana, Patrice Toé, Mathieu Ouedraogo, A Michel Gbaguidi, Camus Adoligbé, A Belarmin Fandohan, Gildas Hounmanou, Romain Glèlè Kakaï, Souaïbou Farougou, Eva M De Clercq
Worldwide, cattle production is struggling to face the negative impacts caused by ticks and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is one of the most harmful ticks for livestock. Most of the people in West Africa depend on cattle farming and subsistence agriculture. The presence of ticks on cattle is a major problem faced by smallholder farmers who fight for their livelihood. National and regional tick control programs could assist these rural communities in protecting their livelihoods against ticks and tick-borne diseases, but only if they take into account the targeted herders and their perception on cattle management and tick control...
March 13, 2018: EcoHealth
Cheryl A Krause-Parello, Michele Thames, Colleen M Ray, John Kolassa
Disclosure of child sexual abuse can be a stressful experience for the child. Gaining a better understanding of how best to serve the child, while preserving the quality of their disclosure, is an ever-evolving process. The data to answer this question come from 51 children aged 4-16 (M = 9.1, SD = 3.5), who were referred to a child advocacy center in Virginia for a forensic interview (FI) following allegations of sexual abuse. A repeated measures design was conducted to examine how the presence of a service-trained facility dog (e...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
István Anton, Balázs Húth, Imre Füller, László Rózsa, Gabriella Holló, Attila Zsolnai
Objective: To estimate effect of SNPs on the intramuscular fat content (IMF) of Hungarian Simmental bulls. Methods: Genotypes were determined on high-density Illumina Bovine DNA Chip. After slaughtering of animals, chemical percentage of intramuscular fat was determined from longissimus dorsi muscle (LD). for statistical analyses, multi-locus mixed-model was applied. Results: Analyses revealed four loci (rs43284251, rs109210955, rs41630030 and rs41642251) to be highly associated (-log10P>12) with IMF located on chromosome 1, 6, 13 and 17, respectively...
March 13, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Abrar Essarras, Marco Pazzi, Ian R Dadour, Paola A Magni
Entomotoxicology involves the analysis of the presence and the effects of toxicological substances in necrophagous insects. Results obtained by entomotoxicological studies may assist in the investigation of both the causes and the time of death of humans and animals. Ethylene glycol (EG) is easy to purchase, sweet and extremely toxic. It may be consumed accidentally or purposefully, in an attempt to cause death for suicidal or homicidal intent. Several cases report fatalities of humans and animals. The present study is the first to examine the effects of EG on the survival, developmental rate and morphology of two blowfly species, (Diptera: Calliphoridae) typically found on corpses and carcasses: Lucilia sericata (Meigen) and L...
March 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
Tímea Kollár, Eszter Kása, Árpád Ferincz, Béla Urbányi, Zsolt Csenki-Bakos, Ákos Horváth
The effect of seven heavy metals on the motility parameter of zebrafish sperm was tested in order to develop an in vitro toxicological test system as an alternative to live animal testing. In vitro test systems are currently preferred in ecotoxicology due to their practical and ethical advantages and fish sperm can be a suitable model. A number of studies had been carried out previously on this topic, but the described methods had not been standardized in numerous aspects (donor species, measured endpoint, etc...
March 10, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Zhuming Yin, Liqiang Liu, Bingjian Xue, Jincai Fan, Wenlin Chen, Zheng Liu
INTRODUCTION: Prosthesis-assisted penile reconstruction has been performed extensively to restore a cosmetically acceptable phallus. However, a large number of patients will undergo revision surgery for various prosthesis-related complications. AIM: To develop a 1-stage prosthesis-free dynamic cavernosa reconstruction method using bilateral innervated gracilis muscles and to investigate the feasibility and reliability of the surgical design. METHODS: 10 fresh cadavers were dissected to assess the availability of bilateral gracilis muscles for functional cavernosa rebuilding...
March 7, 2018: Sexual Medicine
S F Lau, J Y Wong, K H Khor, M A Roslan, M S Abdul Rahman, S K Bejo, R Radzi, A R Bahaman
Working dogs are canine animals that have been trained to assist human beings in carrying out various tasks. They help in guarding property, performing rescues, assisting the visually impaired or physically handicapped, searching for drugs, explosives, and others. Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonotic diseases in the world and a commonly occurring disease of the tropics and subtropics. In Malaysia, all working dogs are normally vaccinated with serovars, Pomona, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Canicola, and Grippotyphosa based on protocols recommended from other countries...
December 2017: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Allison A Feduccia, Michael C Mithoefer
MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for treatment of PTSD has recently progressed to Phase 3 clinical trials and received Breakthrough Therapy designation by the FDA. MDMA used as an adjunct during psychotherapy sessions has demonstrated effectiveness and acceptable safety in reducing PTSD symptoms in Phase 2 trials, with durable remission of PTSD diagnosis in 68% of participants. The underlying psychological and neurological mechanisms for the robust effects in mitigating PTSD are being investigated in animal models and in studies of healthy volunteers...
March 7, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Jie Liu, Yue Xiao, Xikun Wu, Lichun Jiang, Shurong Yang, Zhiming Ding, Zhuo Fang, Haiqing Hua, Mark Stephen Kirby, Jianyong Shou
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive biomarkers are urgently needed for patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) to assist in diagnosis, monitoring disease progression and assessing treatment response. Recently several exploratory studies showed that circulating level of microRNA is associated with NASH and correlated with disease severity. Although these data were encouraging, the application of circulating microRNA as biomarkers for patient screening and stratification need to be further assessed under well-controlled conditions...
March 9, 2018: BMC Genomics
M Leontien van der Bent, Omar Paulino da Silva Filho, Judith van Luijk, Roland Brock, Derick G Wansink
Antisense oligonucleotide (AON)-based therapies hold promise for a range of neurodegenerative and neuromuscular diseases and have shown benefit in animal models and patients. Success in the clinic is nevertheless still limited, due to unfavourable biodistribution and poor cellular uptake of AONs. Extensive research is currently being conducted into the formulation of AONs to improve delivery, but thus far there is no consensus on which of those strategies will be the most effective. This systematic review was designed to answer in an unbiased manner which delivery strategies most strongly enhance the efficacy of AONs in animal models of heritable neurodegenerative and neuromuscular diseases...
March 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mazen Alssahen, Osama Sammra, Jörn-Peter Wickhorst, Abdulwahed Ahmed Hassan, Christoph Lämmler, Mirja Raunio Saarnisto, Ellen Prenger-Berninghoff, Markus Timke, Andrè Becker, Amir Abdulmawjood
In the present study 12 Arcanobacterium phocae strains isolated from fur animals in Finland, including foxes, minks and Finnraccoons, could successfully be identified phenotypically, by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and genotypically by sequencing 16S rDNA and phocaelysin (PHL) encoding gene phl. The PHL of all 12 A. phocae strains in the present study and reference strains A. phocae DSM 10002T and A. phocae DSM 10003 displayed, as typical members of the cholesterol dependent cytolysin-group of toxins, the variant undecapeptide sequence EATGLAWDPWW which appeared to be most closely related to arcanolysin of Arcanobacterium haemolyticum and pyolysin of Trueperella pyogenes...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Shan Zhang, Baojin Ma, Feng Liu, Jiazhi Duan, Shicai Wang, Jichuan Qiu, Dong Li, Yuanhua Sang, Chao Liu, Duo Liu, Hong Liu
Numerous studies have determined that physical cues, especially the nanotopography of materials, play key roles in directing stem cell differentiation. However, most research on nanoarrays for stem cell fate regulation are based on non-biodegradable materials, such as silicon wafers, TiO2, and poly (methyl methacrylate), which are rarely used as tissue engineering biomaterials. In this study, we prepared biodegradable poly-lactic acid (PLA) nanopillar arrays with different diameters but the same center-to-center distance using a series of anodic aluminum oxide nano-well arrays as templates...
March 8, 2018: Nano Letters
Elizabeth Holman, Cari Levy, Brenda Kennedy
Animal-assisted intervention is gaining attention as a stress reduction modality. Quantitative data demonstrate its effectiveness, as a recent study published in AJHPM supported that a Veterans Affairs (VA) hospital facility dog paired with a palliative care psychologist had a measurable impact on salivary cortisol levels and heart rate in hospitalized veterans. There remains an important role for qualitative insights. The Denver VA palliative care team learned a range of lessons from the sudden loss of their facility dog, many of which relate directly to palliative care...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
Mariano E Giménez, Eduardo J Houghton, C Federico Davrieux, Edgardo Serra, Patrick Pessaux, Mariano Palermo, Pablo A Acquafresca, Caetano Finger, Bernard Dallemagne, Jacques Marescaux
BACKGROUND: When a major hepatic resection is necessary, sometimes the future liver remnant is not enough to maintain sufficient liver function and patients are more likely to develop liver failure after surgery. AIM: To test the hypothesis that performing a percutaneous radiofrecuency liver partition plus percutaneous portal vein embolization (PRALPPS) for stage hepatectomy in pigs is feasible. METHODS: Four pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) both sexes with weights between 25 to 35 kg underwent percutaneous portal vein embolization with coils of the left portal vein...
March 1, 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
M Saba Rahim, Himanshu Sharma, Afsana Parveen, Joy K Roy
Previously, association mapping (AM) methodology was used to unravel genetic complications in animal science by measuring the complex traits for candidate and non-candidate genes. Nowadays, this statistical approach is widely used to clarify the complexity in plant breeding program-based genome-wide breeding strategies, marker development, and diversity analysis. This chapter is particularly focused on methodologies with limitations and provides an overview of AM models and software used up to now. Association or linkage disequilibrium mapping has become a very popular method for discovering candidate and non-candidate genes and confirmation of quantitative trait loci (QTL) on various parts of the genome and in marker-assisted selection for breeding...
March 7, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Asad Nawaz, Allah Bakhsh Javaid, Sana Irshad, Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar, Hanguo Xiong
The gut immune system is, the main option for maintaining host's health, affected by numerous factors comprising dietary constituents and commensal bacteria. These dietary components that affect the intestinal immunity and considered as an alternative of antibiotics are called immunosaccharides. Fructooligosaccharide (FOS), Galactooligosaccharide (GOS), inulin, dietary carbohydrates, and xylooligosaccharide (XOS) are among the most studied prebiotics in human as well as in aquaculture. Although prebiotics and probiotics have revealed potential as treatment for numerous illnesses in both human and fish, a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanism behind direct and indirect effect on the intestinal immune response will help more and perhaps extra effective therapy intended for ailments...
March 3, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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