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Andy A Thomas, Andrew F Zahrt, Connor P Delaney, Scott E Denmark
The Suzuki-Miyaura reaction is the most practiced palladium-catalyzed, cross-coupling reaction because of its broad applicability, low toxicity of the metal (B), and the wide variety of commercially available boron substrates. A wide variety of boronic acids and esters, each with different properties, have been developed for this process. Despite the popularity of the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction, the precise manner in which the organic fragment is transferred from boron to palladium has remained elusive for these reagents...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Andy Tsai, Patrick R Johnston, Jeannette M Perez-Rossello, Micheál A Breen, Paul K Kleinman
BACKGROUND: The distal tibia is a common location for the classic metaphyseal lesion (CML). Prior radiologic-pathologic studies have suggested a tendency for medial, as opposed to lateral, cortical injury with the CML, but there has been no formal study of the geographic distribution of this strong indicator of abuse. OBJECTIVE: This study compares medial versus lateral cortical involvement of distal tibial CMLs in a clinical cohort of infants with suspected abuse...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Fengmei Ban, Andy Baker, Christopher E Marjo, Wuhui Duan, Xianglei Li, Jinxian Han, Katie Coleborn, Rabeya Akter, Ming Tan, Gurinder Nagra
Stalagmites play an important role in paleoclimatic reconstructions from seasonal to orbital time scales as230 Th-dating can provide an accurate absolute age. Additionally, seasonal trace element and optical layers can provide a precise age. We analyzed the seasonal variability of multiple trace elements on a stalagmite (XMG) in Shihua Cave, Beijing and compared them with results from laminae counting. The results show that (1) the polished section of the topmost part of XMG has obvious bi-optical layers under a conventional transmission microscope, however, laminae are not observed using this method in the rest of the sample, and (2) The variations of P/Ca, Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca, U/Ca and Mg/Ca show seasonal cycles throughout the sample...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Caris E Grimes, Matthew Quaife, Thaim B Kamara, Christopher B D Lavy, Andy J M Leather, Håkon A Bolkan
OBJECTIVES: The Lancet Commission on Global Surgery estimated that low/middle-income countries will lose an estimated cumulative loss of US$12.3 trillion from gross domestic product (GDP) due to the unmet burden of surgical disease. However, no country-specific data currently exist. We aimed to estimate the costs to the Sierra Leone economy from death and disability which may have been averted by surgical care. DESIGN: We used estimates of total, met and unmet need from two main sources-a cluster randomised, cross-sectional, countrywide survey and a retrospective, nationwide study on surgery in Sierra Leone...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Kasandra R Dassoulas, Jessica Wang, Jenna Thuman, Idorenyin Ndem, Christine Schaeffer, Madeline Stovall, Alexandra Tilt, Andy Lee, Kant Y Lin, Christopher A Campbell
BACKGROUND: Infection is the most significant complication in implant-based breast reconstruction, potentially leading to reconstructive failure. We hypothesized that implementation of an evidence-based protocol marked by preoperative decolonization and sterility optimization would result in a decline in postoperative infection rates. METHODS: Informed by a literature review, we developed an evidence-based, perioperative infection prevention protocol implemented in 2015...
March 13, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Adam J Pelzek, Bo Shopsin, Emily E Radke, Kayan Tam, Beatrix M Ueberheide, David Fenyö, Stuart M Brown, Qianhao Li, Ada Rubin, Yi Fulmer, William K Chiang, David N Hernandez, Hanane El Bannoudi, William E Sause, Alexis Sommerfield, Isaac P Thomsen, Andy O Miller, Victor J Torres, Gregg J Silverman
Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive opportunistic pathogen that causes superficial and invasive infections in the hospital and community. High mortality from infection emphasizes the need for improved methods for prevention and treatment. Although S. aureus possesses an arsenal of virulence factors that contribute to evasion of host defenses, few studies have examined long-term humoral and B-cell responses. Adults with acute-phase skin and soft tissue infections were recruited; blood samples were obtained; and S...
March 13, 2018: MBio
George W Pratt, Andy Fan, Bissrat Melakeberhan, Catherine M Klapperich
Proper management of an HIV infection requires that a patient be at least 80-95% adherent to a prescribed drug regimen to avoid poor health outcomes and the development of drug-resistant HIV strains. Clinicians generally monitor adherence habits indirectly through patient self-reporting, pill counting, and electronic drug monitoring. While direct measurement of patient samples like urine for monitoring drug levels is possible, it requires specialized equipment and training that is not readily available in resource-limited settings where the need is greatest...
August 9, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Francis K W Wong, Albert P C Chan, Andy K D Wong, Carol K H Hon, Tracy N Y Choi
A study on electrical and mechanical (E&M) works-related accidents for public sector projects provided the opportunity to gain a better understanding of the causes of accidents by analyzing the circumstances of all E&M works accidents. The research aims to examine accidents of E&M works which happened in public sector projects. A total of 421 E&M works-related accidents in the "Public Works Programme Construction Site Safety and Environmental Statistics" (PCSES) system were extracted for analysis...
March 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Andy Morris, Kerstin Erles, Thomas W Maddox
A 2-year-old cat was presented with the complaint of acute-onset non-weight-bearing lameness of the right forelimb. When examined, the cat was of short stature and had multiple joint and cartilaginous abnormalities suggestive of chondrodysplasia. The cause of the acute lameness was radiographically identified as a displaced osseous fragment from the medial portion of the right humeral condyle. The features of the osseous fragment were consistent with an ununited medial condylar ossification centre of the distal humerus...
February 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
Bhakti Hansoti, David Stead, Andy Parrish, Steven J Reynolds, Andrew D Redd, Madeleine M Whalen, Nomzamo Mvandaba, Thomas C Quinn
BACKGROUND: South Africa has the largest HIV epidemic in the world, with 19% of the global number of people living with HIV, 15% of new infections and 11% of AIDS-related deaths. Even though HIV testing is mandated in all hospital-based facilities in South Africa (SA), it is rarely implemented in the Emergency Department (ED). The ED provides episodic care to large volumes of undifferentiated who present with unplanned injury or illness. Thus, the ED may provide an opportunity to capture patients with undiagnosed HIV infection missed by clinic-based screening programs...
2018: PloS One
Helena Yu, Ken Suzawa, Emmet J Jordan, Ahmet Zehir, Andy Ni, Hyunjae Ryan Kim, Mark G Kris, Matthew D Hellmann, Bob T Li, Romel Somwar, David B Solit, Michael F Berger, Maria E Arcila, Gregory J Riely, Marc Ladanyi
PURPOSE: To identify molecular factors that determine duration of response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors and to identify novel mechanisms of drug resistance, we molecularly profiled EGFR mutant tumors prior to treatment and after progression on EGFR TKI using targeted next-generation sequencing.      Experimental Design: Targeted next-generation sequencing was performed on 374 consecutive patients with metastatic EGFR mutant lung cancer. Clinical data were collected and correlated with somatic mutation data...
March 12, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Benjamin J Currie, Chris Johns, Matthew Chin, Thanos Charalampopolous, Charlie A Elliot, Pankaj Garg, Smitha Rajaram, Catherine Hill, Jim W Wild, Robin A Condliffe, David G Kiely, Andy J Swift
BACKGROUND: Patients with pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease (PH-LHD) have overlapping clinical features with pulmonary arterial hypertension making diagnosis reliant on right heart catheterization (RHC). This study aimed to investigate computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) derived cardiopulmonary structural metrics, in comparison to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis of left heart disease in patients with suspected pulmonary hypertension. METHODS: Patients with suspected pulmonary hypertension who underwent CTPA, MRI and RHC were identified...
March 4, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Martyna Szpakowska, Max Meyrath, Nathan Reynders, Manuel Counson, Julien Hanson, Jan Steyaert, Andy Chevigné
The atypical chemokine receptor ACKR3/CXCR7 plays crucial roles in numerous physiological processes but also in viral infection and cancer. ACKR3 shows strong propensity for activation and, unlike classical chemokine receptors, can respond to chemokines from both the CXC and CC families as well as to the endogenous peptides BAM22 and adrenomedullin. Moreover, despite belonging to the G protein coupled receptor family, its function appears to be mainly dependent on β-arrestin. ACKR3 has also been shown to continuously cycle between the plasma membrane and the endosomal compartments, suggesting a possible role as a scavenging receptor...
March 9, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Andi Rexha, Mark Kröll, Hermann Ziak, Roman Kern
The goal of our work is inspired by the task of associating segments of text to their real authors. In this work, we focus on analyzing the way humans judge different writing styles. This analysis can help to better understand this process and to thus simulate/ mimic such behavior accordingly. Unlike the majority of the work done in this field (i.e. authorship attribution, plagiarism detection, etc.) which uses content features, we focus only on the stylometric, i.e. content-agnostic, characteristics of authors...
2018: Scientometrics
Marco Herbsleb, Andy Schumann, Berend Malchow, Christian Puta, P Christian Schulze, Holger W Gabriel, Karl-Jürgen Bär
The elevated cardiovascular risk of patients with schizophrenia contributes to a reduced life expectancy of 15-20years. This study investigated whether cardiac autonomic dysfunction (CADF) in schizophrenia is related to chronotropic incompetence, an established cardiovascular risk marker. We investigated thirty-two patients suffering from paranoid schizophrenia and thirty-two control subjects matched for age, sex, body mass index and fat free mass. A cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) was performed to study heart rate responses to exercise as well as submaximal (ventilatory threshold 1, VT1 ) and maximal endurance capacities (peak oxygen consumption, VO2peak ; peak power output, Ppeak )...
March 8, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Andrew E Christie, Micah G Pascual, Andy Yu
Peptides are the largest/most diverse class of molecules used by animals for chemical communication, and with their cognate receptors, are key players in modulating physiological/behavioral control systems, including those involved in adaptation to environmental change. Crustaceans have long served as models for investigating peptidergic control of physiology/behavior, and members of Notostraca, an ancient branchiopod order, have recently been proposed as models for investigating the genetic/physiological underpinnings of ecoresponsiveness; nothing is currently known about the genes/proteins underlying peptidergic signaling in any member of this crustacean taxon...
March 8, 2018: Marine Genomics
Lukas Muller, Malcolm J Bennett, Andy French, Darren M Wells, Ranjan Swarup
Better understanding of root traits such as root angle and root gravitropism will be crucial for development of crops with improved resource use efficiency. This chapter describes a high-throughput, automated image analysis method to trace Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedling roots grown on agar plates. The method combines a "particle-filtering algorithm with a graph-based method" to trace the center line of a root and can be adopted for the analysis of several root parameters such as length, curvature, and stimulus from original root traces...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Berit Glomstad, Florian Zindler, Bjørn M Jenssen, Andy M Booth
The dispersion behavior of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is influenced by both their physicochemical properties and by the aqueous media properties (e.g. ionic strength, presence of divalent cations and natural organic matter) in which they are dispersed. In the current study, the dispersibility and dispersion stability of four multi-walled CNTs (MWCNT) and a single walled CNT (SWCNT) with different physicochemical properties were investigated in three freshwater growth media (with and without natural organic matter; NOM) used in algae and daphnia ecotoxicity studies...
March 5, 2018: Chemosphere
Christian Maurer, Jonathan Baré, Jolanta Kusmierczyk-Michulec, Alice Crawford, Paul W Eslinger, Petra Seibert, Blake Orr, Anne Philipp, Ole Ross, Sylvia Generoso, Pascal Achim, Michael Schoeppner, Alain Malo, Anders Ringbom, Olivier Saunier, Denis Quèlo, Anne Mathieu, Yuichi Kijima, Ariel Stein, Tianfeng Chai, Fong Ngan, Susan J Leadbetter, Pieter De Meutter, Andy Delcloo, Rich Britton, Ashley Davies, Lee G Glascoe, Donald D Lucas, Matthew D Simpson, Phil Vogt, Martin Kalinowski, Theodore W Bowyer
After performing a first multi-model exercise in 2015 a comprehensive and technically more demanding atmospheric transport modelling challenge was organized in 2016. Release data were provided by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization radiopharmaceutical facility in Sydney (Australia) for a one month period. Measured samples for the same time frame were gathered from six International Monitoring System stations in the Southern Hemisphere with distances to the source ranging between 680 (Melbourne) and about 17,000 km (Tristan da Cunha)...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Andy Guise, Jason Melo, Maria Luisa Mittal, Claudia Rafful, Jazmine Cuevas-Mota, Peter Davidson, Richard S Garfein, Dan Werb
BACKGROUND: Injection drug use initiation is shaped by social networks and structural contexts, with people who inject drugs often assisting in this process. We sought to explore the norms and contexts linked to assisting others to initiate injection drug use in San Diego, USA, to inform the development of structural interventions to prevent this phenomenon. METHODS: We undertook qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of people who inject drugs and had reported assisting others to initiate injection (n = 17) and a sub-sample of people who inject drugs (n = 4) who had not reported initiating others to triangulate accounts...
March 7, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
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