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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475057/evaluation-of-cash-transfer-programs-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-methodological-review
#1
Ebenezer Owusu-Addo, Andre M N Renzaho, Ben J Smith
Cash transfer programs (CTs) have been rigorously evaluated since their inception in the 1990s. However, to date, there has been no study critically examining the utility of the methodological approaches used to evaluate CTs. This article reviews the approaches used to evaluate CTs in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to provide recommendations for improving future CTs evaluations. We conducted searches for CTs evaluation studies in SSA in the peer-reviewed and grey literature using electronic databases, hand searching of selected journals, organisational websites, Google Scholar and Scirus Internet search engines...
February 14, 2018: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474699/rationale-and-design-of-the-eacvi-afib-echo-europe-registry-for-assessing-relationships-of-echocardiographic-parameters-with-clinical-thrombo-embolic-and-bleeding-risk-profile-in-non-valvular-atrial-fibrillation
#2
Maurizio Galderisi, Erwan Donal, Julien Magne, Francesco Lo Iudice, Eustachio Agricola, Leyla Elif Sade, Matteo Cameli, Ehud Schwammenthal, Nuno Cardim, Bernard Cosyns, Andreas Hagendorff, Alexandar N Neskovic, Josè Luis Zamorano, Patrizio Lancellotti, Gilbert Habib, Thor Edvardsen, Bogdan A Popescu
The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines for management of atrial fibrillation (AF) recommend the use of CHA2DS2VASc risk score for assessment of thromboembolic (TE) risk, whereas the stratification of bleeding risk should be obtained by HAS-Bleed to balance the most appropriate anticoagulation (OAC) therapy. However, men with CHA2DS2VASc score = 1 and women with CHA2DS2VASc = 2, who are at intermediate TE risk, represent a grey zone where guidelines do not provide a definite OAC indication...
March 1, 2018: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474352/a-biophysical-model-of-dynamic-balancing-of-excitation-and-inhibition-in-fast-oscillatory-large-scale-networks
#3
Romesh G Abeysuriya, Jonathan Hadida, Stamatios N Sotiropoulos, Saad Jbabdi, Robert Becker, Benjamin A E Hunt, Matthew J Brookes, Mark W Woolrich
Over long timescales, neuronal dynamics can be robust to quite large perturbations, such as changes in white matter connectivity and grey matter structure through processes including learning, aging, development and certain disease processes. One possible explanation is that robust dynamics are facilitated by homeostatic mechanisms that can dynamically rebalance brain networks. In this study, we simulate a cortical brain network using the Wilson-Cowan neural mass model with conduction delays and noise, and use inhibitory synaptic plasticity (ISP) to dynamically achieve a spatially local balance between excitation and inhibition...
February 23, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474288/pelvic-floor-muscle-training-versus-watchful-waiting-and-pelvic-floor-disorders-in-postpartum-women-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
You Maria Wu, Natalia McInnes, Yvonne Leong
OBJECTIVES: Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) is often recommended to treat postpartum urinary incontinence (UI). However, the role of postpartum PFMT in pelvic organ prolapse (POP), sexual function, and anal incontinence (AI) remains unclear. We therefore aim to assess the efficacy of postpartum PFMT on these pelvic floor disorders. METHODS: This study is a meta-analysis consisting of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We searched databases including CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PEDro...
March 2018: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473938/shared-decision-making-for-prostate-cancer-screening-and-treatment-a-systematic-review-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#5
Nahara Anani Martínez-González, Andreas Plate, Oliver Senn, Stefan Markun, Thomas Rosemann, Stefan Neuner-Jehle
INTRODUCTION: Men facing prostate cancer screening and treatment need to make critical and highly preference-sensitive decisions that involve a variety of potential benefits and risks. Shared decision-making (SDM) is considered fundamental for "preference-sensitive" medical decisions and it is guideline-recommended. There is no single definition of SDM however. We systematically reviewed the extent of SDM implementation in interventions to facilitate SDM for prostate cancer screening and treatment...
February 23, 2018: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473877/parameter-estimation-of-the-thermal-network-model-of-a-machine-tool-spindle-by-self-made-bluetooth-temperature-sensor-module
#6
Yuan-Chieh Lo, Yuh-Chung Hu, Pei-Zen Chang
Thermal characteristic analysis is essential for machine tool spindles because sudden failures may occur due to unexpected thermal issue. This article presents a lumped-parameter Thermal Network Model (TNM) and its parameter estimation scheme, including hardware and software, in order to characterize both the steady-state and transient thermal behavior of machine tool spindles. For the hardware, the authors develop a Bluetooth Temperature Sensor Module (BTSM) which accompanying with three types of temperature-sensing probes (magnetic, screw, and probe)...
February 23, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473687/effectiveness-of-oral-chlorhexidine-for-the-prevention-of-nosocomial-pneumonia-and-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-intensive-care-units-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#7
REVIEW
F Rabello, V E Araújo, Sms Magalhães
OBJECTIVE: To summarize evidence regarding the effectiveness of using chlorhexidine for oral healthcare on patients in the intensive care unit for the prevention of nosocomial pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia. METHODS: This overview of systematic reviews was developed using articles found in PUBMED, Cochrane Library, LILACS, CRD, CINHAL, manual search and grey literature. RESULTS: Of the total 16 systematic reviews, 14 included meta-analysis...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Dental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473488/breast-cancer-services-in-vietnam-a-scoping-review
#8
Chris Jenkins, Luu Ngoc Minh, Tran Tuan Anh, Tran Thu Ngan, Ngo Tri Tuan, Kim Bao Giang, Luu Ngoc Hoat, Lynne Lohfeld, Michael Donnelly, Hoang Van Minh, Liam Murray
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer incidence has been increasing consistently in Vietnam. Thus far, there have been no analytical reviews of research produced within this area. OBJECTIVES: We sought to analyse the nature andextent of empirical studies about breast cancer in Vietnam, identifying areas for future research and systemsstrengthening. METHODS: We undertook a scoping study using a five-stage framework to review published and grey literature in English and Vietnamese on breast cancer detection, diagnosis and treatment...
2018: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472260/exploring-the-relationship-between-local-food-environments-and-obesity-in-uk-ireland-australia-and-new-zealand-a-systematic-review-protocol
#9
Andrea Fuentes Pacheco, Gabriela Carrillo Balam, Daryll Archibald, Elizabeth Grant, Valeria Skafida
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a global pandemic that affects all socioeconomic strata, however, the highest figures have been observed in the most disadvantaged social groups. Evidence from the USA and Canada showed that specific urban settings encourage obesogenic behaviour in the population living and/or working there. We aim to examine the evidence on the association between local food environments and obesity in the UK, Ireland, Australia and New Zealand. METHODS: Six databases from 1990 to 2017 will be searched: MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase (Ovid), Scopus, The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA) and Web of Science...
February 22, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470996/default-mode-network-and-deep-gray-matter-analysis-in-neuromyelitis-optica-patients
#10
Fernanda C Rueda-Lopes, Fernanda M C Pessôa, Gustavo Tukamoto, Fabíola Rachid Malfetano, Simone Batista Scherpenhuijzen, Soniza Alves-Leon, Emerson L Gasparetto
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to detect functional changes in default-mode network of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients using resting-state functional magnetic resonance images and the evaluation of subcortical grey-matter structures volumes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: NMO patients (n = 28) and controls patients (N=19) were enrolled. We used the integrated registration and segmentation tool, part of FMRIB's Software Library (FSL) to segment subcortical structures including the thalamus, caudate nucleus, putamen, hippocampus and amygdalae...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470471/e-cigarette-use-in-new-zealand-a-systematic-review-and-narrative-synthesis
#11
Sarah Merry, Christopher R Bullen
AIM: This study aimed to systematically review the literature on e-cigarette use in New Zealand, focusing on prevalence, rationale for use, perceptions and exposure to the devices. METHODS: Six databases were systematically searched for articles regarding e-cigarette use in New Zealand, supplemented with a grey literature search. Seven hundred and eighteen abstracts were identified and full text of 100 articles reviewed. Studies addressing prevalence of and rationale for use, perceptions of and exposure to e-cigarettes were included...
February 23, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469207/evaluation-of-contrasting-techniques-for-x-ray-imaging-of-velvet-worms-onychophora
#12
Henry Jahn, Ivo DE Sena Oliveira, Vladimir Gross, Christine Martin, Alexander Hipp, Georg Mayer, Jörg U Hammel
Non-invasive imaging techniques like X-ray computed tomography have become very popular in zoology, as they allow for simultaneous imaging of the internal and external morphology of organisms. Nevertheless, the effect of different staining approaches required for this method on samples lacking mineralized tissues, such as soft-bodied invertebrates, remains understudied. Herein, we used synchrotron radiation-based X-ray micro-computed tomography to compare the effects of commonly used contrasting approaches on onychophorans - soft-bodied invertebrates important for studying animal evolution...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469195/postoperative-ileus-following-major-colorectal-surgery
#13
REVIEW
S J Chapman, A Pericleous, C Downey, D G Jayne
BACKGROUND: Postoperative ileus (POI) is characterized by delayed gastrointestinal recovery following surgery. Current knowledge of pathophysiology, clinical interventions and methodological challenges was reviewed to inform modern practice and future research. METHODS: A systematic search of MEDLINE and Embase databases was performed using search terms related to ileus and colorectal surgery. All RCTs involving an intervention to prevent or reduce POI published between 1990 and 2016 were identified...
February 22, 2018: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468836/combining-advantages-direct-correlation-of-2d-micro-computed-tomography-datasets-onto-histomorphometric-slides-to-quantify-3d-bone-volume-in-scaffolds
#14
F Westhauser, B Reible, M Höllig, R Heller, G Schmidmaier, A Moghaddam
Micro-computed tomography (mCT) belongs to the most powerful tools for the three-dimensional (3D) assessment of bone. While it is possible to refer to landmarks in mCT scans of actual bone structure, the assessment of calcified osteoid within scaffolds is problematic, due to the missing morphological correlates. Therefore, bone formation within scaffolds is mostly analyzed using indirect parameters such as changes in volume or surface alteration, preserving histomorphometry the gold standard in the direct analysis of bone formation...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468832/becoming-breastfeeding-friendly-index-development-and-application-for-scaling-up-breastfeeding-programmes-globally
#15
Rafael Pérez-Escamilla, Amber J Hromi-Fiedler, Muriel Bauermann Gubert, Katie Doucet, Sara Meyers, Gabriela Dos Santos Buccini
Global efforts to further improve exclusive breastfeeding rates have not been successful, in part because effective scaling-up frameworks and roadmaps have not been developed. The Becoming Breastfeeding Friendly (BBF) toolbox includes an evidence-based index, the BBF Index (BBFI), to guide the development and tracking of large scale, well-coordinated, multisector national breastfeeding promotion programmes. This paper describes the development of the BBFI, which is grounded in the Breastfeeding Gear Model complex adaptive systems framework...
February 22, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468785/explaining-the-heterogeneity-of-functional-connectivity-findings-in-multiple-sclerosis-an-empirically-informed-modeling-study
#16
Prejaas Tewarie, Martijn D Steenwijk, Matthew J Brookes, Bernard M J Uitdehaag, Jeroen J G Geurts, Cornelis J Stam, Menno M Schoonheim
To understand the heterogeneity of functional connectivity results reported in the literature, we analyzed the separate effects of grey and white matter damage on functional connectivity and networks in multiple sclerosis. For this, we employed a biophysical thalamo-cortical model consisting of interconnected cortical and thalamic neuronal populations, informed and amended by empirical diffusion MRI tractography data, to simulate functional data that mimic neurophysiological signals. Grey matter degeneration was simulated by decreasing within population connections and white matter degeneration by lowering between population connections, based on lesion predilection sites in multiple sclerosis...
February 21, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468082/concurrent-thoracic-mesothelioma-and-thyroid-c-cell-adenoma-with-amyloid-deposition-in-an-aged-horse
#17
Jessica S Fortin, Angela B Royal, Keiichi Kuroki
A 21-year-old American Saddlebred mare died with a history of weight loss and breathing difficulties of 1 month duration. Post-mortem examination revealed a copious pleural effusion with multifocal to coalescing numerous white to grey nodular masses on the serosal surface of the pericardium, lungs and thoracic cavity. In addition, the left thyroid gland was markedly enlarged. A thoracic mesothelioma and C-cell adenoma with amyloid deposits of the left thyroid gland were diagnosed by histopathology and confirmed by immunohistochemistry employing antibodies against cytokeratin (CK), vimentin and calcitonin...
February 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467975/implementing-a-universal-well-being-assessment-to-mitigate-barriers-to-resident-utilization-of-mental-health-resources
#18
Sarah Sofka, Carl Grey, Nathan Lerfald, Laura Davisson, Janie Howsare
Background : Physician utilization of well-being resources remains low despite efforts to promote use of these resources. Objective : We implemented a well-being assessment for internal medicine residents to improve access and use of mental health services. Methods : We scheduled all postgraduate year 1 (PGY-1) and PGY-2 residents at West Virginia University for the assessment at our faculty and staff assistance program (FSAP). While the assessment was intended to be universal (all residents), we allowed residents to "opt out...
February 2018: Journal of Graduate Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467469/effects-of-adolescent-alcohol-consumption-on-the-brain-and-behaviour
#19
REVIEW
Linda P Spear
Per occasion, alcohol consumption is higher in adolescents than in adults in both humans and laboratory animals, with changes in the adolescent brain probably contributing to this elevated drinking. This Review examines the contributors to and consequences of the use of alcohol in adolescents. Human adolescents with a history of alcohol use differ neurally and cognitively from other adolescents; some of these differences predate the commencement of alcohol consumption and serve as potential risk factors for later alcohol use, whereas others emerge from its use...
February 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465624/subcortical-grey-matter-structures-in-multiple-sclerosis-what-is-their-role-in-cognition
#20
Álvaro J Cruz-Gómez, Naiara Aguirre, Carla Sanchis-Segura, César Ávila, Cristina Forn
The present study aimed to investigate altered grey matter (GM) and functional connectivity (FC) in deep subcortical areas, such as the thalamus and basal ganglia, and their relationship with cognitive impairment (CI) in multiple sclerosis (MS). Thirty-six patients were neuropsychologically assessed, classified as cognitive preserved (CP) and CI, and were compared with 18 healthy controls. GM atrophy and FC were observed in 10 predefined functional areas of the thalamus and in six of basal ganglia. GM atrophy was prominent in the basal ganglia in CI patients compared with CP MS patients...
February 20, 2018: Neuroreport
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