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Microbiome pregnancy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925412/prenatal-antimicrobial-use-and-early-childhood-body-mass-index
#1
A E Cassidy-Bushrow, C Burmeister, S Havstad, A M Levin, S V Lynch, D R Ownby, A G Rundle, K J Woodcroft, E M Zoratti, C C Johnson, G Wegienka
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Growing evidence suggests that antibiotic use is associated with childhood body mass index (BMI), potentially via mechanisms mediated by gut microbiome alterations. Less is known on the potential role of prenatal antimicrobial use in offspring obesity risk. We examined whether prenatal antibiotic or antifungal use was associated with BMI at the age of 2 years in 527 birth cohort participants. METHODS/SUBJECTS: Antimicrobial use was obtained from the prenatal medical record...
August 17, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915448/the-composition-of-the-vaginal-microbiome-in-first-trimester-pregnant-women-influences-the-level-of-autophagy-and-stress-in-vaginal-epithelial-cells
#2
Dimitrios Nasioudis, Larry J Forney, G Maria Schneider, Karol Gliniewicz, Michael T France, Allison Boester, Mio Sawai, Jessica Scholl, Steven S Witkin
Epithelial cells lining the vagina are major components of genital tract immunity. The influence of the vaginal microbiome on properties of host epithelial cells is largely unexplored. We evaluated whether differences in the most abundant lactobacilli species or bacterial genera in the vagina of first trimester pregnant women were associated with variations in the extent of stress and autophagy in vaginal epithelial cells. Vaginal swabs from 154 first trimester pregnant women were analyzed for bacterial composition by amplification and sequencing of the V1-V3 region of bacterial 16S rRNA genes...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904056/simultaneously-monitoring-immune-response-and-microbial-infections-during-pregnancy-through-plasma-cfrna-sequencing
#3
Wenying Pan, Thuy T M Ngo, Joan Camunas-Soler, Chun-Xiao Song, Mark Kowarsky, Yair J Blumenfeld, Ronald J Wong, Gary M Shaw, David K Stevenson, Stephen R Quake
BACKGROUND: Plasma cell-free RNA (cfRNA) encompasses a broad spectrum of RNA species that can be derived from both human cells and microbes. Because cfRNA is fragmented and of low concentration, it has been challenging to profile its transcriptome using standard RNA-seq methods. METHODS: We assessed several recently developed RNA-seq methods on cfRNA samples. We then analyzed the dynamic changes of both the human transcriptome and the microbiome of plasma during pregnancy from 60 women...
September 13, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894161/microbial-communities-in-placentas-from-term-normal-pregnancy-exhibit-spatially-variable-profiles
#4
Lindsay A Parnell, Catherine M Briggs, Bin Cao, Omar Delannoy-Bruno, Andrew E Schrieffer, Indira U Mysorekar
The placenta is the principal organ nurturing the fetus during pregnancy and was traditionally considered to be sterile. Recent work has suggested that the placenta harbours microbial communities, however the location and possible function of these microbes remain to be confirmed and elucidated. Here, we employed genomic DNA sequencing of multiple variable (V) regions of the bacterial 16S ribosomal gene, to interrogate microbial profiles in term pregnancies, from the basal plate, which is in direct contact with maternal uterine, endothelial, and immune cells; placental villi, which are bathed in maternal blood, and fetal membranes, which encapsulate the amniotic cavity...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886045/maternal-treatment-with-short-chain-fatty-acids-modulates-the-intestinal-microbiota-and-immunity-and-ameliorates-type-1-diabetes-in-the-offspring
#5
James C Needell, Diana Ir, Charles E Robertson, Miranda E Kroehl, Daniel N Frank, Danny Zipris
We recently hypothesized that the intestinal microbiota and the innate immune system play key roles in the mechanism of Kilham Rat Virus-induced type 1 diabetes in the LEW1.WR1 rat. We used this animal model to test the hypothesis that maternal therapy with short-chain fatty acids can modulate the intestinal microbiota and reverse virus-induced proinflammatory responses and type 1 diabetes in rat offspring. We observed that administration of short-chain fatty acids to rat breeders via drinking water prior to pregnancy and further treatment of the offspring with short-chain fatty acids after weaning led to disease amelioration...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879172/epigenetic-matters-the-link-between-early-nutrition-microbiome-and-long-term-health-development
#6
REVIEW
Flavia Indrio, Silvia Martini, Ruggiero Francavilla, Luigi Corvaglia, Fernanda Cristofori, Salvatore Andrea Mastrolia, Josef Neu, Samuli Rautava, Giovanna Russo Spena, Francesco Raimondi, Giuseppe Loverro
Epigenetic modifications are among the most important mechanisms by which environmental factors can influence early cellular differentiation and create new phenotypic traits during pregnancy and within the neonatal period without altering the deoxyribonucleic acid sequence. A number of antenatal and postnatal factors, such as maternal and neonatal nutrition, pollutant exposure, and the composition of microbiota, contribute to the establishment of epigenetic changes that can not only modulate the individual adaptation to the environment but also have an influence on lifelong health and disease by modifying inflammatory molecular pathways and the immune response...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860491/influence-of-pregnancy-history-on-the-vaginal-microbiome-of-pregnant-women-in-their-first-trimester
#7
Dimitrios Nasioudis, Larry J Forney, G Maria Schneider, Karol Gliniewicz, Michael France, Allison Boester, Mio Sawai, Jessica Scholl, Steven S Witkin
Pregnancy permanently alters maternal anatomy, physiology and immunity. We evaluated if the vaginal microbiome differed between women with a first or subsequent conception. Relative abundance of bacteria in the vaginal microbiome in first trimester pregnant women, 52 with their first known conception, 26 with a prior spontaneous or induced abortion but no deliveries and 77 with at least one prior birth, was determined by classifying DNA sequences from the V1-V3 region of bacterial 16 S rRNA genes. Lactobacillus crispatus was the numerically most abundant bacterium in 76...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844447/women-and-their-microbes-the-unexpected-friendship
#8
REVIEW
Jessica A Younes, Elke Lievens, Ruben Hummelen, Rebecca van der Westen, Gregor Reid, Mariya I Petrova
Communities of microbiota have been associated with numerous health outcomes, and while much emphasis has been placed on the gastrointestinal niche, there is growing interest in the microbiome specific for female reproductive health and the health of their offspring. The vaginal microbiome plays an essential role not only in health and dysbiosis, but also potentially in successful fertilization and healthy pregnancies. In addition, microbial communities have been isolated from formerly forbidden sterile niches such as the placenta, breast, uterus, and Fallopian tubes, strongly suggesting an additional microbial role in women's health...
August 22, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835692/the-vaginal-microbiome-of-pregnant-women-is-less-rich-and-diverse-with-lower-prevalence-of-mollicutes-compared-to-non-pregnant-women
#9
Aline C Freitas, Bonnie Chaban, Alan Bocking, Maria Rocco, Siwen Yang, Janet E Hill, Deborah M Money
The vaginal microbiome plays an important role in maternal and neonatal health. Imbalances in this microbiota (dysbiosis) during pregnancy are associated with negative reproductive outcomes, such as pregnancy loss and preterm birth, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Consequently a comprehensive understanding of the baseline microbiome in healthy pregnancy is needed. We characterized the vaginal microbiomes of healthy pregnant women at 11-16 weeks of gestational age (n = 182) and compared them to those of non-pregnant women (n = 310)...
August 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822242/mucosal-immunity-of-the-postpartum-bovine-genital-tract
#10
REVIEW
Dinesh Dadarwal, Colin Palmer, Philip Griebel
In this review, mucosal immune defense mechanisms used to control infections in the bovine genital tract (vestibule, vagina, cervix, uterus and oviduct) during the postpartum period are reviewed. Knowledge gaps are highlighted to emphasize the need for further investigations. Physical barriers to the entry of microbes include vulvar sealing, vestibule-vaginal constriction, a narrow cervical opening and the mucosal epithelium along with the overlying mucus layer. Genital tract mucosal epithelial cells recognize damage-associated molecular patterns and pathogen-associated molecular patterns and respond by secreting antimicrobial peptides and cytokines to recruit and activate immune cells...
August 10, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763485/cxcr2-signaling-and-the-microbiome-suppress-inflammation-bile-duct-injury-and-the-phenotype-of-experimental-biliary-atresia
#11
Junbae Jee, Reena Mourya, Pranavkumar Shivakumar, Lin Fei, Michael Wagner, Jorge A Bezerra
Biliary atresia is progressive fibro-inflammatory cholangiopathy of young children. Central to pathogenic mechanisms of injury is the tissue targeting by the innate and adaptive immune cells. Among these cells, neutrophils and the IL-8/Cxcl-8 signaling via its Cxcr2 receptor have been linked to bile duct injury. Here, we aimed to investigate whether the intestinal microbiome modulates Cxcr2-dependent bile duct injury and obstruction. Adult wild-type (WT) and Cxcr2-/- mice were fed a diet supplemented with sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SMZ/TMP) during pregnancy and lactation, and their pups were injected intraperitoneally with rhesus rotavirus (RRV) within 24 hours of life to induce experimental biliary atresia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750469/maternal-gut-microbiome-biodiversity-in-pregnancy
#12
Marcela C Smid, Nitasha M Ricks, Alexis Panzer, Amber N Mccoy, M Andrea Azcarate-Peril, Temitope O Keku, Kim A Boggess
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 27, 2017: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735809/antibiotic-stewardship-in-perinatal-and-neonatal-care
#13
REVIEW
Jayashree Ramasethu, Tetsuya Kawakita
The spread of antibiotic resistance due to the use and misuse of antibiotics around the world is now a major health crisis. Neonates are exposed to antibiotics both before and after birth, often empirically because of risk factors for infection, or for non-specific signs which may or may not indicate sepsis. There is increasing evidence that, apart from antibiotic resistance, the use of antibiotics in pregnancy and in the neonatal period alters the microbiome in the fetus and neonate with an increased risk of immediate and long-term adverse effects...
October 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727206/the-mother-offspring-dyad-microbial-transmission-immune-interactions-and-allergy-development
#14
REVIEW
Maria C Jenmalm
The increasing prevalence of allergy in affluent countries may be caused by reduced intensity and diversity of microbial stimulation, resulting in abnormal postnatal immune maturation. Most studies investigating the underlying immunomodulatory mechanisms have focused on postnatal microbial exposure, for example demonstrating that the gut microbiota differs in composition and diversity during the first months of life in children who later do or do not develop allergic disease. However, it is also becoming increasingly evident that the maternal microbial environment during pregnancy is important in childhood immune programming, and the first microbial encounters may occur already in utero...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720399/prenatal-and-postnatal-administration-of-prebiotics-and-probiotics
#15
REVIEW
Kristin Sohn, Mark A Underwood
Colonization of the neonatal gut by beneficial bacteria is important for the establishment and maintenance of the mucosal barrier, thus protecting the neonate from enteric pathogens and local and systemic inflammation. The neonatal microbiome is influenced by infant diet, environment, and the maternal microbiome. Dysbiosis in pregnancy increases the risk of pre-eclampsia, diabetes, infection, preterm labor, and later childhood atopy. Dysbiosis of the neonatal gut plays an important role in colic in the term infant, in the disease processes which plague preterm infants, including necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis, and in the long-term outcomes of neonates...
October 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700642/bacterial-communities-found-in-placental-tissues-are-associated-with-severe-chorioamnionitis-and-adverse-birth-outcomes
#16
Ronan M Doyle, Kathryn Harris, Steve Kamiza, Ulla Harjunmaa, Ulla Ashorn, Minyanga Nkhoma, Kathryn G Dewey, Kenneth Maleta, Per Ashorn, Nigel Klein
Preterm birth is a major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. Bacterial infection and the subsequent inflammatory response are recognised as an important cause of preterm birth. It is hypothesised that these organisms ascend the cervical canal, colonise placental tissues, cause chorioamnionitis and in severe cases infect amniotic fluid and the foetus. However, the presence of bacteria within the intrauterine cavity does not always precede chorioamnionitis or preterm birth. Whereas previous studies observing the types of bacteria present have been limited in size and the specificity of a few predetermined organisms, in this study we characterised bacteria found in placental tissues from a cohort of 1391 women in rural Malawi using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633864/perinatal-group-b-streptococcal-infections-virulence-factors-immunity-and-prevention-strategies
#17
REVIEW
Jay Vornhagen, Kristina M Adams Waldorf, Lakshmi Rajagopal
Group B streptococcus (GBS) or Streptococcus agalactiae is a β-hemolytic, Gram-positive bacterium that is a leading cause of neonatal infections. GBS commonly colonizes the lower gastrointestinal and genital tracts and, during pregnancy, neonates are at risk of infection. Although intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis during labor and delivery has decreased the incidence of early-onset neonatal infection, these measures do not prevent ascending infection that can occur earlier in pregnancy leading to preterm births, stillbirths, or late-onset neonatal infections...
June 17, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632934/a-prospective-microbiome-wide-association-study-of-food-sensitization-and-food-allergy-in-early-childhood
#18
Jessica H Savage, Kathleen A Lee-Sarwar, Joanne Sordillo, Supinda Bunyavanich, Yanjiao Zhou, George O'Connor, Megan Sandel, Leonard B Bacharier, Robert Zeiger, Erica Sodergren, George M Weinstock, Diane R Gold, Scott T Weiss, Augusto A Litonjua
BACKGROUND: Alterations in the intestinal microbiome are prospectively associated with the development of asthma; less is known regarding the role of microbiome alterations in food allergy development. METHODS: Intestinal microbiome samples were collected at age 3-6 months in children participating in the follow-up phase of an interventional trial of high-dose vitamin D given during pregnancy. At age 3, sensitization to foods (milk, egg, peanut, soy, wheat, walnut) was assessed...
June 20, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602480/endometrial-microbiota-new-player-in-town
#19
REVIEW
Inmaculada Moreno, Jason M Franasiak
Detection of bacteria with molecular techniques has enabled the study of low biomass microbiomes in tissues and organs previously considered sterile, such as the endometrium. Subsequently, an abnormal endometrial microbiota has been associated with implantation failure, pregnancy loss, and other gynecological and obstetrical conditions. Further investigation of the reproductive tract microbiome will allow for a better understanding of bacterial communities' role in both physiology and pathophysiology, which in turn impacts the ability to achieve pregnancy and maintain a healthy pregnancy...
July 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594946/association-of-vaginal-dysbiosis-and-biofilm-with-contraceptive-vaginal-ring-biomass-in-african-women
#20
Liselotte Hardy, Vicky Jespers, Irith De Baetselier, Jozefien Buyze, Lambert Mwambarangwe, Viateur Musengamana, Janneke van de Wijgert, Tania Crucitti
We investigated the presence, density and bacterial composition of contraceptive vaginal ring biomass and its association with the vaginal microbiome. Of 415 rings worn by 120 Rwandese women for three weeks, the biomass density was assessed with crystal violet and the bacterial composition of biomass eluates was assessed with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The biomass was visualised after fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The vaginal microbiome was assessed with Nugent scoring and vaginal biofilm was visualised after FISH...
2017: PloS One
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